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UNIT 8. Operating systems.

WARM UP
Possible answers: There are many Operating Systems, but there are two main families: A) Microsoft Windows, like Operating Systems:

TEACHERS

For Personal Computers: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, etc. For Servers: Windows 2003 Server, Windows 2008 Server, etc.

B) Unix, like Operating Systems:

GNU/Linux: It is a free version of the Unix Operating System under GNU license. There are several distributions: - Debian: For I.T. professionals, for servers and personal computers. - Ubuntu: For common users (server and personal computers)

Google Chrome O.S.: It is based on Linux kernel with a unique user interface, aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Internet. MAC O.S.: Operating system for Apple Macintosh computers. Other Professional Unix-like O.S. Red Hat Enterprise Linux: Commercial version of Linux for companies. For servers. There are many others, not free Unix-like O.S. such as AIX (IBM), HP-UX (Hewlett Packard), Solaris (Sun Microsystems) or Android (for mobile phones), etc.

You can suggest your students searching for information about these Operating Systems in the internet. WORKING WITH THE TEXT 1. Level 1 a. Operating systems hide the complexity of hardware from the users. They can perform complex tasks in a simple way. b. Hard drives, expansion cards, peripheral devices and memory are mentioned. c. Its GUI (Graphical User Interface). d. Three layers: Kernel, GUI, Applications. e. Yes f. Included: Notepad, Internet Explorer, Media Player. g. Not included: Spreadsheet, word processor.

UNIT 8. Operating systems.


2. Level 1 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k.

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F. The kernel controls all of the resources of a computer. F. It is a part of the operating system. T. F. Thanks to this feature any user can run programs, manage databases or access the internet. F. A license is needed for some of them F. O.S. are very complicated T. F. WIMP=Windows Image Menus and Pointing Devices F. WYSIWYG =What You See Is What You Get T. T.

3. Play the CD. Drill for intonation and pronunciation. VOCABULARY 1. Level 2
Search box Status pane Column Headings Back and forward buttons Library pane Help button Address Bar Navigation Pane Preview Pane View Buttons Toolbar Scroll bars File list 7 10 6 2 5 9 4 1 13 8 3 11 12

2. Level 3 a. ToolBar: It is a GUI element in which menus and icons are placed to be easily and quickly located b. Process: It is a computer program which is being executed. c. Task Manager: It is a utility that allows the user to list all the processes and programs currently running. d. Status pane: A Pane is a part of a window in which the user can obtain information about the file selected. e. Log in: It is the action by which a user is authenticated with a username and a password. LANGUAGE FOCUS Remind the students that that and not which is used when the antecedent is an indefinite pronoun (something, anything, everything, etc.) or when the antecedent is modified by a superlative. e.g. The fastest printer that I have ever had is a Laserjet.

UNIT 8. Operating systems.


1. Level 1

TEACHERS

An operating system is special software that hides the complexity of hardware from the user. Operating systems, which are very easy to use, are very complicated indeed. The GUI is the part of the O.S. that offers a graphical interface based on Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointing devices.

2. Level 1 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Which/that. Who/that. Which. Who. Which/that. Which/that. Whose. Where.

3. Level 3 a. A compiler is a program which/that converts computer instructions into a pattern of bits called machine code. b. Professor Andre Geim, who works in the Manchester Center of Mesoscience, built a grapheme transistor in 2007. c. Do not install the Wi-Fi router near devices which/that contain magnets or generate magnetic fields. d. Larry Page and Sergey Brin founded Google, which is the most famous search engine. e. e-Bay is a website in which you can buy all sorts of objects. f. This is advanced software which allows you to render 3D images in real time. g. Linus Torvalds is a Finnish software engineer who/that wrote a small kernel and some utilities that eventually became Linux. OR Linus Torvalds, who wrote a small kernel and some utilities that eventually became Linux, is a Finnish software engineer. h. Palo Alto is a city in California where Microsofts headquarters are located. Or Palo Alto, where Microsofts headquarters are located, is a city in California. 4. Level 2 a. Computers was the term used to describe the people whose job was to perform repetitive calculations. b. See the tables which are displayed in Appendix A. c. I bought new software to protect my computer. REMEMBER 1. What makes operating systems software easy-to-use is its GUI. 2. This use is limited to those relative clauses in which the relative pronoun functions as subject. When we use the Past Participle the passive voice is always implicit. You can find two examples: Microsoft Windows 7 O.S. is said to be one of the most difficult projects accomplished by humanity = (which have been) accomplished by humanity.

UNIT 8. Operating systems.

TEACHERS

The most powerful and complex layer of an O.S. is the kernel, designed to be the bridge between applications and hardware= (which is) designed to be the bridge between applications and hardware.

LISTENING
TRANSCRIPTION: A: Hey Rachael, the accounting department is still waiting for the new database server. B: Are you free now to discuss the details? A: Sure, I have a few minutes. B: What kind of database management server do you think the department needs? A: I recently had a meeting with the accounting manager and it seems that they need an accounting application which runs under the Oracle application server. So they need an Oracle DBMS. B: The latest version of Oracle DBMS is the 11g and it can run under Windows or Linux. First, we have to install the operating system, and then we can install the DBMS. We have two options: we can install Oracle 11g under a Linux OS or Windows Server OS. What do you think? A: Well, if I am going to install it, we should use Windows because I am not an expert in Linux. If you would rather go with Linux, you will have to find someone else to install it. B: Alright, the Windows Server will be fine. But the latest release is Windows Server 2008, so we should use that one. A: Ok. So we will install Windows Server 2008 32 bit. B: Well the server is an HP ProLiant Quad Core Blade Server, and it can support a 64 bit OS. A: I have some fears about installing a 64 bit OS because I am not sure how Oracle will work with the drivers for storage devices. We may need to install additional drivers that may not work with a 64 bit OS. Also, 32 bit applications often run very slow in 64 bit operating systems. Since we are not sure whether the accounting application is 32 or 64 bit, I think we should install a 32 bit OS. B: I understand your concerns. However, I think the 64 bit would be better. Oracle guarantees support for storage device drivers, so we shouldn't have any problems. Oracle 11g combined with Windows Server can consume more than 4 GB of memory which is the limit for the 32 bit OS. The accounting software should have been tested in 64 bit anyway, so there won't be any speed problems. A: Ok, thats fine. I'll start with the installation right now, but I dont want to be held responsible for any problems related to drivers or slow connections when you want to expand the system later.

SPEAKING
Encourage your students to mention what the POST (Power On Self Test) is: A set of self diagnostics the computer runs immediately after power is applied to check if all the components are working properly before the Operating System starts loading. All these procedures include: Verifying the integrity of the BIOS code itself. Checking the size and verifying main memory. Discovering, initializing, and cataloging all system buses and devices. Looking up all drives connected and then identifying, organizing, and selecting which devices are available for booting.