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Apr 23, 2013

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Physics

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Physics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Session 2011/2012 Center of Foundation Studies in Science

1.

(i) Find the number of moles in 100 g of CO2 gas. (ii) Find the mass of 1 molecule of CO2 gas. (iii) What is the volume occupied by 1000 moles of CO2 gas at STP?

Solution (i) The molar mass of CO2 is 44 g. Therefore 100 g has n moles, = 2.27moles

(ii) 1 mole contains NA= 6.022 x 1023 molecules and has mass of 44 g. Therefore mass of 1 molecule, 44g / mole = 7.31 10-23 g molecule-1 (iii) 1 mole at STP occupies, = Therefore 1000 moles occupy 22.4 m3. 2. A closed room has dimensions 5m x 3m x 7m and filled with air at STP. If the average molecular mass for air is 28.8 g mole-1, how many air molecules are there in the room at STP? What is the total mass of the air in the room? Solution At STP, T= 273.15 K and P= 1.013 x 106 N m-2. Volume of the room is V= 5m x 3m x 7m = 105 m3. = 1 mole contains NA= 6.022 x 1023 molecules and has mass of 28.8g. Therefore number of air molecules, mole-1. The total mass of air in the room is = 4686 moles x 6.022 x 1023 molecule = 0.0224 m3.

= 135 kg

Thermodynamic

Session 2011/2012 Center of Foundation Studies in Science

3. Find the average pressure exerted by a gas satisfying ideal gas conditions if each molecule has mass of 6.0 x 10-27 kg and average velocity of 1350 m s-1. Assume that there are 2 x NA molecules per volume of gas in the container. Solution The pressure exerted by an ideal gas is given by [ [

(

]

)( )

4. A cubic meter of argon exerts one atmospheric pressure on its containers wall when the temperature is 25C. Assuming argon is an ideal gas, (i) How many atoms per cubic meter are there in the container? (ii) What is the mean kinetic energy of each atom in the container? Solution (i) From the gas law, PV = nRT Therefore, The number of atoms per cubic meter is, N = nM = 40.9 moles (6.022 x 1023 atoms mole-1) = 2.46x 1025 per m3 (ii) The pressure is [

40.9 moles.

] [ ]

Thermodynamic

Session 2011/2012 Center of Foundation Studies in Science

5. The density of argon at pressure 1 atm. and temperature 300 K is 1.60. What is its root mean square speed at this temperature? What is its mean molecular energy? Solution Thus, The root mean square speed of argon is then 436 m s-1

The mean molecular energy is equal to its average translational Kinetic Energy = (1 .38 x 10-23 J)(300K) = 6.21 x 1021 J

6. One mole of oxygen is heated at constant pressure starting from room temperature, 300 K. The molecules of the gas being diatomic experience translational and rotational motions only. If the volume of the gas becomes twice as much of the initial volume, how much is the change in internal energy of the gas? Solution At 300 K and above, the diatomic gas has f=3+2= 5 degree of freedom. Its internal energy is U1 = nRT = (8.31 J mol-1 K-1 )(300K) = 6232.5J At constant pressure, Therefore, T2 = = (300K) = 600K

The internal energy after heating is, U2 = (8.31 J mol-1 K-1)(600K) = 12465 J The change in the internal energy of the gas is U, = U2 U1 = (12465 6232.5) J = 6232.5 J

Thermodynamic

Session 2011/2012 Center of Foundation Studies in Science

7. What is the approximate number of atoms in a cubic meter of an ideal monatomic gas at temperature 300 K and pressure 1 atm? Solution For an ideal gas, PV= NkT Number of atom per m3 is atoms.

8. A tank of Nitrogen contains 3.0 mole of the gas which occupies 0.50 m3 at 500 K. Assuming that Nitrogen behaves like an ideal gas, find the total internal energy of the gas. Solution Nitrogen is a diatomic gas and at 500 K is capable of 3 translational motions (x, y and z) and 2 rotational motions (about y and z axes). Therefore f = 5. The total internal energy is, U = nRT = (3 .0 mol)(8 .3 1 J mol-1 K-1 )(500 K) =31.2 kJ

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