Bosnia and Herzegovina – Land of Diversity, First national Report of Bosnia and Herzegovina for the

Convention on Biodiversity, Sarajevo, 2008
PUBLISHER
Federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism
FOR PUBLISHER
dr. sc. Nevenko Herceg, Minister
EDITORIAL BOARD
dr. sc. Nevenko Herceg, President
Tomislav Lukić, Consultant
dr. sc. Sulejman Redžić, Member
dr. sc. Senka Barudanović, Member
dr. sc. Milenko Radević, Member
EDITORS
dr. sc. Sulejman Redžić, dr. sc. Senka Barudanović,
dr. sc. Milenko Radević
TECHNIAL ASSISTANCE
Dejan Kulijer
EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER
Buybook
REVIEWERS
Prof. dr. Jasenka Topić
Prof. dr. Paula Durbešić
Prof. dr. Ivica Radović
Dr. Viktor Simončić
AUTHOR OF PHOTOS
dr. sc. Dubravka Šoljan, dr. sc. Čedomil Šilić,
dr. sc. Sulejman Redžić, dr. sc. Midhat Usćuplić, Dejan Kulijer, Marinko Dalmatin
COVER DESIGN
Tomislav Lukić
PHOTOS ON COVER:
Chapter Diversity of species: Lilium bosniacum, chapter Diversity of Fauna: Tetrao urogallus, chapter
Diversity of Fungi and Lichens: Geastrum lageniforme; chapter Diversity of Ecosystems: Maglić, chapter:
Specifc Landscapes of B&H: Fatničko polje; chapter: Genetic Resources: Punica granatum; chapter: Alien
species: Reynoutria japonica, chapter: Management of Biodiversity: Wool Socks, traditional bosnian
product
TRANSLATION IN ENGLISH
Sabina Trakić
COMPUTER EDITING AND FOLDING
Almir Salkić
PRINT
Bemust, Sarajevo
EDITION
500
Pregled i stanje biološke i krajobrazne raznolikosti Bosne i Hercegovine
Prvo izvješće Bosne i Hercegovine za Konvenciju o biološkoj raznolikosti
Studija Bosna i Hercegovina – Zemlja raznolikosti je urađena kroz Global Environment Facility (GEF)
projekat IMIS: GFL-2328-2716-4850; PMS: GF/3010-05-06, fnansiran kroz United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), u cilju pripreme Strategije i akcionog plana za zaštitu biološke i krajobrazne
raznolikosti Bosne i Hercegovine (NBSAP BiH). Izvršna agencija projekta u Bosni i Hercgovini je
Federalno ministrstvo okoliša i turizma.
FEDERAL MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND TOURISM
Overview and state of biological and landscapes diversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
—LAND OF DIVERSITY
First national Report of Bosnia and Herzegovina for the Convention on biological Diversity
Te study Bosnia and Herzegovina – Land of Diversity has been accomplished through the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) project IMIS: GFL-2328-2716-4850; PMS: GF/3010-05-06, fnancially
supported by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), in order to prepare the Strategy and
Action Plan of Bosnia and Herzegovina for Biodiversity and Landscape’s Protection (NBSAP BiH).
Te executive Agency of the project in Bosnia and Herzegovina is the Federal Ministry of Environment
and Tourism.

Sarajevo, 2009.
UVOD
Smještena na Balkanskom poluotoku, Bosna i Hercegovina je zemlja koja u sebi
oduvijek nosi visoki stupanj diverziteta kultura, tijesno povezan s diverzitetom svih
komponenti našeg životnog okoliša.
Biodiverzitet i pejzažna raznolikost BiH karakteriziraju se izrazito visokom razinom
jedinstvenosti, endemizma i neponovljivosti, što ovom prostoru daje značaj na
regionalnoj i globalnoj razini. Florističko, faunističko i bogatstvo gljiva naše zemlje ne
ogleda se samo u visokom broju ovdje zastupljenih oblika, nego prije svega u visokom
stupnju diferenciranosti od srodnika, što zasigurno svjedoči o vrlo specifičnim
procesima geneze života na ovom prostoru.
Raznolikost ekosustava smještenih u mediteranskim, submediteranskim,
mediteransko-montanim, gorskim, visokoplaninskim, brdskim, peripanonskim i
panonskim pejzažima, stvara živopisnu sliku Bosne i Hercegovine kao zemlje koja je
rođena i opstaje upravo na raznovrsnosti i koja je, kao takva, nadaleko prepoznatljiva.
Poštujući sve bogatstvo života i heterogenost njegovih formi na našem području, kroz
dokument Strategija BiH sa akcionim planom za očuvanje biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti
(2008-2015), zasnovan na studiji „BiH – Zemlja raznolikosti“, nastojimo utvrditi održive
pravce razvoja društva koji će nama i budućim generacijama osigurati kvalitetu
življenja u očuvanom okolišu.
Kao potpisnica Konvencije o biološkoj raznolikosti, Bosna i Hercegovina od 2002.
godine slijedi svjetske trendove u očuvanju i održivom korištenju biodiverziteta.
Pridružujući svoje snage akcijama koje se poduzimaju u okviru Ciljeva 2010, nastojali
smo uočiti, istaknuti i preusmjeriti pritiske na biodiverzitet i pejzaže BiH, kako bi
utvrđene i potencijalne opasnosti od gubitka biodiverziteta sveli na mjeru održivosti.
Uspostava Strategije i akcionog plana za očuvanje pejzažne raznolikosti, zasnovana na
znanstvenim rezultatima većeg broja stručnjaka iz cijele zemlje, dio je ukupnih
aktivnosti i nastojanja Bosne i Hercegovine da, svojim promijenjenim odnosom prema
okolišu, zauzme odgovarajuće mjesto u procesu europskih integracija.
Članovi ekspertnog tima projekta, potpuno svjesni važnosti i značaja projektiranja
Strategije, pripremili su obuhvatnu studiju, kojom se po prvi put daje cjelovit pregled
biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti BiH. Studija je poslužila kao kvalitetna osnova za
uspostavu ciljeva, čijim će dostizanjem naša zajednica imati veće mogućnosti razvoja, a
prirodne vrijednosti biti očuvane na sadašnjoj razini.
Studijom istaknute tradicionalne vrijednosti, sadržane u starim znanjima i praksama, a
čiji je gubitak evidentan i na globalnoj razini, danas predstavljaju potencijal kojim Bosna
i Hercegovina može otvoriti potpuno nove pravce razvoja i naći svoje mjesto na
svjetskim tržištima zdrave hrane, fitofarmacije i ekoturizma.
INTRODUCTION
Bosnia and Herzegovina, the land that is situated on the Balkan Peninsula, has been carrying
high diversity of culture strongly attached to diversity of all environmental components since
ever.
Biodiversity and landscape’s diversity of B&H are characterized by high level of uniqueness,
endemism and singularity, making our territory important at regional and global scale.
Richness of our country in terms of its fora, fauna and fungia is refected not only in great
number of occuring forms, but also in high level of diferentiation from kindred species,
which witnesses for sure on very specifc genesis of life in the area. Diversity of ecosystems
placed within mediterranean, supra-mediterranean, mediterraneo-montane, upland, high-
mountainous, montane, peripannonian and pannonian landscapes creates vivid image of Bosnia
and Herzegovina, as a country that was born in diversity. Moreover, as a country that fulflls its
existance right through the diversity, and as such is being recognizable in a wide range.
Respecting the richness of life as whole, and heterogeneity of its forms on our territory, through
the document Strategy of B&H with Action Plan for protection of biological and landscape’s diversity
(2008-2015), based upon the study “B&H – Land of diversity“, we endeavour to determine the
sustainable development direction for our society, which shall ensure high quality of life in the
preserved environment for both us and generations to come.
For it has been a signatory of the Convention on biological Diversity since 2002, Bosnia and
Herzegovina follows the world trend regarding protection and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Assigning our forces to the activities undertaken as a contribution to Targets 2010, we
endeavoured to recognize, emphasize and re-direct all pressures araising upon biodiveristy and
landscapes in B&H, in order to minimize the identifed and possible threats of biodiversity loss
to sustainable level.
Te establishment of Strategy and Action Plan for protection of biological and landscape’s
diversity was based on scientifc results obtained by a large team of experts from all over the
country. Tis shall be considered as a deal in actions and attempts of Bosnia and Herzegovina
to take an appropriate position within the process of the European integration, enforced by its
changed attitude toward the environment.
Members of the Project’s expert team, fully aware of signifcance and importance that designing
of the Strategy posseses, have prepared encompassing study, which has, for the frst time,
brought a complete overview of biological and landscape’s diversity in B&H. Te study was
applied as a qualitative base for projection of targets, whose accomplishment would provide
more developmental options for a local community, leaving natural values preserved in their
current state.
Traditional values contained in old knowledge and practices which were underlined in the
study, and whose loss became obvious on global scale, represent today a potential that could
open completely new development direction for Bosnia and Herzegovina and help it to fnd
Danim dokumentima, Bosna i Hercegovina uspostavlja jasne pravce djelovanja u
oblasti upravljanja prirodom, koji su s jedne strane neovisni o kratkoročnim društveno-
političkim događanjima, a s druge strane čvrsto povezani s održivim napretkom
postojećih gospodarskih sektora našeg društva.
S aspekta očuvanja prirode, odgovornost sadašnjeg trenutka prema kvaliteti
budućnosti BiH, nosi Federalno ministarstvo okoliša i turizma kao ključna točka za
implementaciju Konvencije o biodiverzitetu u Bosni i Hercegovini. Tijekom realizacije
projekta studije i uspostave Strategije, resorno federalno ministarstvo doživjelo je niz
promjena u strukturi i organizaciji. Ipak, niti u jednom trenutku realizacije projekta,
njegova važnost nije dozvoljavala zastoje uslijed promjena, što jasno govori o našoj
namjeri da preuzmemo odgovornost i u provođenju utvrđene strategije.
Svjesni smo istine kako je budućnost ove zemlje usko povezana s njenim kvalitetama i
bogatstvima. Najveći dio tih bogatstava sadržan je u prirodnim ljepotama i rijetkostima,
čiji je značaj daleko veći od lokalnoga.
Stoga, kao zemlja, prihvaćamo odgovornost za njihovo očuvanje i održivost.
dr.sc. Nevenko Herceg
its place on the world market of healthy food, phytopharmaceutics and ecotourism. By afore
mentioned documents, Bosnia and Herzegovina sets a clear route for actions in the feld of
nature management which is, on one hand, independent on short-termed socio-political events,
while on the other, it is frmly attached to sustainable progress in existing economic sectors of
our society.
Te Federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism bears the responsibility of present moment
toward the B&H’s future quality, in terms of nature protection, for it is a focal point for the
implementation of the Convention on biological Diversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the
course of project’s realization, preparation of study and set up of the strategy, the department of
Federal Ministry has undergone number of changes in its structure and organization. However,
the signifcance of project hasn’t allowed a single delays in the project’s realization to occur
because of these changes. Tis speaks for our commitment to undertake responsibility for the
implementation of Strategy, too.
We are aware of the fact that future of this country is tightly attached to its quality and wealth.
Major proportion of that wealth is contained within natural beauties and rarities, whose
signifcance on global scale is much greater than the one on local scale. Hence, as a country, we
accept to be responsible for their protection and sustainabilty.
Nevenko Herceg, PhD.
CIanovi radnih gru¡a i aulori izv|ešla|a:
Koordinalor ¡ro|ekla:
Dr. Senka ßarudanovic, docenl Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
ȱ

Rukovodioci eks¡erlnog lima:
DrǯȱSuIe|manȱRedċic, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ

Dr. MiIenko Radevic, vanredni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
ȱ

Iks¡erlni lim:

Radna gru¡a: Diverzilel fIore
ßosne i Hercegovine


RukovodiIac radne gru¡e: ȱ ȱ
Dr. Dubravka ŠoI|an, redovni
¡rofesorȱ
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
IIora viših biI|aka
ȱ ȱ ȱ
CIanovi radne gru¡e:
ȱ ȱ
DrǯȱSuIe|manȱRedċic, redovni
¡rofesorȱ
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
IIora viših biI|aka
Dr. CedomiI ŠiIic, nauóni sav|elnik
u ¡enzi|i
ZemaI|ski muze| ßiH IIora viših biI|aka
Dr. Dubravka Hafner, docenl Iedagoški fakuIlel
SveuóiIišla u Moslaru
Diverzilel ci|anobakleri|a i
aIgi ȱ
Dr. ßranisIav Nedovic, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
Diverzilel ¡a¡raln|aóaȱ
Dr. Nada Šumalic, vanredni
¡rofesor
Šumarski fakuIlel
Univerzilela u ßan|a
Luciȱ
IIora viših biI|aka
ȱ
Saradnici radne gru¡e:

Dr. Ielar Grgic, redovni ¡rofesor Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
Diverzilel mahovina
DrǯȱZeI|kaȱß|eIóic, nauóni sav|elnik
u ¡enzi|i
ZemaI|ski muze| ßiH IIora viših biI|aka
In the project’s realization participated:
Project’s coordinator:
Senka Barudanović, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Expert team leaders:
Sulejman Redžić, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Milenko Radević, PhD.
part-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Expert Team
Working Group (WG): Diversity of
Flora in Bosnia and Herzegovina
WG’s leader:
Dubravka Šoljan, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of vascular fora
WG’s members:
Sulejman Redžić, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of vascular fora
Čedomil Šilić, PhD.
Scientifc adviser, retired
National Museum of B&H Diversity of vascular fora
Dubravka Hafner, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Pedagogics at Mostar
University
Diversity of cyanobacteria and
alges
Branislav Nedović, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Diversity of ferns
Nada Šumatić, PhD.
part-time professor
Faculty of Forestry at Banja Luka
University
Diversity of vascular fora
WG’s associates:
Petar Grgić, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Diversity of mooses
Željka Bjelčić, PhD.
Scientifc adviser, retired
National Museum of B&H Diversity of vascular fora
Lijerka Kutleša, M.Sci.
assistant professor, retired
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of vascular fora
Mr. Li|erka KulIeša, docenl u
¡enzi|i
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evu
IIora viših biI|aka
DrǯȱNikn!aȱJan|ic, ¡rofesor
emerilus
Šumarski fakuIlel u
Sara|evu
IIora viših biI|akaȱ
Dr. L|ubomir Mišic , vanredni
¡rofesor u ¡enzi|i
IoI|o¡rivredni fakuIlel
Univerzilela u Sara|evu
IIora viših biI|aka
Dr. Idina Muralovic, viši asislenl Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
IIora viših biI|akaȱ
SabahelaȱAbadċic, muze|ski
sav|elnik
ZemaI|ski muze| ßiH IIora viših biI|aka
ȱ
Radna gru¡a: Diverzilel faune ßiH ȱ ȱ
ȱ
RukovodiIac radne gru¡e: ȱ
Dr. MiIenko Radevic, vanredni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luci
Diverzilel kiómen|akaȱ
ȱ
CIanovi radne gru¡e: ȱ
ȱ ȱ
Dr. ßoro IavIovic, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
Diverzilel beskiómen|akaȱ
Dr. Rifal Škri|eI|, vanredni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Diverzilel beskiómen|aka i
kiómen|aka (ribe)ȱ
Dr. Suvad LeIo, docenl Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Diverzilel beskiómen|akaȱ
DrǯȱSadberaȱTroċic- ßorovac,
docenl
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Diverzilel beskiómen|akaȱ

Saradnici radne gru¡e:

MrǯȱDraċenȱKolrosanǰȱkuslosȱ ZemaI|ski muze| ßiH Diverzilel kiómen|aka (¡lice,
sisari)ȱ
Dr. Samir Dug, docenl Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Diverzilel kiómen|aka ȱ
Mr. Šefki|a Muzaferovic, viši
asislenl
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Diverzilel kiómen|aka (sisari)ȱ

Radna gru¡a: Diverzilel gI|iva i
Nikola Janjić, PhD.
professor emeritus
Faculty of Forestry at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of vascular fora
Ljubomir Mišić, PhD.
part-time professor, retired
Faculty of Agriculture at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of vascular fora
Edina Muratović, PhD.
higher assistant
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of vascular fora
Sabaheta Abadžić,
adviser in the Museum
National Museum of B&H Diversity of vascular fora
Working Group (WG): Diversity of
fauna in B&H
WG’s leader:
Milenko Radević, PhD.
part-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Diversity of vertebrates
WG’s members:
Boro Pavlović, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Diversity of invertebrates
Rifat Škrijelj, PhD.
part-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of invertebrates and
vertebrates (fshes)
Suvad Lelo, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of invertebrates
Sadbera Trožić-Borovac, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of invertebrates
WG’s associates:
Dražen Kotrošan, M.Sci.
custos
National Museum of B&H
Diversity of vertebrates (birds,
mammals)
Samir Đug, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of vertebrates
Šefija Muzaferović, M.Sci.
Higher assistant
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of vertebrates
(mammals)
Working Group (WG): Diversity of
fungi and lichens
WG’s leader:
Mithat Usčuplić, PhD.
professor emeritus, corresponding
member of ANU B&H
ANU B&H Diversity of fungi
Iiša|eva

RukovodiIac radne gru¡e:
Dr. Milhal Usóu¡Iic, ¡rofesor
emerilus, do¡isni óIan ANU ßiH
ANU ßiH Diverzilel gI|iva

CIanovi radne gru¡e:
ȱ ȱ
DrǯȱSuIe|manȱRedċic, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Diverzilel Iiša|eva

Radna gru¡a: Diverzilel
ekosislemaȱiȱ¡e|zaċaȱßosneȱiȱ
Hercegovine


RukovodiIac radne gru¡e:
DrǯȱSuIe|manȱRedċic, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evu
Diverzilel i ¡roc|ena slan|a
ekosislema šuma, moóvarnih
i sušnih slanišla, refugi|aInih
i reIiklnih ekosislema,
¡Ianinskih ekosislema

CIanovi radne gru¡e:

Dr. ßoro IavIovic, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
ZooIoška kom¡onenla
refugi|aInih ekosislema,
zoocenoze |adranskog i
crnomorskog sIivaȱ
Dr. }akov Iehar, ¡rofesor emerilus Agronomski fakuIlel
SveuóiIišla u Moslaruȱ
Diverzilel agrofilocenozeȱ
Dr. Duro Maric, redovni ¡rofesor Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
Demografi|a i ekonomika
¡rosloraȱ
Dr. Zoran Maunaga, redovni
¡rofesor
Šumarski fakuIlel
Univerzilela u ßan|a
Luciȱ
Slruklure i ¡roc|ena slan|a
mezofiInih i higrofiInih
šumskih ekosislemaȱ
Dr. Nevenka IavIovic, vanredni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
Diverzilel sušnih szlanišla sa
slan|em zoocenoza,
¡aIeozooIoški naIazi u ßiHȱ
Dr. Nada Šumalic Šumarski fakuIlel
Univerzilela u ßan|a
Luciȱ
Diverzilel obradivih slanišlaȱ
Dr. Miha|Io Markovic, vanredni
¡rofesor
IoI|o¡rivredni fakuIlel
Univerzilela u ßan|a
Luci
RaznoIikosl zemI|išla ßiHȱ
Dr. Dubravka Hafner, docenl Iedagoški fakuIlel Iilobenlos lekucicaȱ
WG’s members:
Sulejman Redžić, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of lichens
Working Group (WG): Diversity
of ecosystems and landscapes in
Bosnia and Herzegovina
WG’sleader:
Sulejman Redžić, PhD.
Full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity and assessment of
ecosystem’s state of woods,
wetlands and dry habitats;
refugio-relict ecosystems,
alpine ecosystems
WG’s members:
Boro Pavlović, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Zoological component
in refugial ecosystems,
zoocoenoses in Adriatic and
Black Sea basin
Jakov Pehar, PhD.
professor emeritus
Faculty of Agronomy at Mostar
University
Diversity of agro-
phytocoenoses
Đuro Marić, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Demography and Space
Economy
Zoran Maunaga, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Forestry at Banja Luka
University
Strucutre and state’s
assessment of mesophilous
and hygrophilous wooded
ecosystems
Nevenka Pavlović, PhD.
part-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Diversity of dry habitats
with state of zoocoenoses,
paleozoološki nalazi u BiH
Nada Šumatić, PhD.
Faculty of Forestry at Banja Luka
University
Diversity of arable land
Mihajlo Marković, PhD.
part-time professor
Faculty of Agriculture at Banja
Luka University
Diversity of soil in B&H
Dubravka Hafner, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Pedagogigcs at Mostar
University
Phytobenthos in streams
Milenko Radević, PhD.
part-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Diversity of zoocoenoses in
wetlands
Branislav Nedović, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Diversity of hydrophilous
meadows in B&H
Muris Spahić, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Geosystems in B&H
Senka Barudanović, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Diversity of beech woods in
B&H
SveuóiIišla u Moslaruȱ
Dr. MiIenko Radevic, vanredni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
Diverzilel zoocenoza
moóvarnih slanišlaȱ
Dr. ßranisIav Nedovic, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
Diverzilel hidrofiInih Iivada
ßiHȱ
Dr. Muris S¡ahic, redovni ¡rofesor Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Geosislemi ßiHȱ
Dr. Senka ßarudanovic, docenl Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Diverzilel bukovih šuma
ßiH
Dr. L|iI|ana To¡aIic- Trivunovic,
docenl
TehnoIoški fakuIlel
Univerzilela u ßan|a
Luciȱ
Diverzilel mezofiInih Iivada i
ruderaIne vegelaci|e ȱ
DrǯȱSadberaȱTroċic ßorovac,
docenl
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Zoobenlos
ȱ
Saradnici radne gru¡e: ȱ
ȱ
Mr. Davorin ßa|ic, viši asislenl Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
Demografi|aȱ

Radna gru¡a: Diverzilel
geneliókih resursa i biolehnoIogi|a


RukovodiIac radne gru¡e:
DrǯȱRifalȱHadċiseIimovic, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evu
Genelióka raznoIikosl i
biolehnoIogi|a

CIanovi radne gru¡e:
ȱ ȱ
Dr. MiIan Malaruga, docenl Šumarski fakuIlel
Univerzilela u ßan|a
Luci
Genelióka raznoIikosl i
biolehnoIogi|aȱ

Radna gru¡a: Invazivne vrsle

RukovodiIac radne gru¡e:
Dr. }akov Iehar, redovni ¡rofesor Agronomski fakuIlel
SveuóiIišla u Moslaru
Invazivne vrsle biI|aka

CIanovi radne gru¡e:
Ljiljana Topalić-Trivunović, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Technology at Banja
Luka University
Diversity of mesophilous
meadows and ruderal
vegetation
Sadbera Trožić-Borovac, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Zoobenthos
WG’s associates:
Davorin Bajić, M.Sci.
higher assistant
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Demography
Working Group (WG): Diversity
of genetic resources and
biotechnology
WG’s leader:
Rifat Hadžiselimović, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Genetic diversity and
biotechnology
WG’s members:
Milan Mataruga, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Forestry at Banja Luka
University
Genetic diversity and
biotechnology
Working Group (WG): Invasive
species
WG’s leader:
Jakov Pehar, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Agronomy at Mostar
University
Invasive plants
WG’s members:
Dubravka Šoljan, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Invasive plants
Mihajlo Marković, PhD.
Faculty of Agriculture at Banja
Luka University
Invasive plants
Dragan Mikavica, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Invasive fshes
Ljiljana Topalić-Trivunović, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Technology at Banja
Luka University
Invasive plants
Vojislav Trkulja, PhD.
assistant professor
Agricultural Institute of RS Invasive fungi

Dr. Dubravka ŠoI|an, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Invazivne vrsle biI|aka
Dr. Miha|Io Markovic IoI|o¡rivredni fakuIlel
Univerzilela u ßan|a
Luci
Invazivne vrsle biI|aka
Dr. Dragan Mikavica, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
Invazivne vrsle riba
Dr. L|iI|ana To¡aIic – Trivunovic,
docenl
TehnoIoški fakuIlel
Univerzilela u ßan|a
Luci
Invazivne vrsle biI|akaȱ
Dr. Vo|isIav TrkuI|a, docenl IoI|o¡rivredni inslilul
RS
Invazivne vrsle gI|iva
ȱ ȱ
Saradnici radne gru¡e: ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ
Dani|eIa Ielrovic Agronomski fakuIlel,
Moslarȱ
Invazivne vrsle biI|akaȱ
Dr. Idina Muralovic, viši asislenl Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
Invazivne vrsle biI|akaȱ
SabahelaȱAbadċic, muze|ski
sav|elnik
ZemaI|ski muze| ßiH Invazivne vrsle biI|akaȱ

Radna gru¡a: Inlegrisano
u¡ravI|an|e okoIišem


Rukovodioci radne gru¡e:
Dr. Iroko DragosavI|evic Minislarslvo za
¡roslorno ureden|e,
urbanizam,
gradevinarslvo i
ekoIogi|u RS
Konce¡l ekoIoškog
obrazovan|a
Zdravko ßegovic Minislarslvo za
¡roslorno ureden|e,
urbanizam,
gradevinarslvo i
ekoIogi|u RS


CIanovi radne gru¡e: ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ
DrǯȱSuIe|manȱRedċic, redovni
¡rofesor
Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evu
U¡ravI|an|e ekoIoški
vri|ednim ¡odruó|ima
Dr. MiIenko Radevic, vanredni Irirodno-malemalióki Mogucnosli us¡oslave
WG’s associates:
Danijela Petrović Faculty of Agronomy at Mostar Invasive plants
Edina Muratović, PhD.
higher assistant
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Invasive plants
Sabaheta Abadžić, adviser in the
Museum
National Museum of B&H Invasive plants
Working Group (WG): Integrated
environmental management
WG’s leaders:
Proko Dragosavljević, PhD.
Ministry for physical planning,
urbanism, construction and
ecology of RS
Concept of ecological
education
Zdravko Begović
Ministry for physical planning,
urbanism, construction and
ecology of RS
WG’s members:
Sulejman Redžić, PhD.
full-time professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Management of ecologically
valuable areas
Milenko Radević, PhD.
part-time professor
Faculty of Science at Banja Luka
University
Eestablishment possibilities
for ecological network in B&H
Senka Barudanović, PhD.
assistant professor
Faculty of Science at Sarajevo
University
Models of nature management
Mehmed Cero, M.Sci.
Ministry of environment and
tourism FB&H
International documents of
importance for biodiversity
management in B&H
Alojz Dunđer
Ministry of agriculture, water
management and forestry FB&H
Position and role of
biodiversity within
institutional framework;
current modes of managment
in protected areas in B&H
Azra Korać-Mehmedović
Ministry of environment and
tourism FB&H
Traditional knowledge
and public awareness;
protected areas; cross-sector
implementation of CBD
Rada Maunaga JP, Srpske šume, Banja Luka Protected forest areas
Suada Čatović Government of Brčko District
Protection of biodiversity in
Brčko District
¡rofesor fakuIlel Univerzilela u
ßan|a Luciȱ
ekoIoskaȱmreċaȱuȱßiHȱ
Dr. Senka ßarudanovic, docenl Irirodno-malemalióki
fakuIlel Univerzilela u
Sara|evuȱ
ModeIi u¡ravI|an|a ¡rirodom
Mr. Mehmed Cero Minislarslvo okoIiša i
lurizmaȱIßiHȱ
Medunarodne dokumenli
znaóa|ni za u¡ravI|an|e
biodiverzilelomȱßiHDzȱȱ
AIo|z Dunder Minislarslvo
¡oI|o¡rivrede,
vodo¡rivrede i
sumarslvaȱIßiHȱ
M|eslo i uIoga biodiverzilela
uȱinslilucionaInomȱokviruDzȱ
¡oslo|eci naóini u¡ravI|an|a
zašlicenim ¡odruó|imaȱuȱßiHȱ
Azra Korac-Mehmedovic Minislarslvo okoIiša i
lurizmaȱIßiHȱ
TradicionaIna znan|a i |avna
svi|eslDzȱzaslicena ¡odruó|aDzȱ
Inlerseklorska
im¡Iemenlaci|a CßDȱ
Rada Maunaga }I, Sr¡ske šume, ßan|a
Luka
Zašlicena šumska ¡odruó|aȱ
Suada Calovic VIada ßróko Dislrikla Zašlila biodiverzilela u ßróko
Dislrikluȱ
ȱ

IZVRŠNI REZIME
Na osnovu člana 6a Konvencije o biološkoj raznolikosti, Bosna i Hercegovina je
realizirala projekat pripreme Strategije BiH sa akcionim planom za očuvanje biološke i
pejzažne raznolikosti (2008-2015). Osnova za donošenje Strategije je studija biološke i
pejzažne raznolikosti pod nazivom „Bosna i Hercegovina – Zemlja raznolikosti“, koja
ujedno predstavlja i Prvi nacionalni izvještaj naše zemlje prema CBD-u.
Realizacija projekta je počela u januaru 2006. godine, od strane Federalnog ministarstva
prostornog uređenja i okoliša, a kasnije nastavljena kroz Federalno ministarstvo okoliša
i turizma. Odlukom Nacionalnog podkomiteta za biodiverzitet, odabran je ekspertni
tim stručnjaka iz cijele zemlje, koji su, tokom projekta, formirali sedam radnih grupa.
Radom u tri izvještajna perioda, kroz 4 radionice, brojne radne sastanke i stalnu
komunikaciju, članovi ekspertnog tima su pripremili impozantan sadržaj o biološkoj i
pejzažnoj raznolikosti BiH, stanju biodiverziteta na genetičkom, specijskom i
ekosistemskom nivou, izvorima i stepenu pritisaka, te sadašnjim i budućim načinima i
kvalitetu upravljanja prirodom.
Projekat je rezultirao sljedećim podacima:
1. Floru cijanobakterija i algi u Bosni i Hercegovini čini 1.859 vrsta, diferenciranih u
217 rodova u okviru odjela Cyanobacteria, Rodophyta, Heterokontophyta,
Dinophyta, Euglenophyta i Chlorophyta. U okviru ovog dijela flore BiH ističe se
izrazito visok diverzitet vrsta klase Bacillariophyceae.
2. Floru vaskularnih biljaka BiH čini 565 vrsta mahovina, 71 papratnjača i 4498
vrsta sjemenjača. U okviru svih odjela konstatovan je visok stepen endemizma, a
porodice sa najvišim stepenom specijskog diverziteta su : glavočike, leptirnjače,
trave, ružovke, kupusnjače, štitare, usnatice, šaševi, zijevalice, karanfili, ljiljani i
ljutići.
3. Faunu kičmenjaka u Bosni i Hercegovini čini 119 vrsta riba, 20 vrsta
vodozemaca, 38 vrsta gmizavaca, 326 vrsta ptica i 85 (+2?) vrsta sisara. Među
navedenim oblicima 39 vrsta su endemi, a najviši stepen endemizma utvrđen je
među ribama i gmizavcima.
4. Fauna beskičmenjaka je izuzetno raznovrsna, ali još nedovoljno istražena na
području Bosne i Hercegovine. Među najraznovrsnijim je grupa insekata, unutar
koje se ističe visok stepen diverziteta Colembolla, Heteroptera, Lepidoptera i
Hymenoptera. Posebno visok endemizam se konstatuje u okviru limnofaune
BiH.
5. Da fungia Bosne i Hercegovine predstavlja raznovrsnu, ali takođe nedovoljno
istraženu grupu, svjedoči podatak da su samo u okviru Ascomycota i
Basidiomycota konstatovane 552 vrste. Pretpostavljeni broj vrsta gljiva je daleko
veći, a mnoge od prisutnih su ugrožene kroz gubitak staništa i ostale vrste
pritisaka. Nedovoljno poznatu, a takođe raznovrsnu i ugroženu grupu
predstavljaju lišajevi, od kojih je do danas u BiH zabilježeno oko 300 vrsta.
6. Ekosistemski pristup istraživanjima ima dugu tradiciju u Bosni i Hercegovini.
Stoga je dobro poznata visoka raznolikost ekosistema od Jadranskog mora do
Save, ukomponovanih u mediteranske, submediteranske, mediteransko-

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Based on the Article 6a of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Bosnia and Herzegovina has
realized a project which is to be considered as preparation for the Strategy and Action Plan for
Protection of biological and landscape’s Diversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008-2015). Te
Strategy was built upon study of biological and landscape’s diversity under name “Bosnia and
Herzegovina – the land of diversity“, which is in the same time the First national Report of our
country toward the Convention.
Te project was initialized by the Federal Ministry of physical Planning and Environment
in January 2006, and continued later on through the Federal Ministry of Environment and
Tourism. Te national sub-comettee for biodiversity has made decision on experts from all
over the country which should have participated in the project as an expert team members,
separated in seven working groups. Te activities of expert team members were realized in three
reporting periods, through attendance at four workshops, numerous meetings and continuous
communication. Te fnal output was an imposing text on biological and landscape’s diversity
of B&H, its state at level of genes, species and ecosystems, causes and degree of pressures upon
biodiversity, in the text was also elaborated nature management both today and in future.
Te project has resulted in following facts:
1. Flora of cyanobacteria and alges in Bosnia and Herzegovina is comprised of 1457
species, diferentiated in 217 genera within divisions of Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta,
Heterokontophyta, Dinophyta, Euglenophyta and Chlorophyta. Tis is a part of B&H’s
fora that is characterized by extremely high diversity of species belonging to class
Bacillariophyceae.
2. Flora of vascular plants in B&H contains 565 mooses, 71 ferns and 4498 spermatophytes.
Tere has been recognized high level of endemism in each vascular plant division, whereas
the highest diversity of species is reached within the families: compositae, leguminosae,
grasses, rose family, mustard family, carrot family, mint family, sedges, fgwort family,
pink family, lily family and family of buttercups.
3. Fauna of vertebrates in Bosnia and Herzegovina includes 119 fsh species, 20 amphibians,
38 reptiles, 326 birds and 85 (+2?) mammals, of which 39 species are endemic ones, with
highest level of endemism reached among fshes and amphibians.
4. Fauna of avertebrates is highly diverse, but still poorly investigated in Bosnia and
Herzegovina. Most diverse is the group of insects, with high diversity of Colembolla,
Heteroptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. Te underlined endemism characterizes
limnofauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina, too.
5. Realm of fungi in Bosnia and Herzegovina is diverse, but also unsufciently explored,
which is to be confrmed by fact that within Ascomycota and Basidiomycota detected
were only 552 species. Te expected number of fungi is far greater than that, whereby
many of the occuring species are threatened through habitat loss and other kinds of
pressures. Unsufciently explored, as well as both diverse and threatened group of
organisms represent lichens, of which were recorded 300 in B&H till now.
montane, gorske, pretplaninske, planinske, brdske, peripanonske i panonske
pejzaže Bosne i Hercegovine. Grupu specifičnih pejzaža, komponovanih od
senzitivnih, vrlo često endemičnih tipova ekosistema, čine: visokoplaninski,
reliktno-refugijalni, močvarni i pejzaži kraških polja. Identifikovani su brojni
pritisci na ekosistemsku raznolikost, a kroz pejzaže je istaknuta raznolikost
kultura i tradicija naroda BiH.
7. Visok stepen raznolikost gena i genetičkih resursa Bosne i Hercegovine zaslužuje
daleko veću pažnju bosanskohercegovačkog društva od postojeće. Istaknute
tradicionalne biotehnologije je potrebno postaviti u funkciju razvoja zemlje i na
taj način očuvati kako stara znanja i prakse, tako i autohtoni genofond BiH.
8. Identifikovane invazivne biljne i životinjske vrste predstavljaju jedan od
značajnih izvora pritisaka na autohtoni biodiverzitet BiH. Kroz uspostavu prve
baze podataka invazivnih vrsta identifikovana je jasna potreba za sistemskim
rješenjima u daljim pravcima djelovanja.
9. Upravljanje visokom biološkom i vrijednom pejzažnom raznolikošću Bosne i
Hercegovine je proces, koji zahtijeva jasan i djelotvoran institucionalni okvir.
Analizirani su postojeći unutar i međusektorski kapaciteti upravljanja i kori-
štenja prirodnih vrijednosti. Istaknuto je da postojeći način upravljanja
prirodom nije u skladu sa poznatim i ponovo identifikovanim atributima
biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti BiH.
10. S ciljem postizanja odgovarajućeg odnosa prema raznolikosti živog svijeta BiH,
uspostavljeni su strateški pravci i ciljevi koji odražavaju potrebu za očuvanjem i
održivom upotrebom biodiverziteta. Od strane ekspertnog tima ciljevi su
razrađeni do nivoa zadataka koje je potrebno implementirati prema uvrđenom
akcionom planu.
6. Tere is a long tradition of ecosystem approach being applied in the investigation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina. Hence, diversity of ecosystems in Bosnia and Herzegovina,
from Adriatic Sea to Sava river, composed of mediterranean, supramediterranean,
mediterraneo-montane, upland, subalpine, alpine, peri-pannonian and pannonian
landscapes, has been well known. Group of specifc landscapes, which are sensitive, mainly
endemic ecosystem types, includes: high-mountainous and refugio-relict ecosystems,
wetlands and karst felds. Tere have been identifed numerous pressures on ecosystem
diversity so far. Besides, landscapes refect the diversity of culture and tradition of people
in B&H.
7. To the diversity of genes and genetic resources of Bosnia and Herzegovina should be
payed more attention than it was the case till now. Traditional biotechnologies should be
placed in service of the country’s development in the way that both old knowledge and
practice and autochtonous gen pool of B&H remain preserved.
8. Te indigenous biodiversity of B&H is under sever pressure arising from the identifed
invasive plants and animals. Trough the establishment of frst database on invasive
species became obvious that it is needed to fnd out systematic solutions for further
actions in that respect.
9. In order to ensure the management of highly complex biological and landscape’s diversity
of Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is required to defne clear and efcient institutional
framework. Terefore, analized were intra- and cross-sector capacities for management
and use of natural values that already exist. It was stressed that current mode of nature
management doesn’t suit to known and re-identifed attributes of biological and
landscape’s diversity in B&H.
10. In order to establish an appropriate relationship with diversity of life in B&H, determined
were strategic directions and targets that should refect our need afer maintenance and
sustainable use of biodiversity. Targets were elaborated all the way down to task level by
expert team, and are to be implemented according to the forseen action plan.
Bosna i Hercegovina se nalazi na jugo-
istoku Evrope, u centralnom dijelu
Balkanskog poluostrva. Njena ukupna
2
površina je 51.129 km. Dužina granice
iznosi 1.537 km, od čega kopnena 762,5
km, riječna 751 km i morska 23,5 km.
Bosna i Hercegovi na grani či sa
Republikom Hrvatskom (931 km),
Srbijom (375 km) i Crnom Gorom (249
km). Sj everni m di j el om Bosna i
Hercegovina izlazi na rijeku Savu, a
južnim na Jadransko more kod Neuma.
OSNOVNI PODACI O BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
Reljef Bosne i Hercegovine je izrazito
brdsko-planinski, sa prosječnom nad-
morskom visinom od 500 m. Od ukupne
površine BiH, 5% se odnosi na ravnice,
24% na brežuljke, 42% na planine, a 29%
zauzima krš (NEAP, 2003)
Bosna i Hercegovina je administrativno
uređena Dejtonskim sporazumom, prema
kojem se sastoji od Federacije BiH (10
kantona), Republike Srpske i Distrikta
Brčko.

Prijedor

Banja Luka

Zenica

Sarajevo

Brčko

Bihać

Doboj

Bijeljina

Tuzla

Mostar

25.000-100.000 st.

Preko 250.000 st.

100.000-250.000 st.

Slika 1. – Bosna i Hercegovina: opštinski centri sa više od 25.000 stanovnika (Prema popisu
stanovništva iz 1991. godine)
Opšti podaci
O
S
N
O
V
N
I

P
O
D
A
C
I

O

B
O
S
N
I

I

H
E
R
C
E
G
O
V
I
N
I
3
25.000-100.000
Over 250.000
100.000-250.000
General facts
Bosnia and Herzegovina is situated in the
southeastern Europe taking a central posi-
tion of the Balkan peninsula. Its total surface
is 51.129 km
2
. Border length amounts 1.537
km, of which land border is 762,5 km, river
751 km and sea 23,5 km. Bosnia and Herze-
govina shares its border with the Republic of
Croatia (931 km), Serbia (375 km) and Mon-
tenegro (249 km). Northern parts of Bosnia
and Herzegovina face the Sava river, while
its southern parts reach the Adriatic Sea at
Neum city. Land of Bosnia and Herzegovina
is extremely hilly-mountainous, with aver-
age altitude of 500 m. From country’s total
5% is lowland, 24% are hills, 42% mountains,
and 29% is covered with karst (NEAP, 2003).
Forests and forest type of soils in Bosnia and
Herzegovina cover 2.709.769 ha (which is
about 53% of its territory), of which woods
cover 2.209.732 ha (about 43%), while bar-
ren land covers 500.037 ha (about 10%). Bos-
nia and Herzegovina has been arranged by
Dayton Agreement, according to whome it
is constituted of Federation of B&H (10 can-
tons), Republic of Srpska and Brčko District.
Fig. 1. – Bosnia and Herzegovina: Municipalities with more than 25.000 inhabitans (according to po-
pulation cenzus in 1991)
MAIN FACTS ABOUT BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
M
A
I
N

F
A
C
T
S

A
B
O
U
T

B
O
S
N
I
A

A
N
D

H
E
R
Z
E
G
O
V
I
N
A
0
Bosna i Hercegovina nalazi se između 42
0
26’ i 45 15’ sjeverne geografske širine, te
0 0
15 45’ i 19 41’ istočne geografske dužine.
Pripada zapadnom dijelu jugoistočne Ev-
rope, na kojem se smjenjuju uticaji južnih
dijelova sjevernog umjerenog i sjevernih
dijelova sjevernog suptropskog pojasa.
Na prostoru naše države se nalazi najveći
dio zapadne zone mlađih vjenačnih pla-
nina – Dinarida. Dinarski planinski pojas
postepeno se spušta na sjever prema Savi,
dok se prema jugu spušta naglo, u prostor
niske Hercegovine i Jadranskog primorja.
Osnovni, pretežno planinski karakter,
prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine daje
zapadni dio sredozemne zone mlađih
vjenačnih planina.
U hidrografskom smislu Bosna i Her-
cegovina pripada crnomorskom i
jadranskom slivu. Vododjelnica između
slivova je orografsko razvođe koje prolazi
preko planina: Plješevica, Šator, Cincar,
Raduša, Bitovnja, Bjelašnica, Treskavica,
Zelengora i Volujak.
Crnomorski sliv zahvata oko 70% od
ukupnog prostora Bosne i Hercegovine,
Jadranski sliv zahvata 24%, a sa 6%
teritorije površinske vode se gube u kra-
ško podzemlje.
U pedološkom pogledu, zemljišta Bosne i
Hercegovine su tipovi automorfnog i
hidromorfnog odjela.
Fizičko-geografski položaj Bosne i Hercegovine
Reljefna struktura Bosne i Hercegovine u
geološkom i tektonskom pogledu je dale-
ko složenija od onoga što pokazuje vizu-
elna slika njenog teritorija. Stijene koje
grade teritorij zemlje istaložene su u
različitim geološkim razdobljima na dnu
nekadašnjeg Tetis mora. Istaložena masa
je orogenim pokretima naborana u
planinske vijence, a kotline su nastale
rasijedanjem.
Metamorfne stijene potiču iz paleozoika,
a izgrađuju centralne planine bosansko-
hercegovačkih Dinarida (Vranica,
Bitovnja, Zec-planina, Pogorjelica i Ko-
mar). Paleozojske naslage su mozaično
raspoređene i u drugim dijelovima Bosne.
Sedimentne stijene su uglavnom me-
zozojske starosti, izdignute su u Alpskoj
orogenoj fazi, a bočnim potiscima nabo-
rane u Dinarsku planinsku oblast. Sjeve-
rne i južne zone centralnih Dinarida izgra-
đene su od kenozojskih naslaga. Nakon
nemirnih geoloških razdoblja u keno-
Geološke i tektonske odlike Bosne i Hercegovine
zoiku, Tetis more se povlači i Bosna i Her-
cegovina postaje kopno sa manjim zao-
stalim vodenim površinama u obliku
jezera (Paratetis). Na kraju kenozojske ere
Panonsko more, koje je plavilo Panonsku
niziju, se povlači i na njegovom mjestu
zaostaju plitka jezera i močvare, nakon
čega se formira rijeka Sava. Gornji tokovi
Sane, Une, Vrbasa, Bosne i Drine pred-
stavljali su pritoke Panonskog mora to-
kom njegovog postojanja. Kako se more
povlačilo na sjever i istok, rijeke su ga pra-
tile povećavajući svoje dužine.
Istovremeno sa postojanjem Panonskog
mora, postojalo je i Jadransko more. U
pleistocenu je nivo Svjetskog, pa i Jad-
ranskog mora bio niži. Rijeka Neretva je
bila duža i završavala se na današnjem
dnu Jadrana. Nakon pleistocena nivo Jad-
ranskog mora se podigao zbog otapanja
leda, te je potopljena i donja dolina
Neretve.
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Physical-geographic position of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina is positioned be-
tween coordinates N 420 26’ and 450 15’ and
E 150 45’ and 190 41’. It is placed in western
part of the southeastern Europe, exposed to
exchanging infuences from southern part of
the North temperate belt and northern part
of the North suptropic belt. Most of young
mountain chains (western part), the Dinaric
Alps, is situated on our territory. Chains of
the Dinaric Alps descend gradually in the
northern direction toward Sava river, while
in the southern direction they descend sud-
denly, directly into the lowland of Herzegov-
ina and Adriatic coastline.
Bosnia and Herzegovina ows its mainly
mountainous character to the western part
of mediterranean mountain chains.
In terms of hydrology, Bosnia and Herze-
govina belongs to the Black and Adriatic Sea
basins. A watershed of these two confuences
runs across mountains Plješevica, Šator, Cin-
car, Raduša, Bitovnja, Bjelašnica, Treskavica,
Zelengora and Volujak.
Te Black Sea basin takes in 70% of Bosnia
and Herzegovina’s total, the Adriatic Sea ba-
sin takes in 24%, while 6% of overground wa-
ter dissolves into the karst underground.
In terms of pedology, in Bosnia and Herze-
govina prevail soil types from automorphous
and hydromorphous division.
Relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina is from ge-
ologic and tectonic standpoint much more
complex than it seems at frst glance. Rocks
that make a country’s foundation have been
deposited over geologic times at the bottom
of former Tetis Sea. Deposited material was
then folded by tectonic movements into the
mountain chains, while valleys were created
by deep faulting.
Metamorphous rocks, of which mountains
in central Bosnia and Herzegovina are made
of (Vranica, Bitovnja, Zec-planina, Pogorje-
lica and Komar), date back from Palaeozoic.
Palaeozoic layers occur also in other parts of
Bosnia in mosaic like manner. Sedimentary
rocks originating mainly from Mezozoic,
were upraised during Alpine orogenesis,
and folded into Dinaric mountains by late-
ral stress. Northern and southern zones of
the mid Dinaric Alps are built of Kenozoic
layers. Afer dynamic geological events that
took place in Kenozoic, Tetis Sea has been
withdrawn leaving Bosnia and Herzegovina
as a dry land with smaller remnant waterbo-
dies in form of lakes (Paratetis). At the end
of Kenozoic, the Pannonian Sea, which pain-
ted the Pannonian lowland in blue, fnally
withdrew leaving shallow lakes and marshes
behind. Aferwards, the Sava river emerged.
Upper fows of Sana, Una, Vrbas, Bosna and
Drina river were tributaries of the Pannonian
Sea in course of its existence. As the Sea was
withdrawing to the East and to the North,
rivers followed it by increasing their lengths.
In the same time with the Pannonian, existed
also the Adriatic Sea. Levels of both World
and the Adriatic Sea were lower during Pleis-
tocen. Neretva river was much longer at that
time and ended where it is today adriatic
bottom. Afer Pleistocen, level of the Adriatic
Sea elevated due to ice melting, which sunk
the lower valley of Neretva river.
Geologic and tectonic characteristics of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Klimu Bosne i Hercegovine određuje više
geografskih faktora. Veliki uticaj imaju:
Atlanski okean na zapadu, Sredozemno i
Jadransko more na jugu, te prostrane
kontinentalne mase Evrope na sjeveru,
Azije na sjeveroistoku i istoku, te Afrika
na jugu.
Sa Atlantskog okeana i Sredozemnog
mora vjetrovi nanose tople i vlažne vaz-
dušne mase preko naše zemlje. Nai-
laskom na Dinarske vjenačne planine,
vazdušne mase se uzdižu uz planinske
padine, rashlađuju se, kondenzuju i izlu-
čuju padavine.
Strujanje toplog i suhog zraka iz Afrike,
tokom ljeta, uzrokuje visoke temperature
u slučaju niskog zračnog pritiska iznad
Evrope.
U hladnijem periodu godine, kad se iznad
sjeveroistočne Evrope obrazuje visoki
vazdušni pritisak, preko naše zemlje često
cirkuliše hladni arktički zrak. Iako je kli-
ma Bosne i Hercegovine umjerena, ipak je
oštrija, nego što bi odgovaralo njenom
geografskom položaju. Sredozemni
klimatski uticaji su značajno umanjeni, pa
samo primorje i niska Hercegovina imaju
mediteransku klimu.
Klima Bosne i Hercegovine
Dinarska planinska oblast modifikuje sre-
dozemne zračne mase s juga, a štiti
Mediteran od prodora hladnih vazdušnih
masa sa sjevera. Značajan prodor medite-
ranskih klimatskih uticaja osjeća se doli-
nom Neretve. Klima Bosne i Hercegovine
pokazuje značajnu raznolikost. Između
predjela umjerenokontinentalne i izmije-
njene mediteranske (jadranske) klime
postoje predjeli sa kontinentalnom, pret-
planinskom, planinskom i alpskom kli-
mom.
Najniže temperature se bilježe na našim
najvišim planinama. Prosječna januarska
O
temperatura na Bjelašnici iznosi -7,2 C, a
O
u Neumu, u istom mjesecu, +6,5 C.
Godišnja količina padavina u Bosni i
Hercegovini je nejednako raspoređena.
Povećava se od juga prema Dinarskom
gorju, a zatim ponovo opada prema
Peripanonskom obodu. Snijeg je redovita
zimska pojava, a na planinskim vrhovima
se održava i po 6 mjeseci godišnje.
Bosna i Hercegovina ima složena kli-
matska obilježja. Na južnim prostorima,
osjeća se izmijenjena jadranska klima. Na
sjeveru preovlađuju uticaji umjereno
toplog i vlažnog klimata sa toplim ljetnim
Lanac Dinarskih planina se pruža između
ravničarskog i blago zatalasanog pobrđa
Posavine, na sjeveru i Jadranske zavale, na
jugu. Pravac pružanja Dinarskih planina
je od sjeverozapada prema jugoistoku.
Unutar Dinarskog planinskog sistema
osim orogenih nabora, dominiraju i viso-
ravni. Tektonskim procesima i razlomima
nastale su kotline, doline i kraška polja.
Veće kotline se nalaze u riječnim dolinama
(Sarajevsko-Zenička u dolini rijeke Bosne,
Uskopaljska i Banjalučka u dolini Vrbasa,
Bihaćka u dolini Une, Tuzlanska u dolini
Spreče, Mostarska u dolini Neretve i dr.).
Krška polja su nastala djelovanjem više
faktora. Njihovo dno je prekriveno
Osnovni oblici reljefa
kvartarnim sedimentima, a strane su uok-
virene karstifikovanim karbonatnim
masama. Po obodu polja nalaze se izvori i
vrela, a u najnižim položajima ponori, ko-
jima voda otiče u kraško podzemlje.
Reljef Bosne i Hercegovine čine i pod-
zemni kraški oblici u karbonatnim sti-
jenama, što našu zemlju svrstava u bogata
holokarstna područja svijeta. Bosna i
Hercegovina je prostor sa velikim brojem
istraženih i neistraženih pećina i jama, a
najpoznatije među njima su: Vjetrenica u
Popovu polju, Glavičanska kod Foče,
Mračna pećina u dolini Prače, Bijamba-
rska pećina na Nišićima i Orlovača kod
Sumbulovca.
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Dinaric Alps chains extend between plain and
hills of Posavina in the North, and Adriatic
bay in the South. Dinaric mountain chains
extend from NW to SE. Beside orogenous
folders, in the Dinaric mountain system dom-
inate also plateaus. By tectonic movements
and splits evolved valleys, lowlands and karst
felds. Especially large valleys occur along
river basins (Sarajevsko-Zenička valley along
basin of the Bosna river, Uskopaljska valley
and Banjalučka valley along basin of the Vr-
bas river, Bihaćka valley along basin of the
Una river, Tuzlanska valley along basin of the
Spreča river, Mostarska valley along basin of
Neretva river etc.).
Several factors were crucial for a creation of
karst felds. Te feld’s bottom is usually cov-
ered by quarternary depositions, and sides are
encircled by karstifed carboniferous rocks.
On the feld’s margin are to be found many
springs and wells, while feld’s deepest places
hide abysses, places where water drains into
the karst underground.
Te relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina includes
also underground karst phenomena in car-
boniferous rocks, which makes our country
one of the richest holokarst area in the world.
On the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina
exist great number of both explored and un-
explored caves and holes, of which the most
famous are: Vjetrenica in Popovo polje,
Glavičanska near Foča, Mračna pećina in the
valley of Prača river, Bijambarska pećina at
Nišići plateau and Orlovača by Sumbulovac.
Climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina is deter-
mined by several geographic factors, whereas
great importance comes to following, the At-
lantic ocean in the West, the Mediterranean
and the Adriatic Sea in the South, and vast
space of continental masses of Europe in the
North, Asia in the northeast and East, and Af-
rica in the South.
Winds coming from the Atlantic ocean and
the Mediterranean Sea bring warm and moist
air. When this air reaches the Dinaric masifs,
it lifs up toward peaks, slowly cooling down,
condense and fnally precipitate.
If there is a feld of low pressure over Europe
in summer, fux of warm and dry air coming
from Africa causes high temperatures.
In the course of cold periods, when there is a
feld of high pressure over northeastern Eu-
rope, over our country circulates cold arctic air.
Climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina is temper-
ate, but more extreme than one could expect
sole from its geographic position. Te mediter-
ranean impact here is substantially reduced.
Hence, mediterranean climate occurs only on
the adriatic coastline and in low Herzegovina.
Dinaric alpine region strongly modify medi-
terranean currents coming from the South,
whereas it prevents the penetration of cold air
from an inland to the coast. But, mediterra-
nean infuences still protrude deep in the in-
land by Neretva river valley. Climate of Bosnia
and Herzegovina shows high diversity level.
Between areas of temperate continental and
modifed mediterranean (adriatic) climate,
there are areas with continental, pre-alpine and
alpine climate.
Te lowest temperature characterize high-
est mountain peaks. An average temperature
in January on Bjelašnica Mt. amounts -7,2
0
C,
while in Neum city it is +6,5
0
C.
Annual precipitation in Bosnia and Herzegovi-
na is unevenly distributed, whereas it increases
from the South towards Dinaric masifs, and
declines again towards peri-pannonian mar-
gin. Snow occurs regulary in winter, covering
mountain peaks over 6 months a year.
Climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina is highly
complex. Its southern region is characterized
Main forms of relief
Climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosna i Hercegovina raspolaže slatkim i
slanim vodama. Prema svj etskim
standardi ma naša zeml j a obi l uj e
kopnenim vodama visokog kvaliteta.
Hi drograf sku mrežu či ne broj ni
površinski i podzemni kraški tokovi.
U Dinarskim planinskim masivima se na-
lazi izvorište najvećeg broja naših vodo-
toka. Od većih riječnih slivova prostoru
Bosne i Hercegovine u cjelosti pripadaju
slivovi Bosne i Vrbasa. Nakupljanje pod-
zemnih voda, kojima je naša zemlja
bogata, odvija se u rastresitim sedime-
ntima (šljunci i pijesak), oko većih riječnih
tokova, te u kraškim pukotinama,
kanalima i pećinama.
Termalne i mineralne vode, koje se javljaju
u području vulkanskih stijena i tektonskih
razloma, predstavljaju jedno od značajnih
prirodnih bogatstava Bosne i Hercego-
vine. Najpoznatiji izvori mineralne vode
se nalaze u Kiseljaku, Kaknju, Srednjem,
Busovači, Srebrenici, Žepi, Tešnju, Ma-
glaju, Žepču itd.
Najtopliji termalni izvor je banja Ilidža,
0
gdje temperatura iznosi 58 C. Po sastavu,
Vode Bosne i Hercegovine
termalna voda ove banje je sumporovita i
koristi se za liječenje mnogih bolesti.
Termalni izvori se nalaze i u: Fojnici,
Olovu, Tuzli, Gradačcu, Tesliću, Banjoj
Luci i dr.
Bosna i Hercegovina obiluje prirodnim
planinskim jezerima, koja zbog čiste i
plave vode s pravom nose naziv „gorske
oči“.
Naše primorje se nalazi južno od delte
Neretve, gdje u ukupnoj dužini od 22 km,
Bosna i Hercegovina izlazi na Jadransko
2
more i ima površinu od 8 km. Od
Mljetskog kanala i morske pučine
razdvaja ga poluotok Pelješac.
Površina mora kod Neuma ima prosječnu
0
godišnju temperaturu od 9,6 C. Najtoplije
je u julu, kada površinska temperatura vo-
0
de prosječno iznosi oko 20 C. Salinitet
morske vode se kreće od 29 do 35 promila.
Boja morske vode je zeleno-plava, a pro-
vidnost iznosi do 10 m.
Zbog zatvorenosti poluotocima Pelješcem
i Klekom, Neumski zaliv ima mirno more,
na čijoj površini se obrazuju valovi visine
do jednog metra.
razdobljem. Centralni prostori Bosne i
Hercegovine su pod uticajem izmijenjene
umjereno tople i vlažne klime, koja se sa
visinskom pojasnošću mijenja u klimat sa
svježim ljetima. Hipsometrijski nivoi
preko 700 m odlikuju se planinskom, a
najviše orografske cjeline, alpskom
klimom.
Klima Bosne i Hercegovine je ugodna za
ljudski život i zdravlje, te se može ubrojiti
u važna prirodna bogatstva kojima
raspolaže naša zemlja.
Šume i šumska zemljišta u Bosni i
Hercegovini zauzimaju 2.709.769 ha (oko
53% teritorije), od čega su šume 2.209.732
ha (oko 43%), a goleti 500.037 ha (oko
10%). Što se vlasništva tiče državne šume
zauzimaju 2,186.332 ha (81%), a privatne
523.437 ha (19%). Kvalitet i struktura ovih
šuma nisu u skladu sa potencijalima
staništa. Visoke ili tzv. ekonomske šume,
Karakteristike šuma Bosne i Hercegovine
u kojim je moguće racionalnije gos-
podarenje, zauzimaju 1.291.924 ha, što je
tek oko 25% površine BiH. Ostale šume,
čak 917.808 ha ili oko 18% površine BiH,
su niske šume (panjače) i degradirane
šume, sa vrlo malom zalihom drveta i
slabim prirastom. Ukupna zaliha
krupnog drveta (drvo iznad 5 cm
promjera) u svim šumama je 1986. godine
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by modifed adriatic climate, while northern
part of the country has got climate that is tem-
perate-warm and moist, with hot summers.
Space in the mid of Bosnia and Herzegovina is
infuenced by modifed temperate-warm and
moist climate, changing in diferent height
zones to climate with fresh summers. Moun-
tain climate characterize hypsometric levels
above 700 m, whereby the highest orographic
units have got alpine climate.
Climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina is comfort-
able for human life and health, being therefore
an important natural wealth of our country.
Water of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Tere are fresh and salt waterbodies in Bosnia
and Herzegovina. Our country has got large
quantity of, afer world’s standard, high qual-
ity fresh water. Overground and underground
karst currents create complex hydrographic
network.
Most of our watercourses emerges under the
Dinaric masifs. Te basins of Bosna and Vrbas
river represent larger watersheds that entirely
belong to the territory of Bosnia and Herzegov-
ina. Te underground water collection, which
our country has got plenty of, occurs in lose
depositions (of gravel sand and sand), around
large river beds, karst fssures, trenches and
caves.
Termal and mineral springs occur around
ingenous bedrocks and tectonic clevages, rep-
resenting the important natural wealth of Bos-
nia and Herzegovina. Te best known springs
of mineral water are to be found in Kiseljak,
Kakanj, Srednje, Busovača, Srebrenica, Žepa,
Tešanj, Maglaj, Žepče etc.
Te hotest thermal spring, with water temper-
ature of +58
0
C, is Ilidža’s spa. Tose thermal
water contain sulphur being therefore used in
medicinal treatment of many diseases. Other
thermal springs are to be found in: Fojnica,
Olovo, Tuzla, Gradačac, Teslić, Banja Luka etc.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina exist great num-
ber of natural mountain lakes, so called
“mountain eyes“ named afer its clear blue
water.
Our coastline, which is 22 km long, streches
southwards from the delta of Neretva river.
Tus, Bosnia and Herzegovina has an ac-
cess to the Adriatic Sea and covers 8 km
2
of
the area. Te peninsula of Pelješac divides it
from the chanel of Mljet and an open sea.
Average annual temperature of sea water at
Neum city is +9,6
0
C. It is the warmest in July,
when water temperature at surface reaches
in average +20
0
C. Sea water’s salinity varies
between 29 and 35‰. Colour is blue-green,
with 10 m transparency.
Tanks to the fact that it is surrounded by
the peninsula Pelješac and Klek, sea in the
bay of Neum is quite, with no more than 1 m
high waves.
According to the assessment made by UNHCR
in 1999, total number of inhabitans in Bosnia
and Herzegovina was around 3.894.000. Of
that 2.381.496 (61%) people lived in Federation
of B&H, 1.432.020 (37%) in Republic of Srpska
and 80.324 (2%) lived in Brčko District.
According to the population register from
1991, inhabitan’s density in Bosnia and Her-
zegovina was uneven (between 40 and 200 in-
habitans per square km).
Population
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7
U 1990. godini GDP za Bosnu i Herce-
govinu je procijenjen na 10,6 milijardi US
$, odnosno preko 2.400 US $ po stano-
vniku. Prihodi su pristizali iz različitih
privrednih grana, a bazna industrija je
bila među najviše razvijenim u regionu sa
visoko educiranom baznom snagom i
visokim udjelom izvoza na zapadno
tržište (Environmental Performance
Reviews, UNECE, 2004).
Ratna dešavanja (1992-1995.g.) su
devastirala zemlju i ekonomiju. Oporavak
počinje nakon Dejtonskog mirovnog
Makroekonomski pokazatelji
sporazuma, nakon čega u periodu 1996-
2001. godine, godišnji ekonomski rast
iznosi 25%. Poslijeratni oporavak je u
ovom peri odu pokri ven ši roki m
donacijskim programima. Struktura
ekonomije je značajno promijenjena, od
dominantno industrijske, na privredu u
kojoj preovlađuju uslužne djelatnosti.
U 2002. godini GDP dostiže približno po-
l ovi nu predratnog ni voa. Proces
tranzicije, koji je u fazi privatizacije
najvećih preduzeća ima vodeći uticaj na
promjene, strukture ekonomije.
Pokazatelj novih društvenih pravaca koji
podrazumijevaju simultano rješavanje so-
cijalnih problema i brige o okolišu je raz-
voj strateških dokumenata. Vodeći doku-
ment, usvojen od oba entiteta i Distrikta
Brčko, je Nacionalni akcioni plan za okoliš
(NEAP, 2003). NEAP identificira pro-
bleme, pritiske i potrebu uspostave rav-
noteže između brige o okolišu i razvoja
privrede. Prema NEAP-u, prioritet je
ekonomski razvoj sa okolinski prihvatlji-
vom strategijom.
Srednjoročna razvojna strategija za Bosnu
Strateški dokumenti
i Hercegovinu za period 2003-2007.
godine uključuje prioritete iz NEAP-a i
propisuje mjere za upravljanje okolišem,
posebno u oblasima legislative, kvaliteta
zraka i klimatskih promjena, upravljanja
vodnim i zemljišnim resursom, šumama,
otpadom, bi ol oški m i geol oški m
diverzitetom, kulturnim i prirodnim
nasljeđem i javnim zdravljem. Strategija
ističe važnost razvoja i usvajanja
zakonskih akata, koji će uspostaviti
operativnost okolinske legislative, ali i
podvlači potrebu njenog harmoniziranja
sa relevantnim sektorskim politikama.
3
iznosila oko 290 miliona m, od čega
3 3
238.600.000 m u državnim i 51.700.000 m
u privatnim šumama. Prosječna zaliha
krupnog drveta u državnim šumama bila
3
je 216,5 m/ha, dok je u privatnim bila tek
3
102,5 m/ha. Prosječan godišni prirast
krupnog drveta u visokim državnim šu-
3
mama iznosio je 5,48 m/ha, a u privatnim
3
4,07 m/ha. U panjačama je ovaj prirast bio
3
niži i iznosio je svega 1,11 m/ha. Nova
inventura šuma čija je priprema u toku
aktualiziraće ove podatke.
Što se tiče goleti, jedan dio (108.500 ha) je
na degradiranim zemljištima nespo-
sobnim za pošumljavanje, što znači da je
taj dio trajno izgubljen za rekultivaciju.
Prema procjenama UNHCR-a za 1999.
godinu ukupan broj stanovnika Bosne i
Hercegovine iznosi oko 3.894.000. Od
toga 2.381.496 (61%) stanovnika živi u
Federaciji BiH, 1.432.020 (37%) u Re-
publici Srpskoj, a 80.324 (2%) živi u Brčko
Distriktu.
Prema popisu stanovništva iz 1991.
godine, gustina naseljenosti Bosne i
Hercegovine je neravnomjerna (40 do 200
2
stanovnika po km).
Stanovništvo
O
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O
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P
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O

B
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I

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E
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O
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I
7
M
A
I
N

F
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S

A
B
O
U
T

B
O
S
N
I
A

A
N
D

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E
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Z
E
G
O
V
I
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A
GNP in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1990 was
estimated to amount 10,6 bilions US dollars,
which made over 2.400 US dollars per capi-
ta. An income was achieved through many
economy branches, while the basic industry
was one of the best developed among coun-
tries in the region, with highly educated man-
power and extremely high export rate to the
western market (Environmental Performance
Reviews, UNECE, 2004).
Te war (from 1992 to 1995) has lef the coun-
try and its economy devastated. A recovery
process has started afer the Dayton Agree-
ment was signed. Tereafer, in the period
from 1996 to 2001, annual economic growth
was 25%. Te post-war recovery was achieved
thanks to many broad donation programmes.
Economic structure has been substantially
changed, from mainly industrial economy to
economy in which prevail service industry.
In year 2002, GNP has reached almost the
half of its pre-war value. A transition process
that is currently going through a privatisation
phase exercise crucial efects onto transfor-
mation of economy’s structure.
Millestones for new social movements are
strategic documents, which simultaneously
ofer solutions for both social and environ-
mental issues. A leading document, which
was adopted by both entities and Brčko
District, is the National Environmental Ac-
tion Plan (NEAP, 2003). NEAP was created
in way to identify problems, pressures and
needs necessary to achieve balance between
environment protection and economic de-
velopment. Afer NEAP, main priority is to
achieve economic development by environ-
mental friendly strategy.
Midle-termed development Strategy for Bos-
nia and Herzegovina, from 2003 to 2007, in-
cludes priorities recognized by NEAP and
forsees measures for environmental man-
agement, especially in terms of legislative,
air quality, climate changes, management
of aquatic and terrestrial resources, forests,
waste, biological and geological diversity,
cultural and natural inheritance, and pub-
lic health. Te Strategy underlines the im-
portance of creation and adoption of laws
that would establish efective environmental
legislative, but it also emphasizes need afer
inter-sectoral policy harmonization.
Macroeconomic indicators
Strategic documents
Slika 2. – Biogeografske karakteristike Bosne i Hercegovine
BIOGEOGRAFSKE KARAKTERISTIKE
BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
Vrhovi Maglića
Poluotok Klek
O
S
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O
V
N
I

P
O
D
A
C
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O

B
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I

I

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8
Klekpeninsula
PeaksoIMaglicMt
M
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B
O
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T

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O
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A

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Fig. 2. – Bosnia and Herzegovina: biogeographic overview
BIOGEOGRAPHY OF
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Slika 3. – Paleozoološki nalazi u Bosni i Hercegovini



Lastva:

Ptycholepis, Lithiotis
problematica, Megalodus pumilus,
Terebratula rasoana, Vola atava,
Nerinea atava, Schemnitzia,
Carelinia hibrida
Ljubija:

Amplexocarinia
smithi, Astartella, Platyceras,
Pterinopecten
Vranica:

Amphipora ramose

Okolina Sarajeva:
Trachiceras aonoides

Glamoč:

Tropites
subullatus

Čevljanovići
Rhynchonela decurtata
Majevica:
Cerithium bosniacum,, Antracotherium,
Congeria romboidea, Limnocardium mayer
Han Bulog:

Anagymnites,
Metasturia, Monophyllites, Ptychites,
Sturia, Flexoptychites, Ceratites
trinodosus, Ptychites oppeli, Ptychites
acutus, Ptychites flexsuosus, Ceratites
trinodosus, Ceratites bosnensis,

Ceratites
elegans, Norites gondola, Pinacoceras
dames Sturia sansovinii, Monophylites
sphaerophylum, Gimnites, Arcestes,
Balatonites, Megaphzllites,
Acrochordiceras, Orthoceras, Nautilus
Aristoptychites, Bulogites, Gymnites,
Kozara: Clypeaster
Han Orahovica:

Bellorophon
vasulites, Worthenia, Loxonema
tortile, Naticopsis, Oxytoma
torquata, Pleurophoeus jacobii,
Sanguinolites bellerophontium,
Schizodus

Planina Klek:

Acanthophyllum,
Actinostroma clathratum,
Idiostroma, Clathrodictyon
variolare, Clathrodictyon
amygdaloides, Orthonychia
spoliatus, Parallelopora,
Syringostroma,
Stromatopora concentrica,
Stromatoporella laminata,
Favosites


Donja Tuzla:

Clavulinoides
szaboi, Bathysiphon eocenica


Morone,

Gacko:

Pleydellia aalense, Amalteus
margaritatus, Amalteus spinatus,
Hildoceras (Harpoceras) bifrons

Romanija: Hildoceras
bifrons, Hildoceras
laevinianum, Rhynchonella
geyeri

: Lycodus cor,



Prača:

Amygdalophyllum etheridgei,
Auloclisia concentrica, Bothrophyllum,
Gangamophyllum, Gastrioceras
beyrichi, Dibunophyllum bipartitum,,
Carcinophyllum patellum,
Conocardium, Meniscophyllum
kansuense, Matacanites,
Muensteroceras truncatus,
Nomismoceras spirorbis, Palaeosmilia
murchisoni, Platyceras, Pronorites,
Streblopteria pracaensis,
Trachypsamia, Cyathaxonia cornu,
Cyathocarinia rushiana, Cyathocrinites,
Glyphioceras crenistria, Prolecanites
henslowi; Phillipsia bittneri i Productus,
Bellerophon suhänsis, . Protrites,
Halilucites, Bosnites. Brachiopoda,
Nathica vulcani, Lucina saxorum,
PALEOZOOLOŠKI NALAZI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
Glavonožac iz donje jure
(Gacko)
Fosilna zmija iz gornje
krede (Bileća)
Peraja morskog psa iz srednjeg
trijasa (Palež)
O
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N
I

P
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O

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9
Han Orahovica: Bellorophon
vasulites, Worthenia, Loxonema
tortile, Naticopsis, Oxytoma
torquata, Pleurophoeus jacobii,
Sanguinolites bellerophontium,
Schizodus Planina Klek:
Acanthophyllum,
Actinostroma clathratum,
Idiostroma, Clathrodictyon
variolare, Clathrodictyon
amygdaloides, Orthonychia
spoliatus, Parallelopora,
Syringostroma,
Stromatopora concentrica,
Stromatoporella laminata,
Favosites
Han Bulog: Anagymnites,
Aristoptychites, Bulogites, Gymnites,
Metasturia, Monophyllites, Ptychites,
Sturia, Flexoptychites, Ceratites
trinodosus, Ptychites oppeli, Ptychites
acutus, Ptychites flexsuosus, Ceratites
trinodosus, Ceratites bosnensis, Ceratites
elegans, Norites gondola, Pinacoceras
dames Sturia sansovinii, Monophylites
sphaerophylum, Gimnites, Arcestes,
Balatonites, Megaphzllites,
Acrochordiceras, Orthoceras, Nautilus
Lastva: Ptycholepis, Lithiotis
problematica, Megalodus pumilus,
Terebratula rasoana, Vola atava,
Nerinea atava, Schemnitzia,
Carelinia hibrida
Ljubija: Amplexocarinia
smithi, Astartella, Platyceras,
Pterinopecten
Vranica: Amphipora ramose
Donja Tuzla: Clavulinoides
szaboi, Bathysiphon eocenica
Okolina Sarajeva: Morone,
Trachiceras aonoides
Kozara: Clypeaster
Gacko: Pleydellia aalense, Amalteus
margaritatus, Amalteus spinatus,
Hildoceras (Harpoceras) bifrons
Romanija: Hildoceras
bifrons, Hildoceras
laevinianum, Rhynchonella
i
Glamoþ: Tropites
subullatus
ýevljanoviüi: Lycodus cor,
Rhynchonela decurtata
Majevica: Nathica vulcani, Lucina saxorum,
Cerithium bosniacum, Antracotherium,
Congeria romboidea, Limnocardium mayer
Praþa: Amygdalophyllum etheridgei,
Auloclisia concentrica, Bothrophyllum,
Gangamophyllum, Gastrioceras
beyrichi, Dibunophyllum bipartitum,
Carcinophyllum patellum,
Conocardium, Meniscophyllum
kansuense, Matacanites,
Muensteroceras truncatus,
Nomismoceras spirorbis, Palaeosmilia
murchisoni, Platyceras, Pronorites,
Streblopteria pracaensis,
Trachypsamia, Cyathaxonia cornu,
Cyathocarinia rushiana, Cyathocrinites,
Glyphioceras crenistria, Prolecanites
henslowi; Phillipsia bittneri i Productus,
Bellerophon suhänsis, Protrites,
Halilucites, Bosnites, Brachiopoda









SharkfnsIrommidTriassic
FossilsnakeIromlate
Cretaceous
CephalopodsIromearly
Jurrasic
M
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I
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F
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T
S

A
B
O
U
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A
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Fig. 3. – Bosnia and Herzegovina: palaeontological fndings
PALAEONTOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
DIVERSITY OF SPECIES
DIVERSITY OF FLORA
Ekološka heterogenost prostora Bosne i
Hercegovine, geomorfološka i hidrološka
raznolikost, specifična geološka prošlost,
te diverzitet ekoklime uslovili su i
posebno bogat živi svijet na našem
teritoriju. Flora, fauna i fungia Bosne i
Hercegovine ubraja se u najraznovrsnije u
či t avoj Evr opi , a vi s ok s t epen
endemičnosti i reliktnosti daje im značaj
na nivou globalne biološke raznolikosti.
Na geografski malom prostoru, kao
rijetko gdje u Evropi, egzistiraju više-
razvojni endemni centri u kojima se i
danas odvijaju procesi nastajanja novih
vrsta. Posebnu specifičnost predstavljaju
brojni kanjoni i klisure bosansko-
hercegovačkih rijeka (kanjoni Une,
Neretve, Drine, kanjoni i klisure pritoka u
izvorišnom dijelu i gornjem toku Bosne, te
u središnjem dijelu Vrbasa sa posebno
interesantnim kanjonom rijeke Ugar
između Vlašića, Čemernice i Manjače).
Ispod naj viših vrhova bosansko-
hercegovačkih planina, u području
cirkova, nalaze se i centri razvoja gla-
cijalne flore i faune, kao posebni dokazi
procesa nakon l edenog doba na
Balkanskom poluostrvu. Preko 450 vrsta i
podvrsta vaskularnih biljaka karakteriše
se određenim stepenom endemičnosti, što
floru Bosne i Hercegovine čini jednom od
posebnih i jedinstvenih u Evropi.
Izražen diverzitet insekata (naročito hi-
drofilnih), predstavnika ihtiofaune i
sisara čini faunu BiH prepoznatljivom u
evropskim razmjerama, a prema nekim
grupama (pećinski organizmi i ribe u
kraškim ponornicama) posebnim i za
čitav svijet.
Kao osnovni faktori diverziteta Bosne i
Hercegovine mogu se navesti:
DIVERZITET VRSTA
ldiverzitet terestričnih staništa kroz: prisustvo stijena različite geološke starosti,
raznolikost matičnog supstrata, tipova zemljišta, unikatnih i raznovrsnih formi
reljefa, te diverzitet klimatskih uslova;
ldiverzitet vodenih staništa kroz: bogatu i raznovrsnu hidrološku mrežu
(planinska jezera, izvori, planinski potoci, rječice, rijeke, ponornice, bare, močvare,
podzemne vode, termalni izvori, bočatne vode i more);
ldugotrajni procesi antropogeneze;
lraznoliki procesi etnogeneze.
Živi svijet na različitim staništima Bosne i
Hercegovine danas tvori brojne zajednice
i ekosisteme specifične samo za ovaj pro-
stor, prostor Balkana te i Evrope. Tako
možemo govoriti o visokom stepenu
endemičnosti unutar biološkog, odnosno
ekološkog diverziteta.
„Biodiverzitet BiH oduvijek se smatrao vrlo
zanimljivim i izazovnim za brojne istraživače,
što je bilo i glavni razlog da se, iz tada udaljene
zapadne i srednje Evrope, upute u bosanske
vrleti i bespuća. Tako je i znameniti francuski
prirodoslovac Ami Boue, ponesen znatiželjom
o čarima prirode bosanskog vilajeta o kojem je
slušao od učenih ljudi tokom svog boravka u
pojedinim dijelovima Osmanske imperije, pa
je na svom pohodu od Stambola 1863. godine
pohodio i tadašnju evropsku Tursku, kako se
zvala Bosna i Hercegovina. Prošavši dolinom
Rzava, Višegrad, Romaniju, te kroz klanac
Miljacke i dalje prema zapadu, ovaj zanesenjak
je bio toliko ushićen ljepotama i divljinom
prirode bosanske da je, iako geolog, skupio i og-
D
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11
Te extreme richness of living world that ex-
ist on our territory is the result of ecological
heterogeneity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, its
geomorphological and hydrological diversity,
specifc geological past and its ecoclimate di-
versity. Flora, fauna and fungia of Bosnia and
Herzegovina are considered to be among the
most diverse in Europe, being especially im-
portant in terms of global biodiversity due to
its high level of endemism and relictness.
Like in no other place in Europe, here, on such
small space, occur countless endemic centres
in which, even at present-day, continue to un-
fold process by which new species evolve. Spe-
cial characteristics of this area represent many
canyons and clifs of bosnia-herzegovina’s riv-
ers (canyons of the Una, Neretva, Drina river,
canyons and clifs of tributaries in upper fow
of the Bosna river, and a midle part of fow
of the Vrbas river with the highly interesting
canyon of the Ugar river running between
mountains Vlašić, Čemernica and Manjača).
Bellow the highest peaks of bosnia-herzegovi-
na’s mountains, in an area of cirques, are to be
found development centres of glacial fora and
fauna, which wittness about the afer Ice Age
time on the Balkan peninsula. Tere are over
450 species and sub-species of vascular plants
that are recognized to be endemic, which
makes bosnia-herzegovina’s fora one of the
most unique in Europe.
High diversity of insects (especially hydrophi-
lous), then fsh and mammals makes fauna
of Bosnia and Herzegovina recognizable on
the European scale, whereas some of ani-
mal’s groups (organisms that inhabit caves or
fsh that live in karst sinking streams) make
it remarkable on global scale. Main factors
responsible for high diversity of Bosnia and
Herzegovina are as follows:
“Biodiversity of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been
considered to be very interesting and challen-
ging one for researchers since ever, which was the
main reason for them to come, at that time from
far away western and central Europe, into bosni-
an wilderness and pathless area. Tus, even well
known french scientist Ami Boue was overjoyed
by curiosity that was awaken by tales he heard
from scholars in diferent parts of the Otoman
Empire, while he was travelling across. Tose tales
were telling a story about magic nature of bosnian
vilaet. So, on his journey from Stambol in 1863,
he visited what was at that time known to be the
European Turkey, which is at present-day Bosnia
and Herzegovina. He passed through the valley of
the Rzav river, Višegrad city, over Romanija Mt.,
canyon of the Miljacka river and continued furt-
her to the West. Tis dreamer got so excited by the
DIVERSITY OF SPECIES
t Diversity of terrestrial habitats caused by: occurence of rocks of diferent age, diversity of
bedrocks, soil types, unique and diverse forms of relief, and diversity of climate conditions;
t Diversity of aquatic habitats refected by: rich and diverse hydrological network (mountain
lakes, springs, mountain torrents, brooks, rivers, sinking streams, ponds, marshes, under-
ground water, thermal sources, brakish water and sea);
t Long-lasting process of anthropogenesis;
t Diversity of ethnogenesis.
Living world that inhabit diferent places of
Bosnia and Herzegovina compose countless
communities and ecosystems at present-day,
which are specifc for this area, the Balkan
peninsula and entire Europe. Tus, it is pos-
sible to speak in terms of high level of ende-
mism within biological and ecological diver-
sity.
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roman herbarski materijal zajedno sa brojnim
mineralima i stijenama, te ih odnio tadašnjoj
evropskoj naučnoj eliti da im se dive, prou-
čavaju ih i opisuju nove vrste. To blago danas
je pohranjeno u najčuvenijim evropskim mu-
zejima prirode i njihovim herbarijumima. Isto-
ričari istraživanja prirode smatraju da je do-
lazak ekspedicije Ami Boue-a i početak stva-
rnog naučnog istraživanja prirode na ovim
prostorima. Čuvši za raznovrsnost živog
svijeta, a posebno vaskularne flore, u bosanske
vrleti uputi se i znameniti evropski botaničar
Otto Sendtner (prvi oficijelni naučnik, biolog,
koji je pohodio zemlju Bosnu). Ovaj istraživač
pr-ikupi bogat floristički materijal na
različitim dijelovima Bosne i u najvećem jeku
svog interesa i istraživanja bosanskih vrleti,
onako, na bosanski način, čisto iz varoške
znatiželje, na put mu stade nekoliko vlašićkih
gorštaka. Napadoše karavan, uništiše dio
skupljenog materijala, te razbiše naočale ovog
velikog um-nika. Uplašen do smrti, istog časa,
a nakon što ga spasiše sluge njegove, Sendtner
pokupi svu građu i čim prije pobježe iz zemlje
ove, te tadašnjoj evropskoj eliti uli strah od
bosanskog temperamenta, da se zadugo nakon
toga niko ne usudi kročiti na ovo tlo. Tek
uspostavom austro-ugarske uprave, zajedno
sa vojskom, činovnicima, počeše stizati i
prirodnjaci-nau-čnici. Iako ih je bilo mnogo,
jedan zasigurno ima najveće poštovanje ove
zemlje. Karlo Ma-ly, jedan od najstrastvenijih
botaničara i naj-većih zaljubljenika u bilje
raznovrsno, njemu najdraže zemlje Bosne,
kojeg u brojnim poho-dima nisu zaustavljale
nikakve prirodne, a ni ljudske sile. Ovaj
Aust ri j anac, srca bosanskog, duše
hercegovačke, obiđe ovu zemlju, prikupi
izuzetno bogat herbarski materijal, opisa bro-
jne endeme i relikte i sve to pohrani u Herba-
rijumu Zemaljskog muzeja Bosne i Herce-
govine, te tako pronese naučnu slavu o unika-
tnosti biljnog svijeta BiH širom zemaljske
kugle.” (Navod iz TV emisije „Prirodna ba-
ština BiH”)
DIVERZITET FLORE
Visok specijski diverzitet biljnog svijeta bazira se na diverzitetu grupa cijanobakterija,
algi i vaskularnih biljaka.
Diverzitet cijanobakterija i algi
Takson Rod Vrsta Pod-
vrsta
Varijetet Forma
Cyanobacteria 36 303 - 1 4
Rhodophyta 7 20 - 1
Chlorophyta

Charophyceae 33 319 - 31 5
Chlorophyceae 65 242 - 25 2
Euglenophyta 4 21 - - -
Dinophyta 5 20 - - 2
Heterokontophyta

Bacillariophyceae 57 881 1 222 15
Xanthophyceae 4 21 - - -
Chrysophyceae 12 32 - 4 -
U k u p n o 217 1859 1 284 28
U dosadašnjim istraživanjima na ovoj grupi biljnih oblika utvrđeno je 1859 vrsta iz
217 rodova (ukupno 2389 oblika).
Preliminarni rezultati ukazuju da je razred Bacillariophyceae najbogatiji vrstama (881),
Tabela 1. – Diverzitet cijanobakterija i algi
varijetetima (222) i formama
(15), a vrlo bogati oblicima su i
razredi zelenih algi sa ukupno
98 rodova, 561 vrste, 56
varijeteta i 7 formi.
Rodovi najbogatiji vrstama su:
Cosmarium, Navicula, Eunotia,
Cymbella itd.
Imajući u vidu heterogenost
vodenih i vlažnih staništa, te
postojanje razvojnih centara,
može se smatrati da je najma-
nje jedna trećina ove grupe or-
ganizama slabo ili potpuno
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beauties and wilderness of bosnian nature that,
despite being geologist himself, he collected a lot
of herbal material along with specimens of dife-
rent minerals and rocks. He brought it all to the
attention of the European scientifc elite to admire
it, study and describe new species. Tat treasure
is now being stored in the most famous Europe-
an museums of natural science and their herba-
ria. Historians believe that the expedition of Ami
Boue has marked the beginning of true scientifc
research in the area. Otto Sendtner, well known
European botanist, has come into Bosnian wilder-
ness afer he heard the word about its diversity of
life, especially of vascular fora (he was frst ofcial
scientist, biologist, which came into Bosnia). Tis
researcher has gathered large quantities of fori-
stic material in diferent parts of Bosnia. But once,
while he was completely devoted to the cause of
his research, several highlanders from Vlasic Mt.
came in his way, just like that, in bosnian manner,
motivated by pure small town curiosity. Tey
attacked Otto’s caravan, destroyed some of his ma-
terial and broke the glasses of this great scientist.
Scared to death, immediately afer he got saved by
his servants, Sendtner collected all of his material
and as fast as he could lef the country. Tat event
intimidated the European scientifc elite before the
bosnian temper. Long time afer that no one has
dared to come into this land. Not earlier than the
austrio-hungarian government was established,
scientist arrived again along with the military and
ofcials. Although there were many of them, one
deserves full respect of this country. Karlo Maly
was one of the most passionate botanist and the
greatest admirer of plant diversity of Bosnia, his
favorite country. On his journey he was never sto-
pped by neither natural or human force. Tis Au-
strian, with bosnian heart and herzegovinan soul,
went around the country, gathered exceptionally
rich herbal material, described many endemic
and relict species, stored it in Herbarium of Land’s
Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and took
scientifc glory of B&H plant uniqueness all over
the globe.” (quoted from the TV show “Prirodna
baština BiH”)
DIVERSITY OF FLORA
Diversity of cyanophytes and alges
By till now undertaken investigations of this
foristic group, identifed was 1.457 species
from 217 genera (all together 1987 forms).
Preliminary result indicates that class Baci-
llariophyceae is the richest regarding species
(719), varieties (222) and forms (15), where-
as class of green alges is also extremely rich
regarding forms, with 98 genera,
461 species, 56 varieties and 7
forms. Te most numerous ge-
nera are: Cosmarium, Navicula,
Eunotia, Cymbella etc.
Considering the heterogeneity of
aquatic and moist habitats, and
existing centres of endemism, it
is to expect that at least one third
of these organisms is either po-
orly or completely unknown to
the science. Tis relates especi-
ally to the alges inhabiting mountain’s raised
and blanket bogs, mountain springs and we-
lls, wells and upper fows of sinking rivers,
watercourses within refugia of tertiary fora.
Table 1. – Diversity of cyanophytes and alges
Taxon genus species
subspe-
cies
variety form
Cyanobacteria 36 193 - 1 4
Rodophyta 7 15 - 1 -
Charophyceae 33 275 - 31 5
Chlorophyceae 65 186 - 25 2
Euglenophyta 3 16 - - -
Dinophyta 5 15 - - 2
Bacillariophyceae 55 719 1 222 15
Xanthophyceae 3 13 - - -
Chrysophyceae 10 25 - 4 -
Total 217 1457 1 284 28
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Tabela 2. – Diverzitet cijanobakterija i
algi na sedrenim naslagama

Posebnost diverzitetu algi daju i
oblici u bočatnim, te slanim
vodama bosanskohercego-
vačkog dijela Jadranskog mora.
Tu su posebno značajni pred-
stavnici smeđih, crvenih i zelenih
al gi , koj e post i žu vi soku
produkciju korisne biomase.
Uz recentne oblike Cyanobacteria i algi
utvrđeno je i bogatstvo paleoblika u nasla-
gama različite geološke starosti. Ističe se,
kako brojnost, tako i endemičnost siliko-
flagelata (Dictiocha slavnicii, D. mucibabici,
D. soljani, D. krekii, Deflandriocha sp.) i
fosilnih jednoćelijskih algi sa karbo-
natnim ljuskama (Coccolitophorales).
Visok diverzitet viših biljaka Bosne i Hercegovine bazira se na diverzitetu mahovina
(Bryophyta), papratnjača (Pteridophyta) i sjemenjača (Spermatophyta).
Diverzitet viših biljaka
Tabela 3. – Taksonomski diverzitet viših biljaka


Porodica Rod Vrsta Podvrsta Hibrid
Ukupno vrsta,
podvrsta i hibrida
Bryophyta 52 187 565 0 0 565
Pteridophyta 14 26 61 8 2 71
Spermatophyta 161 858 3256 1078 164 4498
Ukupno

227 1071 3882 1086 166 5134
Ukupan broj evidentiranih taxa (vrste,
podvrste, hibridi) iznosi 5.134. Ovaj
podatak ukazuje da je florističko
bogatstvo viših biljaka Bosne i Herce-
govine zaista vrlo veliko i da se po tome
naša država u Evropi nalazi na ljestvice,
zajedno s Hrvatskom, Italijom, Grčkom i
još nekim zemljama.
Najveći broj vrsta su terestrični i semite-
restrični oblici, a samo mali broj je vezan
za različite tipove vodenih staništa.
nepoznata naučnoj javnosti. To se
posebno odnosi na svijet algi u području
planinskih niskih i visokih tresetišta,
brojnih planinskih i gorskih izvora, izvora
i gornjih tokova kraških ponornica, te
vodotoka u refugijumima tercijerne flore.
Evidentna je potreba intenziviranja
sistemskih istraživanja u oblasti inventa-
rizacije, klasifikacije, identifikacije utvr-
đivanja stepena ugroženosti i procjene
stanja, s ciljem objektivizacije slike živog
svijeta algi Bosne i Hercegovine.
Posebnu vrijednost u diverzitetu cija-
nobakterija i algi imaju oblici karakte-
ristični za termalne i mineralne izvore, se-
drene alge, alge pećina i polupećina itd.
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Tere is a strong need for more intensive re-
search in terms of making an inventory, cla-
ssifcation, identifcation and determination
of threat’s level and state’s evaluation, in or-
der to obtain an objective view into the living
world of alges of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Within the diversity of alges and cyanop-
hytes special signifcance comes to species
that characterize thermal and mineral sprin-
gs, turfs, caves and half-caves etc.
Table 2. – Diversity of cyanophytes and alges wi-
thin turf deposition
Diversity of alges is so special be-
cause of species that inhabit brak-
ish and sea water of bosnia-herze-
govinan part of the Adriatic Sea.
Here should be mentioned repre-
sentatives of brown, red and green
alges, with high biomass yield.
Apart from contemporary species
of Cyanobacteria and alges, it was
also recognized an extreme rich-
ness in ancient species (paleo-species) in dif-
ferent aged depositions. Especially numerous
and endemic are silicofagelates (Dictiocha
slavnicii, D. mucibabici, D. soljani, D. krekii,
Defandriocha sp.) and fossils of one cell alg-
es with carboniferous shields (Coccolitopho-
rales).
Diversity of vascular fora
High level of vascular fora diversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina is based upon diversity of
mosses (Bryophyta), ferns (Pteridophyta) and spermatophytes (Spermatophyta).
Identifed was 5.134 taxa. Tis fact under-
lines the foristic richness of Bosnia and Her-
zegovina and places our country among the
richest ones in Europe, along with the Re-
public of Croatia, Italy, Greece and others.
Major part of these species is terrestrial or
semi-terrestrial, while a limited number of
them is bounded to the aquatic environ-
ment.
Table 3. – Taxonomic diversity of higher plants
Family Genus Species
Sub-spe-
cies
Hybrid
Total number of spe-
cies, sub-species and
hybrids
Bryophyta 52 187 565 0 0 565
Pteridophyta 14 26 61 8 2 71
Spermatophyta 161 858 3256 1078 164 4498
Total 227 1071 3882 1086 166 5134
Taxon
Total
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Prema današnjem stepenu poznavanja, na
prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine je usta-
novljen relativno visok diverzitet maho-
vina. Prema nepotpunim podacima, ova
grupa biljaka broji 565 vrsta iz 187 rodova,
koji pripadaju dvjema klasama.


Porodica Rod broj
vrsta
1. Ricciaceae 6
2. Marchantiaceae 7
3. Aneureae 5
4. Metzgerieae 3
5. Haplolaeneae 2
6. Codoniaceae 1
7. Epigonantheae 32
8. Trigonantheae 14
9. Ptilidioideae 3
10. Scapanioideae 10
11. Raduloideae 2
12. Madothecoideae 2
13. Jubileae
2
7
1
1
1
1
12
6
2
2
1
1
3
4
Ukupno 40 91
Tabela 4. – Diverzitet Bryophyta (razred:
Hepaticae)
Grafikon 1. - Diverzitet Bryophyta
porodica
r
o
d

v
r
s
t
a

V
a
r
.

f
o
r
m
a

Sphagnaceae 1 22 0 0
Fissidentaceae 1 9 0 0
Archidiaceae 1 1 0 0
Ditrichaceae 5 11 0 0
Seligeriaceae 3 5 0 0
Dicranaceae 14 31 0 0
Leucobryaceae 1 1 0 0
Encalyptaceae 1 4 0 0
Pottiaceae 20 71 0 0
Grimmiaceae 2 24 0 0
Funariaceae 3 5 0 0
Georgiaceae 1 1 0 0
Bryaceae 7 55 17 0
Aulacomniaceae 1 2 0 0
Meeseaceae 1 3 2 0
Bartramiaceae 3 11 3 3
Timmiaceae 1 3 0 0
Ptychomitriaceae 1 1 0 0
Orthotrichaceae 4 28 5 0
Fontinalaceae 1 5 3 0
Climaciaceae 1 1 0 0
Hedwigiaceae 1 1 3 0
Leucodontaceae 3 3 0 0
Neckeraceae 4 8 6 0
Lembophyllaceae 2 4 3 0
Hookeriaceae 1 1 0 0
Theliaceae 1 3 1 0
Leskeaceae 5 6 2 0
Thuidiaceae 6 14 1 0
Amblystegiaceae 13 39 18 3
Brachytheciaceae 11 42 8 3
Entodontaceae 5 6 2 0
Plagiotheciaceae 1 4 2 0
Hypnaceae 9 21 6 0
Rhytidiaceae 4 7 0 0
Hylocomiaceae 2 2 0 0
Buxbaumiaceae 1 2 0 0
Diphysciaceae 1 1 0 0
Polytrichaceae 4 16 2 0
ukupno 147 474 85 9
Tabela 5. – Diverzitet Bryophyta (razred: Musci)
Mahovine možemo naći na skoro svim ti-
povima staništa. Oko stotinu vrsta je veza-
no za staništa izvora, potoka, sedrenih ba-
rijera, kamenitog riječnog dna. Ostalih 460
raste na zemljištu, kori drveća, raspad-
nutom lignohumusu u šumskim i
Diverzitet Bryophyta
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Diversity of Bryophytes
According to the existing knowledge level,
there is relatively high diversity of mosses
in the Bosnia and Herzegovina. Afer some
partial records, this plant group counts 565
species from 187 genera, divided in two clas-
ses.
Table 4. – Diversity of Bryophytes (class: Hepa-
ticae)
Obitelj
Obitelj
Graph 1. – Diversity of Bryophytes
obitelji: 52
obitelji: 13
obitelji: 39
Table 5. – Diversity of Bryophytes (class: Musci)
Family Genus
Number of
species
1. Ricciaceae 2 6
2. Marchantiaceae 7 7
3. Aneureae 1 5
4. Metzgerieae 1 3
5. Haplolaeneae 1 2
6. Codoniaceae 1 1
7. Epigonantheae 12 32
8. Trigonantheae 6 14
9. Ptilidioideae 2 3
10. Scapanioideae 2 10
11. Raduloideae 1 2
12. Madothecoideae 1 2
13. Jubileae 3 4
Total 40 91
Leucodontaceae 3 3 0 0
Neckeraceae 4 8 6 0
Lembophyllaceae 2 4 3 0
Hookeriaceae 1 1 0 0
Teliaceae 1 3 1 0
Leskeaceae 5 6 2 0
Tuidiaceae 6 14 1 0
Amblystegiaceae 13 39 18 3
Brachytheciaceae 11 42 8 3
Entodontaceae 5 6 2 0
Plagiotheciaceae 1 4 2 0
Hypnaceae 9 21 6 0
Rhytidiaceae 4 7 0 0
Hylocomiaceae 2 2 0 0
Buxbaumiaceae 1 2 0 0
Diphysciaceae 1 1 0 0
Polytrichaceae 4 16 2 0
total 147 474 85 9
Family
g
e
n
u
s
s
p
e
c
i
e
s
v
a
r
.
f
o
r
m
Sphagnaceae 1 22 0 0
Fissidentaceae 1 9 0 0
Archidiaceae 1 1 0 0
Ditrichaceae 5 11 0 0
Seligeriaceae 3 5 0 0
Dicranaceae 14 31 0 0
Leucobryaceae 1 1 0 0
Encalyptaceae 1 4 0 0
Pottiaceae 20 71 0 0
Grimmiaceae 2 24 0 0
Funariaceae 3 5 0 0
Georgiaceae 1 1 0 0
Bryaceae 7 55 17 0
Aulacomniaceae 1 2 0 0
Meeseaceae 1 3 2 0
Bartramiaceae 3 11 3 3
Timmiaceae 1 3 0 0
Ptychomitriaceae 1 1 0 0
Orthotrichaceae 4 28 5 0
Fontinalaceae 1 5 3 0
Climaciaceae 1 1 0 0
Hedwigiaceae 1 1 3 0
Hepaticae
families: 13
genera: 40
species: 91
Musci
families: 39
genera: 147
species: 474
BRYOPHYTA
families: 52
genera: 187
species: 565
varietas: 84
forms: 9
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livadskim ekosistemima dok značajan
broj nastanjuju i goli matični supstrat
krečnjačkih, ultrabazičnih i silikatnih
stijena.
Neke vrste (Cratoneuron sp.) direktno
učestvuju u procesima travertinizacije i
nastanku žive organske stijene (sedre), a
time i u formiranju rijetkih i značajnih sta-
ništa na ovom dijelu Dinarida.
Na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine nala-
zimo i mahovine koje su graditelji visokih
tresetnih tala (akrohistosola), te edifi-
katori reliktnih borealnih zajednica trese-
tarki, gdje čine dio diverziteta močvarnih
područja naše zemlje.
U šumskim ekosistemima mahovine
izgrađuju posebno organizovane, struktu-
rno-funkcionalne cjeline (sinuzije), koje su
staništa brojnim životinjskim organi-
zmima.
U flori mahovina Bosne i Hercegovine
posebnu pažnju zaslužuju endemične
(Tabela 6), te rijetke i ugrožene (Tabela 7)
vrste .
Takson
lokalitet

Drepanocladus

sendtneri (Schimp.) Wstf.
f. gracilis Sanis
Tresetne livade i vlažna
mjesta
Kupreško polje
D. aduncus (Hedw.) Moenkm.
var. capillifrons (Wstf.) Mkm.
Mocvarne livade, tresetišta Livanjsko polje
D. r evolvens (S. W.) Wstf.
var. intermedius (Lindb.) Grout
Mocvare
Livansko polje
Racomitrium

microcarpum (Hedw.) Brid. Epilit vlažnih stijena Livanjsko polje,
Ždralovac
Polytrichum

strictum Smith. Tresetišta, mocvarne šumske
livade
Livanjsko polje –
Sajkovici
Hygrohypnum

eugyrium (B. S. G.) Broth.
var. mackayi (Hedw.) B. S. G.
Vlažna staništa u nižem
brdskom pojasu
Livanjsko polje -
Buško blato,
Glamocko polje
Hygroamblystegium fluviatile (Hedw.)
Loeske f . spinifolium Mkm.
Hidrofit, na kamenju i drvenoj
gradi
Livanjsko polje
Dialytrichia

mucronata (Brid.) Broth.. Epilit, higrofit Izvor Plive

Stanište
Takson Stanište lokalitet
Pseudoleskea illyrica Glow Epifit pojasa bukovih šuma
Ravna planina, Plaša,
Orijen
Trichostomum brevifolium

Sendt.
Epilit na kre cnjaku brdskog pojasa
i primorja
Konjic, Ljuta, Doljanka
Ctenidium distiguendum Glow.
Epilit na kre cnjaku u brdskom i
planinskom podru cju
Foca, Stambolčić-
Hodža, Trebevic
Antitrichia

curtipendula (L.)
Brid.f. pristoides (Glow.) Horvat
Epifit i epilit od primorja i nizija do
gornje granice šume
Jahorina, Ravna
planina
Eucladium

angustifolium (Jur.)
Glow.
Higrofit na stijenama u primorju i
dolinama bosanskih rijeka
Brod kod Foče, Ljuta i
Bijela kod Konjica,
Doljanka
Eucladium

verticillatum (L.) B.
S. G. subsp. commutatum

Glow.
Higrofit na stijenama uz rijeke,
potoke, vodopade u primorskom i
kontinentalnom podru cju
Plivini vodopadi kod
Jajca, klisura Miljacke,
Ljuta kod Konjica
Didymodon

bosniacus Glow. Sedreni slapovi Plivini vodopadi
Bryum

schleicheri Schwägr.
var. bosniacus Wstf.
Higrofit na plavljenom tlu
Kod Travnika
Tabela 6. – Pregled nekih endemičnih vrsta mahovina
Tabela 7. – Pregled nekih ugroženih vrsta mahovina
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Taxon Habitat Locality
Drepanocladus sendtneri (Schimp.) Wstf.
f. gracilis Sanis
Bog’s meadows and moist plac-
es
Kupreško polje
D. aduncus (Hedw.) Moenkm.
var. capillifrons (Wstf.) Mkm.
Swamp meadows, bogs Livanjsko polje
D. revolvens (S. W.) Wstf.
var. intermedius (Lindb.) Grout
Marshes Livanjsko polje
Racomitrium microcarpum (Hedw.) Brid. Epilithe on moist rocks
Livanjsko polje,
Ždralovac
Polytrichum strictum Smith. Bogs, swamp forest’s meadows
Livanjsko polje –
Sajkovići
Hygrohypnum eugyrium (B. S. G.) Broth.
var. mackayi (Hedw.) B. S. G.
Moist habitats in lower moun-
tain belt
Livanjsko polje –
Buško blato,
Glamočko polje
Hygroamblystegium fuviatile (Hedw.)
Loeske f. spinifolium Mkm.
Hydrophyte, on stones and
wood construction
Livanjsko polje
Dialytrichia mucronata (Brid.) Broth. Epilithe, hygrophyte Sources of the Pliva river
Mosses are to be found in almost any kind of
the environment. Around 100 species inhab-
it springs, torrents, turf barriers, rocky river
beds. Te remaining 460 grows on soil, tree
bark, decomposed ligno-humus in forests
and meadows, whereas many inhabit lime-
stone, silicate and ultrabasic bedrock.
Some species (Cratoneuron sp.) are directly
involved into creation of travertine and liv-
ing organic rocks (tuf), which means that
they are involved into creation of rare and
important habitats in the Dinaric region.
In the Bosnia and Herzegovina occur mosses
that build raised bog’s soils (acrohystosol)
and relict boreal communities of peatmoss,
as a part of wetland’s diversity in our coun-
try.
In wood’s ecosystem mosses build well orga-
nized, structure-functional units (synusia)
that represent habitats for many animals.
Within fora of mosses in the Bosnia and Her-
zegovina special care deserve endemic (Table
6), rare and threatened species (Table 7).
Table 6. – Overview of some endemic mosses in B&H
Table 7. – Overview of some threatened mosses in B&H
Taxon Habitat Locality
Pseudoleskea illyrica Glow Epiphyte of beech woods
Ravna planina Mt., Plaša
Mt., Orijen Mt.
Trichostomum brevifolium Sendt.
Epilithe on limestone in mountain belt
and along coast
Konjic, Ljuta and Doljanka
river
Ctenidium distiguendum Glow.
Epilithe on limestone in hills and moun-
tain area
Foča, Stambolčić-Hodža,
Trebević Mt.
Antitrichia curtipendula (L.) Brid.f.
pristoides (Glow.) Horvat
Epiphyte and epilithe from coast and low-
land to upper line of woods
Jahorina and Ravna planina
Mt.
Eucladium angustifolium (Jur.) Glow.
Hygrophyte on rocks along coast and bos-
nian river valleys
Brod near Foča, Ljuta and
Bijela river at Konjic, Dol-
janka river
Eucladium verticillatum (L.) B. S. G.
subsp. commutatum Glow.
Hygrophyte on rocks along rivers, brooks
and waterfalls in coastal and inland areas
Waterfalls of Pliva river
at Jajce, Clifs of Miljacka
river, Ljuta river at Konjic
Didymodon bosniacus Glow. Tuf cascades Waterfalls of Pliva river
Bryum schleicheri Schwägr.
var. bosniacus Wstf.
Hygrophyte on fooded soil near Travnik
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Navedeni ugroženi taksoni su šireg
rasprostranjenja (evroazijskog, bore-
alnog), a na našem prostoru se sreću
veoma rijetko. Ove vrste ulaze u sastav
reliktnih zajednica koje su ostaci
vegetacije iz glacijalnih perioda. U Bosni i
Hercegovini se, dakle, javljaju na
relativno malom prostoru koji predstavlja
južnu granicu nekih tipova vegetacije sa
normalnom distribucijom u borealnom
pojasu.
Danas je prisutno mnogo faktora koji
ugrožavaju populacije i vrste mahovina
na području Bosne i Hercegovine. Mnoge
od higrofilnih vrsta se nalaze u sastavu re-
liktnih kanjonskih zajednica čija su st-
aništa pretrpjela ili se danas nalaze u pro-
cesu izgradnje vještačkih akumulacija za
potrebe hidroelektrana (na rijekama Dri-
na, Neretva, Pliva). Prvobitna staništa
Pritisci na floru mahovina
mnogih vrsta su pretrpjela bitne promjene
ekoloških uslova (npr. sedreni slapovi
Plive kod Jajca). Epifitske vrste su
ugrožene opštim procesom degradacije
šumskih ekosistema do pretplaninskog
pojasa (sječom, sušenjem, požarima,
izgradnjom rekreacionih objekata i
površina).
U flori papratnjača do sada je utvrđena 61
vrsta iz 26 rodova koji pripadaju odjelima
Equi setophyta, Lycopodi ophyta i
Polypodiophyta.
Osim izražene filogenetičke diferenci-
jacije, papratnjače su i ekološki veoma
razdijeljene, tako da mnoge služe kao
veoma dobri indikatori kvaliteta
ekosistema, te životne sredine. Predsta-
vnici Equisetophyta su vezani za
močvarna staništa, na kojima dominiraju
vrste iz roda preslice (Equisetum sp.).
Močvarna st ani št a, t e vodenj are
nastanjuju i izuzetno rijetke paprati, kao
što su Salvinia natans i Marsillea quadrifolia,
koje danas čine izuzetne elemente
raznovrsnosti i stabilnosti sve ugroženijih
močvarnih ekosistema. Posebno vrijedni
elementi naših šumskih ekosistema su
crvotočine (vrste rodova Lycopodium i
Hupersia), koje nastanjuju humozna
zemljišta tamnih četinarskih šuma, dok
vrste roda Selaginella nastanjuju pukotine
ultrabazičnih stijena.
Porodica Rod vrsta Podvrsta hibrid
Lycopodiaceae 4 5 0 0
Selaginellaceae 1 3 0 0
Equisetaceae 1 8 0 1
Adiantaceae 3 4 0 0
Aspleniaceae 1 7 0
Blechnaceae 1 0 0
Dryopterideaceae 2 9 1 1
Pteridaceae 1 1 0 0
Marsileaceae 1 1 0 0
Ophioglossaceae 2 4 0 0
Polypodiaceae 1 2 0 0
Salviniaceae 1 1 0 0
Thelypteridaceae 3 3 0 0
Woodsiaceae 4 8 0 0
UKUPNO 26 61 8 2
0
0
1 1
Tabela 8. - Diverzitet Pteridophyta
Najvišim stepenom diverziteta odlikuju
se rodovi vezani za različita šumska
staništa (Dryopteris, Blechnum, Thelypteris,
Athyrium, Polystichum, Gymnocarpium). U
pukotinama otvorenih i zasjenjenih
stijena zastupljene su vrste rodova:
Polypodium, Asplenium, Ceterach, na
staništima brdskih vriština Pteridium, u
zasjenjenim vlažnim šumama Phyllitis, a
na travertinskim naslagama uz slatke i
termalne vode Adianthum. Za serpe-
ntinsko-peridotitske stijene vezane su
vrste Notholaena marantae i Asplenium
cuneifolium.
Diverzitet Pteridophyta
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Tose threatened taxa have wider distribu-
tion (euroasian, boreal), being quite rare on
our territory. Tose are species that con-
stitute relict communities, which are rem-
nants from the period of glaciation. Tus, in
the Bosnia and Herzegovina they occur on
relatively small territory, which is southern
distribution range for some vegetation types
that are normally distributed in the boreal
belt.
Populations and species of mosses in Bosnia
and Herzegovina are threatened by many
factors. Many hygrophilous species consti-
tute relict canyon communities that have
changed in the past, or have been changing,
because of artifcial lakes made to energize
the power-plants (on Drina, Neretva and
Pliva river). Many species have their genuine
habitat’s conditions changed substantially
(for instance, tuf cascades of Pliva river at
Jajce). Epiphytes are under threat due to gen-
eral degradation of woodland up to the sub-
mountain belt (by cutting, drying, fres or
construction with recreation purposes).
Pressures onto fora of mosses
Diversity of Pteridophytes
It has been confrmed that fora of Pterido-
phytes includes 61 species from 26 genera
divided into divisions Equisetophyta, Lyco-
podiophyta and Polypodiophyta.
Apart from the phylogenetic diferentiation,
Pteridophytes are also clearly divided by
their ecological needs. Tus, many of them
indicate ecosystem and environment qual-
ity. Representatives of Equisetophyta are
attached to swamp like habitats, with clear
dominance of horsetail (genus Equisetum).
Marshes and foating vegetation include
some rare ferns, such as Salvinia and Mar-
sillea, which are required for maintaining
the balance and diversity of swamp ecosys-
tems that become more threatened every day.
In our woods special signifcance comes to
clubmosses (species of genera Lycopodium
and Huperzia), which grow on humous soil
of conifer woods, while genus Selaginella in-
habit crevices of ultrabasic rocks.
Te highest diversity level characterize gen-
era that are attached to diverse wood’s habi-
tats (Dryopteris, Blechnum, Telypteris, Athy-
rium, Polystichum, Gymnocarpium). In rock
crevices of sunny and shaded places, occur
species of genera Polypodium, Asplenium,
Ceterach, on mountain heaths Pteridium, in
shaded humid woods Phyllitis, on travertine
depositions of fresh and thermal water Adi-
antum. Notholaena marantae and Asplenium
cuneifolium are attached to serpentine-peri-
dote bedrock.
Table 8. – Diversity of Pteridophytes
Family Genus species Sub-species hybrid
Lycopodiaceae 4 5 0 0
Selaginellaceae 1 3 0 0
Equisetaceae 1 8 0 1
Adiantaceae 3 4 0 0
Aspleniaceae 1 11 7 0
Blechnaceae 1 1 0 0
Dryopterideaceae 2 9 1 1
Pteridaceae 1 1 0 0
Marsileaceae 1 1 0 0
Ophioglossaceae 2 4 0 0
Polypodiaceae 1 2 0 0
Salviniaceae 1 1 0 0
Telypteridaceae 3 3 0 0
Woodsiaceae 4 8 0 0
TOTAL 26 61 8 2
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Pritisci na floru papratnjača
Zbog različitih pritisaka na staništa
paprat nj ača ( sj eča, kamenol omi ,
zagađenje voda, globalne klimatske
promjene praćene kiselim kišama) danas
je evidentna ugroženost pojedinih vrsta,
pa i čitavih rodova. U ovu grupu spadaju
Not hol ae na mar ant he , As pl e ni um
cuneifolium i Selaginella helvetica na starim
Tip staništa Vrsta
hidrofilna staništa Salvinia natans, Marsillea quadrifolia
mo c vare i agroekosistemi Equisetum arvense, E. hyemale, E. sylvaticum, E.
telmateia
zasjenjene vlažne šume Phylitis scolopendrium
hrastove šume Gymnocarpium dryopteris
bukove šume Thelypteris phegopteris, Polystichum aculeatum,
Dryopteris filix-mas, Athyrium filix-femina,
c etinarske šume Hupersia selago, Lycopodium clavatum, Blechnum
spicant
vegetacija pukotina stijena Ceterach officinarum
Kamenjari Asplenium trichomanes, A. viride
Tabela 9. - Vrste Pteridophyta kao indikatori tipova staništa
Pteridophyta imaju važnu ulogu u
očuvanju stabilnosti ekosistema i mnoge
od njih predstavljaju dobre resurse. Neke
vrste se koriste u ishrani, a druge su od
davnina poznate u tradicionalnoj
medicini. Pojedine vrste paprati se koriste
u kulturama naših naroda u različite
svrhe, pa su neke poznate čak i kao
sredstvo „za tjeranje zlih duhova”.
Posebna j e važnost ovih vrsta u
savremenoj etnoterapiji. Crvotočine
(Lycopodium) se koriste kod teških
oboljenja jetre; podrebnica (Phyllitis) u
liječenju sušice; vilina vlas, sleznica
(Asplenium) i zlatna paprat (Ceterach) u
liječenju oboljenja bubrega i mokraćnih
puteva; slatka paprat u liječenju šećerne
bolesti, a mladi ovršci bujadi (Pteridium)
oduvijek su bili sočna proljetna hrana
brdskom i gorskom stanovništvu.
vulkanskim stijenama, Ceterach javorke,
Aspl eni um l epi dum u pukotinama
karbonatnih stijena, Asplenium fissum u
pukotinama stijena planinskog pojasa,
sve vrste roda Lycopodium, te vrste Salvinia
natans, Marsillea quadrifolia, i vilina vlas
Adiantum capillus-veneris.
Diverzitet Spermatophyta
U okviru vaskularne flore Bosne i
Hercegovine, sjemenjače su najbrojnije i
najraznovrsnije. To su biljke kopnenih
st ani št a, a samo nekol i ko i h j e
prilagođeno na uslove vodene sredine.
Ova grupa organizama čini okosnicu
živog svijeta Bosne i Hercegovine, te
djeluje kao osnovni faktor u oblikovanju
pejzažne raznolikosti. U bogatom
diverzitetu vaskularne flore su i
najznačajniji biološki resursi (privredno
važne vrste šumskog drveća, ljekovitih,
jestivih, aromatičnih biljaka, biljni
genetički resursi i ukrasna flora).
Sjemenjače su bile i pokretački faktor
etnogeneze, naseljavanja, opstanka i
egzistencije bosanskohercegovačkog
stanovništva.
Na temelju pomenutih bioloških resursa,
danas egzistiraju dominantne privredne
grane Bosne i Hercegovi ne. Od
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Table 9. – Pteridophytes used as habitat’s indicator
Pteridophytes play an important role in
maintainance of ecosystem’s stability. Many
of them are resources that have been ever
since used in human diet, or in traditional
medicine. Some ferns have even been used in
the culture of our people with diferent pur-
poses, for instance as a mean for expulsion
of evil spirits.
Tose species are irreplaceable in modern
ethnotherapy. Clubmosses (Lycopodium)
are being used to fght lever diseases; harts’s
tongue fern (Phyllitis) against tuberculosis;
maidenhair fern (Adiantum), fern (Asple-
nium) and rustyback (Ceterach) for kidney
diseases and urinary infections, polypody
to treat diabetes, whereas young leaf tips of
bracken fern (Pteridium) used to be juicy
spring food for highlanders.
Because of impacts onto habitats of ferns
(clear cutting, quarries, water pollution,
global climate changes followed by acid
rain), some species and entire genera are un-
der severe threat. Into these group of ferns
belong Notholaena maranthe, Asplenium
cuneifolium and Selaginella helvetica grow-
ing on old volcanic rocks, Ceterach javorkae
and Asplenium lepidum living in limestone
rock crevices, Asplenium fssum in rock
crevices of mountain belt, all species of ge-
nus Lycopodium, then Salvinia natans, Mar-
sillea quadrifolia and Asplenium adianthum
nigrum.
Pressures onto fora of Pteridophytes
Diversity of Spermatophytes
Spermatophytes represent the most numer-
ous and diverse group of plants within vas-
cular fora of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Tose
are plants that grow in terrestrial habitats,
while only few of them are adapted to the
aquatic environment. Tis is the group of
organisms that makes the framework of life
in Bosnia and Herzegovina, being respon-
sible for shaping of landscape’s diversity. Te
diversity of vascular fora includes also the
most important biological resources (eco-
nomically important trees, medicinal, edible
and aromatic herbs, genetic herbal resources
and ornamental fora). Spermatophytes were
the propulsive factor of ethnogenesis, settle-
ment, survival and existance of people in
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Afore mentioned biological resources are
carrying pillar of todays dominant economic
branches in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Te
forestry and wood industry are essential to
the development and progress of both local
Habitat type Species
Hydrophilous habitats Salvinia natans, Marsillea quadrifolia
Marshes and arable land Equisetum arvense, E. hyemale, E. sylvaticum, E. telmateia
Shaded humid woods Phylitis scolopendrium
Oak woods Gymnocarpium dryopteris
Beech woods
Telypteris phegopteris, Polystichum aculeatum, Dryopteris flix mas,
Athyrium flix femina
Coniferous woods Huperzia selago, Lycopodium clavatum, Blechnum spicant
Vegetation of rock crevices Ceterach ofcinarum
Rocky grassland Asplenium trichomanes, A. viride
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esencijalne važnosti za razvoj i prosperitet
lokalne, odnosno nacionalne zajednice, su
šumarstvo i drvna industrija, farmace-
utsko-prehrambena industrija, savre-
mena dijetetika, kozmetologija, proizvo-
dnja voća, povrća i vlakana, te druge
privredne djelatnosti koje osnovu nalaze
u iskorištavanju bioloških resursa.
Zahvaljujući istraživačima flore Bosne i
Hercegovine (Beck, Hayek i Karlo Maly)
napravljena je solidna osnova za kasnija
floristička istraživanja, koja danas
rezul t i raj u sl j edećom procj enom
diverziteta sjemenjača:

Coniferophytina

porodica: 5
rodova: 15
vrsta: 40
Cycadophytina

porodica: 1
rodova: 1
vrsta: 2


Magnoliophytina
Liliatae

porodica: 26
rodova: 178
vrsta: 648
Magnoliatae

porodica: 129
rodova: 680
vrsta: 2608
SPERMATOPHYTA

porodica: 161
rodova: 874
vrsta: 3298
podvrsta: 1083

260 260
236
196
172
166
162
125
122 120 118
96
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0
50
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150
200
250
300
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Grafikon 2. - Diverzitet Spermatophyta
Grafikon 3. – Porodice sa najvišim specijskim diverzitetom
Najviši stepen diverziteta izražen je u
razredu Magnoliatae (2.608 vrsta, 943
podvrste i 148 hibrida), te u razredu
Liliatae sa 648 vrsta, 135 podvrsta i 16
hibrida. Pododjeljak Coniferophytina
sadrži relativno mali broj vrsta (40) i
podvrsta (4) kao i hibrida (4).
Porodi ce sa naj vi ši m speci j ski m
diverzitetom su: glavočike, leptirnjače,
trave, ružovke, kupusnjače, štitare,
usnatice, šaševi, zijevalice, karanfili,
ljiljani i ljutići. U okviru ovih porodica je
65 % od ukupnog broja sjemenjača. Bitna
karakteristika diverziteta ove grupe
ogleda se i u velikom broju porodica
predstavljenih sa samo jednim rodom i
jednom vrstom (približno 30 % od
ukupnog broja vrsta).
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Families:
genera:
species:
Families:
genera:
species:
Families:
genera:
species:
Families:
genera:
species:
Families:
genera:
species:
varieties:
and national community, then pharmacolog-
ical and food industry, modern dietics, cos-
metics, production of fruits, vegetables and
fbres, and other economy branches based on
the exploitation of biological resources.
Tanks to explorers of Bosnia and Herze-
govina’s fora (Beck, Hayek and Karlo Maly),
it was created frm base for next foristic re-
search resulting in following assessment of
spermatophytes diversity:
Graph. 2. – Diversity of Spermatophytes in B&H
Te highest diversity level is reached within
the class of Magnoliatae (2.608 species, 943
sub-species and 148 hybrids), then the class of
Liliatae with 648 species, 135 sub-species and
16 hybrids. Te sub-division of Coniferophy-
tina encompass a relatively small number of
species (40), sub-species (4) and hybrids (4).
Families with the highest species diversity
are: composits, pea family, grasses, roses,
crucifers, parsley family, mint family, sedges,
fgworts, pinks, lilies and buttercups. Within
these families are 65% of all Spermatophytes.
A special diversity character of this group is
refected through a great number of families
with only one genus and species (approxi-
mately 30% of total number).
Graph. 3. – Families with the highest species diversity in B&H
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Tabela 10. - Taksonomski diverzitet Spermatophyta


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Coniferophytina
Cupressaceae 4 15 4 3
Ginkgoaceae 1 1 0 0
Pinaceae 7 21 0 1
Taxaceae 1 1 0 0
Taxodiaceae 2 2 0 0
Ukupno 15 40 4 0
Cycadophytina
Ephedraceae 1 2 1 0
Ukupno 1 2 1 0
Magnoliophytina
Magnoliatae
Acanthaceae 1 3 0 0
Aceraceae 1 12 3 2
Acoraceae 1 1 0 0
Actinidiaceae 1 1 0 0
Adoxaceae 1 1 0 0
Aizoaceae 2 4 0 0
Amaranthaceae 1 7 0 0
Anacardiaceae 3 5 0 0
Apiaceae
(=Umbelliferae)
60 162 2 0
Apocinaceae 2 3 0 0
Aquifoliaceae 1 1 0 0
Araliaceae 1 1 0 0
Aristolochiaceae 2 4 0 0
Asclepiadaceae 3 5 4 0
Asteraceae ( =
Compositae)
72 260 37 11
Balsaminaceae 1 5 0 0
Berberidaceae 3 4 0 0
Betulaceae 2 5 0 2
Bignoniaceae 2 3 0 0
Boraginaceae 21 49 15 0
Brassicaceae
(=Cruciferae)
56 172 59 2
Buddlejaceae 1 1 0 0
Buxaceae 1 1 0 0
Cactaceae 1 3 0 0
Callitrichaceae 1 1 3 0
Campanulaceae 8 51 11 1
Cannabaceae 2 2 0 0
Capparidaceae 1 1 0 0
Caprifoliaceae 5 23 2 2
Caryophyllaceae 26 118 67 0
Celastraceae 1 5 0 0
Ceratophyllaceae 1 1 0 0
Cesalpiniaceae 3 3 0 0
Chenopodiaceae 8 21 0 0
Cichoriaceae
(= Compositae)
23 166 401 1
Cistaceae 4 11 12 0
Convolvulaceae 4 8 4 0
Cornaceae 1 3 0 0
Corylaceae 3 6 0 1
Crassulaceae 4 19 2 0
Cucurbitaceae 7 10 0 0
Dipsacaceae 7 33 0 0
Droseraceae 1 1 0 0
Ebenaceae 1 2 0 0
Elaeagnaceae 2 2 0 0
Empetraceae 1 1 0 0
Ericaceae 8 13 0 0
Euphorbiaceae 5 41 1 0
Fabaceae
(=Leguminosae)
47 260 68 0
Fagaceae 3 11 4 8
Gentianaceae 4 24 3 0
Geraniaceae 3 24 3 0
Globulariaceae 1 3 2 0
Grossulariaceae 1 8 0 0
Haloragaceae 1 2 0 0
Hamamelidaceae 2 2 0 0
Hippocastanaceae 1 2 0 0
Hippuridaceae 1 1 0 0
Hydrangaceae 3 4 0 0
Hydrophyllaceae 1 1 0 0
Hypericaceae
(=Guttiferae )
1 9 0 0
Juglandaceae 1 2 0 0
Lamiaceae
(= Labiatae)
31 125 72 10
Lauraceae 1 1 0 0
Lentibulariaceae 1 7 0 0
Linaceae 2 13 2 0
Lobeliaceae 1 3 0 0
Loranthaceae 3 3 3 0
Lythraceae 1 4 2 0
Magnoliaceae 2 4 0 1
Malvaceae 7 17 2 0
Meliaceae 1 1 0 0
Menyanthaceae 2 2 0 0
Mimosaceae 1 1 0 0
Molluginaceae 1 1 0 0
Moraceae 4 5 0 0
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Coniferophytina
Cupressaceae 4 15 4 3
Ginkgoaceae 1 1 0 0
Pinaceae 7 21 0 1
Taxaceae 1 1 0 0
Taxodiaceae 2 2 0 0
Total 15 40 4 0
Cycadophytina
Ephedraceae 1 2 1 0
Total 1 2 1 0
Magnoliophytina
Magnoliatae
Acanthaceae 1 3 0 0
Aceraceae 1 12 3 2
Acoraceae 1 1 0 0
Actinidiaceae 1 1 0 0
Adoxaceae 1 1 0 0
Aizoaceae 2 4 0 0
Amaranthaceae 1 7 0 0
Anacardiaceae 3 5 0 0
Apiaceae
(=Umbelliferae)
60 162 2 0
Apocinaceae 2 3 0 0
Aquifoliaceae 1 1 0 0
Araliaceae 1 1 0 0
Aristolochiaceae 2 4 0 0
Asclepiadaceae 3 5 4 0
Asteraceae
(=Compositae)
72 260 37 11
Balsaminaceae 1 5 0 0
Berberidaceae 3 4 0 0
Betulaceae 2 5 0 2
Bignoniaceae 2 3 0 0
Boraginaceae 21 49 15 0
Brassicaceae
(=Cruciferae)
56 172 59 2
Buddlejaceae 1 1 0 0
Buxaceae 1 1 0 0
Cactaceae 1 3 0 0
Callitrichaceae 1 1 3 0
Campanulaceae 8 51 11 1
Cannabaceae 2 2 0 0
Capparidaceae 1 1 0 0
Caprifoliaceae 5 23 2 2
Caryophyllaceae 26 118 67 0
Celastraceae 1 5 0 0
Ceratophyllaceae 1 1 0 0
Cesalpiniaceae 3 3 0 0
Chenopodiaceae 8 21 0 0
Cichoriaceae
(=Compositae)
23 166 401 1
Cistaceae 4 11 12 0
Convolvulaceae 4 8 4 0
Cornaceae 1 3 0 0
Corylaceae 3 6 0 1
Crassulaceae 4 19 2 0
Cucurbitaceae 7 10 0 0
Dipsacaceae 7 33 0 0
Droseraceae 1 1 0 0
Ebenaceae 1 2 0 0
Elaeagnaceae 2 2 0 0
Empetraceae 1 1 0 0
Ericaceae 8 13 0 0
Euphorbiaceae 5 41 1 0
Fabaceae
(=Leguminosae)
47 260 68 0
Fagaceae 3 11 4 8
Gentianaceae 4 24 3 0
Geraniaceae 3 24 3 0
Globulariaceae 1 3 2 0
Grossulariaceae 1 8 0 0
Haloragaceae 1 2 0 0
Hamamelidaceae 2 2 0 0
Hippocastanaceae 1 2 0 0
Hippuridaceae 1 1 0 0
Hydrangaceae 3 4 0 0
Hydrophyllaceae 1 1 0 0
Hypericaceae
(=Guttiferae )
1 9 0 0
Juglandaceae 1 2 0 0
Lamiaceae
(=Labiatae)
31 125 72 10
Lauraceae 1 1 0 0
Lentibulariaceae 1 7 0 0
Linaceae 2 13 2 0
Lobeliaceae 1 3 0 0
Loranthaceae 3 3 3 0
Lythraceae 1 4 2 0
Magnoliaceae 2 4 0 1
Malvaceae 7 17 2 0
Meliaceae 1 1 0 0
Menyanthaceae 2 2 0 0
Mimosaceae 1 1 0 0
Molluginaceae 1 1 0 0
Moraceae 4 5 0 0
Table 10. – Taxonomic diversity of Spermatophytes in B&H
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Myrtaceae 1 1 0 0
Nyctaginaceae 2 2 0 0
Nymphaeaceae 2 2 0 0
Oleaceae 6 11 3 2
Oenotheraceae
(=Onagraceae)
4 18 2 0
Orobanchaceae 1 20 4 2
Oxalidaceae 1 6 0 0
Paeoniaceae 1 2 0 0
Papaveraceae 7 24 5 0
Parnassiaceae 1 1 1 0
Passifloraceae 1 1 0 0
Phytolacaceae 1 1 0 0
Pittosporaceae 1 1 0 0
Plantaginaceae 1 10 0 0
Platanaceae 1 1 0 1
Plumbaginaceae 3 4 0 0
Polemoniaceae 2 3 0 0
Polygalaceae 1 7 4 0
Polygonaceae 6 37 0 0
Portulacaceae 2 2 0 0
Primulaceae 9 22 2 0
Punicaceae 1 1 0 0
Pyrolaceae 4 6 0 0
Ranunculaceae 19 95 18 0
Resedaceae 1 4 0 0
Rhamnaceae 4 12 3 0
Rosaceae 27 196 30 70
Rubiaceae 5 35 1 0
Rutaceae 4 6 2 0
Salicaceae 2 28 10 8
Santalaceae 2 10 0 0
Sapindaceae 1 1 0 0
Saxifragaceae 2 22 2 1
Scrophulariaceae 24 120 52 19
Simaroubaceae 1 1 0 0
Solanaceae 10 18 2 0
Staphyleaceae 1 1 0 0
Styracaceae 1 1 0 0
Tamaricaceae 1 4 0 0
Tetragoniaceae 1 1 0 0
Thelygonaceae 1 1 0 0
Tiliaceae 1 4 3 2
Thymelaeaceae 2 7 0 0
Trapaceae 1 1 0 0
Tropaeolaceae 1 3 0 0
Ulmaceae 2 7 2 1
Urticaceae 2 5 0 0
Valerianaceae 3 12 3 0
Verbenaceae 2 2 0 0
Violaceae 1 25 8 1
Vitaceae 2 6 2 0
Zannichelliaceae 1 1 0 0
Zygophyllaceae 1 1 0 0
Liliatae
Agavaceae 1 1 0 0
Alismataceae 2 4 0 0
Amaryllidaceae 4 9 1 0
Araceae 4 6 0 0
Arecaceae (=Palmae) 2 2 0 0
Butomaceae 1 1 0 0
Cannaceae 1 1 0 0
Commeliniaceae 2 2 0 0
Cyperaceae 10 122 10 0
Dioscoreaceae 1 1 0 0
Hydrocharitaceae 4 4 0 0
Iridaceae 6 22 3 ++
Juncaceae 2 34 14 0
Juncaginaceae 1 3 0 0
Lemnaceae 3 4 0 0
Liliaceae 26 96 2 0
Najadaceae 1 2 0 0
Orchidaceae 23 69 35 7
Potamogetonaceae 2 16 0 3
Poaceae (=
Gramineae)
76 236 67 6
Posidoniaceae 1 1 0 0
Ruppiaceae 1 2 0 0
Scheuchzeriaceae 1 1 0 0
Sparganiaceae 1 4 3 0
Typhaceae 1 3 0 0
Zosteraceae 1 2 0 0
Jedinstveni procesi formiranja geološke
podloge, tipova zemljišta, reljefa,
ekoklime, te vodnog režima u prošlosti
vodili su razvoju jedinstvenog svijeta
bi l j aka na pr os t or u bos ans ko-
hercegovačkih Dinarida. Naglašene
izolovanosti pojedinih staništa, kao što su
klisure i kanjoni većih rijeka, te najviši
vrhovi planina rezultirala je razvojem
posebnih oblika u flori specifičnih za uže
ENDEMIČNA FLORA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
ili šire područje. Sa područja Bosne i
Hercegovine neki oblici flore su širili areal
prema drugim dijelovima Balkanskog
poluostrva. Pojava istovrsnih oblika na
Al pama, Kar pat i ma, a posebno
Apeninima nesumnjivo potvrđuje tezu o
nekadašnjoj povezanosti ovih geografski
izolovanih cjelina.
Najveća specifičnost BiH flore su brojni
paleo i neoendemi, te tercijerni i glacijalni
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ENDEMIC FLORA OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Tere are several reasons that have led to the
development of the unique plant world on
the territory of the Dinaric Alps in Bosnia
and Herzegovina. Tose are: unique process
of bedrock’s formation, types of soil, relief,
ecoclimate, water regime etc. An insulation
of distinct habitats, such as clifs, canyons
and the highest mountain peaks, resulted
in the development of special forms that
are specifc for a smaller or larger area. Te
territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a
dispersal centre of some foristic forms that
expanded over other parts of the Balkan pen-
insula. Te hypothesis of former connection
between the Alps, the Carpathians and the
Apennines is confrmed by the occurence of
kindred forms in these insulated geographic
units.
Te most specifc characteristic of B&H’s fo-
ra is a great deal of paleo- and neo- endemic
Myrtaceae 1 1 0 0
Nyctaginaceae 2 2 0 0
Nymphaeaceae 2 2 0 0
Oleaceae 6 11 3 2
Oenotheraceae
(=Onagraceae)
4 18 2 0
Orobanchaceae 1 20 4 2
Oxalidaceae 1 6 0 0
Paeoniaceae 1 2 0 0
Papaveraceae 7 24 5 0
Parnassiaceae 1 1 1 0
Passiforaceae 1 1 0 0
Phytolacaceae 1 1 0 0
Pittosporaceae 1 1 0 0
Plantaginaceae 1 10 0 0
Platanaceae 1 1 0 1
Plumbaginaceae 3 4 0 0
Polemoniaceae 2 3 0 0
Polygalaceae 1 7 4 0
Polygonaceae 6 37 0 0
Portulacaceae 2 2 0 0
Primulaceae 9 22 2 0
Punicaceae 1 1 0 0
Pyrolaceae 4 6 0 0
Ranunculaceae 19 95 18 0
Resedaceae 1 4 0 0
Rhamnaceae 4 12 3 0
Rosaceae 27 196 30 70
Rubiaceae 5 35 1 0
Rutaceae 4 6 2 0
Salicaceae 2 28 10 8
Santalaceae 2 10 0 0
Sapindaceae 1 1 0 0
Saxifragaceae 2 22 2 1
Scrophulariaceae 24 120 52 19
Simaroubaceae 1 1 0 0
Solanaceae 10 18 2 0
Staphyleaceae 1 1 0 0
Styracaceae 1 1 0 0
Tamaricaceae 1 4 0 0
Tetragoniaceae 1 1 0 0
Telygonaceae 1 1 0 0
Tiliaceae 1 4 3 2
Tymelaeaceae 2 7 0 0
Trapaceae 1 1 0 0
Tropaeolaceae 1 3 0 0
Ulmaceae 2 7 2 1
Urticaceae 2 5 0 0
Valerianaceae 3 12 3 0
Verbenaceae 2 2 0 0
Violaceae 1 25 8 1
Vitaceae 2 6 2 0
Zannichelliaceae 1 1 0 0
Zygophyllaceae 1 1 0 0
Liliatae
Agavaceae 1 1 0 0
Alismataceae 2 4 0 0
Amaryllidaceae 4 9 1 0
Araceae 4 6 0 0
Arecaceae (=Palmae) 2 2 0 0
Butomaceae 1 1 0 0
Cannaceae 1 1 0 0
Commeliniaceae 2 2 0 0
Cyperaceae 10 122 10 0
Dioscoreaceae 1 1 0 0
Hydrocharitaceae 4 4 0 0
Iridaceae 6 22 3 ++
Juncaceae 2 34 14 0
Juncaginaceae 1 3 0 0
Lemnaceae 3 4 0 0
Liliaceae 26 96 2 0
Najadaceae 1 2 0 0
Orchidaceae 23 69 35 7
Potamogetonaceae 2 16 0 3
Poaceae
(=Gramineae)
76 236 67 6
Posidoniaceae 1 1 0 0
Ruppiaceae 1 2 0 0
Scheuchzeriaceae 1 1 0 0
Sparganiaceae 1 4 3 0
Typhaceae 1 3 0 0
Zosteraceae 1 2 0 0
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relikti koji su se zadržali u refugijumima,
kao što su klisure, kanjoni i planinski
cirkovi.
Zbog organske osjetljivosti biljnog
materijala relativno mali je broj očuvanih
paleoendema. U ovoj skupini naročito su
poznati predstavni ci si l i katni h i
karbonatnih algi, a iz skupine viših biljaka
različiti predstavnici četinara, te
drvenastih oblika kao što su breze, lijeska,
hrastovi i bukve.
Zanimljivo je da u grupi cijanobakterija i
algi nisu zabilježeni i do sada opisani
endemični oblici na prostoru BiH. To
nikako ne znači da u ovom svijetu istinske
divljine ne postoje brojne florističke
unikatnosti, vezane, prije svega, za
ekološki specifična staništa (planinski
izvori, kraška vrela, polupećine, sedrene
naslage, termalni izvori, te refugijumi,
posebno u području starih vulkanskih
stijena), koje inače odlikuje endemičnost
mahovina, papratnjača, a naročito
sjemenjača.
Današnje spoznaje iniciraju potrebu hitne
revizije i detaljne inventarizacije algi i
cijanobakterija.
Najveći broj endemičnih oblika (rodova,
vrsta, podvrsta i nižih taksonomskih
kategorija) utvrđen je u flori viših biljaka,
gdje dosadašnje procjene ukazuju na
postojanje 450 endemičnih taxa. Novija
istraživanja nesumnjivo indiciraju znatno
veći broj endema, posebno u okviru
rodova koji su još nedovoljno istraženi
kao što su Alchemilla, Potentilla, Rosa,
Rubus, Hieracium, Centaurea, Carex i
Festuca.
Naročitu posebnost flori viših biljaka BiH
daju brojni stenoendemi (tabela 11).
Naziv taksona

Rasprostranjenost
Prijedlog
kategorije
ugroženosti
Acinos orontius (K. Maly) Šilić
Između Konjica i Glavatičeva, oko Glavatičeva, u
kanjonu Rakitnice, Đepa kod Konjica, dolina
Trešetnice, Vrtaljica, Suhi do, Zlatar, kod Vrbljana,
Pirića u okolini Podorašca, kod Špiljana, Bigolja
V
Alyssum moellendorfianum
Aschers. ex G. Beck
Dolomitne padine Prenja: dolina Trešanice,
između Konjica i Špiljana, Koznik kod Konjica, kod
Vrabca, Borak, Galat, Orlov Kuk kod Glavatičeva,
pri ušću Rakitnice u Neretvu, Boračko jezero –
Glavatičevo
E
Asperula hercegovina Degen Prenj, Čvrsnica, Čabulja, Velež R
Barbarea bosniaca Murb. Bosna; endem centralnih Dinarida R
Campanula hercegovina Degen
& Fiala
Čvrsnica, Prenj, Čabulja, Velež, Plasa
R
Centaurea bosniaca (Murb.)
Hayek
Vranica, Vitruša, Zec pl., Vukuša pl., Vis kod
Kalesije, Tatinica, Ravna pl.
V
C. murbeckii Hayek
Igman, Plazenica pl., Kupres, Bjelašnica pl. kod
Gacka, Velež, Lukomir, Obalj
V
Dianthus freynii Vandas Prenj, Čvrsnica Plasa V
Edraianthus hercegovinus K.
Maly
Čvrsnica
R
E. niveus G. Beck Vranica, Zec pl., Vitreuša pl. R
Euphorbia gregersenii K. Maly
Dolina Gostović potoka (Kamenica) i njegovih
pritoka: Kamenica i Suha, Velež, Borik kod
Borovnice, na Tajanu
R
Tabela 11. - Stenoendemi Bosne i Hercegovine
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Taxon name Distribution
Proposal of
threat’s cat-
egory
Acinos orontius (K. Maly) Šilić
Between Konjic and Glavatičevo, around Glavatičevo,
in the canyon of Rakitnica, Đepa at Konjic, valley of
Trešetnica, Vrtaljica, Suhi do, Zlatar, near Vrbljani, Pirića
in the surrounding of Podorašac, at Špiljani, Bigolje
V
Alyssum moellendorfanum
Aschers. ex G. Beck
Dolomite slopes of Prenj Mt.: valley of Trešanica,
between Konjic and Špiljani, Koznik at Konjic, by
Vrabac, Borak, Galat, Orlov Kuk at Glavatičevo,
near watermouth of the Rakitnice river, Boračko
jezero – Glavatičevo
E
Asperula hercegovina Degen Prenj Mt., Čvrsnica Mt., Čabulja Mt., Velež Mt. R
Barbarea bosniaca Murb. Bosnia; endem of the mid Dinaric Alps R
Campanula hercegovina Degen
& Fiala
Čvrsnica Mt., Prenj Mt., Čabulja Mt., Velež Mt.,
Plasa
R
Centaurea bosniaca (Murb.)
Hayek
Vranica Mt., Vitruša, Zec Mt., Vukuša Mt., Vis at
Kalesija, Tatinica, Ravna Mt.
V
C. murbeckii Hayek
Igman Mt., Plazenica Mt., Kupres, Bjelašnica Mt.,
at Gacko, Velež Mt., Lukomir, Obalj
V
Dianthus freynii Vandas Prenj Mt., Čvrsnica Mt., Plasa Mt. V
Edraianthus hercegovinus K.
Maly
Čvrsnica Mt. R
E. niveus G. Beck Vranica Mt., Zec Mt., Vitreuša Mt. R
Euphorbia gregersenii K. Maly
Valley of the Gostović brook (Kamenica) and its
tributaries: Kamenica and Suha, Velež, Borik at
Borovnica, on Tajan hills
R
species, tertiary and glacial relicts main-
tained in refugial habitats, such as clifs, can-
yons and mountain cirques.
Because of sensitivity of their organic struc-
ture, there is only few preserved paleoen-
demic species. Tis group includes famous
representatives of silicate and carboniferous
alges, higher plants with conifers and trees,
such as birch, haselnut, oak and beech.
It is very interesting that among cyanophytes
and alges haven’t been recorded endemic
forms in B&H till now, which doesn’t mean
that in this world of true wilderness miss fo-
ristic uniquenesses bound to, frst of all, spe-
cifc habitats (mountain springs, karst wells,
half-caves, tuf depositions, thermal sources,
and refugia, especially around old volcanic
rocks) characterized by endemisms of moss-
es, ferns and spermatophytes.
Current information confrm the need afer
review and establishment of detailed inven-
tory of alges and cyanophytes.
Most of endemic forms (genera, species, sub-
species and lower taxonomic categories) is
recognized within the fora of higher plants,
which at current state of knowledge is es-
timated to have 450 endemic taxa. Newly
undertaken investigations indicate that this
number is much bigger, especially as far as
poorly investigated genera are concerned,
such as: Alchemilla, Potentilla, Rosa, Rubus,
Hieracium, Centaurea, Carex, Festuca.
Flora of higher plants in B&H is also charac-
terized by stenoendemic species (Table 11.).
Table 11. – Stenoendemic plants of Bosnia and Herzegovina
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E. hercegovina Beck
Zvekuša, padine Zlatara, između Podorašca i
Konjica, Suhi do, dolina Ljute kod Bigolja i Pričepe
R
Melampyrum trichocalicinum
Vandas
Glogovo pl., klanac Risovca – Aleksin Han kod
Jablanice, Pribilje u dolini Rakitnice, u dolini
Doljanke kod Doljana, Skok na Prenj pl.,
Orahovica kod Nemile, Brasina pl., iznad Bijelog
polja, klanac Risovca, kod Jablanice, u dolini
Rakitnice kod Blaca
V
Minuartia handelii Mattf. Čvrsnica – Veliki Vilinac E
Oxytropis prenja (G. Beck) G.
Beck in Reichenb. & Reichenb.
Fil.
Prenj, Čvrsnica, Vran, Plasa,
V
Potentilla heptaphylla L. subsp.
velezensis (Beck) Bjelčić
Prenj, Čvrsnica, Čabulja, Velež, Preslica
K
Seseli hercegovinum K. Maly
Karaula, Aleksin han, Prenj, Čvrsnica, Grabovica,
Neretva, ušće Dive Grabovice, iznad ušća
Drežnice u Neretvu, Glogovo
V
Symphyandra hofmannii
Pantocsek
Centralna Bosna: oblast srednjeg toka rijeke
Bosne i Vrbasa, Vranica – dolina rijeke Kozice, u
blizini Brčkog
-
Viola beckiana Fiala
Smolin kod Žepča, Stolovac između Donjeg
Vakufa i Jajca, Između Bugojna i Kupresa, Han
Koprivnica, Stožer Plazenica
K
V. prenja G. Beck Prenj K
Prema rasprostranjenosti navedenih
stenoendema može se zaključiti da se više
od polovine nalazi u Hercegovini i to na
planinskom kompleksu Prenj-Čvrsnica-
Velež i u kanjonu Neretve, kao i
kanjonima njenih pritoka. Ovi podaci idu
u prilog tvrdnji da se upravo tu nalazi
naj veći endemski centar Bosne i
Hercegovine (Bjelčić & Šilić, 1971).
Osim endema isključivo vezanih za
bosanskohercegovački teritorij, znatno
veći broj je onih čiji areal obuhvata i druga
područja Dinarida, te Balkanskog
poluotoka. Ipak, za većinu njih razvojni
centar je neki od refugijuma u Bosni i
Hercegovini.
Onosma stellulata
Waldst. & Kit.
Alyssum moellendorfianum
Asch. ex Beck
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Te distribution range of above given stenoen-
demic species leads us to the conclusion that
more than one half of them occur in Herze-
govina, within the area of mountain complex
Prenj-Čvrsnica-Velež and canyon of the Neretva
river, as well as canyons of its tributaries. Tese
data confrm the statement that it is the centre of
endemism in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Beside endemic species that are exclusively
bound to the territory of Bosnia and Herze-
govina, here occur plants whose distribution
range extend on other areas of the Dinaric
Alps and Balkan peninsula. However, disper-
sal centres for most of them are to be found
within refugia of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
E. hercegovina Beck
Zvekuša, slopes of Zlatar, between Podorašac and
Konjic, Suhi do, valley of Ljuta at Bigolje and Pričepa
R
Melampyrum trichocalicinum
Vandas
Glogovo Mt., gorge of Risovac – Aleksin Han at
Jablanica, Pribilje in the valley of Rakitnica, in
the valley of Doljanka at Doljani, Skok on Prenj
Mt., Orahovica at Nemila, Brasina Mt., above Bi-
jelo polje, at Jablanica, in the valley of Rakitnica
at Blaca
V
Minuartia handelii Mattf. Čvrsnica Mt. – Veliki Vilinac E
Oxytropis prenja (G. Beck) G.
Beck in Reichenb. & Reichenb.
Fil.
Prenj Mt., Čvrsnica Mt., Vran Mt., Plasa V
Potentilla heptaphylla L. subsp.
velezensis (Beck) Bjelčić
Prenj Mt., Čvrsnica Mt., Čabulja Mt., Velež Mt.,
Preslica
K
Seseli hercegovinum K. Maly
Karaula, Aleksin han, Prenj Mt., Čvrsnica Mt.,
Grabovica, Neretva river, Diva Grabovica, upstream
from watermouth of Drežnica river, Glogovo
V
Symphyandra hofmannii Pan-
tocsek
central Bosnia: around mid fow of the Bosna and
Vrbas river, Vranica Mt. – valley of the Kozica
river, surrounding of Brčko
-
Viola beckiana Fiala
Smolin at Žepče, Stolovac between Donji Vakuf
and Jajce, between Bugojno and Kupres, Han Ko-
privnica, Stožer Plazenica
K
V. prenja G. Beck Prenj Mt. K
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Slika 4. – Rasprostranjenost nekih endemičnih i rijetkih vrsta na prostoru BiH
Campanula cochlearifolia Lam.
Campanula hercegovina Degen & Fiala

Campanula hercegovina
Campanula waldsteiniana
Campanula moesiaca
Campanula portenschlagiana
Campanula velebitica
Campanulacochlearifolia
Campanula latifolia
Campanula sibirica
Campanula pyramidalis
Campanula thyrsoides
Acinos orontius
Alyssum moellendorfianum
Minuartia hendelii
Halacsya sendtneri
Saxifraga prenja
Lilium bosniacum
Symphyandra hofmannii
Gentiana dinarica
Campanula pyramidalis
Picea omorika
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Fig. 4. – Distribution range of some endemic plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Pritisci na floru sjemenjača
Zbog svoje biološke senzitivnosti, te različitih
tipova pritisaka koji traju i vijekovima
(intenzivno obešumljavanje, erozija zemljišta,
poremećaji vodnog režima, isušivanje, te
ekploatacija mineralnih i bioloških resursa)
evidentan je i ozbiljan stepen ugroženosti
vaskularne flore BiH.
Prema procjenama preliminarne liste biljaka
za Crvenu knjigu (Šilić, 1996), a cijeneći
kriterije Internacionalne unije za konzervaciju
biodiverziteta, procijenjeno je da preko 600
taxa (vrsta, podrvrsta, varijeteta i formi ) ima
određeni stepen ugroženosti životnog
statusa.
Ukoliko se uzmu u obzir faktori koji općenito
u sadašnjosti ugrožavaju raznolikost živog
svijeta, pa tako i komponentu biljnog svijeta,
onda se oni mogu svesti na najrazličitije
oblike negativnog djelovanja čovjeka na
prirodu tj. uticaja antropogenog faktora. Ovaj
uticaj se ogleda kroz:
lefekte globalnih klimatskih promjena praćenih kiselim kišama i prekomjernim
zagrijavanjem;
lkonverziju prirodnih staništa u antropogena;
lprekomjernu deforestaciju;
lisušivanju močvarnih staništa;
lkonverziju šumskih staništa;
lprekomjernu ispašu i eroziju zemljišta u visokoplaninskim područjima;
lneuravnoteženu eksploataciju mineralnih resursa;
linvazivne vrste koje zauzimaju ekološke niše autohtonih vrsta;
lprekomjernu eksplotaciju privredno važnih vrsta.
Alohtona flora
Pod alohtonom florom podrazumijevaju se
vrste koje su u ekosisteme BiH dospjele na
različite načine iz drugih geografskih
područja, a održavaju se u kulturama, i
dijelom, u slobodnoj prirodi.
Visok stepen heterogenosti bosansko-
hercegovačkih staništa otvara životni prostor
i za mnoge alohtone vrste. Na osnovu
raspoloživih podataka procjenjuje se da se na
teritoriju Bosne i Hercegovine nalazi i više od
500 različitih alohtonih vrsta, od kojih su se
mnoge adaptirale na prirodna staništa.
Značajan broj vrsta egzistira samo u kulturi i
nj ihov opstanak zavisi od različitih
intervencija i brige čovjeka (mnoge ukrasne
vrste, te većina biljnih genetičkih resursa).
Dianthus freynii Vandas
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Because of its sensitivity in biological respect,
and diferent kind of pressures that have been
ongoing for centuries (intensive deforesta-
tion, soil erosion, disturbances of water re-
gime, drainage, exploitation of mineral and
biological resources), vascular fora of Bosnia
and Herzegovina is severly threatened.
According to the assessment based on the
preliminary plant’s list that was compiled
for the Red Book (Šilić, 1992-1995), and fol-
lowing criteria of the International Union for
Conservation of Nature, there are over 600
taxa under certain threat (species, sub-spe-
cies, varietes and forms).
If we take into account factors that currently
endanger biodiversity in general, and by that
also its herbal component, we can classify
them into diferent forms of negative human
impacts, so called anthropogenous impacts.
Tese are refected through:
Pressures on fora of spermatophytes
t Efects of global climate changes followed by acid rain and over-heating;
t Conversion of natural habitats into anthropogenic ones;
t Over-deforestation;
t Drainage of wetlands;
t Conversion of wood’s habitats;
t Over-grazing and soil erosion in highmountain areas;
t Unbalanced exploitation of mineral resources;
t Invasive species that take ecological niches of autochtonous ones;
t Over-exploitation of economically important species.
An alien fora addresses species that have
come into ecosystems of B&H by diferent
means from diferent geographical regions,
and exercise their efects on crops and par-
tially in free nature.
High heterogeneity level of habitats in B&H
provides living space for numerous alien
species. Based on available records, it is es-
timated that on the territory of Bosnia and
Herzegovina occur more than 500 alien spe-
cies, of which many got adapted in natural
habitats. Signifcant number of them lives
only in crops, for their survival depends on
human intervention and care (many orna-
mental species, majority of herbal genetic
resources).
Alien fora
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DIVERSITY OF
FAUNA
Pokušaji inventarizacije i sistematizacije
recentnog životinjskog svijeta suočavaju
se sa dva osnovna i velika problema :
lrazličit pristup u taksonomskom
razvrstavanju;
lprocjena stvarnog, odnosno potencij
alnog broja vrsta, unutarvrstnih
kategorija i rodova.
Slijedeći pristup savremenih autora,
carstvo životinja se diferencira na
izuzetno veliki broj filuma. Prema Miller-
u i Harley-u (1999), Protozoa se difere-
ncira na 7, a Metazoa na 36 filuma. Prema
Pechenik-u (1996) međutim, carstvo
životinja se diferencira na 16 filuma
Protozoa i 32 filuma Metazoa.
Slijedeći najnoviju EUNIS klasifikaciju,
ovo carstvo se danas diferencira na 43
filuma. Upravo je ovaj pokušaj dosljednog
klasificiranja rezultirao suprotstavljenim
shvatanjima po pitanju obuhvatnosti
pojedinih filuma.
Procjena stvarnog i potencijalnog broja
životinjskih vrsta u BiH predstavlja jedan
od najozbiljnih problema. Unatoč
činjenici da živimo u 21. vijeku, veliki broj
vrsta, pa i čitavih filuma, naročito
beskičmenjaka, i dalje predstavlja veliku
nepoznanicu za nauku. Najsupro-
tstavljeniji stavovi, kada je u pitanju
procjena stvarnog specijskog diverziteta,
odnose se upravo na grupu beski-
čmenjaka. Stoga, postoji ozbiljna opasnost
da mnoge od ovih vrsta i nestanu pod
različitim pritiscima savremenog čovjeka,
a da nikada nisu ni bile poznate naučnoj
javnosti. Kolike su stvarne štete usljed
nepoznavanj a i nei skori št avanj a
unikatnog genofonda, sadržanog u
svijetu divljine, izuzetno je teško
pr oc i j eni t i danas r as pol oži vi m
metodologijama, ali je sasvim sigurno da
su one velike i dugoročne.
GLOBALNI DIVERZITET FAUNE
Unatoč brojnosti pojedinih životinjskih
grupa, te vi sokom stepenu nj i hove
neistraženosti, do sada u Bosni i Hercegovini
nisu učinjeni obimniji poduhvati u
inventarizaciji i objedinjavanju znanja. I
pored izraženog entuzijazma zoologa u
sistematiziranju znanja, fauna Bosne i
Hercegovine ni izbliza nije kompletirana.
Nivoi istraženosti pojedinih životinjskih vrsta
su različiti. Među bolje istraženim su fauna
sisara, ptica, riba i leptira.
U okviru grupe beskičmenjaka postoje podaci o
procjeni broja vrsta i ukupnom taksonomskom
diverzitetu, za pojedine grupe kao što su:
Annelida (maločekinjaši), Hirudinea
(pijavice), Oribatidae (krpelji), Crustacea
(rakovi), i neke grupe Insecta (insekti), a među
posljednjim su naročito dobro istražene:
Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera,
Ropalocera, te predstavnici pedofaune
(Colembolla, Protura i Myriapoda).
DIVERZITET FAUNE U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
Bosna i Hercegovina, na osnovu broja
pojedinih životinjskih grupa, te njihove
raznosvrsnosti kao i diverziteta faune
uopće, spada u sami vrh evropskog
biodiverziteta, što se manifestuje i kroz
visok udio endemičnih i reliktnih vrsta,
naroči t o u poj edi ni m odj el j ci ma
beskičmenjaka. Posebnu specifičnost
fauni BiH daje prisustvo refugijuma i
razvojnih centara unikatne faune u
mnogobroj nim kraškim izvorima,
planinskim potocima, te kanjonima.
Pokušaji sistematizacije raspoloživih
podataka o fauni Bosne i Hercegovine
pokazuj u neuj ednačena znanj a o
pojedinim grupama. Za carstvo Protozoa
Istraženost
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GLOBAL DIVERSITY OF FAUNA
An attempt to make an inventory and sys-
tematic overview of recent animal world has
been facing two major obstacles:
t Diferences in taxonomic approach;
t Assessment of actual, or potential, num-
ber of species, intraspecies categories and
genera.
Respecting the approach of modern authors,
animal kingdom is divided into numerous
phyla. Afer Miller and Harley (1999), Pro-
tozoa is divided into 7, and Metazoa into 36
phyla. Afer Pechenik (1996), however, ani-
mal kingdom consists of 16 phyla of Proto-
zoa and 32 phyla of Metazoa.
According to the most recent EUNIS clas-
sifcation, this kingdom today consists of 43
phyla. Tis is a classifcation attempt, which
resulted in contrary opinions regarding phy-
lum’s extent.
To assess the actual and potential number of
animal species in B&H is the most sever prob-
lem of all. Despite the fact that we are living
in the 21st century, there are many species
or even entire phyla, especially invertebrates,
that are considered to be a mistery to modern
science. Te assessment of real species diver-
sity within invertebrates causes the most op-
posite standpoints. Hence, there is a serious
threat that some of these species could be-
come extinct due to impacts of a modern hu-
man society before they even get discovered.
It is hard to quantify, by currently available
methodology, a damage caused by ignorance
and neglection of this unique gen pool, but it
is for sure that the damage would have severe
and long-termed consequences.
Despite of the abundance of distinct animal
groups and the fact that they are being unex-
plored, in Bosnia and Herzegovina hasn’t been
undertaken any action to make an inventory
and compile existing knowledge. Although some
zoologist confrm their enormous enthusiasm
by attempts to organize the knowledge in more
systematic manner, the fauna of Bosnia and
Herzegovina is far from being full.
Tere are diferences among distinct animal
groups regarding the achieved investigation lev-
el. Te fauna of fsh, birds and butterfies is the
best investigated.
As far as invertebrates are concerned, there are
some assessments done on the species number
and taxonomic diversity of several groups, such
as: Annelida (segmented worms), Hirudinea
(leeches), Oribatidae (ticks), Crustacea (crabs),
Insecta (insects). Te latter includes some well
investigated groups: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera,
Trichoptera, Ropalocera, and representatives of
pedofauna Colembolla, Protura and Myriapoda.
Investigation level
DIVERSITY OF FAUNA IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Tanks to the abundance and diversity of
certain animal groups, as well as diversity
of fauna in general, Bosnia and Herzegovina
belongs to the top of European biodiversity.
Tis is also confrmed by great deal of en-
demic and relict species, especially among
the invertebrates. B&H’s fauna is character-
ized by the occurence of refugia and develop-
ment centres, and by the most unique fauna
of karst sources, mountain torrents and can-
yons.
Te attempt to compile records on fauna of
Bosnia and Herzegovina has recognized un-
even knowledge level by groups. For the reg-
num of Protozoa, there are missing data on
species and phylla that have been identifed
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Filum (tip, koljeno, razred)
Broj
porodica
Broj
rodova
Predpost.
br. vrsta
Broj
vrsta (?)
Endemi
Protozoa: Sarcodina, Mastigophora, Ciliophora ? ? ??
Porifera: Demospongiae 1 3 ?4
Placozoa 1 1 ?1
Cnidaria: Hydrozoa,Scyphozoa i Anthozoa ? ? 50 ??
Ctenophora ? 3 3 ?
Plathelminthes:Turbellaria, Trematodes i Cestodes ? ? 98
Gnathostomulida, Mesozoa, Rhynchocoela ? ? ?
Nematoda: Nemata ? ? 103
Nematomorpha: Nectonematoidea, Gordioidea 4 ? 20
Acanthocephala ? ? 30 ? ?
Priapulida, Rotifera ? ? ?
Gastrotricha 13 ? 50
Kinorhyncha: Echinoderida ? 3 -3
Loriciphera ? ? ?
Mollusca: Polyplacophora 13 ?
Mollusca: Aplacophora 24
Mollusca: Monoplacophora 1
Mollusca: Gastropoda 330
Mollusca: Bivalvia 90
Mollusca: Scaphopoda 8
Mollusca: Cephalopoda 44
uglavnom nedostaju podaci o prisutnim
vrstama i filumima na području Bosne i
Hercegovine. Filumi Metazoa, kao što su
Platihelminthes, Nemertina, Nematoda,
Rotatoria, Pogonophora su grupe koje su
malo ili nikako istraživane u Bosni i
Hercegovini.
Na aktuelnom nivou saznanja o carstvu
životinja može se govoriti o procjeni
stanja biodiverziteta po filogenetičkim
grupama, kako je prikazano u tabeli 12:
Tabela 12. – Procjena biodiverziteta životinja Bosne i Hercegovine
Diverzitet beskičmenjaka
Beskičmenjaci predstavljaju najbrojniju i
najraznovrsniju grupu unutar živog
svijeta, kako na globalnom, regionalnom,
tako i na lokalnom nivou. Različite vrste
beskičmenjaka čine okosnicu biodive-
rziteta bosansko-hercegovačke faune, dok
sa druge strane, upravo beskičmenjaci
predstavljaju i najslabije istražene
organizme.
Tabela 13. – Prikaz biodiverziteta faune po filogenetskim grupama
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Phyllum (typ, division, class)
Number
of fami-
lies
Number of
genera
Presumed
number
of species
Number
of spe-
cies(?)
Endemic
species
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in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Phylla of Meta-
zoa, such as Platihelminthes, Nemertina,
Nematoda, Rotatoria, Pogonophora happen
to be the least, or not at all investigated in
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Based on the actual knowledge of animal
kingdom we can make the assessment of bio-
diversity by phylogenetic groups, as shown
in Table 12:
Table 12. – Assessment of animal diversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Diversity of invertebrates
Te invertebrates are both the most numer-
ous and the most diverse group of living
world on global, regional and local scale. Te
framework of B&H’s fauna diversity is made
by diferent invertebrates groups, while they,
at the same time, represent the least investi-
gated group of organisms.
Table 13. – Overview of invertebrates diversity in B&H by phylogenetic groups
Animal group
Number of
families
Number of
genera
Total number
of species
Number of threat-
ened species in
B&H
Number of threat-
ened species in
Europe
Number of endemic
species
Fish 27 69 119 ? 110 12
Amphibians 7 8 20 3 6 6
Reptiles 12 26 38 11 10 12
Birds 60 165 326 97 78 -
Mammals 19 51 (2?) 85 (+2?) 24 52 9
Total 125 319 (2?) 588 (2?) 135 256 39
Pentastomida 1 1 2 ? -
Annelida:Polychaeta
Annelida: Oligocheta 5 19 50
Annelida: Hirudinea 3 7 8
Annelida: Branchiobdellida
Echiura, Sipuncula, Pogonophora
Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida:Acarina 48 84 208
Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Merostomata, Pycnogonida
Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Amphipoda 1 8 31
Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Decapoda 1 2 5
Arthropoda: Crustacea: Cephalocarida, Branchiopoda,
Ostracoda, Mystacocarida, Copepoda, Branchiura,
Pentastomida, Tantulocarida, Remipedia, Cirripedia

Arthropoda: Chilopoda ? ? 60 9 ?
Arthropoda: Diplopoda ? ? 80 55 ?
Arthropoda: Pauropoda 4 9 25 23 ?
Arthropoda: Symphila 2 7 15 12 ?
Arthropoda: Insecta ? ? 30.000
Arthropoda: Insecta: Colembola ? ? 255 224
Arthropoda: Insecta: Ephemeroptera 9 20 60 58
Arthropoda: Insecta: Plecoptera 7 15 80 74
Arthropoda: Insecta: Trichoptera 19 78 220 215
Arthropoda: Insecta: Protura ? ? 25 18
Arthropoda: Insecta: Diplura ? ? 20 15
Arthropoda: Insecta: Zygentoma ? 2 2 2
Arthropoda: Insecta: Mantodea 2 3 4 4
Arthropoda: Insecta: Blattodea 3 5 20 17
Arthropoda: Insecta: Heteroptera ? ? 1.000 705
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Adephaga 5 ? 1.000 701
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga ? ? 10.000 6.000
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Lymexylidae 1 1 1
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Buprestidae ? 150 129
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Hydrophilidae
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Sphaeridiidae
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Sphaeritiidae 1 1 1
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Dascillidae 1 1 1
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Trogidae 1 3 3
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Geotrupidae 3 9 9
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Scarabaeidae 45 160 159
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Lucanidae 6 7 7
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Chrysomelidae ? 350 322
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Cerambicidae ? 220 218
Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Scolytidae
Arthropoda: Insecta: Lepidoptera 58 785 3.000 1.622
Arthropoda: Insecta: Caelifera ? ? 70 70
Arthropoda: Insecta: Ensifera ? ? 85 85
Arthropoda: Ins., Hymenoptera 21 ? 5.000 353
Tardigrad: Heterotardigrada 31
Tardigrad: Mesotardigrada, Eutardigrada
Onychophora 0 0 0 0 0
Phoronida 1 1 1 -
Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Entoprocta
Echinodermata: Crinoidea ? 2 3
Echinodermata: Holothurioidea ? 3 2 (3)
Echinodermata: Echinoidea ? 5 5
Echinodermata: Asteroidea ? 5 6
Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea ? 3 4
Chaetognatha: Sagittoidea ? ? 13
55 55 ?
47 ? 60
30 ? 30
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Karakteristike biodiverziteta limnofaune
Diverzitet staništa, kako vodenih tako i
kopnenih ekosistema, na horizontalnom i
vertikalnom profilu Bosne i Hercegovine,
uslovio je razvoj diverziteta brojnih vrsta
beskičmenjaka.
U okviru faune Metazoa Bosne i
Hercegovine se procj enj uj e visok
diverzitet, mada većina ovih životinjskih
grupa još nije dovoljno istražena.
Tabela 13 daje pregled pretpostavljenog
broja vrsta određenih grupa beski-
čmenj aka, a naročito Arthropoda
(zglavkara). U zavisnosti od nivoa
proučenosti, te stvarne brojnosti, cijeni se
da među najbrojnije grupa spadaju neke
vrste insekata: Coleoptera (tvrdokrilaca),
Lepidoptera (leptira) i Hymenoptera
(opnokrilaca).
Usljed raznolikosti vodenih staništa, kao i
prisustva različitih oblika vodotoka,
limnofauna beskičmenjaka Bosne i Herce-
govine je veoma raznovrsna. Samo u
grupi mal očeki nj aša utvrđeno j e
postojanje 50 vrsta koje se svrstavaju u 19
Grafikon 4. – Diverzitet maločekinjaša (a) i pijavica (b) u BiH
Grafikon 5. – Diverzitet vodenih cvjetova (a) i kamenjarki (b) u BiH
Pijavice (Hirudinea) su djelimično
istražene. Prema trenutno raspoloživim
podacima, vodene ekosisteme naseljava 8
vrsta iz 7 rodova.
Riječni rakovi (Amphipoda) zastupljeni
su 31 vrstom, od kojih su čak 16
endemičnog karaktera. U slivu gornjeg
toka rijeke Neretve zabilježeno je
značajno prisustvo riječnih rakova iz
skupine desetonožaca. U Boračkom
jezeru je 2002. godine zapažena brojna
populacija vrste Astacus astacus, a u slivu
r i j e ke Bos ne popul a c i j a vr s t e
Austropotamobius torentium.
Za bosanskohercegovačke slatkovodne
ekosisteme, veoma je karakteristična
fauna vodenih insekata, koja se odlikuje
visokim diverzitetom i endemičnošću.
Tako faunu vodenih cvjetova čini 58 vrsta
iz 20 rodova od kojih su pet oblika
dinarski, balkanski ili dinarsko-alpski
endemi.
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Te diversity of habitats both aquatic and ter-
restrial ones, on horizontal and vertical pro-
fle of Bosnia and Herzegovina, has promoted
a diversifcation of many invertebrates.
Tough majority of those species hasn’t been
enough explored so far, there are numerous
animal groups because of which fauna of
Metazoa of Bosnia and Herzegovina is con-
sidered to be highly diverse.
Table 13 gives an overview of the forseen
species number for some groups of inverte-
brates, this comes especially to Arthropoda.
In correlation with the achieved investiga-
tion level and realized abundance, it is as-
sessed that groups with greatest abundancy
are some of insects: Coleoptera (beetles),
Lepidoptera (butterfies) and Hymenoptera
(sawfies).
Characteristics of limnofauna’s diversity
Due to the diversity of aquatic habitats, and
the occurence of diferent kind of watercours-
es, limnofauna of invertebrates of Bosnia and
Herzegovina ought to be very diverse. Tere
are 50 species among annelids that belong to
19 genera.
Graph. 4. – Diversity of annelids (a) and leaches (b) in B&H
Graph. 5. – Diversity of mayfies (a) and stonefies (b) in B&H
Leaches (Hirudinea) have been only partially
investigated. According to currently obtain-
able records, in water ecosystems live 8 spe-
cies belonging to 7 genera.
River crustaceans (Amphipoda) encompass
31 species, of which 16 are endemic ones.
In upper fow of Neretva river it was noted
signifcante abundance of river crustaceans
belonging to decapods.In 2002, inBoračko
lake was recognized large population of Asta-
cus astacus, while in the confuence of Bosna
river the same kind of observation was made
for Austropotamobius torentium.
For freshwater ecosystems in Bosnia and
Herzegovina, the most characteristic is fauna
of aquatic insects, with high level of the di-
versity and endemism. Tus, fauna of may-
fies comprises 58 species belonging to 20
genera, of which fve are dinaric, balkan or
dinaric-alpine endemic species.
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U fauni kamenjarki (Plecoptera) do sada
su zabilježene 74 vrste iz 15 rodova. Čak
13 taksona su endemi koji pripadaju
rodovima: Brachyptera (3), Leuctra (4),
Isoperla (3), Perla (1), Siphonoperla (1) i
Chloroperla (1). Vrste Leuctra aptera i
Leuctra jahorinensis su svojim arealom
ograničene na prostor Bosne i Herce-
govine.
Grafikon 6. – Diverzitet vodenih moljaca u BiH
Tabela 14. - Endemične vrste reda Ephemeroptera opisane na prostoru Bosne i
Hercegovine
U vodenoj fauni insekata brojnu grupu
čine vodeni moljci (tulari), unutar kojih je
utvrđeno prisustvo čak 215 vrsta iz 78
rodova. Od ovog broja čak 50 vrsta imaju
karaktere endema, a 24 vrste među njima
su dinarski endemi. Najinteresantniji je
rod Drusus koji nastanjuje izvorišne vode
Bosne i Hercegovine.
Staništa sa visokim diverzitetom
vodenih insekata (Duman, Livno)
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Endemic species of Dinaric Alps Endemic species of Balkan peninsula Dinaric-alpine endemic species
Table 14. – Endemic species of Ephemeroptera described in Bosnia and Herzegovina
In the fauna of stonefies (Plecoptera), it has
been described 74 species from 15 genera.
Tere are 13 endemic taxa belonging to genera:
Brachyptera (3), Leuctra (4), Isoperla (3), Perla
(1), Siphonoperla (1) and Chloroperla (1). Dis-
tribution range of Leuctra aptera and Leuctra
jahorinensis is limited and relates exclusively to
the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In the aquatic fauna of insects, water moths
(caddisfies) ought to be numerous group with
215 detected species from 78 genera. From that
number, 50 species possess endemic character
and 24 of them are endemic ones with the di-
naric distribution range. Te most interesting
is genus Drusus inhabiting water of Bosnia
and Herzegovina at sources itselfs.
Graph. 6. – Diversity of water moths in B&H
Habitat of high diversity of
aquatic insects (Duman, Livno)
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I pored obimnijeg istraživanja grupe
krpelja (Oribatida) njihova sistematizacija
još nije kompletna. Posebno interesantne
među njima su vrste koje naseljavaju
hercegovačke pećine, od kojih su
endemične: Eremulus simplex Willmann,
1940, Autognata willmanni Willmann,
1941, Chamobates petrinjensis Willmann,
1940 i Carabodes bosniae Frank, 1965. U
šumskim, livadskim i ekosistemima
kamenjara na planini Ozren kod Sarajeva
utvrđene su još 63 vrste krpelja. Do danas
je poznato 208 vrsta iz 84 roda, koje žive
na području Bosne i Hercegovine.
Slika 5. – Distribucija vrsta roda Drusus
u BiH
Pritisci na faunu beskičmenjaka
Zbog rastućeg antropogenog pritiska,
slika svijeta beskičmenjaka u Bosni i
Hercegovini je sigurno pretrpjela prom-
jene. Djelovanju različitih formi pritisaka
su posebno podložni pripadnici higro-
filnih i hidrofilnih grupa, kao što su
rakovi, vodeni insekti, pijavice i mekušci.
Dominantni pritisci na faunu beskičme-
njaka u vodenoj sredini su:
lIntenzivna eutrofikacija tekućica različitim polutantima organske i anorganske
prirode;
lIntenzivna eutrofikacija usljed podizanja vještačkih akumulacija;
lPromjene u osnovnim fizikalnim svojstvima tekućih voda (kao što je brzina protoka,
količina vode, termički i svjetlosni režim) usljed podizanja brana i stvaranja veoma
dubokih hidroakumulacija. Na ovaj način uništena su prirodna staništa mnogim
organizmima dna (bentosa) u brojnim kanjonima (Neretva, Vrbas, Drina), u kojima
su bili razvojni centri i endemične faune ovih organizama;
lZnačajni poremećaji vodenog režima u izvorišnom dijelu tekućica zbog sve
izraženije konverzije šumskih staništa u sječine i krčevine, čime se povećavaju
procesi erozije i smanjuju opšte rezerve vode u sistemu njenog prirodnog kruženja;
lDirektni zahvati u dno mnogih tekućica (eksploatacija pijeska i šljunka), praćeni
odlaganjem komunalnog otpada;
lDeponovanje svih vrsta otpada, uključujući štetni i opasni otpad (farmaceutski
otpad, razna ulja, akumulatori, punjenja za rashladne uređaje) na obalama rijeka, pa i
u samim tekućicama;
lNekontrolisana introdukcija alohtonih vrsta životinja;
lKontaminacija voda pesticidima i fertilizatorima sa poljoprivrednih površina;
lSve češća toksifikacija vodotoka hemijskim jedinjenjima (npr. difenili);
lSve intenzivnija konverzija priobalnog pojasa kroz neplansku izgradnju različitih
objekata, puteva i slične infrastrukture;
lSve češće kaptiranje izvora (centara endemičnosti), te preusmjeravanje vodotoka na
poljoprivredne površine ili u druge slivove.
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Despite undertaken investigations, complete
systematic overview of ticks (Oribatida) hasn’t
been done yet. As interesting forms of life it
should be mentioned species that inhabit her-
zegovina’s caves. Among them endemic ones
are: Eremulus simplex Willmann, 1940, Autog-
nata willmanni Willmann, 1941, Chamobates
petrinjensis Willmann, 1940 and Carabodes
bosniae Frank, 1965. In forests, meadows and
rocky grassland of Ozren Mt. near Sarajevo
detected were 63 tick species. On the entire
territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina exist 208
species belonging to 84 genera identifed up
to now.
Figure 5. – Distribution range of the genus Drusus in B&H
Due to increasing human pressures, inver-
tebrates picture in Bosnia and Herzegovina
has undergone major changes. Those pres-
sures specially affect hygrophilous and hy-
drophilous organisms, such as crabs, water
insects, leaches and molluscs. Pressures
onto aquatic invertebrates that prevail are:
t Intensive eutrophication of streams by
diverse both organic and inorganic pollut-
ants;
t Intensive eutrophication due to creation
of artificial lakes;
t Changes of main physical parameters of
streams, such as outf low rate, water quanti-
ties, thermic and light regime due to raising
of dams and creation of very deep hydro-
accumulations. In this way, destroyed are
natural habitats of many benthic organisms
of canyons (Neretva, Vrbas and Drina river)
where used to be development centres of en-
demic fauna;
t Substantial distrubance of water regime
around source area due to conversion of
wood habitats into logged or burned sur-
faces, which promotes erosion process and
decrease of water supplies in the natural
water cycle;
t Direct activities affecting a f luent’s bot-
tom (sand and gravel extraction), followed
by a disposal of comunal waste;
t Disposal of different sorts of waste mate-
rial, including the toxic and dangerous ones
(pharmaceutical waste, oils, accumulators,
charges of cooling devices), on riverbanks
and even in streams itselfs;
t Uncontrolled introduction of alien ani-
mal species;
t Water pollution by pesticides and fertil-
izers draining from arable land;
t Toxification of watercourses by chemical
compounds (for instance, diphenols);
t Increased conversion of coastal belt areas
by infrastructure for the facilities, which
disagree with physical plan;
t Catchement of springs (which are cen-
tres of endemism), and re-direction of wa-
tercourses into arable land or other conf lu-
ences.
Pressures on fauna of invertebrates
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Kao rezultat djelovanja globalnih i
lokalnih faktora, nastaje i ugroženost
kopnenih beskičmenjaka, kao što su
skakavci, zrikavci, mravi, leptiri, tvrdo-
krilci, krpelji, stonoge, mekušci.
Najznačajniji pritisci koji djeluju na
lokalnom nivou su:
lKonverzija staništa, te degradacija zemljišta i uništavanje ekoloških niša velikog
broja organizama;
lGubitak prirodnih staništa kroz proces prirodne progradacije brojnih livada i
kamenjara, te drugih otvorenih staništa;
lNitrifikacija humusno-akumulativnih horizonata zemljišta kroz različite
poljoprivredne aktivnosti, čime se direktno ugrožavaju organizmi pedofaune;
lPrekomjerna ispaša na pojedinim prostorima (visokoplaninsko područje Vranice,
Vlašića, Čvrsnice, Zelengore), koja dovodi do smanjenja produkcije biljnih vrsta za
koje su životinje vezane kroz životne procese (ishrana, odlaganje jaja, mikrostaništa);
lPožari, bujice, poplave;
lIntrodukcija invazivnih vrsta biljaka, a naročito životinja koje značajno mijenjaju
strukturu i funkcionalno ustrojstvo ekoloških niša u datim ekosistemima;
lUpotreba pesticida, te raznih ekostimulcida;
lUrbanizacija, zagađenje vazduha, kisela depozicija (promjena pH vrijednosti
staništa);
lUsmjerena upotreba pesticida za masovno uništavanje, koja djeluje na sve
organizme (insekticidi, moluscidi, herbicidi, fungicidi, rodenticidi).
Kao posljedica navedenih pritisaka,
mnoge životinjske vrste su postale
ugrožene i nalaze se, nažalost, na
Crvenim listama. O stvarnoj ugroženosti
pojedinih grupa beskičmenjaka detaljnije
će se moći govoriti nakon izrade Crvene
knjige na nivou Bosne i Hercegovine.
Današnju osnovu za planske akcije čine
aneksi Habitat direktive na kojoj se nalaze
i sljedeće vrste insekata sa našeg područja,
koje zahtijevaju konzervaciju staništa:
Tabela 15. – Vrste insekta iz Habitat Direktive koje zahtijevaju konzervaciju staništa
u BiH
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31
As a result of impacts of global and lo-
cal factors, terrestrial invertebrates, such
as grasshoopers, ants, butterf lies, beetles,
ticks, centipedes and molluscs, get threat-
ened, too.
The most important pressures acting on lo-
cal scale are:
t Conversion of habitats, soil’s degrada-
tion and destroying of ecological niches for
many organisms;
t Loss of natural habitats through the pro-
cess of progradation of meadows, rock de-
bris communities and other kind of open
habitats;
t Nitrification of humus-acumulative hori-
zon by diverse agricultural activities, which
directly endangers pedofauna;
t Overgrazing in some areas (high-
mountain area of Vranica Mt., Vlašić Mt.,
Čvrsnica Mt., Zelengora Mt.), which leads
to dicrease in yield of plants that animals
are vitally bound to (nutrition, laying eggs,
microhabitats);
t Fires, f loods, currents;
t Introduction of alien species, especially
animals that substantially change the struc-
ture and functionality of niches in consid-
ered ecosystem;
t Usage of pesticides and different kind of
ecostimulus;
t Urbanisation, air pollution, acid deposi-
tion (change in pH value);
t Overuse of pesticides targeted at massive
eradication affecting all organisms (insec-
ticides, molluscides, herbicides, fungicides,
rodenticides).
As a consequence of above listed pressures,
many animals became endangered and got,
unfortunately, in the Red list. It will be pos-
sible to disscuss a real threat of distinct
avertebrates in details, after Red book of
Bosnia and Herzegovina gets done.
Today, our base for planned activities rep-
resent Annexes of Habitat’s Directive by
which are concerned following insects in-
habiting our territory and requiring habi-
tat’s conservation:
Table 15. – Insects concerned by Habitat’s Directive, Annex I, in Bosnia & Herzegovina
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Slika 6. – Distribucija nekih vrsta Lepidoptera iz Habitat direktive u BiH
Fauna kičmenjaka u Bosni i Hercegovini je predstavljena sa sljedećim grupama
organizama: ribe (Pisces), vodozemci (Amphibia), gmizavci (Reptilia), ptice (Aves) i
sisari (Mammalia).
Diverzitet kičmenjaka
Diverzitet riba (Pisces)
Fauna riba Bosne i Hercegovine je u biogeografskom i ekološkom pogledu
izdiferencirana na dvije grupe: marinsku i slatkovodnu.
Slatkovodne ribe
Zahvaljujući interesu velikog broja
i st raži vača, f auna ri ba Bosne i
Hercegovine je relativno dobro istražena.
Zvanični podaci o slatkovodnim ribama u
Bosni i Hercegovini, datiraju još iz 1882
(Steindachner). Nešto intenzivnija
istraživanja datiraju iz 1928 godine
(Taler), te u kasnijem periodu Vuković i
Sofradžija istražuju slatkovodnu, a Šoljan
i Sofradžija marinsku ihtiofaunu.
U okviru slatkovodne, uočene su bitne
razlike u strukturi i stepenu endemičnosti
faune jadranskog i crnomorskog sliva.
Dok ihtiofauna jadranskog sliva sadrži
i zr azi t o vi sok br oj endemi čni h
sistematskih kategorija, u ihtiofauni
crnomorskog sliva do sada nisu
registrovani endemični oblici. Biodive-
rzitet riba Bosne i Hercegovine se manife-
stuje kroz prisustvo 119 vrsta i podvrsta iz
69 rodova i 27 porodica. 19 porodica ima
samo jedan rod, a od toga 16 porodica
samo jednu vrstu.
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%XWWHUÁLHV
Diversity of vertebrates
Fish diversity (Pisces)
Figure 6. – Distribution of some Lepidoptera concerned by Habitat’s Directive in B&H
Fauna of vertebrates in Bosnia and Herzegovina is represented by following organism groups: fsh
(Pisces), amphibians (Amphibia), reptiles (Reptilia), birds (Aves) and mammals (Mammalia).
Fish fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina is in biogeographical and ecological respect divided in
two: marine and freshwater.
Freshwater fshes
Because of high researchers interest, fsh
fauna in Bosnia and Herzegovina is rela-
tively well investigated. Ofcial records on
freshwater fsh species in Bosnia and Herze-
govina date back from 1882 (Steindachner).
Investigation has became more intensive
since 1928 (Taler). In later period, freshwa-
ter ichthyofauna got investigated by Vuković
and Sofradžija, while Šoljan and Sofradžija
did the same for marine fauna. In freshwater
fauna recognized are signifcant diferences
in structure and level of endemism between
Adriatic and Black Sea confuences. Tere is
a high level of endemism in the Adriatic Sea
confuence, which isn’t the case in the Black
Sea confuence that hasn’t got endemic forms
described so far. Biodiversity of fsh in Bosnia
and Herzegovina is refected through the oc-
curence of 119 species and sub-species from
69 genera and 27 families. Tere are 19 fami-
lies comprising only one genus, of which 16
families have got only one species.
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Tabela 16. - Endemične vrste i podvrste riba i njihova rasprostranjenost u BiH
Najviši specijski diverzitet konstatovan je
u okviru porodice Cyprinidae (26 rodova i
51 vrsta), te Salmonidae (5; 8). Više od
jedne vrste imaju porodice Acipenseridae
(2; 7), Mugilidae (1; 6), Percidae (4; 7),
Cobitidae (3; 6), Clupeidae (1; 3),
Gasterosteidae (2; 2), Gobiidae (5; 7) i
Cottidae (1; 2).
Od ukupnog broja porodica (27), njih 7
41%
23%
36%
Crnomorski sliv
Jadranski sliv
Crnomorski i
Jadranski sliv





naseljava isključivo crnomorski, 12
isključivo jadranski sliv, a predstavnici 8
porodica se mogu naći u oba sliva.
Analiza na nivou roda pokazuje da je od
ukupnog broja (69), 28 rodova zastupljeno
isključivo u crnomorskom, 16 isključivo u
jadranskom slivu, a vrste iz 25 rodova
naseljavaju oba sliva.
Relativno mali broj vrsta nalazimo u oba
sliva. Među njima se nalazi i izvjestan broj
vrsta riba crnomorskog sliva, koje su
introducirane u jadranski sliv (šaran,
smuđ, linjak i lipljen). Uz njih je i 11
alohtonih vrsta, koje potiču iz euro-
azijskih i američkih voda.
Grafikon 7. – Zastupljenost rodova riba po morskim slivovima
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LATIN NAME
CONFLUENCE
C
o
n
f
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

V
r
b
a
s
C
o
n
f
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

B
o
s
n
a
C
o
n
b
f
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

D
r
i
n
a
C
o
n
f
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

N
e
r
e
t
v
a
C
o
n
f
u
e
n
c
e
s

o
f

U
n
a

a
n
d

S
a
n
a
C
o
n
f
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

U
k
r
i
n
a
H
u
t
o
v
o

b
l
a
t
o
B
u
š
k
o

j
e
z
e
r
o
K
l
i
n
j
e

j
e
z
e
r
o
C
o
n
f
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

S
a
v
a
C
o
n
f
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

T
i
n
j
a
C
o
n
f
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

T
r
e
b
i
š
n
j
i
c
a
W
a
t
e
r

o
f

L
i
v
n
o

a
n
d

D
u
v
n
o
Adriatic Sea
FRQÀXHQFH
Balck Sea
Adriatic
FRQÀXHQFH
Black Sea
FRQÀXHQFH
Table 16. – Endemic species and sub-species of fshes and their distribution in B&H
Te highest diversity is recognized within the
family Cyprinidae (26 genera and 51 species)
and Salmonidae (5; 8). More than one species
comprise families: Acipenseridae (2; 7), Mu-
gilidae (1; 6), Percidae (4; 7), Cobitidae (3; 6),
Clupeidae (1; 3), Gasterosteidae (2; 2), Gobi-
idae (5; 7) and Cottidae (1; 2).
From total number of familes (27), 7 of them live
exclusively in the Black Sea and 12 in the Adri-
atic Sea confuence. Representatives of 8 families
can be found within both confuences.
Analysis at the genus level shows that from
total number (69), 28 genera live exclusively
in the Black Sea and 16 in the Adriatic Sea
confuence, while 25 genera inhabit both of
them.
Graph. 7. – Occurence of fsh genera by confuences in B&H
Relatively small number of species is to be
found in both these confuences. Among
them are some fsh belonging to Black Sea
confuence which have been introduced in
Adriatic Sea confuence (carp, pikeperch,
tench and grayling). Besides, there are 11
alien species originating from euroasian and
american water.
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Y

O
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F
A
U
N
A
Prema inventarizaciji riba bosanskohercegovačkog dijela Jadranskog mora (dio zaliva
Neum-Klek), koju je napravio znameniti marinski biolog T. Šoljan, utvrđen je izrazito vi-
sok diverzitet vrsta.
Marinske ribe
Tabela 17. - Diverzitet morskih riba
Fauna riba općenito, a naročito privredno
važnih vrsta, igrala je temeljnu ulogu u
procesima etnogeneze naroda u Bosni i
Hercegovini. Tako je i danas, kada se mno-
ge vrste slatkovodne i marinske ihtiofa-
une koriste kao zdrava hrana u ljudskoj
ishrani i kao hrana domaćih životinja. Ple-
menita ihtiofauna oduvijek je bila oko-
snica ribarstva, kao vrlo značajne privre-
dne grane koja osigurava dio prinosa u
opštem društvenom kapitalu Bosne i Her-
cegovine.
Pored izlova prirodnih populacija, u bro-
jnim ribogojilištima smještenim u po-
dručjima mora i velikih rijeka, razvijena je
proizvodnja i uzgoj plemenitih vrsta riba
(pastrmke, šarana i lipljena).
Privredni značaj
lNa diverzitet ihtiofaune djeluju brojni faktori:
lZagađenost i zagađivanje voda različitim polutantima sadržanim u komunalnim i
industrijskim otpadnim vodama, te u vodama iz poljoprivredne proizvodnje (farme,
upotreba pesticida, vještačkih fertilizatora, ekostimulcida);
lPromjena pravca i brzine protoka površinskih vodotoka (brane, hidroakumulacije,
melioracioni kanali, vodozahvati);
lIntrodukcija vrsta riba, potencijalnih kompetitora autohtonoj ihtiofauni;
lSve veća zamućenost voda usljed intenzivne erozije zemljišta, kao posljedica pre-
komjerne sječe šuma;
lKisele kiše usljed lokalne i prekogranične zagađenosti vazduha;
lPromjene u strukturi dna usljed eksploatacije pijeska i šljunka;
lDeponiranje enormnih količina najrazličitijeg otpada u priobalnom pojasu rijeka;
lKonverzija prirodnih staništa u priobalnom pojasu usljed neplanske izgradnje obje-
kata;
lNeuravnoteženi izlov, a naročito u toku reproduktivne sezone;
lNeuravnotežen turizam (velik broj kupača i drugih korisnika voda Jadranskog
mora, jezera i drugih atraktivnih vodotoka).
Pritisci na faunu riba
Zbog lokalnih i globalnih uticaja koji
uslovlj avaj u direktne promj ene u
kvalitetu i kvantitetu staništa, sve više
vrsta ihtiofaune karakteriše određeni
stepen ugroženosti.
Treba istaknuti status potočne pastrmke
(Salmo trutta m. fario), endemičnih vrsta
bosansko-hercegovačkih ponornica
(Paraphoxinus sp.), oštrulja (Aulopyge
hügel i i ) , ml adi ce ( Hucho hucho) ,
neret vanske mekousne past rmke
(Salmotimus obtusirostris oxyrinchus) i
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order family
Number of
genera
Number
of species
Fish fauna in general, especially of economi-
cally important species, has played funda-
mental role in the process of ethnogenesis of
people in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the
case even today when many freshwater and
marine species are being used as a healthy
diet in human nutrition and as a domestic
animal’s food. Noble ichtyofauna has been
the framework for the fshing industry since
ever. Tis is the most important economic
branch making a share of general social in-
come in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Beside fshing of natural populations, it is
well developed the production and breeding
of noble fsh species (trout, carp and gray-
ling) in fshing farms placed in marine and
freshwater areas.
Economic importance
Marine fshes
Afer fsh inventory prepared by well known marine biologist T. Šoljan for the bosnia-herze-
govina’s share of the Adriatic Sea (part of the Neum-Klek bay), it was established high species
diversity.
Table 17. – Diversity of marine fshes
Diversity of ichtyofauna is afected by many
factors:
t Pollution and contamination of water
with diverse pollutants contained in comu-
nal and industrial waste water, and water run
of from arable land (farms, use of pesticides,
chemical fertilizers, ecostymulcides);
t Change in fow direction and speed of
underground water (dams, hydro-accumu-
lations, melioration trenches, water catch-
ment);
t Introduction of alien fsh species, which
are potential competitors for the indigenous
ichtyofauna;
t Increased blur of water due to intensive
soil erosion caused by over-logging;
t Acid rain due to local and trans-boundary
air pollution;
t Change in benthal structure due to gravel
and sand extraction;
t Waste disposal in enormous quantity
along riverbanks;
t Conversion of natural habitats in shore-
line area due to unplanned construction;
t Unbalanced fshery, especially in spawn
season;
t Unbalanced tourism (too many people
swimming and in other way using sea water,
lakes and other waterbodies).
Local and global infuences onto habitats
causing direct changes in its qualitative and
quantitive parameters makes some of fsh
species severly endangered.
Herein should be stressed status of brown
trout (Salmo trutta morfa fario), then en-
demic species of bosnia-herzegovina’s sink-
ing rivers (Paraphoxinus sp.), Dalmatian
barbelgudgeon (Aulopyge hugelii), Danube
salmon (Hucho hucho), sof-muzzled trout
(Salmotimus obtusirostris oxyrinchus) and
many others. Tis indicates necessity afer
the assessment of threat’s level, defnition of
conservation priorities and Red book of fsh
species in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Pressures on fsh fauna
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mnogih drugih. To ukazuje na potrebu za procjenom stepena ugroženosti ihtiofaune,
definisanja konzervacijskih prioriteta i izradom Crvene knjige riba Bosne i
Grafikon 8. - Konzervacijski status
kolousta i slatkovodnih
riba
S obzirom na svoj jedinstveni ontoge-
netski razvoj, vodozemci ukazuju na
neraskidivu povezanost vodene i
vazdušne sredine. Iako su uglavnom
kopneni organizmi, u svom reprodu-
ktivnom periodu su vezani za vodenu
sredinu.
Fauna vodozemaca je privlačila pažnju
mnogih zoologa, počev od kraja 19. vijeka
pa sve do danas. Prvi podaci u vezi su sa
istraživanjem Werner-a. Osnivanjem
Zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu 1888.
godine, počinje sistematsko prikupljanje i
obrada podataka o ovoj grupi životinja.
Nakon ovog perioda značajni podaci o
vodozemcima potiču od Reiser-a i
Bolkay-a, koji su dali prvu sistematizaciju
faune vodozemaca Bosne i Hercegovine.
Tek 1951. godine, poznati zoolog
Radovanović je prezentirao cjelovitije
podatke o fauni ove grupe organizama,
koji su potvrđeni i dopunjeni od strane
Kreso-Đurović i Vuković. Tome treba
dodati i horološke podatke o vrstama
Proteus anguinus, Salamandra atra i Triturus
alpestris, koje su dali Ćuković, Pocrnić,
Kosorić i Sofija Mikšić.
Diverzitet vodozemaca Bosne i Herce-
govine se iskazuje kroz sedam rodova, 21
vrstu i 22 podvrste. U okviru bezrepih
vodozemaca najbrojniji je rod Rana sa
sedam vrsta, a u okviru repatih rod
Triturus sa pet vrsta.
Diverzitet vodozemaca
Tabela 18. - Diverzitet vodozemaca (Amphibia)
Raritetnost faune vodozemaca u Bosni i
Hercegovini se ogleda kroz prisustvo
populacij a endemičnog prenj skog
daždevnjaka (Salamandra atra prenjensis),
alpskog Reiserovog tritona (Triturus
alpestris reiserii), dunavskog tritona
(Triturus dobrogicus), mukača (Bombina
variegata scabra), žabe (Rana graeca),
čovječije ribice (Proteus anguinus) iz
kraških pećinskih voda.
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order family
Species in
total
Subspecies
in total
Threatened at
national level
Threatened in
Europe
Endemic spe-
cies in total
4%
4%
10%
24%
27%
10%
10%
11%
RE CR
EN VU
DD NT
LC NOT CLASSIFIED
Graph 8. – Conservation status of lampreys
and freswater fsh
Diversity of amphibians
Considering its particular onthogenesis, am-
phibians confrm tight connection between
aquatic and terrestrial environment. Be-
ing mainly terrestrial organisms, in the re-
productive period of a year amphibians are
bound to the aquatic environment.
Since the end of 19th century amphibians
have drawn the attention of many zoologist.
First records came from the investigation
of Werner. In 1888, afer the National Mu-
seum in Sarajevo was founded, it have been
collected and analised refering records.
Aferwards, signifcant data came from Re-
iser and Bolkay which made a classifcation
of amphibians in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In 1951 famous zoologist Radovanović pre-
sented complete records on amphibian fauna
confrmed and added later by Kreso-Đurović
and Vuković. To this should be added data
on chorology of species Proteus anguinus,
Salamandra atra and Triturus alpestris giv-
en by Ćuković, Pocrnić, Kosorić and Sofja
Mikšić.
Diversity of amphibians in Bosnia and Her-
zegovina is bespoken in 7 genera, 21 species
and 22 subspecies. Among tail-less most
abundant is genus Rana with 7 species and
among caudate amphibians this is genus
Triturus with 5 species.
Table 18. – Diversity of amphibians (Amphibia)
Rarity of amphibians in Bosnia and Herze-
govina is refected through the occurence
of endemic prenj’s newt population (Sala-
mandra atra prenjensis), alpine Reiser’s newt
(Triturus alpestris reiserii), danube newt
(Triturus dobrogicus), yellow-bellied toad
(Bombina variegata scabra), frog (Rana
graeca), olm (Proteus anguinus) from karst
caves.
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Pritisci na faunu vodozemaca
Nekadašnja slika faune vodozemaca se i u Bosni i Hercegovini u značajnoj mjeri
promijenila. Danas se cijeni da u Evropi ima šest ugroženih vrsta vodozemaca, a čak
četiri od njih se nalaze na prostorima Bosne i Hercegovine.
Grafikon 9. – Konzervacijski status vodozemaca Bosne i Hercegovine.
lZagađenost voda organskim i neorganskim polutantima;
lKonverzija vlažnih šumskih staništa kroz sječu uz naglašene promjene
hidrotermičkog režima;
lKisele kiše i efekti globalnih klimatskih promjena;
lEutrofikacija planinskih jezera, bara i močvara;
lNeodrživi izlov nekih vrsta (uglavnom žaba);
lTrgovina rijetkim i endemičnim vrstama (tritoni, čovječija ribica i daždevnjaci);
lIntrodukcija riba, prirodnih kompetitora vrstama tritona, u planinska jezera Bosne i
Hercegovine.
S druge strane procesi održivog korištenja resursa ove gupe putem vještačke
propagacije s ciljem osiguravanja ekološki profitabilne dobiti u Bosni i Hercegovini nisu
započeli.
Diverzitet gmizavaca
S obzirom na uslove hladnije klime kojom
je determiniran veći dio Bosne i
Hercegovine, diverzitet ove grupe nije
onog nivoa kakav je uobičajen u toplijim
predjelima planete. Ipak, iskorištavajući
raspoložive ekološke niše, ova grupa se na
području Bosne i Hercegovine diferencira
na 40 vrsta (i 45 podvrsta) iz 12 porodica.
Kao grupa, gmizavci naseljavaju slatke
vode, bare, močvare, skoro sve kopnene
ekosisteme (posebno ekstremna staništa
kao što su kamenjari, čime pokazuju
široku ekološu valencu u odnosu na
tipove staništa).
Najveći diverzitet grupe gmizavaca u
Bosni i Hercegovini pokazuje u području
Mediterana i submediteranskog pojasa.
Međutim, neke vrste, pa i čitavi rodovi,
rasprostranjeni su do vrhova najviših
planina (planinski gušteri, sljepić, te
predstavnici živorodnih zmija). Bosanski
i ursinijev šargan nastanjuju staništa
planinskih rudina, sipara i pukotina
stijena svih planinskih vrhova BiH.
Osnovni antropogeni pritisci koji mijenjaju kvalitet staništa ovih osjetljivih životinja, a
time i njihovu brojnost, su:
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A previous image of amphibian fauna in Bos-
nia and Herzegovina has been changed sub-
stantially. It is estimated that in Europe exist
6 threatened amphibian species, of which 4
are to be found in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
t Proces isušivanja močvara i bara, kao
Dry out of moorland and ponds, the
most important habitat types for this
animal group;
t Water pollution by organic and inor-
ganic pollutants;
t Conversion of humid woods through the
logging followed by change in hydro-
thermic regime;
t Acid rains and efects of global climate
changes;
t Eutrofcation of mountain lakes, ponds
and marshes;
t Unsustainable hunt of species (mainly
frogs);
t Trade in rare and endemic species
(newts, olms and salamanders);
t Introduction into mountain lakes of
Bosnia and Herzegovina of fsh species
which are natural competitor for newts.
On the other hand, the sustainable use of
amphibians as resource by its propagation
wasn’t established yet in Bosnia and Herze-
govina.
Pressures on amphibian fauna
Graph 9. – Conservation status of amphibians in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Diversity of reptiles
Considering cold climate conditions that
prevail in Bosnia and Herzegovina, diver-
sity of this animal group is not as high as it
is common in warmer places of Earth. But,
this group uses here all available ecologic
niches differentiating in 40 species (45 sub-
species) from 12 families.
Reptiles inhabit freshwater, ponds, marshes
and almost all terrestrial ecosystems (espe-
cially extreme habitats, such as rocky grass-
land) having hence broad tolerance range
regarding habitat types.
The highest reptiles diversity in Bosnia and
Herzegovina is evident in the mediterra-
nean region and supra-mediterranean belt.
However, some species and entire genera
even, are spread up to the highest moun-
tain peaks (mountain lizards, blind worm,
vipers). Bosnian and Orsiny’s viper live in
mountain swards, then on screes and rock
crevices all around B&H.
Main anthropogenic pressures that change habitat’s quality for this most sensitive animals,
and hereby its abundance, are:
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„Što zbog svog izgleda, što zbog uvriježenog zelembaće da su u stanju prilijepiti se uz kožu
straha, mnogi predstavnici gmizavaca i u čovjeka, te za rješenje slučaja potrebno je popiti
našoj zeml j i , oduvi j ek su smatrani mlijeka čak od 9 kobila. Duboko je uvriježeno i
svojevrsnim neprijateljima čovjeka, domaćih vjerovanje da svaka domaćinska kuća ima svo-
životinja, te i na samu pomisao na neku od ju zmiju koju nipošto ne treba uznemiravati, a
njih, većina ljudi ima osjećaj velikog straha i kamoli je ubiti na kućnom pragu ili uništiti
gađenja. Postoje razne misterije o tome kako se njena položena jaja, čime se zasigurno navlači
na primjer poskok, inače dosta troma zmija veliko zlo na kuću i kućnu čeljad.“ (Navod iz
otrovnica, zna smotati u klupče, pa za svojom TV emisije „Prirodna baština BiH“)
žrtvom skakati i po nekoliko metara. Za neke se
vjeruje da sisaju mlijeko krava, a za neke
Tabela 19. – Diverzitet gmizavaca (Reptilia)
Određeni lokaliteti su poznati po toponimima koji su u vezi sa brojnošću populacija gmi-
zavaca (Zmijanje na planini Manjači). I čitavi geosistemi, serpentiniti, duguju svoje ime
zmijama.
Specifičnosti bosansko-hercegovačkih staništa i posebnih puteva evolucije na ovom pro-
storu u ovoj grupi se odražava kroz diverzitet na nivou podvrsta, kao što su:Vipera
ursinii macrops, Platyceps najadum dahlii, Podacris melisellensis fiumana.
Pritisci na faunu gmizavaca
Kao i većina predstavnika bosansko-hercegovačke faune, tako su i reptili danas veoma
ugrožena grupa organizama. Dominantne prijetnje ovoj grupi svijeta divljine u našim
uslovima su:
lKonverzija staništa; (isušivanjem, sječom šume, iskrčavanjem, izgradnjom
infrastrukture, šumskim požarima);
lŠumski požar, naročito u mediteranskom i submediteranskom pojasu;
lPrekomjerna eksploatacija, naročito viperida, u medicinske svrhe;
lBezrazložno ubijanje svih vrsta zmija i drugih zmijolikih životinja (naročito guštera);
lEutrofikacija bara i močvara, rijeka, jezera;
lTrgovina kornjačama i drugim gmizavcima atraktivnog izgleda.
Iz ovih razloga mnoge vrste gmizavaca se danas ubrajaju među ugrožene (oko 40%), što
uključujuje i endemične oblike.
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order family
Total of
species
Total of sub-
species
Nationally
threatened
Threatened in
Europe
Total of en-
demic taxa
Table 19. – Reptiles diversity (Reptilia)
Tere are also localities that are known by toponyms in relation with the abundance of reptile
populations (Zmijanje on Manjača Mt.). Entire geosystem – serpentine, ows its name to snakes.
“Either for their look or deeply rooted fear
before them, many reptile representatives in
our country used to be considered as enemies
of men and domestic animals. Single thought
of them, makes people feel frightened and di-
gusted. Tere are many myths on them, for
instance it is being told that nose-horned vi-
per, which is usually quite inert venomous
snake, folds itself into ball and jumps afer
its victim for several meters. For some snakes
it is believed that they suck cow’s milk, and
that some green lizards can cling onto human
skin, whereby sole solution is to drink milk of
9 mares. It is deeply rooted belief that every
house has got its own snake which under no
circumstances should be disturbed, especial-
ly killed at the doorway or have its eggs de-
stroyed. All that could draw big evil upon the
house and its inhabitans.“ (quoted from TV
show “Prirodna baština BiH“)
Te specifc character of bosnia-herzegovina’s habitats and unique evolution pattern is re-
fected in diversity of sub-species, such as: mountain viper (Vipera ursinii macrops), (Platyceps
najadum dahlii), (Podacris melisellensis fumana).
As it is the case with many other groups of
B&H’s fauna, so the reptiles too are endan-
gered group of organisms. Dominant threats
posed upon them under our conditions are:
t Conversion of habitats (by drainage, fell-
ing, clearing, infrastructure construction,
forest fres);
t Forest fres, especially in the mediterra-
nean and supra-mediterranean belt;
t Over-exploitation, especially of vipers, for
medicinal purposes;
t Killing for no particular reason of all kind
of snakes and snake-like animals (especially
lizards);
t Eutrofcation of ponds, marshes, rivers
and lakes;
t Trade with turtles and other attractive
looking reptiles.
For all afore given reasons, many reptile
species are tought to be endangered today.
About 40% of reptiles in Bosnia and Herze-
govina is in some extent endangered, includ-
ing also endemic forms.
Pressures on reptiles
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„Vrste ovog svijeta divljine su odvajkada bile pilići). Neke od njih su uvriježene u narodu
metafora kojom se iskazivala najveća ljepota kao simboli moći reprodukcije i radosti novoga
života, ljubav (slavuj, golub, sojka), zlokobne dana i kukurikanje pijetlova u cik zore rumene,
slutnje ljudskim sudbinama (gavran), snaga kao izraz zadovoljstva u mrkim bosanskim
junaka (soko), grabežljivost (orao, jastreb, noćima.“ (Navod iz TV emisije „Prirodna
kobac) i prve dječije radosti (guske, patke, baština BiH“)
S obzirom da većina predstavnika nastanjuje čista staništa, gmizavci se smatraju
dobrim indikatorima za procjenu stanja i kvaliteta životne sredine.
Grafikon 10. – Konzervacijski status gmizavaca Bosne i Hercegovine.
Diverzitet ptica
Rijetko koja grupa životinja je privlačila pažnju, kako ljubitelja prirode, tako i zvaničnih
prirodnjaka, kao što su ptice.
Raznovrsnost staništa i ekosistema Bosne Prema podacima Bird life u Bosni i
i Hercegovine razlog je visokog stepena Hercegovini se gnijezdi pet ugroženih
diverziteta ptica. vrsta: mali vranac (Phal acrocorax
pygmaeus), patka njorka (Aythya nyroca),
U dosadašnjim istraživanjima koja
stepski soko (Falco cherrug), orao
datiraju od 1939. godine do danas (Reiser,
bjelorepan (Haliaetus albicilla), kosac (Crex
Matvejev, Vasić, Obratil), zabilježeno je
crex), dok se tri globalno ugrožene vrste,
326 vrsta iz 60 porodica i 18 redova.
crni strvinar (Aegypius monachus),
U ovoj skupini do sada nisu registrovani
dalmatinski pelikan (Pelecanus crispus),
endemični oblici za Bosnu i Hercegovinu.
orao kliktaš (Aquila clanga), kod nas vode
Najveći broj vrsta su stacionarne
kao isčezle gnjezdarice.
(gnjezdarice), a migratorne vrste se
Posebno indikativna je činjenica da se 16
sezonski zadržavaju u ekosistemima
vrsta autohtone faune ptica kod nas
Bosne i Hercegovine (močvarna područja:
smatra izumrlim gnjezdaricama. Krajem
Buško blato, Hutovo blato, Bardača, donji
prošlog vijeka sa naših prostora je u
tok Drine itd.).
potpunosti nestao i bjeloglavi sup (Gyps
Ptice spadaju u najugroženiju grupu
fulvus) nakon masovnog trovanja na
životinja. Prema prijedlogu za nacionalnu
ribnjaku Blagaj kod Mostara, na rijeci
Crvenu listu ptica (Obratil i Matvejev) čak
Buni.
97 vrsta je pod određenim stepenom
ugroženosti.
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For most of reptiles live in clean habitats,
they are considered as reliable indicators for
the assessment of state and quality of the en-
vironment.
Graph 10. – Conservation status of reptiles in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Diversity of birds
Birds like no other animal group have been drawing attention of both nature fanciers and
scientist.
“Species belonging to this part of wildlife used to be a metaphor for greatest beauty of life, love
(nightingale, dove, jay), human faith’s misgiving (raven), hero’s strength (hawk), greed (eagle,
sparrow-hawk) and frst children’s joy (goose, duck, chickens) Some of them are rooted among
common people as a symbol for reproductive power and new day’s joy – rooster’s crowing in the
early reddish dawn, and as a pleasure expression in the dark bosnia’s nights.“
(quoted from TV show “Prirodna baština BiH“)
High birds diversity is the result of habitat’s
diversity encompassed by landscapes and
ecosystems of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In the investigations that have been under-
taken since 1939 till now (Reiser, Matvejev,
Vasić, Obratil), recorded are 326 species be-
longing to 60 families and 18 orders.
This group doesn’t contain any species that
is endemic for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Most of them are stationary (nesting), while
migratory ones spend some time in ecosys-
tems of Bosnia and Herzegovina only by
seasons (wetlands: Buško blato, Hutovo bla-
to, Bardača, lower f low of Drina river etc.).
Birds in general are most endangered ani-
mal group. After the proposal for national
Red list of birds (Obratil and Matvejev), 97
species are considered to be endangered in
some level.
After Bird life’s data in Bosnia and Herze-
govina nest five endangered species pygmy
cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus), fer-
ruginous duck (Aythya nyroca), saker falcon
(Falco cherrug), white-tailed eagle (Haliae-
tus albicilla), corncrake (Crex crex), while
three globally endangered species, crni
strvinar (Aegypius monachus), dalmatin-
ski pelikan (Pelecanus crispus), orao kliktaš
(Aquila clanga), are listed in our country
as extinct nesting birds. Hereby should be
stressed that 16 indigenous bird species in
our country are considered to be extinct
nesting birds. At the end of 20th century,
from our territory has completely vanished
griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) after massive
poisoning at fishing farm Blagaj near Mo-
star city, on Buna river.
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Tabela 20. – Diverzitet ornitofaune u Bosni i Hercegovini
Grafikon 11.- Konzervacijski status ptica Bosne i Hercegovine.
Ekološki kuriozitet predstavlja činjenica blato i Bardača), koja su označena kao
je da je najveći broj izumrlih ptica “područja značajna za ptice” (Important
zabilježen među grabljivicama, što Bird Areas). Pored navedenih lokaliteta,
rezultira promjenom strukture hrani- značajni centri diverziteta ptica se nalaze
dbenih lanaca i trajnog narušavanja na području Livanjskog polja (Ždralovac,
ekološke ravnoteže. Buško Blato), Bilećkog jezera, te jezera na
rijeci Drini (Perućac).
U Bosni i Hercegovini su do danas
identifikovana dva područja (Hutovo
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Family Genus Species Family Genus Species
ENDANGERED / NOT CLASSIFIED
Table 20. – Diversity of ornithofauna in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Graph 11. – Conservation status of birds in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ecologic curiosity represents the fact that
largest proportion of extinct birds are kites,
which results in changed structure of food
web and enduring disruption of an ecologic
balance.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina have been iden-
tified two areas so far (Hutovo blato and
Bardača) designated as Important Bird Ar-
eas. In addition to afore named localities,
important centres of bird’s diversity are
to be found in Livanjsko polje (Ždralovac,
Buško Blato), Bilećko jezero and lakes on
Drina river (Perućac).
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Pritisci na faunu ptica
Na ornitofaunu BiH danas djeluju kako globaln,i tako i lokalni faktori:
lIntenzivna konverzija močvarnih staništa kroz procese isušivanja (posebno u
podrčju kraških polja);
lEksploatacija treseta (Ždralovac);
lUništavanje makrofitske vodene vegetacije i higrofilne vegetacije u vodenom pojasu
(Bardača);
lFragmentacija prirodnih staništa i presijecanje koridora migratornih vrsta;
lPodizanje hidroakumulacija na močvarnim područjima (Buško blato);
lKonverzija šumskih staništa kroz intenzivnu i neselektivnu sječu;
lEksploatacija mineralnih resursa u refugijumima ptica (kanjon Tinje);
lSve češća trovanja zagađenom hranom (trovanja klaoničkim otpadom u područjima
rijeke Bune, Špiljana u gornjoj Neretvi, Paklareva na južnim padinama Vlašića; i
trovanja otpadom sa divljih deponija);
lBuka i vibracije;
lPesticidi i vještački fertilizatori (povećavaju smrtnost ili onemogućavaju proces
embriogeneze);
lNeodrživi lov u divljini, kao i u odabranim rezervatima (Hutovo blato);
lNeuravnoteženi turizam;
lIlegalna trgovina pticama;
lNedovoljna znanja i svijest o pticama kao prenosnicima zaraznih bolesti.
Unatoč znatno izmjenjenoj slici ptičijeg Posmatranje i praćenje ptica je oblik
svijeta na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine u turizma koji ima visok potencijal u Bosni i
posljednjih 100 godina, a naročito u Hercegovini.
ornitološkim rezervatima kao što su
Neke vrste domestificiranih ptica na
Hutovo blato, Bardača i Livanjsko polje,
prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine imaju
još postoji jedinstveni diverzitet ovog
razvijene posebne pasmine i predstavljaju
svijeta divljine koji može privući pažnju
značajne, ali neiskorištene resurse u
javnosti za razvoj posebnog oblika
proizvodnji zdrave hrane.
edukaciono-rekreacij skog turizma.
Diverzitet sisara
Iako fauna sisara (Mammalia) obuhvata U fauni sisara zabilježeno je 85 vrsta iz 51
uglavnom najkrupnije životinjske vrste, roda i 19 porodica. Najveći broj vrsta živi
kod nas se još smatra nedovoljno na staništima različitih kopnenih
istraženom. Oslanjajući se na istraživanja ekosistema, dok neznatan broj seku-
iz prve polovine XX vijeka koje je učinio S. ndarno i povremeno nastanjuje vodene
Bolkay, te kasnijih inventarizacija u vezi sa ekosisteme.
prostorom bivše Jugoslavije (Kryštufek,
Naročitom brojnošću i raznovrsnošću
Tvrtković, Đulić, Mirić, Paunović) i
oblika odlikuju se Vespertiolinidae sa 20
najnovije katalogizacije sisara u Bosni i
vrsta i 8 rodova.
Hercegovini (Sofradžija et al.), data je
procjena diverziteta.
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Pressures on bird’s fauna
Ornithofauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina is afected today by both global and local factors:
t Intensive conversion of swamp habitats through drainage (especially in karst felds);
t Peat’s exploitation (Ždralovac);
t Destruction of aquatic macrophytes and hygrophilous vegetation along waterbodies
(Bardača);
t Fragmentation of natural habitats and cutting through bird’s migratory routes;
t Construction of dam accumulations in wetland’s area(Buško blato);
t Conversion of forest habitats through intensive and unselected feeling;
t Exploitation of mineral resources within bird’s refugia (canyon of Tinja river);
t More frequent food poisoning (poisoning by waste disposed from slaughter houses in the
area of Buna river, Špiljani in upper Neretva’s fow, Paklarevo at southern slopes of Vlašić Mt.;
and poisoning with waste on illegal dump sites);
t Noise and vibrations;
t Pesticides and chemical fertilisers (increasing a death rate or disabling embriogenesis);
t Unsustainable hunt in the wilderness and designated reserves (Hutovo blato);
t Unbalanced tourism;
t Illegal bird’s trade;
t Lack of knowledge and awareness on birds as possible vectors for diseases.
Although the image of bird’s world in Bos-
nia and Herzegovina has been changed sub-
stantially over the last 100 years, especial-
ly in bird’s reserves such as Hutovo blato,
Bardača and Livanjsko polje, the unique di-
versity of birds is still there. Thus, it can at-
tract public attention for special educational
and recreational touristic purposes. There is
a high potential in Bosnia and Herzegovina
for observing and following the birds which
is a form of tourism.
Some domesticated bird species in Bosnia
and Herzegovina have got special breeds
and represent significant but unexploited
resource for healthy food production.
Diversity of mammals
Although fauna of mammals (Mammalia)
comprises mainly large animal species, it is
considered to be poorly investigated in our
country. Based on investigation dating back
from frst half of 20th century conducted
by S. Bolkay, and later undertaken inven-
tories in relation to ex-Yugoslavia’s terri-
tory (Kryštufek, Tvrtković, Đulić, Mirić,
Paunović), as well as the most recent pub-
lication on mammals in Bosnia and Herze-
govina (Sofradžija et al.), it has been assessed
hereafer presented diversity.
Te fauna of mammals encompasses 85 iden-
tifed species from 51 genera and 19 families.
Most of the species lives in terrestric habitats,
while small number of them inhabits aquatic
ecosystems on secondary basis or only occa-
sionally.
High abundance and diversity characterize
the family Vespertiolinidae with 20 identi-
fed species from 8 genera.
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Tabela 21. - Procjena diverziteta sisara BiH
Grafikon 12. – Konzervacijski status sisara
Bosne i Hercegovine.
Grupa sisara obuhvata i vrste krupne godina prošlog vijeka poprimila neo-
divljači, koje su od prvih početaka držive trendove i pravce.
antropogeneze igrale značajnu ulogu kao
Unatoč nastojanjima pojedinih lovačkih
izvor kvalitetne proteinske hrane,
društava, svijet divljih sisara u Bosni i
zaštitnih materijala i kao objekti lova.
Hercegovini je veoma ugrožen. Međutim,
Vrste ove grupe na prostoru Bosne i
još ne postoje naučni podaci o intenzitetu i
Hercegovine čine osnovu za razvoj
kategorijama ugroženosti pojedinih vrsta.
održivog lovstva i ekološkog turizma.
Preuzimajući procjenu ugroženosti na
Tradicija turističkog lova na prostoru naše
evropskom nivou, može se tvrditi da se 30
zemlje razvija se još od doba austro-
vrsta sisara Bosne i Hercegovine nalazi u
ugarske vladavine, da bi u posljednjih 50
opasnosti od potpunog isčezavanja.
Pritisci na faunu sisara
Fauna sisara danas trpi brojne pritiske među kojima su najjači:
lIntenzivna konverzija šumskih staništa kroz vjekovno krčenje, požare i sječu šuma;
lIntenzivan lov (naročito „trofejne divljači“);
lFragmentacija ekosistema i staništa te presijecanje koridora;
lNizak i neefikasan nivo uspostave ekoloških koridora;
lIzražen nedostatak prirodne hrane zbog ugrožavanja biljnih vrsta;
lGlobalne klimatske promjene i kisele kiše;
lEutrofikacija i toksifikacija površinskih voda;
lZagađenost biljne hrane pesticidima i vještačkim fertilizatorima;
lTrovanja hranom sa otvorenih deponija otpada;
lMiniranost terena, što je tokom posljednjih 15 godina dovelo do velikog stradanja
životinja;
lNeodrživi turizam.
Brojni pritisci na lokalnom i globalnom nivou uslovili su konverziju prirodnih staništa
sisara, tako da su mnoge vrste okarakterisane određenim stepenom i oblikom
ugroženosti.
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Family Genus Species Table 21. – Assessed diversity of mammals in B&H
Graph 12. – Conservation status of mammals in Bos-
nia and Herzegovina
Mammals include species treated as large
game species that have played an important
role as a source of protein rich food, covering
material and hunting objects since the very
frst beginning of anthropogenesis. Tose
species are foundation for sustainable hunt
and eco-tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Since the austrio-hungarian rule, it has been
developing a tradition of touristic hunt in
our country, which unfortunately in last 50
years has become unsustainable.
Inspite of eforts done by some hunting so-
cieties, wildlife of mammals in Bosnia and
Herzegovina is severly threatened. However,
scientifc data on intensity and threat’s cat-
egories for some species are still missing. Re-
specting the assessment of threat’s level on
european scale, we can claim that 30 mam-
mal species in Bosnia and Herzegovina are
threatened to become extinct.
Pressures on fauna of mammals
Te fauna of mammals is afected by line of pressures of which the strongest are:
t Intensive conversion of forest habitats through clearing, fres and felling;
t Intensive hunt (especially of “trophy games“);
t Fragmentation of ecosystems and habitats and interception of corridors;
t Poor and inefcient establishment of ecologic corridors;
t Lack of natural food due to threatening of plant species;
t Global climate changes and acid precipitation;
t Eutrophication and toxifcation of surface water;
t Pollution of herbal food by pesticides and chemical fertilisers;
t Food poisoning on open dump sites;
t Mines causing death of many animals over the last 15 years;
t Unsustainable tourism.
Numerous pressures both on local and global scale have caused the conversion of natural
mammal’s habitats. Tus, many species are characterized by certain threat’s level.
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Grafikon 13. – Odnos endemičnih i ugroženih vrsta prema ukupnom broju u pojedinim
grupama kičmenjaka BiH
Uz svijet divljine sisara, izuzetno važnu krava „buša“, ovca pramenka, bosanski
ulogu u ukupnom biodiverzitetu BiH brdski konj, hercegovačka koza i pas
igraju i životinjski resursi sadržani u tornjak. Naročiti genofond predstavljaju
bogatom genofondu i autohtonim podivljali rasni konji, na padinama Cincar
pasminama pripitomljenih vrsta (konj, planine, Glamoča i Livna.
goveče, ovca, koza, magarac, pas, mačka,
Danas se na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine
kunić).
vrši i ciljana introdukcija i reintrodukcija
Posebnu vrij ednost imaj u tipične nekih vrsta, kao što su dabar, muflon i
bosanske pasmine, kao što su: bosanska jelen lopatar.
Resursne vrijednosti faune
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Graph 13. – Relationship between endemic and endangered species in relation to total
number by vertebrate groups in B&H
Along with wildlife of mammals, for the
entire B&H’s biodiversity extremly important
are animal resources contained in the rich gen
pool and indigenous breeds of domesticated
species (horse, cattle, sheep, goat, ass, dog, cat,
rabbit).
A special value posses typical bosnia’s
breeds, such as: bosnia’s cow called “buša“,
sheep “pramenka“, bosnia’s mountain horse,
herzegovina’s goat and dog “tornjak“. Special
gen pool is contained within studs grown
wild, living on slopes of Cincar Mt., Glamoč
and Livno city.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina have been
selectively introduced or re-introduced some
species, such as beaver, moufon and fallow
deer.
Value of fauna as a resource
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DIVERSITY OF
FUNGI AND LICHENS
Rijetko je koja grupa organizama na
planeti Zemlji tako brojna i zastupljena, a
još malo poznata, kao što je tajanstveni
svijet gljiva. Slična je situacija i sa
lišajevima, naročitim oblikom biološke
organizacij e života, kod koj eg u
mutualističkoj simbiozi žive različite
vrste gljiva, modrozelenih algi i ostalih
algi. Za razliku od biljaka, gljive su
heterotrofni organizmi kod koj ih
fotosintetski pigmenti u potpunosti
odsustvuju, a što ih približava carstvu
životinja. I druge osobine gljiva, kao što su
građa staničnog zida i sastav rezervne
materije, gljive uvrštava u posebno
carstvo živog svijeta.
Gljive nastanjuju i kopnenu i vodenu
životnu sredinu. Imaju izuzetno značajnu
ulogu u kruženju materije u prirodi, kroz
proces razlaganja (dekompozicije). Gljive
sadrže enzi me koj i ma razl ažu i
najkompleksnije organske materije, kao
što je lignin i pretvaraju ih u humus, te na
kraju u mineralne komponente.
Veliki broj gljiva parazitira na biljnim i
životinjskim vrstama, ali i na čovjeku,
gdje neke od njih izazivaju patološka
stanja (mikoze), sprečavajući normalan
rast, razvoj i život domaćina. Veliki broj
oblika su i klasični patogeni, koji izazivaju
široki spektar mikoza kod čovjeka.
Zbog sadržaja različitih (fizioloških i
farmakoloških) aktivnih materija, gljive
su odavno upotrebljavane u ishrani,
liječenju, ali i u kulturnoj tradiciji. Danas
su predstavnici gljiva (Penicillium i
Aspergilus) nezamjenjivi u dobijanju
antibiotika, još od vremena Alexandra
Fleminga koji je 1919. godine utvrdio
baktericidno djelovanje vrste Penicillium
notatum. Kvasci (posebno iz roda
DIVERZITET GLJIVA I LIŠAJEVA
Izuzetno je malo podataka koji govore o
prisustvu i rasprostranjenosti vrsta gljiva na
prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine. Prve spoznaje
potiču od znamenitog istraživača Karla
Istraženost
Saccharomyces) su nezamj enj ivi u
proizvodnji kruha, vina, piva, različitim
biotehnološkim procesima i proizvodnji
farmaceutika.
Skupina viših gljiva (pečurki) obuhvata i
vrste koj e imaj u poznata visoka
nutriciona svojstva i upotrebljavaju se u
ishrani, ali i liječenju. Među najpoznatijim
su šampinjon (Agaricus bisporus), prirodni
antikancerogen shiitake (Lentinula
edodes), tartuf (Tuber magnum), smrčak
(Morchella sp.), vrganj (Boletus sp.),
mliječnica (Lactarius sp.), lisičarka
( Cant are l l us s p. ) , t e druge koj e
predstavljaju i značajne izvore dobiti za
lokalnu zajednicu. Među pečurkama su i
smrtonosno otrovne gljive kao što su:
zelena pupavka (Amanita verna), bijela
pupavka (Amanita virosa), neke vrste
rodova Inocybe i Clytocybe, te niz drugih
vrsta sa različitim toksičnim efektima.
Neke vrste gljiva (najčešće predstavnici
rodova Amani t a i Cl avi ceps) , su
upotrebljavani kao halucinogen.
Jednom riječju, svijet gljiva nije samo
raznovrstan po svojim oblicima i unikatan
po organizaciji tijela, nego ima i
jedinstvena biohemijska i fiziološko-
farmakološka svojstva.
Za carstvo gljiva se danas vežu i visoki
ekonomski potencijali jer za mnoge vrste
postoji razvijeno tržište. Vrste rodova
Morchella, Boletus i Cantarelus su dugo bile
glavni šumski proizvod na evropskom
tržištu.
Kvalitet staništa, te čistoća i kvalitet
biomase, čine da i danas mnoge lokalne
zaj edni ce os t var uj u dobi t kr oz
sakupljanje i plasman različitih vrsta
gljiva sa staništima u Bosni i Hercegovini.
Malya, čiji se dugogodišnji rad na mjestu
kustosa u Zemaljskom muzeju BiH odnosio
kako na više biljke, tako i na gljive i lišajeve. Na
osnovu njegovih podataka napisan je i jedan od
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DIVERSITY OF FUNGI AND LICHENS
Tere are few groups of organisms on the
Earth that occur as frequent as representa-
tives from a misterious world of fungi do, yet
they are poorly known to the science. It is
also the case with lichens, special life form of
biological organisation, where in mutualistic
relationship live fungi and cyanophytes and
other alges. In diference to plants, fungi are
heterotroph organisms with no photosyn-
thetic pigments, which place them close to
the animal kingdom. Tere are several oth-
er characteristics of fungi, such as cell wall
composition and storage substances, which
was the reason why fungi are separated into
their own kingdom.
Fungi inhabit both terrestrial and aquatic en-
vironment. Teir role in the material circula-
tion, through the process of decomposition,
is immense. Fungi contain enzimes neces-
sary to decompose even the most complex
organic compounds, such as lignin, turning
them into humus and, at the end into their
mineral components.
Many fungi live as parasites on plants and
animals, but also on human beings, where
some of them cause pathological conditions
(mycosis) by inhibition of the normal growth,
development and life cycle of the host. Many
of them are recognized to be common patho-
gens, which cause wide spectrum of mycosis
in humans.
Due to diversity of active principles they
contain (physiological and pharmacologi-
cal), fungi had been used in human nutri-
tion and medicinal treatments, but also in
cultural tradition, since ever. Nowadays
several mushroom’s representatives (Penicil-
lium and Aspergilus) have become irreplace-
able in the process of antibiotics production,
since Alexander Fleming in 1919 proved the
bactericide efects of Penicillium notatum.
Yeats (especially from genus Saccharomyces)
are irreplaceable in the production of bread,
vine, beer and pharmaceutics.
Higher fungi (actual fungi) include species
with proven nutritive characteristics be-
ing therefore used in human nutrition and
for medicinal purposes. Among these the
most common are: šampinjon (Agaricus
bisporus), natural anti-cancerogen shiitake
(Lentinula edodes), tartuf (Tuber magnum),
smrčak (Morchella sp.), vrganj (Boletus sp.),
mliječnica (Lactarius sp.), lisičarka (Cantar-
ellus sp.), and others that represent substan-
tial income source for a local community.
Among fungi some are lethal, such as: zelena
pupavka (Amanita verna), bijela pupavka
(Amanita virosa), species from genera Ino-
cybe and Clytocybe, and many others toxic
ones.
Some species (representatives from genera
Amanita and Claviceps the most frequently),
are used as halucinogens.
In one word, the mushroom’s world isn’t only
diverse and unique in the respect of its liv-
ing forms, but it has got special biochemical
and pharmaco-physiological characteristics.
Te kingdom of fungi is at present-day con-
nected to a high economic potential, because
many of its species posses their own market.
Species of genera Morchella, Boletus and
Cantharelus have been main forest’s product
at the European market for a long time.
Te habitat’s quality, including the cleanness
and quality of biomass, makes possible that
many local communities in Bosnia and Her-
zegovina make their income by collection
and sale of fungi.
Investigation level
Tere are only few records that describe oc-
curence and distribution of fungi on the terri-
tory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. First informa-
tion came from the famous researcher Karlo
Maly, whose long employement history at the
position of custos at the Land’s Museum of
B&H was devoted to higher plants, fungi and
lichenes. Based on his records, it were written
Pretpostavlja se da u Bosni i Hercegovini živi oko 15 – 20 hiljada vrsta gljiva. Međutim,
poznato je svega 549 vrsta.
prvih mikoloških radova u BiH (Picbauer, R.
1927., GZM, BiH, 39 (1) 163-173). (GZM) i
evropskim časopisima tog doba, od kojih je
najznačajniji „Additamenta ad flora
Balcanica mycologicam“ (GZM 1941.).
Maly-eva kolekcija zoocecidija poslužila je
češkom mikologu Baudyšu kao osnova radova
objavljenih u GZM. Nakon ovog perioda tek u
60-tim godinama 20. vijeka počinju nova
interesovanja u Zemaljskom muzeju i za ovu
grupu organizama (Marijana Klinger, „Prilog
flori gljiva okoline Sarajeva“, GZM). Ovim
radom počinje inventarizacija viših gljiva, te
istraživanja distribucije, ekologije i fenologije
u šumskim zajednicama Trebevića, Jahorine,
Igmana i Bjelašnice. Sadeta Mehanović,
djelatnik Zemaljskog muzeja BiH, uspješno
istražuje parazitsku mikofloru širom BiH u
periodu od 60-tih do 90-tih godina. U
istraživanju viših gljiva Bosne i Hercegovine
ističu se radovi Milice Tortić, S. Rončevića i
Fohta i posebno monografski prikaz „Svijet
gljiva“ (Usčuplić, M. ANUBiH, 2004). Nisu
zanemarljivi ni podaci o prisustvu i
distribuciji makromiceta ostvareni kroz
kolekcije gljivara amatera.
DIVERZITET GLJIVA
Tabela 22. – Diverzitet poznatih vrsta gljiva u BiH
Tabela 23. - Procjena diverziteta gljiva u BiH
Mnoge vrste makromiceta Bosne i
Hercegovine imaju visoke ekonomske
potencijale i vrijednosti, pa su od davnina
bile izvor dobiti lokalne zajednice.
Najznačajnije među njima su smrčak
(Morchella sp.), vrganji (Boletus sp.),
lisičarka (Cantarelus cybarius), sunčanica
(Macrolepiota sp.) mliječnica (Lactarius
deliciosus), pečurka (Psaliota procera) i
druge.
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TOTAL
TOTAL
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some of the frst mycological papers in B&H
(Picbauer, R. 1927., GZM, BiH, 39 (1) 163-173.
(GZM) and European magazines, of which at
that time the most important was “Addita-
menta ad fora Balcanica mycologicam“ (GZM
1941.).
Maly’s collection of zoocecidies was the base
for papers that chezch mycologist Baudyš pub-
lished in GZM. Afer that period, new interest
in these group of organisms in Land’s Museum
has been awaken in the 60s of the 20th century
(Marijana Klinger, “Prilog fori gljiva okoline
Sarajeva“, GZM). Since this paper began the in-
ventory of higher fungi, research of its distribu-
tion, ecology and phenology within forest com-
munities of Trebević Mt., Jahorina Mt., Igman
Mt. and Bjelašnica Mt. Sadeta Mehanović,
employee of Land’s Museum of B&H, has
investigated parasitic mycofora all around
B&H in the period from the 60s to the 90s.
For the investigation of higher fungi of B&H
a great importance comes to papers of Milica
Tortić, S. Rončević and Foht, and especially to
the monography “Svijet gljiva“ (Usčuplić, M.
ANUBiH, 2004). One shouldn’t neglect records
on occurence and distribution of macromycetes
provided by amateurs and mushroom’s collec-
tors.
DIVERSITY OF FUNGI
It is being estimated that in Bosnia and Herzegovina live between 15.000 – 20.000 mushroom
species. However, identifed are only 552 species.
Table 23. – Estimated diversity of fungi in B&H
Table 22. – Diversity of identifed fungi in B&H
Tere are many macromycetes in Bosnia
and Herzegovina that posses high eco-
nomic potential and value being therefore
an important income source for a local
community since ever. Te most important
among them are: smrčak (Morchella sp.),
vrganji (Boletus sp.), lisičarka (Cantarelus
cybarius), sunčanica (Macrolepiota sp.)
mliječnica (Lactarius deliciosus), pečurka
(Psaliota procera) and others.
DIVISION CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES
MUSHROOM’s
GROUP
ESTIMATED SUPPOSED NUMBER IDENTIFIED IN
EUROPE
Zbog različitih pritisaka, globalnog i
lokalnog karaktera, mnoge vrste gljiva su
pod određenim stepenom ugroženosti.
Nekim vrstama prij eti i potpuno
istrebljenje (Mycenatrsum corium sa
tresetišta u okolini Bosanskog Grahova -
Ždralovac, gdje je ova vrsta kod nas jedino
i konstatovana). Slično je i sa vrstama
Pritisci na diverzitet gljiva
životno vezanim za endeme, kao što su
munika (Pinus heldreichii), ilirski bor (P.
nigra ssp. illyrica), grčki javor (Acer
helderichii), Pančićeva omorika (Picea
omorica) itd. , što se posebno odnosi na
lignikolne i mikorizne vrste gljiva.
Pritiske na biodiverzitet gljiva čine:
lKonverzija prirodnih staništa, te njihova trajna fragmentacija;
lPrekomjerna sječa šuma;
lZagađivanje prirodnih ekosistema uz promjenu pH vrijednosti i sastava zemljišta;
lUgrožavanje ili nestajanje biljnih i životinjskih vrsta sa kojima su gljive u mikoriznim
i drugim biotičkim odnosima;
lPrekomjerno iskorištavanje makromiceta;
lInvazija stranih vrsta gljiva, biljaka i životinja;
lGlobalne promjene;
lPrekomjerno zagađenje atmosfere, kisele kiše itd.
Tabela 24. – Ugrožene vrste gljiva u BiH
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Due to diverse pressures, of both global and lo-
cal character, many fungi sufer under certain
threat. Some of them are even threatened to
become extinct (Mycenastrum corium from
bogs around Bosansko Grahovo – Ždralovac,
where it is a sole fnding place of this species
in our country). It is the also the case with
species whose existence is attached to some
endemits, such as white barked pine (Pinus
heldreichii), black pine (P. nigra ssp. illyrica),
greek maple (Acer heldereichii), Pančići’s
spruce (Picea omorica) etc., which relates es-
pecially to lignicole and mycorrhizal fungi.
Pressures onto mushroom’s biodiversity are:
Pressures onto diversity of fungi
t Coversion of natural habitats, and their permanent fragmentation;
t Over-exploitation of forests;
t Pollution of natural ecosystems followed by change in pH and soil composition;
t Endangering or dissapearing of plants and animals with whome fungi are in mycor-
rhizal or other kind of relationship;
t Over-exploitation of macromycetes;
t Invasive expansion of alien species of fungi, plants and animals;
t Changes on global scale;
t Over-pollution of the atmosphere, acid precipitation etc.
Table 24. – Treatened fungi of B&H
DIVERZITET LIŠAJEVA
Lišajevi Bosne i Hercegovine su izuzetno slabo
istraživana skupina organizama. Prvi podaci
potiču od Frana Kušana iz 1931. godine, koji je
radio na osnovu nalaza Karla Malya. U
kasnijem periodu, osim sporadičnih rezultata
Istraženost
Lišajevi su jedinstvena grupa orga-
nizama. U toku duge evolucije živih
sistema lišajevi su svojom organizacijom
udružili interese filogenetički veoma
udaljenih skupina organizama, i to gljiva
(carstvo Mycota), modrozelenih algi
(carstvo Mychota), i zelenih algi (carstvo
Plantae).
Zbog toga što sadrže osobine i algi i gljiva,
lišajevi su tokom filogenije razvili visoku
adaptibilnost. Danas su rasprostranjeni
širom svijeta, zauzimajući širok spektar
ekoloških niša u svim biomima, odnosno
ekosistemima. Iako su, tokom razvoja
nauke, postojala poimanja lišajeva kao
svojevrsnih biocenoza, danas preovla-
dava stav da su lišajevi zasebni orga-
nizmi. Takvom stavu doprinosi činjenica
da je intenzitet simbiontskih odnosa u
lišaju tako visok da se uticaji i priroda
pojedinačnih simbionata gube. Stoga se
lišajevi, u naučnom svijetu, tretiraju kao
zasebna filogenetička grupa ukupnog
biodiverziteta planete, a pitanja njihove
nomenklature i taksonomije su regulisana
Međunarodnim kodeksom botaničke
nomenklature.
Lišajevi su odigrali jednu od najzna-
čajnijih uloga u oblikovanju geobiosfere, a
naročito u formiranju prvih tala. Stoga je
njihova funkcija u procesima singeneze i
pedogeneze nezamjenjiva. U prirodnom
sistemu lišajevi obrazuju inicijalne faze u
razvoju zajednica (fitocenoza) koje su
označene kao Lichenetea i čine osnovu za
dalji proces singeneze ka složenijim
zajednicama.
Lišajevi su veoma osjetljivi biološki
sistemi na promjene u životnoj sredini, te
služe kao bioindikatori u procjeni stanja i
kapaciteta prihvata životne sredine,
prvenstveno u procjeni kvaliteta vazduha,
te imaju važnu ulogu u održivom
upravljanju i sistemskom biomonitoringu
okoliša.
Mnoge vrste lišajeva sadrže ugljične
hidrate, minerale, organske kiseline,
vitamine i druge materije, te se danas
upotrebljavaju kao zdrava hrana ili izvor
za dobijanje fitofarmaka, specijalno
antimikrobika, za liječenje širokog
spektra bolesti. Posebno poznati lišajevi
ove grupe su: Cetraria islandica, vrste roda
Lobaria, Parmelia, Usenea, Evernia i druge.
o parcijalnoj horologiji pojedinih vrsta gljiva i
podataka ostvarenih kroz floristička i
fitocenološka istraživanja biljnog pokrova
Bosne i Hercegovine, uređenije baze podataka
o ovoj skupini nisu još uspostavljene.
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DIVERSITY OF LICHENS
Lichens make very unique group of organ-
isms. In the course of evolution of living
systems, lichens have brought together in-
terest of, in respect of phylogeny, diferent
organism groups: fungi (Mycota kingdom),
cyanophytes (Mychota kingdom) and green
alges (Plantae kingdom).
Tanks to the fact that they have character-
istics of both alges and fungi, lichens have
evolved high adaptibility. Tey are today
spread all over the world, taking wide spec-
trum of niches within all biomes, or ecosys-
tems. Although lichens have been in the past
of science development considered as a cer-
tain kind of biocoenoses, today prevails the
opinion that they represent separate organ-
isms. Tis opinion was supported by the fact
that mutualistic relationships within lichens
are so intense that genuine nature of its con-
stituents is being lost completely. Terefore,
lichens are among scientists treated as a
separate phylogenetic group within Earth’s
biodiversity. Nomenclature and taxonomy
issues are defnied by the International Co-
dex of Botany Nomenclature.
Lichens have played one of the most signif-
cant roles in the shaping up of geobiosphere,
especially of the soil development. Tere-
fore, in the process of syngenesis and pedo-
genesis lichens have irreplaceable function.
In the natural system they represent initial
stage of community’s development (phyto-
coenoses) known as Lichenetea, being the
foundation for further syngenesis – toward
more complex communites.
Lichens are very sensitive biological systems
in terms of the environmental changes,
which makes them an excellent bioindica-
tors for the evaluation of ecosystem’s state
and acceptance capacity, especially for the
assessment of air quality. Tus, they play
an important role in the sustainable man-
agement and biomonitoring of the environ-
ment.
Many lichens contain carbohydrates, min-
erals, organic acids, vitamins and other
substances, which is the reason for them to
be used as a source of healthy food or phy-
topharmacs, especially antimicrobics. Tis
lichens group includes: Cetraria islandica,
species of genera Lobaria, Parmelia, Usnea,
Evernia and others.
Investigation level
Lichens of Bosnia and Herzegovina are poorly
investigated group of organisms. First records
date back in 1931 from Fran Kušan who based
his work on Karlo Maly’s fndings. In later pe-
riod, beside occasionally occuring results on
horology of some fungi and facts obtained
through the investigation of foristic and phy-
tocoenological cover of Bosnia and Herzegov-
ina, frm data base for this organisms hasn’t
been established yet. But, fora/fungia of li-
chens in Bosnia and Herzegovina was in the
scope of lichenologic investigation in ex-Yugo-
Međutim flora/fungia lišajeva Bosne i
Hercegovine obrađivana je i u sklopu lihe-
noloških istraživanja ex Jugoslavije (F. Kušan,
M. Murati). Katalogizacija i inventarizacija
lišajeva u BiH počela je uspostavom check-
liste lišajeva Mediterana (Nims).
Na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine do sada
je zabilježeno preko 300 vrsta lišajeva, a
njihov biodiverzitet kod nas se procjenjuje
na oko 1.000, od ukupno 20 hiljada
poznatih vrsta u svijetu.
Među lišajevima Bosne i Hercegovine
najprisutniji i najbrojniji su rodovi:
Acarospora Massal. (4), Aspicilia Assal. (8),
Caloplaca Th.Fr. (25), Cetraria Ach. (4),
Cladonia Hill. ex Browne (14), Collema
Wigg. (10), Lecanora Ach. (26), Lecidea Ach.
(8), Melanelia Ach. (8), Parmelia Ach. (8),
Peltigera Willd. (7), Pertusaria DC. (10),
Physcia (Schr.) Mich. (8), Physconia Poelt
(6), Polyblastia Massal. (5), Problastenia
(Zahlbr.) Steiner (5), Ramalina Ch. (8),
Rhizocarpon DC. (10), Rinodina (Ach.) Gray
(11), Usnea Adans. (10), Verrucaria
Schrader (12).
Populacije i vrste lišajeva ulaze u sastav
svih biogeografskih regija, provincija,
sekt ora, bi oma i ekosi st ema na
horizontalnom i vertikalnom profilu
Dinarida. Epilitski lišajevi ulaze u sastav
vegetacijskih klasa Lichenetea i Asplenietea
trichomanis, siparišta klase Thlaspietea
rotundfolii, mediteransko-montane
kamenjare klase Thero-Brachypodietea,
kserotermne mediteranske šume reda
Qurcetalia ilicis, termofilne šume reda
Quercetalia pubescentis, mezofilne šume
reda Fagetalia, higrofilne šume redova
Quercetalia robori-petraeae, Alnetalia
glutinosae i Populetalia albae. Posebnim
bogatstvom vrsta lišajeva se ističu
tercijarno-reliktne šume crnog bora i
crnjuše Orno-Ericion, šume endemičnog
bora munike Pinion heldreichi, klekovina
bora Pinion mugi, planinske rudine na
karbonatima klase Elyno-Seslerietea i
planinske rudine na silikatima klase
Caricetea curvulae.
Imajući u vidu podatke koji se navode u
literaturi, te osnovanu hipotezu da još ima
dosta vrsta lišajeva koji nisu poznati,
može se pretpostaviti da Bosnu i
Hercegovi nu karakteri še i vi sok
diverzitet ove skupine, naročito u
razvojnim centrima (kanjon Une, Vrbasa,
Neretve, Drine i vrhovi visokih planina).
Imajući u vidu globalno stanje životne
sredine, kapaciteta prihvata pojedinih
ekosistema na prostoru BiH, senzitivnost
lihenoflore/fungij e, te postoj eće i
Pritisci na diverzitet lišajeva
očekivane trendove promjena, neo-
phodno je istaknuti sljedeće tipove
pritisaka na ovu skupinu organizama:
lGlobalne klimatske promjene praćene kiselim kišama i prekomjernim
zagrijavanjem;
lZagađenost atmobiosfere neorganskim i organskim polutantima;
lGubitak diverziteta biljaka, a naročito drveća za koje su životno vezane mnoge
vrste epifitskih lišajeva;
lKonverzije šumskih staništa;
lPrekomjerna ispaša i erozija zemljišta u visokoplaninskim područjima;
lNeuravnotežena eksploatacija mineralnih resursa;
lInvazivne vrste gljiva, algi i modrozelenih bakterija.
Zbog navedenih pritisaka sve je veći broj
ugroženih vrsta lišajeva (preko 200 vrsta
na Evropskoj crvenoj listi ugroženih vrsta
biljaka i lišajeva). Međutim za prostor BiH
još nije izvršena procjena stepena ugro-
ženosti u skladu sa kriterijima IUCN-a.
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slavia (F. Kušan, M. Murati). Establishment
of the catalogue and inventory of lichens in
B&H has begun afer the check-list of Medi-
terranean lichens was created (Nims).
In Bosnia and Herzegovina has been re-
corded over 300 lichens by now, while the
expected lichens biodiversity is about 1.000
from total 20.000 identifed species in the
world.
Among lichens in Bosnia and Herzegovina
the most frequently occuring and abundant
are those from genera: Acarospora Mas-
sal. (4), Aspicilia Assal. (8), Caloplaca T.Fr.
(25), Cetraria Ach. (4), Cladonia Hill. ex
Browne (14), Collema Wigg. (10), Lecanora
Ach. (26), Lecidea Ach. (8), Melanelia Ach.
(8), Parmelia Ach. (8), Peltigera Willd. (7),
Pertusaria DC. (10), Physcia (Schr.)Mich.
(8), Physconia Poelt (6), Polyblastia Massal.
(5), Problastenia (Zahlbr.)Steiner (5), Ra-
malina Ch. (8), Rhizocarpon DC. (10), Ri-
nodina (Ach.)Gray (11), Usnea Adans. (10),
Verrucaria Schrader (12).
Diferent lichen populations and species are
to be found within all geographic regions,
provinces, sectors, biomes and ecosystems
on both horizontal and vertical profle of
Dinaric Alps. Epilithic lichens are constitu-
ents of classes: Lichenetea and Asplenietea
trichomanis, screes Tlaspietea rotundfolii,
Mediterraneo-mountain rocky grassland
Tero-Brachypodietea, and orders of: xeric
Mediterranean woods Quercetalia ilicis,
thermophilous woods Quercetalia pubes-
centis, mesic woods Fagetalia, hygrophilous
woods Quercetalia robori-petraeae, Alneta-
lia glutinosae and Populetalia albae. Te ex-
treme richness of lichens characterize tertia-
ry-relict forests with black pine and heaths
Orno-Ericion, forests with endemic white-
bark pine Pinion heldreichi and mountain
pine Pinion mugi, mountain grassland on
limestone belonging to the class Elyno-Ses-
leriteta and on siliceous rocks the class Cari-
cetea curvulae.
Having in mind the records addressed in
literature, and the hypothesis that many of
lichens are still unknown to the science, we
can suppose high diversity of them in Bos-
nia and Herzegovina, especially in endemic
centres (the canyons of Una, Vrbas, Neretva
and Drina river, and high mountain peaks).
Pressures on lichens diversity
By taking into account state of the environment on global scale, acceptance capacity of some
ecosystems in Bosnia and Herzegovina, sensitivity of licheno-fora/fungia, and the expected
trends of changes, we should emphasize following pressures:
t Global climate changes followed by acid rains and over-heating;
t Pollution of atmobiospheres by the inorganic and organic pollutants;
t Loss of plants diversity, especially trees that epiphytic lichens are bound to;
t Conversion of forest habitats;
t Over-grazing and soil erosion in high-mountain areas;
t Unbalanced exploitation of mineral resources;
t Invasive species of fungi, alges and cyanophytes.
Due to above stated pressures, the number of threatened lichens grows on daily basis (over 200
species on the European Red List of threatened plants and lichenes). However, the assessment
of their threat’s level in B&H, according to the IUCN criteria, hasn’t been completed yet.

DIVERSITY OF
LANDSCAPES
Geol ošku podl ogu na stani šti ma
ekosistema ovog pejzaža čine jedri
mezozojski krečnjaci. Zemljišta su
mediteranske crvenice (terra rossa),
me di t e r a ns ka s me đa z e ml j i š t a
(kalkokambisol), a na izraženim nagibima
terena prema vrhovima dominiraju
organomineralne crnice i rendzine. Zbog
izražene eolske erozije usljed otvorenosti
staništa prema moru, zemljišta su sa
pl i t ki m humusno- akumul at i vni m
horizontom i najčešće su predstavljena
različitim razvojnim fazama organo-
mineralnih crnica i rendzina. Na
zaravnjenim terenima u depresijama
razvijena su duboka ilimerizovana tla,
najčešće na flišu, a nastanjuju ih ostaci
MEDITERANSKI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
lEkosistemi makije i uvijek zelenih šuma i šikara (Quercion ilicis „adriaticum“);
lEkosistemi mješovitih uvijek zelenih šuma i šikara (Orno-Quercion ilicis);
lEkosistemi šuma lovora (Laurion nobilis);
lEkosistemi primorskih šuma medunca (Quercion pubescentis „adriaticum“);
lEkosistemi primorskih niskih šikara i šibljaka bjelograbića i koštrike (Rusco-
Carpinion orientalis);
lEkosistemi primorskih šibljaka drače (Paliurion aculeati);
lEkosistemi alepskog bora (Pinion halepensis).
Ekosistemi šuma, šikara i šibljaka
šuma lovora.
Klima je tipično eumediteranska sa
srednjom godišnjom temperaturom
0
između 16 i 18 C. Apsolutne minimalne
0
temperature se ne spuštaju ispod -5 C, a
apsolutne maksimalne dostižu vrijednost
0
i do 40 C u sklopljenim sastojinama.
Godišnja insolacija je više od 1.800 sati.
Oblačnost je niska, zime su blage, te klima
pogoduje razvoju, kako tradicionalnog,
tako i zdravstvenog ekoturizma.
Iako godišnje padne više od 1.500 mm
vodenog taloga, zbog vodopropusnosti
geološke podloge, površinske vode ili
odsustvuju ili se pojavljuju u vrijeme
ranog proljeća i kasne jeseni.
DIVERZITET EKOSISTEMA MEDITERANSKIH PEJZAŽA
Šibljaci su trajni oblik u sukcesiji
vegetacije kojoj fizionomiju određuju
šibolike drvenaste vrste (lijeska Coryllus
avellana, drača Paliurus aculeatus i druge).
Nastaju kao posljedica degradacije
šumskih zajednica.
Makije su zajednice u zoni medite-
ranskog pojasa u kojima dominira nisko
drveće, a nastale kao posljedica degrada-
cije klimatogene vegetacije uvijek zelenih
šuma česvine (Quercus ilex). Danas su
najčešći oblik šumolikih zajednica u
mediteranskom pojasu Bosne i Herce-
govine.
Pseudomakije su šumolike zajednice
uvijek zelenih i lišćarsko-listopadnih
elemenata, a koje se razvijaju izvan zone
šuma česvine, najčešće u pojasu šuma
trojanskog hrasta (Quercus trojana).
Garizi su gromolika vegetacija medite-
ranskog pojasa nastala degradacijom
makije. Mnoge biljne vrste koje izgrađuju
garige imaju bodlje i reducirane listove
kao prilagodbu na aridnu i toplu
ekoklimu. Garizi mogu nastati i kao
progradacijski stadij vegetacije medite-
ranskih kamenjara.
Mediteranski pejzaž čine:
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MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Te geological foundation of ecosystems be-
longing to this landscape is frm mezozic lime-
stone. Soils are mediterranean red earth (terra
rosa), brown mediterranean earth (calcocam-
bisol) and on steep slopes prevail organomin-
eral black earth and rendsine. Because of
underlined wind erosion and open position
toward the Sea, soils posses only shallow hu-
mus-accumulative horizon. It is mostly difer-
ent development stage of organomineral black
earth and rendsine. On fattened depression’s
bottom occur deep ilimerised soils, mainly on
fish, covered by remnants of laurel woods.
Te climate is typical eu-mediterranean with
mean annual temperature between 18 and
16°C. Absolute minimum doesn’t fall below
-5°C, while absolute maximum reaches up
to +40°C within closed stands. Insolation
amounts more than 1.800 hours a year. Cloud-
ness is low, while winters are milde. Terefore,
the climate suits for the development of tradi-
tional, medicinal and eco-tourism.
Although annual precipitation is more than
1.500 mm, due to leakage proof geologi-
cal foundation, there is either a lack of over-
ground water or it occurs only in early spring
and late autumn.
DIVERSITY OF ECOSYSTEMS IN MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES
Shrubs are persistent vegetation form that
emerges by natural succession and whose
physiognomy is determined by shrub-like trees
(European flbert Coryllus avellana, jerusa-
lem thorn Paliurus spina chrysti and others).
Shrubs emerge afer natural forest community
get degraded.
Maquis are plant communities occuring in the
mediterranean belt in which prevail small trees.
Tey represent a succession stage that emerges
afer climax vegetation, which is evergreen oak
wood (Quercus ilex), get degraded. Tis is the
most common forest type in the mediterranean
belt of Bosnia and Herzegovina today.
Pseudo-maquis is composed of evergreen and
broadleaved decidous elements developing
outside the zone of evergreen oak woods, ofen
in the belt of macedonian oak woods (Quercus
trojana).
Garrigues represent scrub-like vegetation of
the mediterranean belt which emerges afer
maquis get degraded. Many of garrigue build-
ing species have got spines and reduced scle-
rophyllous leaves as an adaptation to arid and
warm eco-climate. Garrigues may also be a
progradation stage of the mediterranean rock
debris communities.
Mediterranean landscapes are:
Ecosystems of woods, shrubs and scrubs
t Ecosystems of maquis and evergreen woods and shrubs (Quercion ilicis “adriaticum“);
t Ecosystems of mixed evergreen woods and shrubs (Orno-Quercion ilicis);
t Ecosystems of laurel woods (Laurion nobilis);
t Ecosystems of coastal pubescent oak woods (Quercion pubescentis “adriaticum”);
t Ecosystems of coastal small shrubs and scrubs with oriental hornbeam and butcher’s
broom (Rusco-Carpinion orientalis);
t Ecosystems of coastal jerusalem thorn shrubs (Paliurion aculeati);
t Ecosystems with aleppo pine (Pinion halepensis).
Ekosistemi šuma, šikara i šibljaka, iako
zauzimaju male površine, predstavljaju
važan segment biodiverziteta koji se
odl i kuj e s pec i f i č ni m bi ol oš ki m
obilježjima. Zbog njihove unikatnosti,
i zdi f erenci rani su od susj edni h
ekosistema i čine jadransku provinciju
mediteranske regije.
Na južnim i zapadnim ekspozicijama ovi
ekosistemi dostižu i 300 m.n.v., a na
sjevernoj ekspoziciji ne idu iznad 50
m.n.v.
Ova vegetacija predstavlja ostatke
primarne vegetacije nekad bujnih šuma
česvine. Danas su predstavljene u obliku
različitih razvojnih stadija makije.
Najrazvijenije sastojine ovih zajednica
prisutne su na poluostrvu Kleku, gdje na
pojedinim mjestima obrazuju gusto
sklopljene i neprohodne zajednice sa
dominacijom mediteranskih lijana, kao
što su veprina, broćika i koštrika.
Sastojine na poluotoku Kleku su još
izuzetno dobro očuvane. Još 1950. godine
ovo područje je proglašeno rezervatom
mediteranske flore i faune. I danas ima
izuzetan udio u očuvanju ukupnog
circummediteranskog živog svijeta, zbog
čega j e označeno medi teranski m
arboretumom (mediteranetumom).
Mediteranski pejzaži BiH predstavljaju
važan segment u ukupnom diverzitetu
Jadrana, kao i čitavog Mediterana i
zasl užuj u pažnj u Medi t eranskog
akcionog plana.
Idući prema submediteranu, pored uvijek
zelenih biljnih vrsta (zelenika, pistacija,
česvina i dr.) sve češće se pojavljuju
lisćarsko-listopadni elementi (bjelo-
garbić, drača, crni jasen, medunac).
Posebne pejzažne vrijednosti imaju
zaj edni ce sa pl ani kom, mi rt om,
pistacijama. Ova staništa nastanjuje i
unikatna fauna. Naročitim diverzitetom
se ističe fauna ptica, gmizavaca,
vodozemaca (planina Žaba), te različitih
skupina insekata (zrikavaca, skakavaca,
leptira, bogomoljki), škorpija, itd.
lEkosistemi gariga sa bušinima (Cisto-Ericion);
lEkosistemi primorske kleke (Juniperion oxycedri);
lEkosistemi brnistre (Spartion juncei);
lEkosistemi sa Calycotome infesta.
Ekosistemi gariga (mediteranskih žbunova)
Ekosistemima gariga obilježje daju niski
šibovi bušina iz roda Cystus i meditera-
nskih crnjuša iz roda Erica, koji posebnu
pejzažnu vrijednosti imaju u vrijeme
cvjetanja. Garizi predstavljaju dugotrajne
stadije u razvoju klimatogene vegetacije.
Garizi vjerno prate nekadašnja staništa
makija, njihove geološko-pedološke
prilike su dosta slične. Osnovna
ekoklimatska razlika između ova dva tipa
ekosistema je u znatno većem variranju
temperatura i nižoj relativnoj vlažnosti na
staništima gariga.
Idući prema submediteranskom pojasu,
garizi ostvaruju ekološki kontinuitet sa
zajednicama mediteranske kleke, a na
samo nekoliko lokaliteta sa staništima
ugrožene mediteranske vrste Calycotome
infesta.
lEkosistemi kamenjara (Cymbopogo –Brachypodion ramosi);
lEkosistemi livada (Vulpio-Lotion).
Ekosistemi mediteranskih kamenjara i livada
Kako je u prošlosti antropogeni faktor na
ovom prostoru bio intenzivan, najveću
površinu ovog pojasa danas nastanjuju
mediteranske kamenjare. Kamenjare su u
cjelosti otvorena staništa sa izraženim
temperaturnim ekstremima, plitkim
50
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Ecosystems of woods, shrubs and scrubs, al-
though covering small space, represent an im-
portant biodiversity component characterized
by specifc biological features. In their high
uniqueness, they clearly deviate from adjecent
ecosystems. Tey build the Adriatic province
of the Mediterranean region.
On southern and western slopes these ecosys-
tems climb up to 300 m above sea level, while
on northern slopes they don’t exceed 50 m.
It is the rest of primary vegetation, which is
evergreen oak woodland. At present it occurs
as diferent stages of maquis. Tese commu-
nities are best developed on the Klek penin-
sula, where it makes in some places tightly
closed cover which is hard to pass. Here pre-
vail mediterranean lianas, such as butcher’s
broom, madder and smilax. Stands on the
Klek peninsula are still in excellent condition.
In 1950 this area was designated as reserve of
mediterranen fora and fauna. It is even today
very important in terms of preservation of the
circum-mediterranean wildlife. Hence it has
been designated as a mediterranean arbore-
tum (mediterranetum). Mediterranean land-
scapes of B&H are an important segment of
both Adriatic and Mediterranean biodiversity
deserving full attention of the Mediterranean
Action Plan.
Going toward supra-mediterranean belt, along
with evergreen plants (phyllirea, pistache,
evergreen oak and others) more ofen occur
broadleaved elements (oriental hornbeam, je-
rusalem thorn, fowering ash, pubescent oak).
As a special landscape’s value we should men-
tion plant communities with strawberry tree,
myrtle, pistache. Tese places are inhabited
by unique fauna, too. Fauna of butterfies,
birds and amphibians (so called, Frog Mt.),
then diferent insect groups (crickets, grass-
hoppers, butterfies, mantis) and scorpions is
characterized by high diversity.
Ecosystems of garrigues (mediterranean bushes)
t Ecosystems of garrigues with rock-roses (Cisto-Ericion);
t Ecosystems of prickly juniper (Juniperion oxycedri);
t Ecosystems of spanish broom (Spartion juncei);
t Ecosystems with Calycotome infesta.
Ecosystems of garrigues are recognizable in
low bushes with dominance of rock-roses
of genus Cystus and mediterranean heaths
belonging to genus Erica. Te latter one,
in bloosom season, provides a special look
to the landscape. Garrigues are longlasting
stage in the climax vegetation development,
occuring always on places previously covered
by maquis, for they both have similar geo-
pedological demands. Te basic diference
between these two ecosystem types in terms
of eco-climate is greater temperature variance
and lower relative humidity in garrigues.
In the supra-mediterranean belt, in eco-
logical sense, garrigues are continued by
mediterranean juniper communities. There
are only few localities with endangered
mediterranean species Calycotome infesta.
Ecosystems of mediterranean rocky grassland and meadows
t Ecosystems of rocky grassland (Cymbopogo-Brachypodion ramosi);
t Ecosystems of meadows (Vulpio-Lotion).
Because of intensive anthropogenous impacts
in the past, most of this territory is now
covered by mediterranean rocky grassland.
Rocky grassland is entirely open kind
of habitat where temperature reaches its
extreme values. Soils are shallow humus-
humusno akumulativnim tlom i obično
većim nagibima terena. Stepen diverziteta
mediteranskih kamenjara najočitiji je u
proljeće i rano ljeto, te tokom rane jeseni.
Tokom ljeta, zbog visokih temperatura i
naglašene aridnosti, ovi ekosistemi ulaze
u period mirovanja. Najveći broj vrsta u
vegetaciji kamenjara ima ljekovita,
aromatična i medonosna svoj stva
(kadulja, smilje, vrisić i dr.)
Mediteranske kamenjare su staništa
velikog broja različitih životinjskih vrsta.
Visok stepen diverziteta, posebno
očigledan u vrijeme cvjetanja biljaka,
imaju različite vrste leptirova, pčela,
bumbara, skakavaca i zrikavaca, čiji zvuk
čini neodvojivi dio mediteranskog
pejzaža.
lEkosistemi u pukotinama karbonatnih stijena (Centaureo-Campanulion);
lEkosistemi mediteranskih sipara (Peltarion aliaceae).
Ekosistemi pukotina stijena i sipara
Na izraženim nagibima u pukotinama
tvrdih krečnjačkih stijena, na plitkim
zemljištima, tipa regosola i sirozema,
rastu mnoge hazmofite. Najveći broj ovih
vrsta j e uglavnom endemičnog i
t er ci j ar nog r el i kt nog kar akt er a.
Naročitom ljepotom svojih cvjetova ističu
se modro lasinje i mediteranske zvončike.
Često im se pridružuje i dalmatinski
buhač, koji bjelinom svojih jezičastih
cvjetova u glavičastim cvatima dinamizira
mediteranski pejzaž.
Ispod okomitih stijena, gdje je došlo do
nakupl j anj a supstrata usi tnj enog
djelovanjem temperaturnih ekstrema,
mjestimično su formirana mediteranska
točila (sipari). Uprkos ekstremnim
životnim prilikama na siparima se
razvijaju specifične zajednice koje
izgrađuje veći broj endemičnih i reliktnih
biljnih i životinjskih vrsta. Na njima
stanište nalaze npr. mekinjak, peltaria,
medi teranska zvonči ka, zdravac,
gladiole, perunike, te različite vrste
lEkosistemi hridina (Crythmo-Staticion cancelatae);
lEkosistemi pješčanih staništa (Amophylion maritimae);
lEkosistemi brakičnih voda (Ulvion lactucae);
lEkosistemi u litoralnom pojasu mora (Cystoseirion).
Ekosistemi u priobalnom pojasu mora
U priobalnom pojasu, u zoni plime i
oseke, razvijeni su zasebni ekosistemi
hridina. Supstrat na staništima ovih
ekosistema su mezozojski krečnjaci sa
raznovrsnom površinskom orname-
ntikom nastalom radljivošću morske
vode. U pukotinama stijena su razvijena
plitka zaslanjena tla (slanjače), na koja je
adaptiran relativno mali broj vrsta i
zajednica. Najčešće su ovdje tipične
halofite (matar, primorski oman i
mrižica). Tokom turističke sezone staništa
ovog tipa ekosistema trpe izuzetno visok
antropogeni pritisak, te su mnoge biljne i
životinjske vrste (npr. prstac), kao i
niijhove zajednice, veoma ugrožene. Na
morskim žalovima, na zemljištima tipa
arenosola razvij ene su halofitske
zajednice sa dominacijom vrsta iz rodova
Amophilla, Inula, Sueda, itd. Iako ovi
ekosistemi zauzimaju male površine,
igraj u važnu ulogu u stabilnosti
ekosistema mediteranskog pejzaža. U
priobalnom pojasu mora razvijene su
zajednice makrofitskih algi. Najčešće su
smeđe i zelene alge iz rodova Cistoseira,
Padina i Ulva, od kojih su neke i
endemičnog karaktera. Bogatstvo
marinske faune čine morske zvijezde,
ježevi, rakušci, školjke, morski krastavci,
te unikatan svijet riba. Unatoč visokom
kvalitetu morske vode, u BiH nije
zabilježena Posidonia oceanica, a razlog
tome može biti nedovoljna količina
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accumulative ones with steep slopes. Te
diversity of mediterranean rocky grassland is
obvious in spring, early summer and autumn.
In summer, due to high temperatures and
arid climate, this ecosystems stagnate. Most
of its plants posses medicinal, aromatic and
honey-producing features (common sage,
strawfower, savory and others).
Mediterranean rocky grassland is a habitat of
many animal species. A high diversity level
is being reached by butterfies, bees, humble
bees, grasshoopers and crickets, especially in
bloosom season. Te sound of the latter ones
is a component part of the mediterranean
landscape.
Ecosystems of rock crevices and screes
t Ecosystems of limestone rock fssures (Centaureo-Campanulion);
t Ecosystems of mediterranean screes (Peltarion aliaceae).
On more inclinated slopes where prevail shallow type of soils, such as regosol and sirozem, and
in the fssures of hard limestone rocks, grow many chasmophytes. Most of them are endemic
and considered to be tertiary relicts. Especially beautiful are Moltkea petraea and mediterranean
bellfowers. Quite ofen they are accompanied by Dalmation pyrethrum, whose white and
radially composed fowers put the mediterranean landscape in motion.
Beneath clifs on accumulated matter of weathered rocks, evolve in some place mediterranean
screes. Inspite of harsh environment, screes are inhabited by very specifc communities composed
of numerous endemic and relict both plants and animals. It is habitat of, for instance, Drypis,
garlic cress, mediterranean bellfower, robert geranium, gladiola, iris and diverse kind of snails.
Ecosystems in littoral sea belt
t Ecosystems of sea clifs (Crythmo-Staticion cancelatae);
t Ecosystems of marine sands (Amophylion maritimae);
t Ecosystems of brakish water (Ulvion lactucae);
t Ecosystems of littoral sea belt (Cystoseirion).
In the littoral belt, where the sea level rises
and falls, occur special ecosystems of sea
clifs. Geological foundation here is mezo-
zoic limestone with highly diverse ornaments
at the surface resulted by sea water activity.
In rock fssures develop very shallow salty
soil (salt marshes), to whome is adapted rela-
tively small number of species and commu-
nities. Most frequent are typical halophytes
(rock and golden samphire and sea lavender).
In touristic season these habitats are under
tremendous anthropogenous impact mak-
ing therefore many plant and animal species
(for instance date-shell) highly endangered.
On sandy beaches, where arenosol is com-
mon type of soil, developed are halophylous
communities in which prevail species of gen-
era Amophilla, Inula, Sueda etc. Tese are
ecosystems that cover small area, but, yet,
play an important role for the mediterranean
landscape’s stability. In the littoral sea, grow
macrophyte alges within their communities.
Te most common are brown and green al-
ges of genera Cistoseira, Padina and Ulva, of
which some are endemic ones. Te richness of
marine fauna includes seastars, sea urchins,
crayfshes, molluscs, sea cucumbers and the
unique fsh world. Although B&H’s sea water
posses high quality, it hasn’t been recorded the
occurence of Posidonia oceanica. Te reason
for that is probably low salinity of sea water as
a result of dilution by Neretva river.
For the mediterranean landscape character-
istic are sea ecosystems. Tere is 27 km long
rastvorenih soli usljed naglašenog
razblaženja morske vode od rijeke
Neretve.
Poseban značaj u mediteranskom pejzažu
imaju ekosistemi mora. U dužini od oko
27 km, Bosna i Hercegovina ima direktan
izlaz na Jadransko more u predjelu
Malostonskog zaljeva.
Reljef morskog dna u dijelu bosansko-
hercegovačkog mora je veoma dinamičan.
Kvalitet vode, zaklonjenost od jakih bura
i specifična kombinacija otopljenih soli,
uslovili su razvoj izuzetno bogatog živog
svijeta. Mikrofitske i makrofitske alge te
brojne vrste beskičmenjaka čine vrlo
interesantnim planktonske, nektonske i
bentoske životne zajednice. U ovim
ekosistemima živi oko 100 vrsta različitih
kičmenjaka, među kojima je najviše riba
(97 vrsta), te veliki broj različitih oblika
beskičmenjaka - spužvi, rakova, školjki,
glavonožaca, korala, bodljokožaca, te
različitih morskih crva.
Tabela 25. - Fauna Jadranskog mora na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine
U priobalnom pojasu su izraženi globalni
i lokalni antropogeni uticaji, zbog čega su
senzitivne vrste (prstac, morski jež) sa
ozbiljnim stepenom ugroženosti.
Hidrološki koridor i direktnu vezu sa
otvorenim Jadranom Bosna i Hercegovina
postiže u skladu sa međunarodnom
pomorskom regulativom. Kao malo koji
dio Jadranskog mora, bosanskoherce-
govačko more je još veoma čisto, sa
razuđenom obalom i pogodno je za
podizanje pomorske infrastrukture u
južnom dijelu. Kapacitet naših morskih
ekosistema pruža mogućnosti za
izgradnju moderne luke za putničke i
lakše teretne brodove s ciljem razvoja
održivog pomorstva.
lEkosistemi nitrificiranih staništa (Inulion viscosae);
lEkosistemi obradivih površina (Panico-Setarion);
lEkosistemi napuštenih staništa (Psoraleion bituminosae);
Ekosistemi urbanih i ruralnih staništa
Danas su mnoge površine, naročito u
priobalnom pojasu, pretvorene u urbana i
ruralna naselja. Osim za gradnju sve
potrebne turističke infrastrukture,
zemljište se u mediteranskom pojasu
koristi i za održivu poljoprivredu.
Posebno su pogodno za uzgoj povrtla-
rskih kultura (paprika, paradajz, patl.,
špinat, repa, raštika, blitva, salata, luk), te
uzgoj tipičnih mediteranskih kultura
(maslina, narandža, mandarina, smokva,
vinova loza, aktinidija, nar, itd.).
Na zbijenim zemljištima uz puteve
razvijene su zajednice sa ljepljivim
omanom, djetelnjakom, bijelim bunom,
prskavac itd. Prirodni mediteranski
pej zaž upot punj uj u hort i kul t ure
neobičnih formi i raskošnih cvati među
kojima su Bougenvilia, Passiflora, Acaccia,
Wisteria, Thuja i razne vrste palmi i
čempresa.
52
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shoreline that allows B&H direct approach to
the Adriatic Sea, in the area of Malostonski
zaljev.
Te relief of B&H’s sea bottom is very din-
amic. Because of water quality, hidden pos-
tion relating to strong winds coming from
the sea and specifc mixture of in water dis-
soluted salts, the living world is highly diverse
and rich. Tere are micro- and macrophyte
alges along with numerous inverebrates that
create many interesting communities belong-
ing to plankton, necton and benthos. Within
these ecosystems live 100 vertebrate species,
of which majority make fshes (97 species) and
diferent invertebrate forms of life – sponges,
crabs, molluscs, cephalopods, corals, spiny-
skinned animals, sea worms.
Table 25. – Fauna of the Adriatic Sea on B&H’s territory
Te coastal area is afected by global and local
anthropogenic impacts, which is why sensi-
tive species (prstac, morski jež) are seriously
endangered.
Te hydrographic corridor and direct con-
nection with an open sea, Bosnia and Herze-
govina achieves in accordance with the inter-
national sea regulations. Like no other area in
Adriatic sea, bosnia-herzegovina’s sea is still
very clean with streched coastline, hence, be-
ing suitable for the construction of marine
infrastructure in its southern part. Te capac-
ity of our marine ecosystems enables the con-
struction of modern harbor for passanger and
lighter cargo ships, which will support devel-
opment of the sustainable shipping.
Ecosystems of urban and rural habitats
t Ecosystems of nitrifed habitats (Inulion viscosae);
t Ecosystems of arable land (Panico-Setarion);
t Ecosystems of abandoned places (Psoraleion bituminosae).
Today, most of the area, especially in the
coastal belt, is transformed into urban and
rural settlements. Apart from being used for
the construction of needed touristic infra-
structure, land in mediterranean belt is also
used for the sustainable agriculture. It suits
for growing vegetables (paprika, tomato, au-
bergine, spinach, beet, borecole, mangel, sal-
ad, onion) and typical mediterranean crops
(olives, oranges, tangerins, fgs, grapes, ac-
tinidies, pomegranates etc.).
Along side of the roads, on trampled soil,
occur communities with elecampane, pitch
trefoil, white henbane, etc. Te natural look
of mediterranean landscapes is completed by
ornamental plants with unusual shapes and
fourishing bloosom. Tose are Bougenvilia,
Passifora, Acaccia, Vistaria, Tuja and dif-
ferent kind of palms and cypreses.
Romulea bulbocodium
(L.) Sebast. & Mauri
Kako su saobraćajnice dugo vremena za-
obilazile bosanskohercegovački dio prim-
orja, dugo se održavala izvorna slika tipi-
čnih mediteranskih pejzaža. U posljednjih
50 godina, izgradnjom saobraćajnica, do-
lazi do razvoja rekreacijskog, otvorenog i
posebno konferencijskog turizma. Danas
je glavnina bosanskohercegovačke obale
pretvorena u urbano naselje čiji centar čini
grad Neum.
Uvijek zelene makije česvine su dosta do-
bro očuvane na našem području. Intenz-
ivan antropogeni faktor kroz prekomj-
Stanje mediteranskih pejzaža
ernu sječu nekada visokih šuma uvjeto-
vao je značajnu degradaciju zemljišta, što
je rezultiralo pojavom niskoproduktivnih
ekosistema gariga i kamenjara. Do značaj-
ne je promjene došlo u strukturi priobaln-
ih ekosistema što nameće potrebu njihove
hitne ekološke restauracije (naročito na di-
jelu Hotel Zenit-Surdup).
Stvarna slika procjene ekološkog stanja
proizilazi iz najnovijih studija, čiji su re-
zultati prikazani na slici 7.
Slika 7. – Kapacitet prihvata ekosistema u mediteranskim pejzažima BiH
53
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State
Tanks to the fact that main roads have
avoided bosnia-herzegovina’s shore for a
long time, the original image of mediter-
ranean landscapes has been preserved for a
same long period of time. In last 50 years, the
construction of roads has enabled develop-
ment of recreational, open and conference
tourism. Main share of bosnia-herzegovina’s
shoreline is today transformed into urban
settlement with centre in Neum city.
Te evergreen oak woods are quite well pre-
served in our territory. Te massive anthro-
pogenic pressure through over-logging of
formerly tall forest has led to sever soil degra-
dation and the occurnece of low-productive
ecosystems of garrigues and rocky grassland.
Te structure of littoral ecosystems has been
changed substantially entailing the need af-
ter their ecological restoration (especially in
the area Hotel Zenit-Surdup).
Te more realistic picture of the ecosystem
state’s assessment emerges from the recent
studies, the results of which are shown in
Figure 7.
Figure 7. – Carrying capacity of mediterranean landscape’s ecosystems in B&H
Geol ošku podl ogu na stani šti ma
submediteranskih ekosistema Bosne i
Hercegovine čine karbonatne stijene
(krečnjaci i dolomiti) različite starosti. Na
njima je razvijena karbonatna serija tla, pa
su prisutni sirozem, krečnjačke crnice,
rendzine, smeđa krečnjačka tla i samo na
ravnijim terenima suhlji luvisoli. Na
plitkim karbonatnim tlima optimum
nalaze submediteranske kamenjare i
livade, dok se šume i šikare razvijaju
najčešće na kambičnim tlima. U pogledu
termike staništa srednje godišnje tempe-
SUBMEDITERANSKI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
0
rature se kreću oko 16 C. Variranje tempe-
ratura i ostalih ekoklimatskih faktora
daleko je izraženije na staništima
kamenjara i livada nego na staništima
šuma i šikara ovog pojasa. Srednja
godišnja relativna vlažnost vazduha je
niska u odnosu na humidna bosanska
staništa, a tokom vegetacijske sezone
izražen je period aridnosti. U odnosu na
svjetlost, zajednice ovog pojasa su
heliofilne, a samo u nekim sinuzijama
staništa nalaze i skiofitne vrste.
Idući od mediteranskog pojasa (50 m n.v.
na sjevernim i do 300 m n.v. na južnim
ekspozicijama), prema sjeveru se proteže
orografski blago zatalasan prostor u
kojem se formirala posebna varijanta
submediteranske klime. U hidrološkom
smislu ovaj prostor je uvezan u jedinstven
sistem preko bogate mreže površinskih i
podzemnih vodotoka od kojih većina
završava u rijeci Neretvi.
Termofilne vrste hrastova, kao najbolji
bioindikatori submediteranskog tipa
ekoklime, pokazuju da se ovaj prostor
DIVERZITET EKOSISTEMA U SUBMEDITERANSKIM PEJZAŽIMA
proteže dolinom Neretve sve do
Jablaničkog jezera, a obuhvata i doline
Lištice i Tihaljine i zonu donjih kraških
polja, te sve do Bileće na istoku i Trebinja
na jugu.
Ovaj prostor, pored povoljne klime i dosta
bogate hidrološke mreže karakteriše i
visok diverzitet zemljišta. Dominiraju
crnice, rendzine, smeđa krečnjačka
zemljišta, a na ravnim terenima su
razvijene posebne varijante ilimerizo-
vanih tala i fluvisola.
„Ostaci nekada visokih šuma, a danas šikare i
šibljaci, kamenjari, siparišta, pukotine stijena,
vrtače, kamene kuće, posjedi sa kamenim
ogradama su slika tipičnog hercegovačkog
submediteranskog pejzaža. U njima se čitavu
godinu ističe bjelina ljutog krša, behar
rascvalih trešanja, breskvi i kajsija, a u rano
proljeće i jesen rumenilo narova. Mediteranski
čempres ovdje razvija visoka stabla koja samo
što ne dotiču bistro hercegovačko nebo. Ruke
vještih neimara sazidale su kule, gradove,
mostove, čije zidine i graciozni lukovi pričaju
svoje priče o, stasitim Humljanima i
Huml j ankama, l i j epoj Emi ni , Di vi
Grabovčevoj, Šantićevim jasminima,
Dučićevim jablanima, smirajima dušama
ljudskim na hladnom izvoru Bune i
prostranstvima Širokog Brijega.
I danas u predvečerja i u cik zore odjekuje eho
sa Hadžibegove kule u Hutovu, odzvanjaju
zvona manastira u Zavali, čuje se tihi šapat na
izvoru Bune i među zvonicima Počitelj-grada,
begovine na Bregavi. Preko mosta bijeloga i
danas prolaze Humljani da u rumene večeri
pričaju priče o nekadašnjim junaštvima,
vještim neimarima, bistroj Radobolji, lijepoj
Emini.“ (Navod iz TV emisije „Prirodna
baština BiH“)
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SUPRA-MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Geologic foundation in habitats of the supra-
mediterranean landscapes is made of car-
bonate rocks (limestone and dolomites) of
diferent age. On top of them occurs series
of carbonate soil, sirozem, limestone black
earth, rendsine, limestone brown earth and
on fattened ground dry luvisol. Shallow car-
bonate soils provide optimal conditions for
a supra-mediterranean rocky grassland and
meadows with woods and shrubs occuring
on cambisols. As far as thermal conditions
are concerned, mean annual temperature is
around 16
0
C. Variation of temperature and
other ecoclimate conditions is more pro-
nounced in the rocky grassland and mead-
ows than in the woods and shrubs. Average
relative air humidity is low comparing to
humid bosnian habitats with arid charac-
teristics in vegetation season. Considering
light demands, communities of this belt are
heliophyte. Sciophytes are to be found only
in some sinusia.
ECOSYSTEMS DIVERSITY OF SUPRA-MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES IN B&H
Going from the mediterranean belt (50 m
above sea level on northern and up to 300 m on
southern slopes) in northern direction extends,
in orographic sense mildly waved area, in which
has evolved special variant of supra-mediterra-
nean climate. Regarding its hydrology this area
is bound into unique system through branched
network of overground and underground wa-
tercourses ending mostly in Neretva river.
Termophilous oak species, being best bioin-
dicator of supra-mediterranean climate, show
that this territory streches along Neretva river
up to Jablaničko lake, encompassing valleys of
Lištica and Tihaljina and lower karst felds, go-
ing all the way to Bileća in East and Trebinje in
South.
Beside suitable climate and well developed
hydrologic network this area is characterized
by high diversity of soils. Prevailing are black
earth, rendsine, brown limestone earth and
some variants of ilimerized soils and fuvisols
on fat land.
What once used to be fourishing woodland
with mazedonian, italian and pubescent oak
has in the meanwhile changed completely due
to many civilizations that have come to pass.
“Remnants of previously tall woods, which are
shrubs and scrubs today, then rocky grassland,
screes, rock crevices, sink holes, stone cottages
and possesions surrounded by stone fences are
typical image of herzegovina’s supra-medi-
terranean landscape. Herein highligthened is
the white colour of karst, bloosom of fowering
cherries, peaches and apricots over entire year,
and in early spring and fall the redish of pome-
granates. Mediterranean cypresses here are al-
most as tall as clear herzegovina’s sky. By hands
of skilful builders constructed were towers, cit-
ies, bridges whose walls and graceful arches tell
the story on noble people from Hum, beautiful
Emina, Diva Grabovčeva, Šantić’s jasmines,
Dučić’s poplars, peaceful rest of human souls,
cold source of Buna river and vast space of
Široki Brijeg.
Even today, in dusk and early dawn, one can
hear an echo from Hadžibeg’s tower in Hutovo,
monastery bells from Zavala, silent whisper at
Buna’s source foating between the bell-towers
of Počitelj-town that once used to be beg’s pos-
sesion on Bregava river’s shore. Over the white
bridge still cross people from Hum to tell the
stories on heroic deeds, skilful builders, clear
Radoblja river, beautiful Emina.“ (quoted from
TV show “Prirodna baština BiH“)
Submediteranski pejzaži se diferenciraju na sljedeće ekosisteme:
lEkosistemi šuma i šikara medunca;
lEkosistemi šuma i šikara trojanskog
hrasta;
lEkosistemi šuma i šikara hrasta
sladuna;
lEkosistemi šuma i šikara bjelograbića;
lEkosistemi šuma i šikara crnog graba;
lEkoistemi submediteranskih
kamenjara sa bijelim vrijeskom i
kaduljom;
Uz vodotoke i na ravnim terenima u uslovima visokog nivoa podzemne vode razvijene
su i različite močvarne zajednice koje izgrađuju ekosisteme:
lEkosistemi vrba, topola i platana;
lEkosistemi šibljaka rakite, konopljike i periploke;
lEkosistemi sive vrbe;
lEkosistemi bara i močvara u području kraških polja;
lEkosistemi submediteranskih higrofilnih livada;
lEkosistemi slatkih voda.
Sve toploljubive livade i kamenjare u BiH
imaju sekundarni karakter. Nastale su u
procesima različitih oblika egzogenih
sukcesija, veoma često antropogenog
karaktera, krčenjem šuma, paljenjem,
pretjeranom ispašom kozama u prošlosti i
na slične načine.
Ekosistemi kamenjara i kserotermnih
l i vada danas nastanj uj u stani šta
klimatogene vegetacije šuma trojanskog
hrasta, medunca i sladuna. Na području
BiH ovi ekosistemi su optimalno razvijeni
upravo na području Hercegovine.
Submediteranske kamenj are sveze
Satureion montanae danas najčešće
nalazimo u zoni bjelograbića. Vegetacija
kamenj ar a pr i pada kl asi The ro-
Brachypodietea. Kserotermne livade sub-
mediteranskih pejzaža BiH pripadaju
klasi Festuco-Brometea.
Ekosistemi toplolj ubivih livada i
kamenjara se diferenciraju na veliki broj
vegetacijskih jedinica u čiji sastav ulazi
preko 1.000 vrsta vaskularnih biljaka. O
broju životinjskih organizama ne postoje
ni približno tačni podaci.
Najrasprostranjenije životne zajednice u
ekosistemima submediteranskih kame-
njara na području Hercegovine su:
Ekosistemi submediteranskih kamenjara i kserotermnih livada
lzajednica kadulje i kovilja;
lzajednica čubra i zvončaca;
lzajednica vlasulje i kelerije;
lzajednica čapljana i kršina;
lzajednica šaša i zečine.
Stanje submediteranskih pejzaža
Značajan broj biljaka koje nastanjuju ova
staništa su rijetke, endemične i reliktne
vrste, a druga grupa su one sa izraženim
ekonomskim vrijednostima. U subme-
diteranskim kamenjarama i livadama je
veliki broj ljekovitih, jestivih, aromatičnih
i vitaminskih vrsta koje su se od davnina
koristile u tradicionalnoj medicini i
alternativnoj ishrani. I danas mnoge
imaju neprevaziđenu ulogu u farmaciji.
Ovi ekosistermi imaju veliki ekonomski
značaj kao pašnjaci za zdravu stočnu
ishranu.
lEkosistemi submediteranskih
kamenjara sa smiljem;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama stijena sa
modrim lasinjem i bjelušinom;
lEkosistemi sipara sa peltariom i
zdravcem;
lEkosistemi obradivih površina;
lRuralni i urbani ekosistemi;
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Supra-mediterranean ecosystems are divided into following ones:
t Ecosystems of woods and shrubs with pubes-
cent oak;
t Ecosystems of woods and shrubs with maze-
donian oak;
t Ecosystems of woods and shrubs with italian
oak;
t Ecosystems of woods and shrubs with oriental
hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of woods and shrubs with fower-
ing ash;
t Ecosystems of supra-mediterranean rocky
grassland with savory and common sage;
t Ecosystems of supra-mediterranean rocky
grassland with everlasting;
t Ecosystems of rock crevices with moltkea and
Tanacetum cinerariifolium;
t Ecosystems of screes with garlic cress and
robert geranium;
t Ecosystems of arable land;
t Rural and urban ecosystems.
Along streams and on the fat land, where the level of underground water is high, occur
swamp communities building following ecosystems:
t Ecosystems of willows, poplars and oriental plane;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with purpule willow, chaste tree andsilk vine;
t Ecosystems with grey willow;
t Ecosystems of ponds and marshes in karst felds;
t Ecosystems of supra-mediterranean hygrophilous meadows;
t Ecosystems of freshwater.
Ecosystems of supra-mediterranean rocky grassland and xeric meadows
t community of common sage and needlegrass;
t community of thyme and bellfower;
t community of fescue and quaking grass;
t community of asphodel and kršin;
t community of sedge and knapweed.
State
Many plants living in these habitats are rare, endemic and relict, while, on the other hand, there is
a large group of plants possesing high economic value. Supra-mediterranean rocky grassland and
meadows comprise medicinal, edible, aromatic and vitaminous plants that are being used since
ever for traditional healing and alimentary purposes. Yet, there are many species being irreplace-
able in modern pharmacy, too.
Tese ecosystems have got enormous economic importance as pastures providing healthy live
stock’s diet.
All thermophilous meadows and rocky grassland
in B&H have got secondary character. Tey emerge
in diferent kind of egzogenic successions that are
quite ofen anthropogenic triggered, such as clear-
ing and burning down of forests, over-grazing and
other similar ways.
At present these ecosystems are spread over habi-
tats whose climax vegetation is composed of maze-
donian, italian and pubescent oak. In B&H these
ecosystems achieve their optimal development in
Herzegovina.
Supra-mediterranean rocky grassland of alliance
Satureion montanae occurs most frequently in ori-
ental hornbeam’s zone. Tis vegetation type belongs
to class Tero-Brachypodietea. Xeric meadows of
supra-mediterranean landscapes in B&H belong to
class Festuco-Brometea.
Ecosystems of thermophilous meadows and rocky
grassland are diferentiated into great number of
vegetational units encompassing over 1.000 species
of vascular plants. Data on animal diversity aren’t as
closely that reliable as data on plants. Most distrib-
uted plant communities of supra-mediterranean
rocky grassland’s ecosystems in Herzegovina are:
Pritisci na ekosisteme submediteranskih kamenjara i kserotermnih livada
Ekosistemi termofilnih livada i kamenjara
u submediteranskom pojasu Bosne i Her-
cegovine danas se nalaze pod jakim i ra-
znovrsnim antropogenim uticajima, koji
potiću iz aktivnosti kao što su:
lNekontrolisana urbanizacija;
lUspostava novih saobraćajnih i drugih infrastrukturnih objekata;
lKonverzija kraških staništa u poljoprivredne površine;
lNeodrživo iskorištavanje bioloških resursa (žalfija, smilje i mnoge druge vrste).
Ekosistemi kraških pećina, jama i ponora
Specifična geološka prošlost subme-
diteranskog pejzaža uslovila je nastanak i
opstanak raritetnih staništa podzemne
faune. Veliki broj izuzetnih podzemnih
biotopa (pećine, jame i ponori) se sreće na
području Hercegovine.
Biotopi podzemnih kopnenih voda su
staništa starih taksona, a može se
očekivati da na staništima na manjoj
dubini, povezanim sa nadzemnim
ekosistemima, žive nj ihovi mlađi
srodnici.
Pored paleoklimatskih i geomorfoloških
faktora uspostavljanja i održavanja ovog
tipa reliktnih ekosistema posebno su
važne karakteristike dinarskog krša,
koj eg či ne šupl j i kavi mezozoj ski
krečnjaci.
Evolucijska prednost ovakvih tipova
staništa je ne samo u sklanjanju od
nepovoljnih klimatskih uslova, nego i u
mogućnos t i i zbj egavanj a oš t r i h
konkurentskih odnosa kakvi vladaju u
nadzemnim biocenozama.
U podzemnim stalnim i povremenim
staništima, u vodenoj i kopnenoj životnoj
sredini prisutni su: troglobionti (potpuno
prilagođeni na život u podzemnim
šupljinama), troglofili (adaptirani na
podzemna staništa, ali se pojavljuju i u
nadzemnim biotopima) i troglokseni
(povremeni ili slučajni stanovnici pećina).
Čl anovi bi ocenoza su ugl avnom
konzumenti i reducenti, saprobionti i
saprofagi, a u daleko manjoj mjeri
biofagni organizmi. Pored pripadnika
carstava Monera i Fungi, glavni dio
bi ocenoza sači nj avaj u pri padni ci
Protozoa i Animalia (Metazoa).
U vezi sa malim brojem ekoloških niša u
podzemnim staništima j e i mala
raznovrsnost biocenoza. Gustina popu-
lacija prisutnih vrsta ograničena je malom
količinom hrane, što uporedo sa ograniče-
nim prostorom podzemnih biotopa
dovodi do kritično niske brojnosti i
ekstinkcije populacija.
Kao adaptivne osobine organizama u
podzemnim staništima ističu se: odsustvo
pigmenata kože, redukcija ili odsustvo
organa čula vida, znatan razvoj taktilnog i
čul a mi ri sa ( i zdužene ant ene i
ekstremiteti), razvijeni organi čula sluha.
U vezi sa visokom relativnom vlažnošću
vazduha, reducirana je zaštita od
isušivanja. Smanjena koncentracija kisika
i povećana koncentracija ugljendioksida u
podzemnim staništima uslovila je takođe
i razvoj odgovarajućih fizioloških
adaptacija.
Najpoznatije i najviše proučavano
stanište podzemne faune na području
Bosne i Hercegovine je pećina Vjetrenica
„Špilja je izdubljena u vapnencima i dolomiti-
ma između Popova polja i Jadranskog mora.-
...Na površini su razvijeni brojni kraški oblici
reljefa: škrape, vrtače, jame, pećine, glavice,
grede itd. Površina reljefa zacijelo ima vezu s
podzemnim kanalima Vjetrenice.“
Vjetrenica je najdulja špilja u Bosni i
Hercegovini. Dosad je otkriveno i opisano
oko 5.700 m dužine kanala.
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Pressures onto supra-mediterranean rocky grassland and xeric meadows
Ecosystems of thermophilous meadows and rocky grassland in supra-mediterranean belt
of Bosnia and Herzegovina are under tremendous and diverse anthropogenic impacts
arising from activities as follows:
t uncontrolled urbanisation;
t construction of trafc and other infrastructure facilities;
t conversion of karst habitats into agricultural land;
t unsustainable use of biological resources (sage, strawgrass and others).
Ecosystems of karst caves, holes and abysses
In highly specifc past of supra-mediterra-
nean landscapes were created and main-
tained rare habitats of underground fauna.
On Herzegovina’s territory occurs great
number of outstanding biotopes (caves, holes
and abysses).
Deep under the surface water is inhabited by
ancient taxa, while younger kindred species
are expected to be found living close to the
surface in connection with overground eco-
systems.
Beside palaeo-climate and geomorphologic
features for these relict kind of ecosystems,
in order to get developed and maintained,
important are characteristics of dinaric
karst, whereby it is meant on porous meso-
soic limestone.
Evolutionary advantage of these habitat
types is in hiding from unfavourable climate
conditions and possibility to avoid harsh
competition which prevails in underground
biocoenoses.
In underground habitats both permanent
and temporary ones, in aquatic and terres-
trial environment, occur troglobionts (fully
adapeted to life in underground cavities),
troglophylls (adapted to underground habi-
tats, yet occuring in overground biotopes)
and trogloxens (occasionally or accidental
dwelling in caves).
Constituents of biocoenoses are mainly con-
sumers and reducers, saprobionts and saprof-
ags, in far less extent biofags. Along with rep-
resentatives from realms Monera and Fungi,
major proportion of biocoenoses is made of
representatives from realms Protozoa and
Animalia (Metazoa).
Small number of ecologic niches occuring
in underground habitats is related with low
diversity of biocoenoses. Population density
is limited by quantity of available food re-
sources, which together with limited space in
biotopes leads to critically small abundance
or even extinction of populations.
Adaptive features of organisms living un-
derground are: lack of pigmentation, reduc-
tion or absence of sight, emphasized tactile
and odorous senses (extended anntenas and
limbs), developed hearing sense. In relation
with high relative humidity of air, reduced is
dry protection. Decreased concentration of
oxygen and increased concentration of car-
bondioxid in underground habitats results
in development of appropriate physiologic
adaptations.
Te most famous and best studied under-
ground habitat in Bosnia and Herzegovina is
Vjetrenica cave:
“Te cave is hollowed out in limestone and
dolomites between Popovo polje and Adri-
atic Sea... At surface developed are numerous
karst relief ’s forms: karrens, sink holes, holes,
caves, heads, beams etc. Tere must be con-
nection between the surface and underground
cavities of Vjetrenica cave.“
Vjetrenica is the longest cave in Bosnia and
Herzegovina. It has been so far discovered
and described around 5.700 m of its length.
„Vjetrenica je horizontalna špilja vrlo ra-
zgranatih kanala koji se pružaju na tri razine.
Gornju razinu čini skupina razdvojenih ver-
tikalnih kanala, većinom dimnjaka. Oni vode
iz Glavnog kanala prema površini terena
iznad Vjetrenice, ali i iz nekih sporednih kanal-
a. U istu razinu ubraja se mreža galerijskih ka-
nala ispletenih iznad središnjeg dijela špilje
tzv. Stara Vjeternica- najčešće s jedne i druge
strane Velikog jezera. Srednju razinu čini
Glavni kanal s odvojcima koji se vodoravno
šire ili blago podižu kroz slojeve karbonatnih
stijena. Najnižu razinu čine Donja Vjetrenica
i Absolonov kanal s mrežama bočnih kanala.“
Tabela 26. - Stenoendemične vrste pećinske faune Vjetrenice
Naziv vrste Domaci naziv
Scutariella stammeri Matjasic 1958 Vjetrenički ili Stammerov rogonjić*
Lanzaia vjetrenicae Kuscer 1933 Vjetrenička lancaja*
Zavalia vjetrenicae Radoman 1973 Zavalka*
Eukoenenia remyi Conde 1974 Remyjev bičerepac*
Lepthyphantes vignai Brignoli 1971 Vignaijev sitni baldahinski pauk*
Neobisium (Blothrus) vjetrenicae Hadzi 1933 Vjetrenički lažištipavac*
Dinaria vjetrenicae Hadzi 1933 Vjetrenička dinarija*
Troglomysis vjetrenicensis Stammer 1936 Vjetrenički rašljonožac*
Armadillidium absoloni Strouhal 1939 Absolonova mramorirana babura*
Niphargus factor G. Karaman & Sket 1991 Sitni slijepi rakušac*
Niphargus zavalanus S. Karaman 1950 Zavalski slijepi rakušac*
Typhloiulus (Attemsotyphlus) edentulus Attems 1951 Glatka dvojenoga*
Coletinia sp. Koletinija*
Aphaenopsis (Adriaphaenops) pretneri Scheibel 1935 Pretnerov afenopsis*
Orientalina troglobia (Bole 1961) Špiljska orijentalina**
Vitrea spelaea (A.J.Wagner 1914) Popovska staklenka**
Phoxinellus ghetaldii (Steindachner 1882) Popovska gaovica**
Iglica absoloni (A.J. Wagner 1914) Absolonova iglica***
Aegopis spelaeus (A.J.Wagner 1914) Špiljski plošnjak***
Cecilioides ???? spelaea A.J.Wagner 1914 Špiljski šiškoliki puž***
Prostoma hercegovinense Tarman 1961 Hercegovački vrpčar***
Stalitella noseki Absolon & Kratochvil 1933 Stalitela ili runjavi špiljski pauk***
Tegenaria annulata Kulczynski 1912 Špiljski ljevkar***
Proasellus hercegovinensis (Karaman 1933) Hercegovačka vodenbabura***
Alpioniscus (Illyrionethes) heroldi Verhoeff 1931 Heroldova slijepa babura***
Titanethes (Cyphonethes) hercegovinensis Verhoeff 1900 Hercegovačka špiljska babura***
Niphargus balcanicus Absolon 1927 Bodljikavi slijepi rakušac***
Niphargus vjetrenicensis S. Karaman 1932 Vjetrenički slijepi rakušac***
Niphargus hercegovinensis S. Karaman 1950 Hercegovački slijepi rakušac***
Lithobius (Troglolithobius) matulicii Verhoeff 1899 Matulićeva kamenarka***
Antroherpon primitivum (Absolon 1913) Primitivni antroherpon***
Hadesia vasiceki (J. Muller 1911) Hadezija***
Speonesiotes (S.) narentinus L. Miller 1861 Neretvanski podzemljar***
Aphaenopsis (Scotoplanetus) arenstroffianus Absolon 1913 Vjetrenički afenopsis***
Troglamaurops ganglbaueri Winkler 1925 Ganglbauerov pselafid***
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“Vjetrenica is horizontal cave with branched
channels that extend in three levels. Upper
level is made of vertical channels, mostly
chimneies. Tey lead from Main channel to-
ward the surface, which is above Vjetrenica,
but there are also routes going from some sec-
ondary channels. Into same level belong the
network of gallery-like channels stretching
over a mid part of cave-so called Old Vjeterni-
ca – mostly on both sides of Great Lake. Mid-
dle level is composed of Main channel with
branches spreading horizontally or slowly el-
evating through a limestone layers. Te low-
est level are Lower Vjetrenica and Absolon’s
channel with lateral channel’s network.“
Table 26. – Stenoendemic species of Vjetrenica cave
Latin name Local name
* stenoendemi Vjetrenice, ** stenoendemi Popovog polja ***stenoendemi istočne Her-
cegovine i dubrovačkog primorja (Sket, B. u: Vjetrenica, pogled u dušu zemlje, Lučić, I.,
2003, Zagreb-Ravno)
Među stanovnicima podzemnih staništa
česte su vrste: Hadzia fragilis, Accubogam-
marus algor, Monolistra matjasici; Trichon-
iscus matulići, Tracheoniscus mostarensis; Ho-
locnemus absoloni, Anthroherpon ganglbaue-
ri, Anthroherpon leonhardi, Anthroherpon lo-
reki, Anophtalmus noesskei, Anophtalmus ka-
utianus, Anophtalmus maglajensis; Tro-
glophilus cavicola, Dolichopoda araneiformes.
Ostake starih faunističkih kompleksa na-
lazimo i među pripadnicima reda Pseud-
oscorpiones, često prisutnim u podzemn-
im tipovima ekosistema.
Pritisci na ekosisteme kraških pećina, jama i ponora
Ekosistemi na podzemnim staništima u Bosni i Hercegovini danas trpe mnogostruke
antropogene uticaje. Najznačajniji uticaji su:
lPreusmjeravanje podzemnih tokova s ciljem izgradnje hidroakumulacija;
lPresušivanje podzemnih tokova;
lZagađivanje vodotokova različitim polutantima iz industrijskih i poljoprivrednih
izvora;
lGlobalne klimatske promjene i zakiseljavanje staništa;
lNenamjerna destrukcija životnih zajednica prilikom posjete pećinama;
lNeodrživo i nedozvoljeno kolekcionarstvo.
Ekosistemi termofilnih šuma i šikara submediteranskog pejzaža
Š u me me du n c a s u o p t i ma l n o
rasprostranjene na vertikalnom profilu na
nadmorskim visinama od oko 300 metara,
a razvijene su sve do 800 metara n. v. idući
uz vertikalni profil istočne, srednje i
zapadne Hercegovine. Ove šume se
razvijaju i u kontinentalnom području, i to
istočno od Ključa prema Bosanskom
Petrovcu i Gornjem Pounju, te u kanjo-
nima rijeka kao što su Una, Sana, Vrbas,
Bosna, Drina, a naročito Neretve i njenih
pritoka gdje imaju refugijalno-reliktni
karakter.
Isti karakter imaju šume sladuna u
Hercegovini. Razvijene su uz Neretvu
kod Donje Jablanice, i u dolini Trebižata u
zapadnoj Hercegovini.
Šume cera u zapadnoj Hercegovini se
nadovezuju na šume sladuna i penju se uz
padine Čabulje i jugozapadne dijelove
Čvrsnice, te se nastavljaju na prostor
Duvanjskog i Livanjskog polja na
sjeverozapadu, idući sve do Gornjeg
Pounja gdje i danas obrazuju izuzetno
očuvane i raznolike zajednice.
Ekosisteme toploljubivih hrastovih šuma
i njihovih degradacijskih i progra-
dacijskih stadija odlikuje visok stepen
biodiverziteta. Na prostoru Hercegovine,
odnosno submedite-ranskog pojasa BiH,
zauzimaju velike površine, unutar kojih
uslove za život nalaze brojni endemi i
relikti.
Najveće površine toploljubivih šuma i
nj ihovih broj nih zaj ednica imaj u
tercijerno porijeklo. Cirkumediteranske
šume hrastova imaju tercijerno porijeklo.
U sastavu mnogih šumskih zajednica
ulaze biljne i životinjske vrste tercijerne
starosti, što predstavlja genofond od
izuzetne važnosti. Prisustvo vrsta spe-
cifičnog genofonda zajednicama daje
endemo-reliktni karakter.
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* stenoendemic in Vjetrenica, ** stenoendemic in Popovo polje, ***stenoendemic in eastern
Herzegovina and Dubrovnik’s coastline (Vjetrenica, pogled u dušu zemlje, Lučić, I., Sket, B.,
2003, Zagreb-Ravno)
Among underground dwellers frequently
occur: Hadzia fragilis, Accubogammarus
algor, Monolistra matjasici; Trichoniscus
matulići, Tracheoniscus mostarensis; Ho-
locnemus absoloni, Anthroherpon ganglbau-
eri, Anthroherpon leonhardi, Anthroherpon
loreki, Anophtalmus noesskei, Anophtal-
mus kautianus, Anophtalmus maglajensis;
Troglophilus cavicola, Dolichopoda arane-
iformes.
Remnants of ancient faunistic complexes are
to be found among species belonging to or-
der Pseudoscorpiones, frequently occuring
in underground ecosystem types.
Pressures onto ecosystems in karst caves, holes and abysses
Ecosystems of underground habitats in Bosnia and Herzegovina are afected today by
many anthropogenic infuences. Most important of those are:
t re-direction of underground streams for dam accumulation purposes;
t dry out of underground streams;
t pollution of watercourses by diferent pollutants coming from industrial and agricul-
tural sources;
t global climate changes and acidifcation of habitats;
t undeliberate destruction of biocoenoses by cave’s visits;
t unsustainable and forbiden collection activities.
Ecosystems of thermophilous woods and shrubs of supra-mediterranean landscapes
On vertical profile pubescent oak woods
are distributed about 300 m above sea level
reaching even 800 m in eastern, mid and
western Herzegovina. This kind of forests
occur in continental area, too, eastern from
town Ključ toward Bosanski Petrovac and
Gornje Pounje, then in river canyons, such
as Una, Sana, Vrbas, Bosna, Drina, espe-
cially Neretva and its tributaries. Here they
posses refugio-tertiary character.
The same features have got italian oak woods
in Herzegovina which occur along Neretva
river at Donja Jablanica and in the valley of
Trebižat river in western Herzegovina.
In western Herzegovina latter ones are con-
tinued by forests of turkey oak that go up-
hills on Čabulja and southwestern Čvrsnica
Mt., going further to the southwest in the
region of Duvanjsko and Livanjsko polje all
the way down to Gornje Pounje where tur-
key oak builds diverse and well preserved
plant communities.
Thermophilous oak woods, including all
of its progressive and regressive stages, are
characterized by high biodiversity. They
cover large area in Herzegovina, respec-
tively supra-mediterranean belt of B&H, in
which an adequate life conditions are found
by many endemic and relict species.
Largest share of thermophilous forests orig-
inates in Tertiary. In general, all circum-
mediterranean oak woods date back from
Tertiary. Such is the case with animals liv-
ing within reffering plant communities, too.
Hence, they represent a gen pool of greatest
importance. The occurence of species be-
longing to specific gen pool makes the plant
communities endemic-relict.
U submediteranskom pejzažu Hercegovine egzistiraju različiti ekosistemi šuma i
šikara. Nivo diferencijacije je visok:
lEkosistem šikara bjelograbića;
lEkosistem šikara klena i bjelograbića;
lEkosistem šikara koštrike i bjelograbića;
lEkosistem šikara medvjeđe lijeske i bjelograbića;
lEkosistem šikara jesenje šašike i bjelograbića;
lEkosistem šuma makedonskog hrasta;
lEkosistem šuma sladuna;
Stanje submediteranskih pejzaža
Ekosistemi termofilnih šuma i šikara u
submedi t eranskom poj asu i maj u
izuzetno veliki ekološki značaj u
održavanju cjelokupnih procesa kruženja
materije i protoka energije na ovom
osjetljivom prostoru.


Ekosistem
bjelograbića i
koštrike sa
narom (južna
Hercegovina)
Ekosistem
bjelograbića
i koštrike sa
dračom (u
južnoj
Hercegovini
veza sa
kamenja-
rama)


Ekosistem bjelograbića i
koštrike sa tilovinom
(dolina rijeke Neretve i
jugoistočna Hercegovina)

Ekosistem bjelograbića i
koštrike sa zimzelenom
(veza sa ekosistemima
česvine na krajnjem jugu)

Grafikon 14. - Diferencijacija šikara
bjelograbića i koštrike
Šume i šikare takođe predstavljaju pri-
rodnu sredinu brojnih ljekovitih, jestivih,
aromatičnih i vitaminskih samoniklih bi-
ljaka.
Prema karti prirodne potencijalne veget-
acije ex Jugoslavije (Jovanović et al., 1986)
hrastove toploljubive šume nekada su po-
krivale blizu 30% površine BiH. Danas
predstavljaju tek 10-15% visokih šuma
BiH.
Danas su termofilne šume i šikare Herceg-
ovine uglavnom svedene na različite de-
gradacione forme nekada bujnih klimat-
ogenih hrastovih šuma. Prema svom eko-
loškom i ekonomskom značaju, zaslužuju
najefikasniju zaštitu, što se naročito od-
nosi na još očuvane sastojine.
Pritisci na ekosisteme submediteranskih šuma i šikara
Submediteranski ekosistemi na području Bosne i Hercegovine danas trpe široki spektar
antropogenih dejstava. Među njima treba istaknuti:
lŠumske požare, nastale usljed nepažnje, nemara, nekvalitetnog odlaganja otpada;
lIzgradnju građevinske, saobraćajne i industrijske infrastrukture;
lŠirenje poljoprivrednih površina (prije svega različitih tipova monokultura);
lZakiseljavanje staništa kao rezultat globalnih promjena;
lNeodrživu sječu svih razvijenijih šumskih sastojina;
lIzgradnju hidroakumulacija i drugih objekata vodovodne infrastrukture;
lNekontrolisanu eksploataciju mineralnih resursa na staništima ovih ekosistema.
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In the supra-mediterranean Herzegovina’s landscape exist various ecosystems of woods and
shrubs Diferentiation level is high:
t Ecosystems of shrubs with oriental hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with maple and orienatl hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with butcher’s broom and oriental hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of shrubs turkich hazel and oriental hornbeam;
t Ekosistem šikara jesenje šašike i bjelograbića;
t Ecosystems of mazedonian oak woods;
t Ecosystems of italian oak woods;
t Ecosystems of pubescent oak and fowering ash woods;
t Ecosystems of common horsechestnut woods.
State
For the maintenance of matter circulation
and energy fow in this highly sensitive area,
great ecologic importance have got ecosys-
tems of thermophilous woods and shrubs in
supra-mediterranean belt.
Graph 14. – Diferentiation of shrubs with
oriental hornbeam and butcher’s broom
Woods and shrubs are natural environment
for many medicinal, edible, aromatic and vi-
taminous self-grown plants.
Afer the Map of natural vegetation in ex-
-Yugoslavia (Jovanović et al., 1986) ther-
mophilous oak woods used to cover about
30% of B&H’s surface. Now it is just 10-15%
of tall woods in B&H.
Termophilous woods and shrubs in Her-
zegovina today are mainly degraded into
diferent forms of previously fertile climax
oak woods. By their ecologic and economic
signifcance, they deserve full and efcient
protection, especially the stands that are still
well preserved.
Pressures on ecosystems of supra-mediterranean woods and shrubs
Supra-mediterranean ecosystems in Bosnia and Herzegovina at present are subdued to
wide spectrum of anthropogenic impacts, of which stressed should be following ones:
t Forest fres caused by carelessness, negligence, inadequate waste disposal etc.;
t Construction of infrastructure for trafc, building and industry purposes;
t Expansion of arable land (frst of all mono-cultures);
t Acidifcation of habitats as a result of global changes;
t Unsustainable logging of forest stands;
t Construction of dam accumulations and other water supply facilities;
t Uncontrolled exploitation of mineral resources.
Ecosystems of oriental hornbeam,
butcher’s broom and jerusalem
thorn (in southern Herzegovina
connected on rocky grassland)
Ecosystems of oriental hornbeam,
butcher’s broom and Buxus
(connected with evergreen oak
woods in the most distant South)
Ecosystems of
oriental hornbeam,
butcher’s broom
and pomengarate
(southeren Herze-
govina)
Ecosystems
of oriental
hornbeam,
butcher’s
broom and
Petteria (valley
of Neretva river
and southea-
stern Herzego-
vina)
MEDITERANSKO–MONTANI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I
HERCEGOVINE
Na geografskom prelazu iz Hercegovine
sa juga i Bosne sa sjevera, gdje se sudaraju
uticaji toplog Mediterana sa juga i hladne
planinske klime sa sjevera, tokom
prošlosti obrazovani su posebni ekološki
usl ovi . Karakteri šu i h nagl ašeni
temperaturni i higrički ekstremi, te visoka
količina i specifična distribucija padavina.
Ekosisteme razvijene u ovim uslovima
istovremeno naseljavaju termofilne
(toploljubive) i frigorifilne (hladno-
ljubive), odnosno planinske biljne i
životinjske vrste.
Nastavljajući se na ekosisteme medunca u
submediteranskom pojasu ovi pejzaži
dosežu visinu od 1.000 (1.100) metara na
vertikalnom profilu.
Osnovna fizionomska obilježja ovom
pejzažu daju šume cera i hrasta kitnjaka.
U geografskom smislu obuhvataju pojas
iznad donjih kraških polja (Fatničko,
Dabarsko), do krajnje granice cerovih i
kitnjakovih šuma Gatačkog i Neve-
sinjskog polja na istoku, te granice ovih
šuma na Grudskom, Posuškom, Duva-
njskom, Livanjskom, Grahovskom i
Drvarskom polju na sjeverozapadu.
Ovaj složeni pejzaž diferencira se na niz
ekosistema:
DIVERZITET EKOSISTEMA MEDITERANSKO-
MONTANIH PEJZAŽA
Šume kitnjaka i cera se razvijaju na kar-
bonatnoj geološkoj podlozi, smeđim kre-
čnjačkim zemljištima, te blažim nagibima
terena. One ostvaruju ekološki kontinuit-
Ekosistemi mediteransko-montanih šuma kitnjaka i cera
et između submediteranskih šuma me-
dunca sa bjelograbićem i čistih šuma cera.
Ekosistemi mediteransko-montanih šu-
ma cera zauzimaju najviše položaje u
ovom pejzažu. Tokom ljeta temperature
zraka su visoke, što pogoduje razvoju
tipičnih toploljubivih biljaka. U toku
proljeća, jeseni i zime temperature su
izrazito niske (na što utiču snažni i dugot-
Ekosistemi mediteransko-montanih frigorifilno-termofilnih šuma cera
rajni vjetrovi), te postoje i uslovi za život
frigorifilnih biljaka. Ovaj tip ekosistema ra-
zvijen je u mediteransko-montanom po-
jasu istočno od rijeke Neretve. U zapadnoj
Hercegovini, kao vikarni, razvijeni su
ekosistemi cera i crnog jasena.
Ovaj tip ekosistema daje unikatna biogeo-
grafska obilježja obodu kraških polja. Ra-
zvijen je i u području prema sjeverozapa-
dnoj Bosni i doseže sve do slivnog podru-
čja rijeke Unac i gornje Une. U ekološkom
smislu ovaj ekosistem tercijernog porij-
Ekosistemi mediteransko-montanih termofilnih šuma crnog jasena i cera.
ekla indiciraju snažan prodor i uticaj me-
diteranske klime. U njegovom sastavu su i
brojni tercijerni relikti i to posebno na do-
lomitnom supstratu i rendzinama koje na-
lazimo u području Unca.
Na toplijim staništima uz obode kraških
polja zapadne Hercegovine često su ra-
zvijene posebne varijante termofilnih šu-
ma medunca i oštrolisne šparoge, koje
Ekosistemi termofilnih šuma medunca
ostvaruju ekološki kontinuitet sa frigo-
rifilnim varijanatama šuma subme-
diteranskih pejzaža. Posebne pejzažne i
florističke vrijednosti ovim šumama daje
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MEDITERRANEO-MONTANE LANDSCAPES OF
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Geographic passage between Herzegovina
from the South and Bosnia from the North,
where colide warm mediterranean and cold
mountain climate, is characterized by specifc
ecologic conditions evolved in the past. Pro-
nounced are extreme values in temperature
and hygric regime, then high precipitation and
its specifc distribution. Ecosystems develop-
ing under such conditions are inhabited at the
same time by thermophilous and frigophilous
species, respecitvely mountain plant and ani-
mal species.
Being continued on the pubescent oak ecosys-
tems of supra-mediterranean belt these land-
scapes climbe up to 1.000 (1.100) metres above
sea level.
Landscape’s physiognomy is determined by
turkey and sessile oak forests. In geographic
sense, it encompasses belt stretching above
lower karst felds (Fatničko, Dabarsko) till ul-
timate borderline of turkey and sessile oak for-
ests in Gatačko and Nevesinjsko polje in the
East and the northwestern borderline in Grud-
sko, Posuško, Duvanjsko, Livanjsko, Grahovs-
ko and Drvarsko polje. Tis complex landscape
is being diferentiated in following ecosystems:
ECOSYSTEM’S DIVERSITY OF MEDITERRANEO-
MONTANE LANDSCAPES
Ecosystems of mediterraneo-montane sessile and turkey oak woods
Woods of sessile and turkey oak are being
developed on carbonate geologic foundation,
brown limestone earth and mild slopes. Tey
represent ecologic connection between supra-
mediterranean pubescent oak woods with
oriental hornbeam and straight turkey oak
woods.
Ecosystems of mediterraneo-montane frigophilous-thermophilous turkey oak woods
Ecosystems of mediterraneo-montane turkey
oak woods take highest positions within this
landscape. In summer, air temperature is very
high which is suitable for typical thermophi-
lous plants to occur. In spring, autumn and
winter air temperature falls extremely low
(caused by longlasting and strong winds) cre-
ating conditions for the existance of frigophi-
lous plants. Tese ecosystems occur in med-
iterraneo-montane belt extending eastern
from Neretva river. In western Herzegovina,
as vicarious, occur ecosystems with turkey
oak and fowering ash.
Ecosystems of mediterraneo-montane thermophilous fowering ash and turkey oak woods
Tis kind of ecosystems provide unique bio-
geographic features to the edge of karst felds.
It is being developed toward northwestern
Bosnia reaching all the way of Unac and up-
per Una river’s confuence. In ecologic sense,
this ecosystem dates back from Tertiary in-
dicating strong penetration and infuence of
the mediterranean climate. It is composed of
many tertiary relicts, especially on dolomites
and rendsine which are to be found in Unac
area.
Ecosystems of thermophilous pubescent oak woods
On warmer places, along the edges of karst
felds in western Herzegovina, ofen occur
special variants of thermophilous pubescent
oak woods with asparagus, making ecologic
continuity with frigophilous woods of supra-
mediterranean landscapes. Unique lans-
cape’s and foristic attributes these woods
owe to the special pubesent oak form, dif-
zasebna forma medunca, različite vrste pe-
runike kao što su: travolika perunika (Iris
graminea) i žuta perunika (Iris variegata),
đurđevak (Convallaria majalis) i više vrsta
iz roda Solomonovog pečata (Polygonatum
sp.)
Na plićim zemljištima, nekadašnjim
staništima visokih šuma cera i medunca, u
uslovima viših temperatura, a niske
vlažnosti zraka razvijaju se niske šume i
šikare sa bjelograbićem i javorima. Ove za-
jednice često čine dugotrajne stadije u ra-
zvoju klimatogene vegetacije. Pored do-
Ekosistemi niskih šuma i šikara javora i bjelograbića
minantne vrste (bjelograbić ili kukrika),
pejzažne vrijednosti ovim ekosistemima
daju: bosanski javor gluhač, maklen, klen,
prelazni javor, te crni jasen, ruj, kurika, ci-
klama, jago-rčevina, petoprsta, šašika je-
senja, šaš, ptičje mlijeko, ljubica i dr.
U zonama intenzivnih procesa degrad-
acije vegetacije i zemljišta, na staništima
sa ekstremnim termičkim uslovima i pri-
sutnom djelovanju jakih vjetrova danas su
razvijeni šibljaci lijeske. Na obodu Gat-
ačkog, Nevesinjskog, Livanjskog polja i
Rahovskog polja ovi ekosistemi u kojima
ljekovita i hranjiva lijeska dostiže visoku
produktivnost predstavljaju prirodne pla-
ntaže. Većina vrsta koje ulaze u sastav
ovih zajednica je endemičnog dinarskog i
balkanskog karaktera. Visoku pejzažnu
Ekosistemi lijeske
vrijednost imaju zajednice lijeske i
hercegovačkog kukurijeka, lijeske i
visibabe, lijeske i pasjeg zuba, lijeske i je-
senje šašike, lijeske i gloga, lijeske i jagorč-
evine. Ipak fizionomskom nepono-
vljivošću i florističkom unikatnošću se is-
tiče zajednica lijeske i crvenog božura, en-
demno-reliktni ekosistem prisutan jedino
u zoni škrapa oboda Kupreškog, Livanj-
skog i Šuićkog polja.
Staništa na kojima je u prošlosti došlo do
degradacije šumskih ekosistema, a koja da-
nas karakteriše najšire variranje ekoloških
faktora uz dejstva jakih vjetrova zauzimaju
mediteransko-montane kame-njare, li-
vade, vegetacija u pukotinama stijena i si-
pari. Supstrat kao i u cijelom pejzažu je ka-
rbonatni, a zemljišta na staništu kamenjara
su erodirane crnice i rendzine.
Dinamika ovih ekosistema je specifična, na-
glašeni su proljetno - rano ljetni i jesenji
aspekt u kojima se pojavljuje veliki broj
vrsta, te ljetni aspekt kada je većina vrsta u
fazi mirovanja.
Mediteransko-montane kamenjare Bosne i
Hercegovine imaju izuzetne pejzažne vrij-
ednosti čiju osnovu čine cvjetovi različitih
boja. Mnoge vrste se ubrajaju u ljekovite,
aromatične i medonosne biljke (klasoliki ili
crveni vrijesak, kamenjarski različak, trava
iva, razne vrste majčine dušice, livadske
kadulje, vrisić, čistac, razne vrste ka-
menjarskih šaševa, ovsika, vlasulje).
Ekosistemi mediteransko-montanih kamenjara
Većina zajednica mediteransko-montanih
kamenjara su endemičnog, dinarskog i bal-
kanskog karaktera. U vrtačama, gdje su
zemljišta dublja razvijene su medite-
ransko-montane toploljubive livade sa cr-
nim korijenom (Scorzonera villosa). Ove za-
jednice se odlikuju visokim stepenom
2
diverziteta (preko 20 vrsta na 1 m). Pored
šire rasprostranjenih, u ove zajednice ulaze
i brojne endemične vrste kao što je crni ko-
rijen (Scorzonera villosa), pjegavi ja-
strebnjak (Hypochoeris maculata), šilj (D-
antonia sp.), panonska djetelina, različite
orhideje kao što je purpurni kaćun, obični
kaćun, kokice, vimenjaci, endemični kara-
nfil, udovičica balkanska, te značajan broj
trava (ovsici, smilice, vlasulje, šaševi).
Mnoge vrste iz njihovog sastava pred-
stavljaju krmne biljke visokih nutricionih
vrijednosti, što čini osnovu razvoja održ-
ivog ovčarstva i kozarstva na ovom pro-
storu.
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ferent irises (grass-like iris Iris graminea,
yellow iris Iris variegata), lily of the valley
(Convallaria majalis) and several species of
Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum sp.).
Ecosystems of low forests and shrubs with maple and oriental hornbeam
On shallow type of soils, where once used to
be a tall turkey and pubescent oak wood, un-
der the conditions of high temperature and
low air humidity, develop low forests and
shrubs with oriental hornbeam and maples.
Tese are usually longlasting stages in climax
vegetation development. Beside prevailing
species (which is oriental hornbeam), land-
scape values to these ecosystems provide:
bosnian maple, balkan maple, feld maple,
transitional maple, fowering ash, smoketree,
oriental hornbeam, cyclamen, primerose,
cinquefoil, autumn moor grass, sedges, star
of bethlehem, violet and others.
Ecosystems of hazel
In the zone that is submitted to intensive
degradation of its vegetation and soil, in hab-
itats where thermic conditions are extreme
and where blow strong winds, developed are
hazel shrubs. Along the margins of Gatačko,
Nevesinjsko, Livanjsko and Rahovsko polje
these ecosystems, in which hazel with its me-
dicinal and nutritional values achieves the
highest production, look like natural plan-
tages. Most of species composing these plant
communities are endemic, with dinaric and
balkan distribution range. Te communities
with high landscape’s value are hazel and
hellebore, hazel and snowdrop, hazel and
dog’s tooth violet, hazel and autumn moor
grass, hazel and hawthorn, hazel and prim-
erose. But, in its foristic and physiognomic
uniqueness outstanding is community of ha-
zel and balkan peony, which is endemo-relict
ecosystems occuring only in the zone of kar-
rens along the margins of Kupreško, Livan-
jsko and Šuićko polje.
Ecosystems of mediterraneo-montane roky grassland
Mediterraneo-montane rocky grassland and
meadows, then vegetation of rock crevices
and screes take habitats that used to be for-
est ecosystems in the past, but got degraded
and now are characterized by wide varia-
tion of all ecologic factors and strong winds.
Geologic foundation like in the entire land-
scape’s zone is carbonate, with eroded black
earth and rendsine.
Tere is a very specifc dynamic of these eco-
systems, whereby outstanding aspects are in
spring – early summer and autumn when
large number of species emerges. In summer,
most of them stagnates.
Mediterraneo-montane rocky grassland in
Bosnia and Herzegovina has got high land-
scape’s value, due to fowers in many difer-
ent colours.
Tere are many medicinal, aromatic and
honey-producing plants (winter and illyr-
ian savory, rock knapweed, mountain gar-
mander, thyme, sage, Acinos orontius, wood
betony, rocky kind of sedges, brome, fescue).
Most of mediterraneo-montane rock debris
communities are considered to be endemic,
with dinaric and balkan distribution range.
In the sinkholes, where are being formed
deeper soils, develop mediterraneo-montane
thermophilous meadows with viper grass
(Scorzonera vilosa). Tese communities have
got high diversity level (over 20 species per
1 m

). Along with widely distributed species,
these communities include endemic ones,
too, such as viper grass (Scorzonera vilosa),
spotted hawkweed (Hypochoeris maculata),
oatgrass (Danthonia sp.), lathyrus pannoni-
cus, then various orchids, for instance lady
orchid, green-winged orchid, ophryses, en-
demic dianthus, balcan’s scabiosa and grass-
es (brome, junegrass, fescue, sedges).
Many of these plants are fooder plants pos-
sesing high nutritional values. Tis should be
a base for sustainable sheep and goat breed-
ing in the area.
Na blažim nagibima terena i dubljim ze-
mljištima, na staništima zaklonjenim od vj-
etra, razvijene su mezofilne i umjereno vl-
ažne livade, koje se odlikuju znatno ve-
ćom produktivnošću.
Ove livade ostvaruju ekološki kontinuitet
sa endemičnim gorskim i pretplaninskim
Ekosistemi mezofilnih livada
livadama Dinarida sveze Pancicion. Na-
ročita obilježja im daju vrste: krestac, ro-
sulja, livadska vlasulja, crvena vlasulja,
mali srčanik, očanica, celinšćica, različci,
margarete, kraljica polja, lavlji zub, kozja
brada i druge.
Na staništima sa izraženim nagibom te-
rena, najčešće u raspucaloj geološkoj po-
dlozi, na plitkim zemljištima tipa siroz-
ema i regosola, fragmentarno su razvijene
i ove zajednice. U njihov sastav velikim di-
Ekosistemi u pukotinama stijena i sipara
jelom ulaze i hazmofite endemoreliktnog
karaktera. Ovi eko-sistemi se odlikuju na-
ročito visokim diverzitetom puževa, zm-
ija, guštera i sitnih glodara.
Planina Čabulja
Pejzaži mediteransko-montanog pojasa
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Ecosystems of mesophilous meadows
Ecosystems of rock crevices and screes
On mild slopes and deeper soil variants, on
the from wind hidden places, occur meso-
philous and temperate humid meadows. Tey
are much more productive than previosly de-
scribed communties.
Tese meadows accomplish ecologic conti-
nuity with the endemic mountain and sub-
mountain meadows in Dinaric Alps of alli-
ance Pancicion. Special features are ensured
by rattle, bentgrass, meadow and red fescue,
small gentians, eyebright, selfeal, knap-
weed, daisy, dropwort, dog’s tooth violet,
hard-heads and others.
Tese communities are distributed here as
fragments. Tey occur on steep slopes, in
the cracks of rocks and shallow soils, such
as sirozem and regosol. In the composition
of these communties included are chasmo-
phytes with endemo-relict character. A spe-
cial attributte here represents richness in
snails, snakes, lizards and small rodents.
U ekoklimatskom i geomorfološkom po-
gledu naročito dinamičan dio Bosne i Her-
cegovine je središnji prostor Bosne i Her-
cegovine. Sve geomorfološke strukture
prelaze visinu od 900 (1.000) m pa se, u već-
oj ili manjoj mjeri, uticaj tople kontinenta-
lne klime sa sjevera i još toplije meditera-
nske klime gubi. Ovdje počinje jedan dru-
gi svijet, kojem osnovna fizionomska i bio-
loško-ekološka svojstva daju mješovite liš-
ćarsko-listopadne i četinarske šume.
U narodu se prostor viših dijelova bos-
anskohercegovačkih planina odvajkada
naziva „gora“, te je i čitav ekološki kom-
pleks ovog dijela vertikalnog profila, sve
do 1.500 (1.600) m, nazvan gorskim pojas-
om.
Gorski pejzaži sadrže i najproduktivnije te
ekonomski najvrednije šumske eko-
sisteme („zeleno zlato Bosne i Herce-
GORSKI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
govine“) u kojima se, još od neolitskog do-
ba, tražila korisna drvna biomasa, lovila
raznovrsna krupna divljač, te sakupljali
šumski plodovi (razno ljekovito i jestivo
bilje i gljive).
U gorskim pejzažima sadržani su i najoč-
uvaniji ekosistemi šuma bukve i jele, šu-
ma bukve i jele sa smrčom, šuma smrče i je-
le, šuma gorskog javora i gorskog jasena, a
mnogi od njih imaju sve atribute prašu-
mskih rezervata (Perućica, Igman, Janj, Kl-
ekovača, Vitorog, Kozara).
Diverzitet matičnog supstrata, različitih ti-
pova zemljišta, reljefa i ekoklime, vremen-
om je uslovio razvoj ekosiste-mskog
diverziteta u gorskom pojasu, koji ovim
pejzažima daje prepoznatljive ambijenta-
lne vrijednosti.
DIVERZITET EKOSISTEMA GORSKOG POJASA
Pejzaže gorskog pojasa na vertikalnim profilima bosanskohercegovačkih planina čine:
lEkosistemi mješovitih lišćarsko-četinarskih šuma ilirske bukve i jele sa smrčom;
lEkosistemi acidifilnih šuma bukve i jele sa bekicom;
lEkosistemi mješovitih lišćarsko-četinarskih šuma mezijske bukve i dinarske jele;
lEkosistemi šuma ilirske bukve i jesenje šašike;
lEkosistemi šuma mezijske bukve i jesenje šašike;
lEkosistemi šuma gorskog javora i gorskog jasena;
lEkosistemi četinarskih šuma smrče i jele;
lEkosistemi balkanske krušine i jele;
lEkosistemi četinarskih šuma smrče i bijelog bora;
lEkosistemi Pančićeve omorike;
lEkosistemi gorskih vriština sa borovnicama;
lEkosistemi gorskih vriština sa običnim vrijesom;
lEkosistemi šuma breze i jasike;
lEkosistemi šibljaka lijeske i gloga;
lEkosistemi gorskih toploljubivih livada sa ovsikom;
lEkosistemi visokih zeleni;
lEkosistemi gorskih umjereno vlažnih livada;
lEkosistemi higrofilnih livada ilirske beskoljenke;
lEkosistemi visokih i niskih cretova;
lEkosistemi vodenjara, manjih bara i močvara;
lEkosistemi gorskih izvora i potoka;
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UPLAND LANDSCAPES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Regarding ecoclimate and geomorphology
mid part of Bosnia and Herzegovina repre-
sents highly dynamic area. All geomorpho-
logic structures exceed 900 (1.000) metres,
which is why the infuences of warm conti-
nental climate from the North and of even
warmer mediterranean climate from the
South get lost. Tis is the place where a new
world beginns. Te world whose physiogno-
mic and bio-ecologic features are determined
by mixed broadleaved deciduous and conifer
forests.
People have been calling this bosnia-herze-
govina’s upland area “gora“ for ages. Tere-
fore, the entire ecologic complex belonging to
this vertical profle’s belt was named “gorski“,
which is up to 1.500 (1.600) metres above sea
level.
Upland landscapes comprise the most produc-
tive and economically valuable forest ecosystems
(“green gold of Bosnia and Herzegovina“) where
it has been searched afer wood biomass, hunted
large game species and collected diverse forest
fruits since Neolith (medicinal, edible plants and
mushrooms).
Upland landscapes encompass best preserved eco-
systems with beech and fr, then forests of beech,
fr and spruce, forests of spruce and fr, forests of
sycomore and european ash, of which many pos-
ses all attributes of primeval reserves (Perućica,
Igman, Janj, Klekovača, Vitorog, Kozara).
High diversity in geologic foundation, soil types,
relief and ecoclimate have in time resulted in di-
versity of ecosystems in the upland belt, which
ensures recognizable ambiental value to these
landscapes.
DIVERSITY OF ECOSYSTEMS IN UPLAND BELT
Landscapes of upland belt on vertical profile of bosnia-herzegovina’s mountain is com-
posed of:
t Ecosystems of mixed broadleaved-conifer foersts with illyrian beech, fr and spruce;
t Ecosystems of acidophilous forests with beech, fr and melicgrass;
t Ecosystems of mixed broadleaved-conifer forests with moesian beech and dinarci fr;
t Ecosystems of forests with illyrian beech and autumn moor grass;
t Ecosystems of forests with moeasian beech and autumn moor grass;
t Ecosystems of sycomore and european ash;
t Ecosystems of conifer forests with spruce and fr;
t Ecosystems of balkan alder buckthorn and fr;
t Ecosystems of conifer woods with spruce and Scot’s pine;
t Ecosystems of Serbian spruce;
t Eocsystems of mountain heaths with blue berry;
t Ecosystems of mountain heaths with common heather;
t Ecosystems of forests with birch and european aspen;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with hazel and hawthorn;
t Ecosystems of mountain thermophilous meadows with brome;
t Ecosystems of tall herb communities;
t Ecosystems of mountain temperate humid meadows;
t Ecosystems of hygrophilous meadows with illyrian purple moorgrass;
t Ecosystems of raised and blanket bogs;
t Ecosystems of lakes, ponds and marshes;
t Ecosystems of mountain springs and rivulets;
lEkosistemi higrofilnih šuma i šibljaka sive johe;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama stijena i sipara;
lEkosistemi nitrificiranih i ugaženih staništa;
lEkosistemi obradivih staništa.
Kao primjer dejstva kompleksa faktora
staništa na diferencijaciju ovog tipa
šumski h ekosi st ema navešćemo
ekosisteme gorskog pojasa planine
Vranice. Planina Vranica u geološkom
smislu predstavlja silikatno ostrvo među
okolnim karbonatnim masivima Dina-
rida. Tu s jedne strane, još prisutni jaki
Ekosistemi bukovo-jelovih šuma
uticaji srednje i atlantske Evrope, a sa
druge strane, uticaji koji dopiru iz pravca
Sredozeml j a. Usl j ed raznol i kost i
geoloških i klimatskih prilika, evidentna
je jaka diferencijacija svih tipova
ekosistema, dok se bukovo-jelove šume
diferenciraju na sljedeće tipove:
lhladne i vlažne bukovo-jelove šume dubokih dolina na koluvijumu;
lhladne i suhe bukovo-jelove šume na dubokim kiselim tlima;
ltoplije i vlažne bukovo-jelove šume na filitu;
lsuhe bukovo-jelove šume na slabo humoznim kiselim tlima;
lsuhe bukovo-jelove šume na karbonatu.
U sastav šumskih ekosistema gorskog po-
jasa pored bukve i jele na prostoru Bosne i
Hercegovine ulazi veliki broj vrsta drveća,
šiblja i zeljastih vrsta. Neizostavan elem-
ent bukovo-jelovih šuma je smrča, a u razl-
ičitim varijantama se smjenjuju gorski
javor, mliječ, klen i javor gluhač.
Grafikon 15. – Spektri flornih elemenata u
zajednicama bukve i jele u gorskom
pojasu planine Vranice
Šume bukve i jele dinarskog područja
spadaju po vrstama u najbogatije šumske
zajednice, među kojima je i znatan broj
reliktnih i endemskih vrsta flore Bosne i
Hercegovine.
Raznolikost šibolikih vrsta ovih sastojina
je velika. Tu su vrlo česte kozokrvina,
kurika, likovac, krušina i druge. Pojedine
vrste su vezane za određene varijante, kao
što su i neke zeljaste vrste. Ipak, izdvaja se
jedna velika grupa zeljastih vrsta
prilagođenih na specifične uslove koji
vladaju u prizemnom spratu gustog
sklopa, a koje čine skoro stalni sastav ovih
šuma. Tu su: milogled, Petrov krst, muška
i ženska paprat, režuha, bekica, mrtva
kopriva, srijemuš, itd.
Od životinjskih organizama ovaj složeni
ekosistem karakterišu: mrki medvjed,
divlja svinja, puh obični, divlja mačka,
golub dupljaš, siva žuna, crvendać, mišar,
sljepić, livadski gušter, gatalinka i druge.
Kontinuitet gorskog i brdskog vegeta-
cijskog pojasa na području Bosne i Herce-
govine ostvaruje se preko montanih
bukovih šuma u hladnijim i montanih
šuma hrasta kitnjaka u toplijim uslovima.
Montane mezofilne bukove šume se
razvijaju u donjem dijelu gorskog pojasa,
uglavnom na hladnijim ekspozicijama, te
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t Ecosystems of hygrophilous woods and shrubs with grey alder;
t Ecosystems of rock crevices and screes;
t Ecosystems of nitrifed and trampled habitats;
t Ecosystems of arable land.
Ecosystems of beech-fr woods
As an example how the habitat factors af-
fect diferentiation of these forest ecosystem
types, we shall address here the high moun-
tainous ecosystems on Vranica Mt. Vranica
Mt. is in geologic respect silicate island sur-
rounded by carbonate masifs of Dinaric
Alps. On the one hand, the infuences from
central and atlantic Europe here are still
strong, but on the other, the infuences com-
ing from the Mediterranean are also evident.
Due to geologic and climate diversity, it ex-
ists underlined diferentiation of all ecosys-
tem types, while beech-fr forests diferenti-
ate as follows:
t Cold and moist beech-fr forests in deep valleys on colluvial ground;
t Cold and dry beech-fr forests on deep acid ground;
t Warmer and moist beech-fr forests on flits;
t Dry beech-fr forests on humus-poor acid ground;
t Dry beech-fr forests on carbonate rocks.
Graph 15. – Floral element’s spectra in beech-fr
communities of upland belt on Vranica Mt.
In the composition of forests ecosystems in
upland belt apart from beech and fr, in the
area of Bosnia and Herzegovina, occur many
diferent trees, shrubs, scrubs and ground
foor herbs. Te inevitable element of beech-fr
forests is spruce.In diverse variants exchange
sycomore, norway maple, common maple and
Acer obtusatum.
Beech-fr forests from dinaric area are con-
sidered to be one of the richest forest com-
munities, encompassing large number of for
bosnia-herzegovina’s fora relict and endemic
species.
Diversity of shrub like species in these stands
is enormous. Quite ofen here occurs wood-
bine, spindle tree, dwarf bay, alder buckthorn
and others.
Some species are exclusively bound to cer-
tain forest variants, such as some gound layer
herbs. However, it can be extracted one large
group of ground foor herbs which are adapted
to specifc conditions in refering stratum, and
which are regular component in these forests.
Tose are: wood sanicle, herb Paris, male and
lady fern, coral-wort, melicgrass, dead nettle,
broad-leaved garlic etc.
Tis complex ecosystem is characterized by
following animals: brown bear, wild boar,
dormouse, wild cat, stock dove, grey wood-
pecker, robin, buzzard, blind worm, meadow
lizard, tree frog and others.
Te continuity of hilly and upland vegetation
belt of Bosnia and Herzegovina is achieved over
montane beech woods in colder and montane
sessile oak woods in warmer conditions.
Montane mesophilous beech woods are de-
veloped in lower part of the upland belt,
mainly on colder slopes and deep brown
earth. Tese highly productive forest stands
regarding their diversity keep pace with up-
land beech forests. In relation with geologic
na dubokim smeđim zemljištima. Ove
visokoproduktivne šumske sastojine u
pogledu diverziteta slijede gorske bukove
šume. Postoji jasna diferencijacija u
odnosu na geol ošku podl ogu i
ekoklimatske uslove, a diferencijacija u
odnosu na cjelokupan kompleks faktora
rezul t i ra pri padnošću određenoj
biogeografskoj cjelini.
U strukturi montanih bukovih zajednica
jela i smrča imaju manje učešće, a često su
prisutne vrste iz nižih vegetacijskih
pojaseva kao što je grab, hrast kitnjak,
divlja trešnja itd.
Na kiselim zemljištima u ovim šumskim
sastojinama su vrlo dobro razvijene
populacij e borovnice, dok se na
neutralnim zemljištima u sastavu sprata
zeljastih biljaka nalaze tipične „fagofilne“
vrste.
Prašumski rezervati u Bosni i Hercegovini
Još davne 1952. godine, zbog svoje
izuzetne ljepote i bogatstva živog svijeta,
prašuma Perući ca j e progl ašena
prirodnim šumskim rezervatom. Danas se
ona nalazi u sklopu Nacionalnog parka
Sutjeska, koji obuhvata veliko područje
planina Maglić (2.386 m), Volujak (1.978
m), Snježnica (1.804 m). Jednu od najvećih
pejzažnih vrijednosti prašume čini
vodopad Skakavac, visok 75 m, koji je dio
Perućićkog potoka. Prašumu Perućicu,
koja obuhvata površinu od 1.291 ha,
najvećim dijelom čini upravo klimatogene
sastojine bukovo-jelovih šuma, koje ovdje
čuvaju najveća bogatstva biljnog i
životinjskog svijeta. Pojedina stabla bukve
su stara i po nekoliko vijekova, visoka
preko 50 m, sa dijametrom oko 150 cm. Na
vertikalnom profilu planina oko Sutjeske
naseljavaju prostor između montanih i
subalpijskih bukovih šuma, izgrađujući
ekosisteme najsloženije po strukturi i
izraženoj sezonskoj dinamici. Životinjski
svijet je bogat i čini ga veliki broj vrsta
sisara, ptica, gmizavaca, vodozemaca,
riba, te brojnih predstavnika iz grupe
beskičmenjaka. Ovdje su česti: medvjed,
divojarac, srndać, vepar, kuna zlatica i
bjelica, divlja mačka, lisica i druge; a od
ptica su tu: suri orao, orao krstaš, tetrijeb-
gluhan, sivi soko, crvenorepi kos, jarebica
kamenjarka, lještarka i druge.
Na području Bosne i Hercegovine se
nalazi još nekoliko manjih prašumskih
rezervata od koji su najpoznatiji Janj (295
ha), smješten na nadmorskim visinama
između 1.180 i 1.510 m na masivu
Stolovaš, te Lom (297, 8 ha) koji se nalazi
na istoimenoj planini, na nadmorskoj
visini od oko 1.250 m. U oba pomenuta
rezervata osnovnu životnu zajednicu čine
bukovo-jelove šume sa značajnim
učešćem smrče. Osim ovih vrsta, ovdje su
zastupljene i očuvane populacije gorskog
javora, jarebike i brojnih drugih vrsta u
višim spratovima. U spratu šiblja se
najčešće javljaju kozokrvine, likovac,
divlja ruža, ribizla i borovnica. Fauna ova
dva šumska rezervata je takođe bogata, a
čine je, između ostalog: medvjed, vuk,
lisica, divlja svinja, zec, srna, te globalno
ugrožene vrste: ris, hermelin i vjeverica.
Među faunom ptica ovdje su, između
ostalih konstatovane i tetrijeb, mali
tetrijeb, jastreb kokošar i sivi soko.
Temeljne biološke vrijednosti ovim
rezervatima daju prašume bukve, jele i
s mr če U zavi s nos t i od odnos a
edifikatorskih vrsta mogu se razlikovati
sljedeće zajednice: šume sa učešćem
bukve i jele (Abieti-Fagetum dinaricum),
šume jele i smrče (Abieti-Piceetum
illyricum), te miješane šume bukve i jele sa
f aci j esi ma smrče ( Abi et i - Faget um
piceetosum abietis).
Od biljnih vrsta koje imaju visoke
biološke vrijednosti u ovim ekosistemima
su: Lilium martagon, Vicia oroboides,
Dentaria enneaphyllos, Gentiana asclepiadea,
Saxifraga rotundifolia, Listera cordata,
Goodyera repens, Platanthera bifolia,
Galanthus nivalis, Polygonatum latifolium,
te veliki broj makromiceta.
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foundation and ecoclimate, these forests are
clearly diferentiated, whereby diferentia-
tion related to the whole complex of factors
results in belonging to specifc biogeographic
region.
For the structure of montane beech woods,
fr and spruce are less important. On the oth-
er hand, frequently present are species from
the lower vegetation belts, such as hornbeam,
sessile oak, wild cherry etc.
On acid ground, within these forest stands,
well developed are blue berry populations,
while on neutral ground occur typical “fag-
ophilous“ species.
Primeval forest reserves in Bosnia and Herzegovina
In 1952, because of its outstanding beauty
and species richness, the primeval forest
named Perućica was designated as natural
forest reserve. It is today part of the Sutjeska
national park, encompassing large area of
mountains Maglić (2.386 m), Volujak (1.978
m), Snježnica (1.804 m). One of the highest
landscape values here represents 75 m high
waterfall called Skakavac, which is a sha-
re of Perućac’s brook. The primeval forest
Perućica, covering 1.291 ha, is mainly com-
posed of climax vegetation which is beech-
fir woodland. In these woods are being pre-
served most valuable treasures of plant and
animal world. There are beech trees which
are over 50 metres tall, in diameter 150 cm,
and few centuries old. On vertical profile of
Sutjeska surrounding mountains, they take
positions between montane and sub-alpine
beech forests creating most complex ecosy-
stems in respect to structure and seasonal
dynamics. The animal world is rich and in-
cludes different species of mammals, birds,
reptiles, amphibians, fishes and many in-
vertebrates. Frequently occuring are: bear,
chamois, roe-deer, wild boar, pine and bee-
ch marten, wild cat, fox and others; as for
the birds there are: golden eagle, imperial
eagle, capercailie, peregrine falcon, red-
tailled blackbird, rock partridge, hazel hen
and others.
On the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina
occur few more primeval forest reserves of
which the most famous is Janj (295 ha), si-
tuated at altitude from 1.180 to 1.510 m on
Stolovaš Mt., then Lom (297, 8 ha) situated
on mountain carrying the same name at
about 1.250 m altitude. Main living com-
munitiy in the both afore named reserves
are beech-fir woods with significant share
of spruce.
Besides, here are well preserved populations
of sycomore, European mountainash and
many other species of higher strata. Wit-
hin shrubs most frequently occur woodbi-
ne, dwarf bay, dog’s rose, gooseberry and
blue berry. Fauna of these two reserves is
also very rich, and includes, among others:
bear, wolf, fox, wild boar, hare, roe deer and
globally threatened species: lynx, stoat and
squirrel. Among birds here are identified
following ones capercailie, black grouse,
goshawk and peregrine falcon.
The basic biologic value these reserves owe to
the primeval forest of beech, fir and spruce.
Depending on edificator species here can
be differentiated following communities:
beech-fir woods Abieti-Fagetum dinaricum,
fir-spruce woods Abieti-Piceetum illyricum,
mixed beech-fir woods with spruce facies
Abieti-Fagetum piceetosum abietis.
Plants possesing high biologic value within
these ecosystems are: Lilium martagon, Vi-
cia oroboides, Dentaria enneaphyllos, Genti-
ana asclepiadea, Saxifraga rotundifolia, Lis-
tera cordata, Goodyera repens, Platanthera
bifolia, Galanthus nivalis, Polygonatum lati-
folium and diversity of macromycetes.
Visok stepen očuvanosti prašumskih
rezervata Bosne i Hercegovine i danas
pruža dobre uslove kao stanište mnogih
vrsta divljih životinja, među kojima su i
globalno ugrožene vrste, kao: mrki
medvjed (Ursus arctos), vuk (Canis lupus),
tetrijeb gluhan (Tetrao urogallus), ris (Lynx
lynx).
Pored navedenih postoje još i male
prašume šuma bukve i jele sa smrčom:
Ravna vala na Igmanu (45 ha), Trstionica
pored Kaknja (32,5 ha). Osim toga u toku
je izdvajanje novih prašumskih rezervata:
u Kladnju i Kaknju čistih šuma bukve, a na
Blidinju šuma munike.
Ekosistemi tamnih četinarskih šuma
Četinarske šume na prostoru Bosne i
Hercegovine zauzimaju najhladnija
staništa gorskog pojasa, te u ekološkom
smislu ovi ekosistemi predstavljaju prave
balkanske tajge. Diferenciraju se na veliki
broj životnih zajednica, a najveće površine
zauzimaju u regionu Romanije, Ozrena,
Zvijezde i Vitoroga. Na drugim mjestima
njihova pojava je uzrokovana eko-
klimatskim prilikama.
Abiotička komponenta ovih ekosistema
predstavljena je različitim serijama
silikatnih i karbonatnih stijena, a zemljišta
su uglavnom distrični kambisoli i
kalkokambisoli. Međutim, na strmijim
nagibima i u donjem dijelu pretpla-
ninskog pojasa, prisutna su i tla A-C
profila – rankeri, kalkomelanosoli i
rendzine.
Staništa tamnih četinarskih šuma se
karakterišu perhumidnom i humidnom
klimom tokom čitave godine. Prema
toplinskom karakteru, klima je hladna, te
u pojedinim mjesecima ima karakteristike
nivalne ekoklime. Godišnja količina
padavina je u pravilu preko 1.500 mm.
Srednj e godi šnj e temperature na
0
staništima variraju između 2 i 6 C;
apsolutne minimalne se spuštaju i do - 35
°C (-45 °C), a apsolutne maksimalne
vrijednosti ne prelaze 25 °C.
Tamne četinarske šume na području
Bosne i Hercegovine postižu visok
stupanj biološkog i ekološkog diverziteta.
U zavisnosti od hidrotermičkog režima,
geološke podloge i nadmorske visine,
tamne četinarske šume se diferenciraju na
više tipova ekosistema:
lEkosistemi montanih šuma smrče. Montane smrčeve šume su razvijene u gornjem
dijelu brdskog i u gorskom pojasu nadovezujući se najčešće na diskontinuirani pojas
bukovih šuma. Prisutne su uglavnom na karbonatima i dijelom na silikatima
rožnjačke serije. Zemljišta su kalkokambisoli i distrični kambisoli;
lEkosistemi smrčevo-jelovih šuma u gorskom pojasu. Zajednice ekosistema smrčevo -
jelovih šuma Abieti - Piceetum illyricum razvijaju se na hladnim staništima gorskog
pojasa, češće na kiselom smeđem, a rjeđe na smeđem krečnjačkom zemljištu;
lEkosistemi smrčevih šuma sa urezicom. Na razvijenijim i kiselijim tlima, distričnim
kambisolima povrh rožnaca na sjevernim padinama dinarskih masiva egzistiraju
manje površine pod ovom zajednicom;
lEkosistem smrčevih šuma sa crvotočinama. Na dubokim smeđim zemljištima povrh
rožnaca ili na podzoliranim zemljištima mjestimično su razvijeni fragmenti ove
zajednice. Razvija se u zoni smrče i jele, katkad i jele i bukve sa smrčom;
lEkosistemi smrčevo-bjeloborovih šuma. Na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine šume smrče i
bijelog bora nastanjuju uglavnom toplije ekspozicije, nagibe terena do 25, odnosno
30 tepeni, krečnjačku geološku podlogu i smeđa krečnjačka zemljišta, ponekad i
kalkomelanosole. To su veoma lijepe i razvijene šumske zajednice sa visokim
privrednim značajem. Bogate su vrstama. Osim vrsta četinarskih šuma, tu je i čitav
niz nešto termofilnijih oblika;
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High preservation level of primeval forest re-
serves in Bosnia and Herzegovina ensures
excellent conditions for many wild animals,
including the globally threatened ones, for in-
stance: brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis
lupus), capercailie (Tetrao urogallus), lynx (Lynx
lynx).
Apart from afore named primeval forests, there
are several small beech-fr forests with spruce:
Ravna vala on Igman Mt. (45 ha), Trstionica
near Kakanj town (32,5 ha). Beside, it is on the
way a designation of new primeval forest re-
serves: in Kladanj and Kakanj straight beech
woods, on Blidinje lake whitebark pine woods.
Ecosystems of dark coniferous woods
Conifer woods in Bosnia and Herzegovina take
colder places in the upland belt, representing
therefore a true balkan range taiga. It is being
diferentiated in several living communities,
which cover the largest surface in the region
of mountains Romanija, Ozren, Zvijezda and
Vitorog. Elsewhere their occurence is induced
by ecoclimate conditions.
Abiotic component of these ecosystems are
diferent series of silicate and carbonate
rocks, whereas soils are mainly distric cam-
bisol and calcocambisol But, on more incli-
nated slopes and in lower part of mounatin
belt, occur soils with A-C profle – rankers,
calcomelanosol and rendsine.
Habitats of dark coniferous woods have got
perhumid and humid climate over entire
year. Afer its thermal character, the climate
is cold, having in some months character
of nival ecoclimate. Annual precipitation
is regulary over 1.500 mm. Average annual
temperatures vary between +6°C and +2°C;
absolute minimum falls till -35°C (-45°C),
whereas absolute maximum doesn’t exceed
+25°C.
Within dark coniferous woods of Bosnia and
Herzegovina accomplished is high biologic
and ecologic diversity.
Depening on hydro-thermic regime, geolo-
gic foundation and altitude, dark coniferous
woods are diferentiated into several ecosys-
tem types:
t Ecosystems of montane spruce woods. These woods are developed in the upper hilly and
upland belt, usually continuing onto fragmented belt of beech woods. They occur mainly
on carbonates and partially silicates of hornblende series. Soils are calcocambisol and
distric cambisol;
t Ecosystems of spruce-fir woods in the upland belt. The communities of spruce-fir woods
Abieti - Piceetum illyricum develop on colder places in the upland belt, more frequently
on acid brown earth, whereas seldom on limestone brown earth;
t Ecosystems of spruce woods with coltsfoot. On well developed and more acid soil type,
such as distric cambisol laying over hornblend on northern slopes of Dinaric masiffs,
exists smaller surface covered by this community;
t Ecosystems of spruce with clubmosses. On deep brown earth laying over hornblend or
on podsols, developed are fragments of this community. It develops in spruce-fir area,
sometimes in fir-beech area with spruce;
t Ecosystems of spruce-scots pine woods. On the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina the-
se woods inhabit mainly warmer expositions, till 25, respectively 30 degrees inclinated
slopes, carbonate geologic foundation and carbonate brown earth, sometimes even cal-
comelanosol. Those are mainly lovely and well developed forest communities with high
economic importance. They are rich in species. Beside species occuring in coniferous
woods, there is a line of, in some extent, thermophilous forms;
t Ecosystems of spruce woods with bogmosses. In this area, spruce communities on humid
lEkosistemi smrčevih šuma sa mahovinama tresetarkama. Zajednica smrče na vlažnom i
zatresećenom zemljištu, na ovom prostoru ima azonalan i lokalan karakter. Konsta-
tovano je na svega nekoliko površina. Razvija se na silikatnim supstratima i
zemljištima tipa visokog treseta, a djelomično i zatresećenog glejnog tla, na ravnim
ili blago nagnutim terenima;
lEkosistemi šuma istočnobosanske (Pančićeve) omorike. Zajednice sa omorikom se
diferenciraju na nekoliko različitih tipova uslovljenih razlikama u abiotičkim
faktorima. Ipak, sve zajednice se karakterišu optimalnim razvojem na karbonatnim
stijenama, a samo sporadično na serpentinitima i peridotitima;
lEkosistemi jele i ljigovine. Sastojine ove zajednice se razvijaju u gorskom pojasu na
istraživanom prostoru. Karakteristika ovih ekosistema je prisustvo velikih
krečnjakih i krečnjačko-dolomitnih blokova na površini podloge. Sastojine zajednice
jele i ljigovine na krečnjačkim blokovima na istraživanom prostoru razvijene su na
Izuzev pomenutih, na području Bosne i
Hercegovine egzistiraju i ekosistemi sm-
rčevih šuma na podzolu, jele i okrugloli-
snog broća, jele i rebrače, jele i milave na
krečnjačkim blokovima gornjeg dijela gor-
skog i donjeg subalpinskog pojasa, te jele i
krkavine.
Fizionomska i strukturna svojstva ovom
biomu daju: smrča, jela, bijeli bor, ist-
očnobosanska (Pančićeva) omorika, jar-
ebika, kozokrvine, divlje ruže, borovnica,
kruščica, brusnica, likovac, dvolisnik, bek-
ica, zečija kiselica, mrežolist, urodica,
trava od utrobice, crvotočine, te mnoge
druge.
Ekosistemi visokih zeleni
Kao jedan od tipova azonalne vegetacije u
specifičnim edafskim, orografskim, pedo-
loškim i ekološkim prilikama uopšte, ra-
zvijena je vegetacija visokih zeleni. Staniš-
ta ovih zajednica su, uglavnom, male de-
presije, koje nisu izložene visokoj evapor-
aciji, niti izrazitim temperaturnim eks-
tremima.
Ovaj tip ekosistema se optimalno razvija
na nadmorskim visinama između 1.100 i
1.400 m, na staništima na kojima je pri-
sutna visoka vlaga, a koju ove vrste odr-
žavaju konstatnom u mikro-klimatskim
uslovima. Zajednice visokih zeleni se spu-
štaju i na manje nadmorske visine, pa se
sreću i u pojasu montanih bukovih šuma,
ili u kompleksu sa vegetacijom higrof-
ilnih šumskih zaje-dnica.
U pogledu fizionomije, dio zajednica vi-
sokih zeleni je karakterističan po prisus-
tvu krupnolisnih biljnih vrsta, koje u krat-
kom vegetacionom periodu proizvode ve-
like količine zelene mase. Razgradnja ze-
ljaste zelene mase koja, prema konzis-
tenciji biljnih dijelova i sama ima visok
sadržaj vode, protiče uz visoku relativnu
vlažnost vazduha, visok nivo podzemnih
voda, te vrlo često prisutne i plavne vode
planinskih potoka. Posljedica razgradnje
u ovim uslovima je akumulacija nitrata,
što je i uslov pojavljivanja najvećeg broja
vrsta iz florističkog sastava ovih zajedn-
ica.
Za razliku od ekosistema visokih zeleni
koji se razvijaju u uslovima povišene vl-
age, a dio su zatvorenog mozaika šumskih
ekosistema, uz ivice šuma i na suhim ot-
vorenim, blago nitrificiranim staništima,
razvija se vegetacija termofilnih visokih
zeleni.
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and peat-like ground have got azonal and local character. This has been recorded in
several localities. These communities develope on silicate foundation and acrohystosol,
partially on gley transformed in peat, on plain or slightly inclinated terrain;
t Ecosystems of Serbian spruce. The Serbian spruce communities are being differentiated
in several types, which are induced by differences in abiotic factors. Nevertheless, these
communities reach their optimal development on carbonate rocks, only sporadically on
serpentine and peridote;
t Ecosystems of fir and Oreoherzogia. Stands of this community develop in the upland
belt of the investigated area. Special characteristic of these ecosystems represent the oc-
curence of huge limestone and limestone-dolomite blocks at the surface. Stands of fir
and Oreoherzogia between limestone blocks are with limited distribution on the investi-
gated area.
Apart from afore mentioned, in the area of
Bosnia and Herzegovina exist ecosystems of
spruce woods on podsol, then woods with fr
and Galium rotundifolium, fr and hard fern,
fr and reedgrass between carbonate blocks
in the upper upland belt and lower sub-al-
pine belt, and woods with fr and common
buckthorn.
Physiognomic and structural features of this
biom are determined by: spruce, fr, scots
pine, Serbian spruce, european mountain-
ash, species of genus Lonicera, dog’s rose,
blue berry, plar tree, red whortlerberry, dwarf
bay, lesser buterfy, melicgrass, wood sorrel,
creeping lady’s tresses, cow wheat, willow
gentian, clubmosses and many others.
Ecosystems of tall herb communities
As azonal vegetation type, in specific
edaphic, orographic, pedologic and eco-
logic conditions in general, occur tall herb
communities. Reffering habitats are mainly
in small depressions, which aren’t exposed
neither to high evaporation nor extreme
temperatures.
These ecosystem types are optimally de-
veloped at altitude spanning from 1.100
to 1.400 metres, on places with high air
humidity maintaned continous by the oc-
curing species. Tall herb communities
go down to lower altitude, reaching even
montane beech belt, or get mixed with the
hygrophilous wood communities.
As far as physignomy is concerned, there
is a part of tall herb communities charac-
terized by large-leaved plants that in short
vegetation period produce great quantity
of green biomass. Decompostion of such
biomass that is soft due to high proportion
of water in it, evolves under conditions
of high air humidity, high level of under-
ground water and frequent f loodings com-
ing from the mountain streams. The con-
sequence of such decomposition is nitrates
being accumulated, which is the prereq-
uisit for most of the species within these
plant communities to occur.
In difference to tall herb communities
emerging in high humidity milieu, along
forest edges and on dry, open and mild ni-
trified places emerge thermophylous tall
herb communities.
Ekosistemi mezofilnih livada gorskog pojasa
Livadski ekosistemi su razvijeni u zo-
nama svih šumskih ekosistema. Izražena
dinamika osnovnih ekoloških faktora
uslovljava visok stepen njihovog diverzit-
eta. Zemljišta na staništima ekosistema
livada su semigleji, ilimerizovana i smeđa
tla, razvijena na različitim tipovima geol-
oške podloge.
U gorskom pojasu jugoistočnih Dinarida
egzistiraju posebne livadske zajednice, ko-
je se strukturom razlikuju od sličnih na Al-
pama, Pirinejima, pa i sjeverozapadnim
Dinaridima. Osnovna karakteristika na-
ših livada je prisustvo brojnih dinarskih i
balkanskih endema u njihovom sastavu.
Na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine ove liva-
de dosežu svoju sjeverozapadnu granicu.
Livade ovog tipa se ekstenzivno obrađuju
i daju slabije prinose sijena. Njihova me-
đusobna diferencijacija potiče od razlika
u ekološkim uslovima staništa, te nalaz-
imo:
lEkosisteme gorskih livada na vlažnim krečnjačkim zemljištima bogatim humusom;
lEkosisteme gorskih livada na smeđem krečnjačkom zemljištu;
lEkosisteme ljutića i pančićije;
lEkosisteme ljutića i mrazovca na dubokim zakiseljenim zemljištima;
lEkosisteme gorskih livada na bazama bogatim zemljištima;
lEkosisteme gorskih livada sa bosanskim ljiljanom;
lEkosisteme pančićije i bosanskog ljiljana;
lEkosisteme gorskih livada košanica.
Na staništima ovih livada rastu i bosanski
ljiljan (Lilium bosniacum), bosanski
pucavac (Silene bosniaca), sendtnerov
pucavac (Silene sendtneri), planinska
ljubičica (Viola elegantula) i mnoge druge.
Osim pomenutih endemičnih livadskih
ekosistema, na bosanskohercegovačkim
planinama su česte i široko raspro-
stranjene livade vlasulje i rosulje. Osim
svoje očaravajuće ljepote, od ranog
proljeća pa do kasnog ljeta, ove livade
imaju i visoku ekonomsku vrijednost.
Njihovo sijeno je kvalitetna hrana i za
sitnu i za krupnu stoku, te za brojnu
divljač.
Od ranog proljeća ovim livadama
dominira zeleno-žuta boja od cvatova
maslačka, zatim nešto kasnije zlatno žuta
boja od mnogih ljutića, te čitavi spektri
svih boja i nijansi od cvatova različka,
vrbice, malog omana; u jesen tamnoplava
od cvj etova barskog encij ana, te
svijetloljubičasti cvjetovi mrazovca, koji u
ovom kraju obično najavljuju dolazak
svježih i sunčanih jeseni, te dugih i
hladnih zima.
Na silikatnoj geološkoj podlozi, te na
karbonatnoj podlozi na dubljim zaki-
seljenim tlima razvijeni su ekosistemi sa
travom tvrdačom (Nardus stricta), inače
široko zastupljeni u srednjoj i zapadnoj
Evropi. Livade trave tvrdače su sa lošim
kvalitetom sijena i rijetko se kose, te su
uglavnom prepuštene za ispašu stoke.
Ovi ekosi st emi naj češće nast aj u
degradacijom smrčevih i smrčevo-jelovih
šuma.
Na toplijim padinama i plićim tlima
razvijene su termofilne livade reda
Brometalia erecti, koje na još plićim tlima
postepeno prelaze u brdske i gorske
kamenjare. U njihovom sastavu domi-
niraju ovsik, bokvica srednja, dubačac,
lazarkinja, kravljak, osjak, končara,
krestušac, celinšćica, kostrika, šiljka,
mirisavka i druge.
Livadske zajednice gorskog pojasa su
velikim dijelom izgrađene od medo-
nosnih, ljekovitih i vitaminskih vrsta.
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Ecosystems of mesophylous meadows in the upland belt
Meadows are developed in the zones of all
forest ecosystems. High diversity within the
meadows here is caused by highly dynamic
ecologic factors. Considering the soils, it
prevails semigley, ilimerized soil and brown
earth. The geologic foundation is diverse.
In the upland belt of southeastern Dinaric
Alps exist special kind of meadow com-
munities that differs in its structure from
the similar communities in Alps, Pirines
and even northwestern Dinaric Alps. Main
feature of our meadows is the occurence of
dinaric and balcan range endemic species.
On the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina
these meadows reach their northwestern
boundary. That kind of meadows is being
extensively treated giving smaller yield.
Due to differences in ecologic conditions
they can be differentiated as follows:
t Ecosystems of upland meadows on wet, humus-rich limestone ground;
t Ecosystems of upland meadows on brown limestone earth;
t Ecosystems of buttercup and Pancicia serbica;
t Ecosystems of buttercup and crocus on deep acidifed soils;
t Ecosystems of upland meadows on base-rich ground;
t Ecosystems of upland meadows with Bosnian lily;
t Ecosystems of Pancicia serbica and Bosnian lily;
t Ecosystems of upland mowed meadows.
Within these meadows grow also Bosnian
lily (Lilium bosniacum), Bosnian catchf ly
(Silene bosniaca), Sendtner’s cathf ly (Silene
sendtneri), mountain violet (Viola elegan-
tula) and many others.
Beside afore mentioned endemic kind of
ecosystems, on bosnia-herzegovina’s moun-
tains frequent and widely distributed are
meadows of fescues and common bent.
Apart from their astonishing beauty, from
early spring till late summer, these mead-
ows achieve high economic values. Hay is
high quality food for both small and large
catlle, and even for game species.
From early spring these meadows are domi-
nated by green-yellow colour of dandelion’s
f lower, then a bit later by golden colour of
various buttercups and whole spectrum of
colours created by knapweed, purple loos-
estrife, small yellowhead, in autumn there
is a deep blue colour of marsh gentian, then
light violet of autumn crocus that usually
announce the arrival of fresh and sunny au-
tumn, followed by long and cold winter.
In central and western Europe widely dis-
tributed ecosystems of matgrass Nardus
stricta develop on silicate, and on limestone
too if a deeper acidifed soil is laying over.
These meadows give low quality hay be-
ing therefore rarely mowed and mainly left
over for grazing purpose. These ecosystems
emerge after spruce and spruce-fir woods
get degraded.
On warmer slopes and more shallow soil
types developed are thermophilous mead-
ows from the order Brometalia erecti, which
on even more shallow soil gradually turn
into montane and upland’s rocky grassland.
In the composition prevail brome, hoary
platain, germander, sweet woodruff, perfo-
liate alexanders, thistle, dropwort, common
milkwort, common self-heal, Danthonia,
sweet scedent and others.
Meadow communities in the upland belt are
mostly composed of honey-producing, me-
dicinal and vitaminous plants.
Ekosistemi gorskih potoka
Najljepše i najsnažnije dijelove gorskih pe-
jzaža viđamo uz jake planinske potoke bo-
sanskohercegovačkih Dinarida. Bistra vo-
da se uskim koritima između okolnih ma-
siva žuri prema mirnim tokovima Bosne,
Vrbasa, Drine. Skrivajući jedinstven ne-
ponovljiv svijet živih organizama, hladne
planinske vode i danas čine riznicu bosan-
skohercego-vačkog biološkog i ekološkog
bogatstva. Ovdje navodimo samo neke od
endemičnih formi vodenih insekata, koje
žive u izvorišnim dijelovima planinskih
potoka i kraških područja:
Tabela 27. – Endemične vrste vodenih insekata u izvorištima planinskih i kraških
potoka
Rhyachopila bosniaca Schmid Miljacka, Bioštica
Allotrichia marinkovacae Malycki Lištica, Trebišnjica
Hidropsyche dinarica Marinkovic Bistrica, Žabljak
Hidropsyche smiljae Marinkovic Lištica, Trebišnjica
Chaetopteryx bosniaca Marinković Bistrica, Žabljak, Pliva, Sanica, Bioštica, Miljacka
Chaetopteryx gonospina Marinković Ribnik, Sanica, Pliva, Bioštica, Miljacka
Chaetopteryx shmidi Botosaneanum Bistrica, Žabljak
Annitella apfelbecki Klapalek Bistrica,Pliva, Sanica, Trebišnjica, Lištica, Miljacka
Drusus bosnicus Klapalek Ribnik, Sanica, Pliva
Drusus klapaleki Marinković Miljacka, Bioštica
Drusus medianus Marinković Ribnik, Sanica, Pliva
Drusus rad. septentrionis Marinković Bistrica, Žabljak
Rhyachopila vranitzensis Mar. et
Bot.
Bistrica, Pliva, Sanica, Lištica, Miljacka, Bioštica
Drusus ramae Marinković Lištica, Trebišnjica
Drusus shmidi Botosaneanum Miljacka, Bioštica
Drusus vespertinus Marinković Bistrica, Žabljak
Potamophylax winnwguthi Klapalek
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Ribnik, Pliva, Sanica, Miljacka, Bioštica
Limnephilus graecus Schmid Lištica, Trebišnjica
Rhyachopila trescaviscensis Bot. Lištica, Miljacka, Bioštica, Pliva, Sanica
Rhyachopila balcanica Radovanovic Bistrica, Lištica, Trebišnjica,Miljacka, Pliva, Sanica
Rhyachopila trescaviscensis Bot. Lištica, Miljacka, Bioštica, Pliva, Sanica
Rhyachopila balcanica Radovanovic
W

B
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Bistrica, Lištica, Miljacka, Ribnica, Pliva, Sanica
Micrasema sericeum Klapalek Bistrica, Žabljak, Lištica, Trebišnjca
Annitella triloba Marinković Lištica, Trebišnjica, Miljacka, Bioštica
Rhyachopila loxias Schmid
B
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Lištica, Miljacka, Bioštica
Glossosoma discophorum Klapalek Bistrica, Lištica, Trebišnjica,Miljacka,Bioštica
Potamophylax pallidus Klapalek Ribnik, Pliva, Sanica, Miljacka, Bioštica
Hidropsyche tabacarui
Botosaneanum
Pliva, Sanica, Miljacka, Bioštica
Threma anomalum MacLachan Lištica, Trebišnjica, Bioštica, Miljacka
Beraeamayia shmidi Botosaneanum Lištica, Trebišnjica
Rhyachopila furcifera Klapalek B
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K
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i

Miljacka, Bioštica
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Ecosystems of upland brooks
Te most beautiful and powerful share of
upland landscapes is to be seen along the
mountain brooks in bosnia-herzegovina’s
Dinaric Alps. Clear water rushes through a
narrow passages that are squized between
surrounding masifs toward calm streams
of Bosna, Vrbas and Drina rivers. Te cold
mountain water, hiding unique living world
in it, is considered to be a treasury of bosnia-
herzegovina’s biologic and ecologic diversity.
Hereafer are listed some endemic forms
of aquatic insects living around springs of
mountain brooks and karst streams:
Table 27. – Endemic species of aquatic insects in mountain and karst springs in Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Stanje ekosistema gorskih pejzaža
Unikatnost strukture i dinamike, te po-
stanka dinarskih gorskih pejzaža, osim sp-
ecifičnog diverziteta biljaka i gljiva
uslovilo je i posebne oblike i obrasce
diverziteta životinja. To se posebno od-
nosi na grupe organizama koji žive u gor-
skim izvorima i potocima, kakvih je izuz-
etno puno u ovom pojasu u Bosni i Her-
cegovini. Specifične ekološke prilike
uslovljene djelovanjem različitih šuma re-
zultirale su i naglašenom endemo-
genezom mnogih grupa vodenih insek-
ata. Upravo u izvorima u zoni gorskih pe-
jzaža živi izuzetno veliki broj endemičnih
vodenih insekata od kojih su mnogi i prvi
put opisani upravo u ovom pojasu. Postoj-
anje takvih mjesta (locus classicus) pred-
stavlja izuzetnu vrijednost u globalnom
diverzitetu životinjskog carstva.
Samo neke od vrsta koje su ekskluzivno ve-
zale za gorske dijelove bosansko-
hercegovačkih rijeka prikazane su u tabeli
28. To nesumnjivo ilustruje izuzetnu pove-
zanost šumskih staništa ne samo sa reži-
mom gorskih izvorišta, nego i determina-
ciju unikatnih procesa specijacije, a po-
sebno endemogeneze. Zbog toga je oč-
uvanje stabilnosti šumskih ekosistema ne-
prikosnoveno u očuvanju gorskih izvora i
potoka, te endemičnog biodiverziteta in-
sekata.
Posebno dobro istraženu grupu na ovim
staništima čine Psihodidae (Pericoma gl-
acialis, P. ljubiniensis, P. marinkovići, P. mu-
čibabići, P. rotunda, P. vaillanti, Mormia cu-
rvistylia, Panimurus bosnicus, P. verbassicus,
Threticus optabilis).
Osim unikatnog svijeta insekata u gor-
skim potocima, česte su i još čiste linije pot-
očne pastrmke, peša, potočnog raka.
Kako dominantne ekosisteme gorskih pe-
jzaža Bosne i Hercegovine čine šumske za-
jednice, posebno je važno istaknuti stepen
antropogenih uticaja pod kojim se one da-
nas nalaze, te stanje recentnih ekosistema.
Bukovo-jelove i čiste bukove zajednice naj-
produktivniji su šumski ekosistemi, pa se
tako, kao resurs drvne mase, prve nalaze
na udaru antropogenih aktivnosti. O
stanju šumskih ekosistema najbolje govo-
re priloženi podaci iz različitih vremens-
kih perioda.
Grafikon 16. - Zastupljenost vrsta u čistim šumskim sastojinama.
Hrast
15%
Bukva
58%
Ostali
četinari
1%
Ostali tvrdi
lišćari
16%
Crni bor
6%
Jela
0,5%
Ostali meki
lišćari
1%
Smrča
3%
70
Beech
Black pine
Remnant
coniferous
trees
Spruce Fir
Remnant
hard wood
trees
Remnant soft
wood trees
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The uniqueness in structure and dynamics
of dinaric upland landscapes, apart from
diversity of plants and mushrooms, has in-
duced special patterns of animal diversity.
This relates especially to organisms living
in mountain springs and brooks, like it is
the case in the upland belt of Bosnia and
Herzegovina. Specific ecologic conditions
determined by different kind of forests re-
sulted in the pronounced endemogenesis
for many aquatic insects. In the springs of
upland landscapes lives great number of en-
demic aquatic insects of which many were
for the first time described right here, in
this belt. The existance of such places (locus
classicus) represents the outstanding value
in the global animal diversity.
Table 27 shows only some of the species
that are exclusively bound to the upland
parts of bosnia-herzegovina’s rivers. This
illustrates how exceptional is the connec-
tion between forests and water regime in
mountain springs. It also helps in recogni-
tion of unique speciation processes, because
of which the maintenance of forest ecosys-
tem’s stability is sacred for the protection of
mountain streams.
The best studied group of organisms here
is Psychodidae (Pericoma glacialis, P. lju-
biniensis, P. marinkovići, P. mučibabići, P.
rotunda, P. vaillanti, Mormia curvistylia,
Panimurus bosnicus, P. Verbassicus, Thre-
ticus optabilis).
Beside unique insects world, in mountain
brooks frequently occur straight lines of
brown trout, bullhead and crayfish.
State of upland landscape’s ecosystems
Graph 16. – Proportion of species in the straight woodland stands
Dominant ecosystems of upland landscapes
in Bosnia and Herzegovina are forest com-
munities, whereby we should stress the an-
thropogenic impact placed upon them and
recent state of ecosystems.
Beech-fir and sole beech communities are
most productive forest ecosystems, being
therefore as a wood resource first in line of
anthropogenic pressures. On state of forest
ecosystems witness the best data from dif-
ferent periods that follows.
Procjenjuje je se da je u Bosni i Herceg-
ovini od tada posječeno 82.552 ha šuma.
Najveći dio posječenih površina se nalazi
na jugozapadu zemlje. Najveći procenat
deforestacije (72%) se odnosi na površine
manje od jednog hektara, a 7% otpada na
površine veličine 100 i više hektara. Od
posječenih šuma 65.121 ha otpada na lis-
topadne, a 17. 431 ha na četinarske šume.
U poslijeratnom periodu sječa je intenz-
ivirana na mnogim lokalitetima bez ob-
zira na njihovu biološku i ekološku vrij-
ednost.
Iako su ekosistemi gorskih pejzaža pod
uticajem planinske dinarske klime, sa obil-
jem sniježnih padavina, te uslovi koji ogra-
ničavaju stalni boravak čovjeka ovdje,
ipak su, zbog vrijednosti prirodnih
Tabela 28. - Procjena površina pod šumama u Bosni i Hercegovini 1992. godine.
Izvor: Statistički godišnjak R Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo 1992. god.
resursa, naseljavani još od najranijih pe-
rioda.
I danas u ovom pojasu leže ne samo sela,
nego čak i manji gradovi, od kojih je Ku-
pres (1.200 m n.v.) najveća urbana cjelina
na pr os t or u gor s ki h bos ans ko-
hercegovačkih Dinarida, pa i zapadnog
Balkana.
Naselja u ovom pojasu su uglavnom or-
ganizovana kroz manje zaseoke, sa na-
stambama tipične planinske arhitekture,
visoko nagnutim krovovima, debelim ka-
menim zidovima i malim otvorima.
Osnovna tradicionalna djelatnost naroči-
to u ranijem periodu, a u nekim dijel-
ovima i danas je održivo stočarstvo.
„I danas po sočnim livadama gorskog pojasa pa-
se na desetine hiljada ovaca pramenki, za čiju
sigurnost se brinu budne uši bosanskog to-
rnjaka, unikatne i endemične pasmine u ps-
ećem rodu, izuzetno vrijednog genofonda. Po-
red ovaca, tu su i bogata stada muznih krava,
te stada podivljalih rasnih konja, koji pred-
stavljaju svojevrsne ukrase gorskim prop-
lancima, te čine jedan najvredniji dio genof-
onda u postojećem carstvu evropskih životinja.
U plodnom gorskom zemljištu, obogaćenom je-
dino prirodnim gnojivom, raste najzdraviji
krompir (nadaleko čuvene sorte i linije fojn-
ičkog, glamočkog, kupreškog krompira), koji
pripremljen na tradicionalni način, uz raskoš
bosanskog dinarskog kajmaka, te vlašićkog,
kupreškog, glamočkog i livanjskog sira, pred-
stavlja vrhunske delikatese u evropskoj ga-
stronomiji i svojevrsnu atrakciju, kako za do-
maće stanovništvo, tako i za turiste. Ovoj unik-
atnosti kulture bosansko-hercegovačkih gorš-
taka treba dodati i posebnost u kulturnom dive-
rzitetu, koja se ogleda u nekada šarolikoj odjeći
i obući, kućnom namještaju, poljoprivrednim
alatima, te naročitim suvenirima.
Još uvijek veoma očuvani izvorni etnološki
elementi: otvorenost, srdačnost i domaćinski
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Table 28. – Assessment of woodland surface in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992
Source: Statistic yearbook of Republic Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo 1992.
It is estimated that in Bosnia and Herzegovina
has been felled 82.552 ha of forests since then.
Most of the clearings are in the southwestern
region. Te biggest deforestation proportion
(72%) relates to the surfaces less than one hec-
tars, whereas 7% are surfaces taking 100 and
more hectares. Of felled forests, 65.121 ha were
deciduous and 17. 431 ha coniferous woods.
In the post-war period felling became more
intense around many localities, no matter
what their biologic and ecologic value was.
Although the upland landscapes are under in-
fuences from dinaric mountain climate, with
plenty of snow, and existing conditions limit
the permanent human inhabitation, they have
been inhabited since the earliest age.
Even today, in this belt are situated not only
villages, but small towns of which Kupres (at
1.200 m above sea level) is the largest urban
complex in the upland belt of bosnia-herze-
govina’s Dinaric Alps and entire western Bal-
kan.
Settlements here occur mainly as small villag-
es, with dwellings built in typical mountain-
like fashion, with highly heaved roofs, thick
stone walls and small openings in it. Basic
traditional activity in some areas is sustain-
able cattle breeding, especially used to be in
earlier days.
“Even today, over juicy meadows of the upland
belt graze thousands of sheeps, whose safety
is taken care of by awaken ears of bosnian
sheepdog, which is the unique and endemic
dog’s breed. Beside sheep, there are also herds
of milk producing cows and studs that have
grown wild. All that is some kind of decor to
the upland openings and represent most valu-
able share in the european animal gen pool.
On fertile upland’s ground, enriched only
by natural dung, grows the most healthy po-
tato (of widely known sorts and lines fojnički,
glamočki, kupreški potato) that, if prepared in
traditional manner with dinaric cream and
a lot of in Vlašić, Kupres, Glamoč and Livno
made chees, represent top quality delicacy for
the European gastronomy, and some kind of
attraction for both locals and tourists. Another
uniqueness of bosnia-herzegovina’s highlander
is ref lected in their cultural diversity expressed
through fancy clothing and footware, house
furniture, agricultural tools and special souve-
nirs.
Well preserved indigenous ethnologic ele-
ments, such as frankness, warmth and hospi-
tality, along with clear and clean spring wa-
WOODLAND SURFACE (ha) % of total B&H’s surface
Straight wood habitats 532.703 10.42
Deciduous 478.393 9.36
Coniferous 54.310 1.06
Mixed wood habitats 1.798.359 35.17
Deciduous 1.107.039 21.65
Coniferous 66.609 1.30
Deciduous-coniferous 624.701 12.22
Total woodland 2.331.052 45.59
Bare mountain terrain 250.839 4.91
Total surface in B&H 5.112.900 100%
odnos naših gorštaka, a posebno čiste i bistre
izvorske vode, čisti planinski zrak, te i slikoviti
gorski pejzaži livada, proplanaka i šuma čine je-
dinstvene preduslove za intenzivnije nasel-
javanje ovog prostora, razvoj zdravstvenog i re-
kreacijskog, a posebno seoskog turizma u svim
godišnjim dobima.
Gorski pejzaži i u njima naočiti gorštaci, kosci
sočne trave, rodne raži, jedroga ječma i ovsa,
stasite patarenke u živopisnoj odjeći u vrijeme
žetve zlatnoga klasja, kupljenja mirisnog sij-
ena, bile su inspiracija i nadahnuće mnogim
pjesnicima, književnicima, putopiscima, vir-
tuozima na platnu i žici (Skender Kulenović,
Ivo Andrić, Ćamil Sijarić, Ethem Mulabdić,
Husein Đogo, te znameniti slikari Jurkić, Ber-
ber, Ramić).“ (Navod iz TV emisije „Prir-
odna baština BiH“).
Ekosistemi gorskih pejzaža sadrže brojne
prirodne resurse, kao što su ljekovite, je-
stive, vitaminske i aromatične biljke, a ta-
kođe i veliki broj jestivih i ljekovitih gljiva i
lišajeva.
Posebnu ekonomsku vrijednost imaju i da-
nas divlje biljke, koje su odigrale spason-
osnu ulogu u procesima obnove, te pre-
dindustrijske faze razvoja našeg društva.
Veliku tržišnu vrijednost imaju: velebilje,
malina, jagoda, kupina, kiprovina, nap-
rstak, gospin plašt, kaćuni, dinjica, vratić,
kostriš, crvena bazga, ognjica, trava od utr-
obice, borovnica, srcopuc, mrazovac, li-
jepa ljubičica, zatim lišajevi: djedova br-
ada, plućoliki lišaj, kladonia. Tu su i mno-
gi predstavnici carstva gljiva, a naročito
su vrijedni predstavnici rodova: smrčak,
lisičarka, srndaćica, vrganj, jesenka, jež-
inac, te mnoge lignikolne i terikolne gljive,
koje imaju važnu funkciju u procesima
razlaganja drvne mase.
Pritisci na ekosisteme gorskih pejzaža
Uprkos činjenici da je prostor gorskih
pejzaža slabo naseljen, ekosistemima ovih
dinamičnih pejzaža danas prijeti opasnost
od uticaja nastalih kroz ljudske aktivnosti,
kao što su:
lIntenzivna i neselektivna sječa visokih šuma;
lNekontrolisani lov;
lUništavanje i degradacija zemljišta neselektivnom izgradnjom šumskih
komunikacija i neprimjerenom upotrebom šumske mehanizacije;
lPrekomjerna eksploatacija ljekovitih biljaka i gljiva;
lIntenzivna prirodna progradacija i zarastanje livada;
lNeprihvatljiva izgradnja i koncentracija građevinskih objekata u atraktivnim
dijelovima gorskog pojasa (zimski rekreacijski centri Babin Do na Bjelašnici, Vlašić
planina, Kupres i Dugo polje na Čvrsnici);
lKlimatske promjene;
lAerozagađenje;
lPoremećaji režima gorskih izvora i potoka.
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ter, clean mountain air, picture-like upland’s
landscapes of meadows, openings and forests
are unique prerequisites for the more intensive
colonization in this area and development of
medicinal and recreational, especially rural,
tourism in all seasons.
These landscapes and highlanders that mow
juicy grass, fertile rye, crummy barley and oat,
then handsome women in their fancy clothes
as seen in the period of golden ear’s harvesting
and collection of odorous hay, were the inspi-
ration for many poets, writers, travel writers,
artistic virtuoso in paitings and on strings (Sk-
ender Kulenović, Ivo Andrić, Ćamil Sijarić,
Ethem Mulabdić, Husein Đogo, and famous
painters Jurkić, Berber, Ramić).“ (quoted from
TV show “Prirodna baština BiH“).
Pressures on ecosystems of the upland landscapes
Despite the fact that this area is poorly inhabited, ecosystems of these dynamic landscapes
are today endangered by impacts arising from diverse human activities, such as:
t Intensive and non-selected felling of tall forests;
t Uncontrolled hunt;
t Destruction and degradation of soil by non-selected construction of forest communi-
cation network and use of forest machines;
t Over-exploitation of medicinal plants and mushrooms;
t Intensive natural progradation and overgrowing of meadows;
t Unacceptable construction and concentration of building sites in the attractive parts of
upland belt (recreational winter centres Babin Dol on Bjelašnica Mt., Vlašić Mt., Kupres
plateau and Dugo polje on Čvrsnica Mt);
t Climate changes;
t Air pollution;
t Disturbances in water regime of springs and brooks.
Ecosystems of upland’s landscapes contain
many natural resources, such as medici-
nal, edible, vitaminous and aromatic plants,
but also many edible and medicinal kind of
mushrooms and lichens.
Special economic value have got wild sorts
of plants that have played rescuing role in
the restoration, as well as in the pre-indus-
trial stage of our society. Great value on the
market achieve deadly nightshade, rasp-
berry, strawberry, black berry, willow herb,
foxglove, lady’s mantle, crocus, tansy daisy,
red elder, yellow ox-eye, willow gentian, blue
berry, wood cudweed, autumn crocus, violet,
then lichens: old man’s beard, lungwort, Cla-
donia. Tere are many representatives from
the realm of fungi, especially valuable are
those from genera: morel, chanterelle, bolete
and many both lignicol and tericol species
with signifcant function in the wood’s de-
composition.
Brdski (montani) pojas u Bosni i Herce-
govini zauzima značajne površine idući
od peripanonskog do mediteransko-mon-
tanog pojasa na jugu. Staništa su na dina-
mičnom, često naglašenom reljefu, sve do
900 m n.v. Dinamičnosti doprinose i hete-
rogene geološke prilike (krečnjaci, silikati,
ultrabazične stijene), širok spektar tipova
zemljišta i različite varijante umjereno
BRDSKI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
kontinentalne klime. U kompleksu sa
ostalim ekološkim faktorima ovi uslovi su
determinisali specifičnost živog svijeta
koji obrazuje tipične bosanske pejzaže.
Na ovom prostoru se posebno ističe diver-
zitet lišćarsko listopadnih šuma i livada.
Tipičnu sliku brdskim pejzažima daju
sljedeći ekosistemi:
lEkosistemi običnog graba i hrasta kitnjaka sa velikim brojem florističkih i geološko-
pedoloških varijanti (sa šaševima, pasjim zubom, klokočikom);
lEkosistemi montanih bukovih šuma sa biskupskom kapicom;
lEkosistemi montane bukve i bekice;
lEkosistemi bukve i javora gluhača;
lEkosistemi crnog grahora i hrasta kitnjaka;
lEkosistemi acidofilnih šuma hrasta kitnjaka.
Na staništima sa izraženijim nagibom terena, plitkim humusno-akumulativnim
zemljištima na vodopropusnoj geološkoj podlozi pojavljuju se i azonalni tipovi šumske
vegetacije koju čine ekosistemi:
lEkosistemi jesenje šašike i bukve;
lEkosistemi kitnjaka i medunca;
lEkosistemi crnog graba i medunca;
Kako su pej zaži brdskog poj asa
ispresijecani brojnim vodotocima (od Une
na zapadu do Drine na istoku), ovdje su
razvijeni i ekosistemi vodoljubivih
šumskih zajednica johe, vrba, oraha i
šibljaci rakite.
Značajne površine u zoni montanih
pejzaža na ultrabazičnim stijenama
zauzimaju ekosistemi toploljubivih šuma
crnog bora i crnjuše, te ekosistemi
kamenjara i siparišta, što čini poseban
pejzaž reliktnih borovih šuma.
Područje brdskih pejzaža je gusto
naseljeno, naročito u dijelu centralne,
istočne, jugoistočne i sjeverozapadne
Bosne. Prirodna slika pejzaža je značajno
izmijenjena intenzivnim krčenjem šuma,
širenjem obradivih površina, podizanjem
naselja i izgradnjom bogate komuni-
kacione mreže.
Mali broj ekosistema (posebno hrastovo-
grabovih šuma) ima očuvanu primarnu
strukturu. Osim njihovih pejzažnih
vrijednosti, ovi ekosistemi predstavljaju
vrijednost kao staništa bogatog svijeta
divljine: lovne divljači (zečevi, srne,
jeleni), ptica gnjezdarica, gmizavaca
(gušteri i zmije kao što su smuk, riđovka,
poskok, sljepić itd.).
Šumski ekosistemi i danas predstavljaju
izvore drvne mase. Posebnu vrijednost
imaju bukva i hrast kitnjak, koji su osnova
za dalji razvoj tradicionalne drvno-
prerađi vačke dj el atnosti . Šumski
ekosistemi su najčešća staništa raznolikog
svijeta gljiva.
„Poseban je izazov boraviti u vijeme rumene
jeseni u prozračnim lišćarsko-listopadnim
šumama i uživati u susretima sa gljivama
vrhunskih nutricionih vrijednosti (rujnica,
jesenka, sunčanica, vrganji, rusule, lisičarke).
Ništa manji je ugođaj i u vrijeme prvih
lEkosistemi crnog graba i bukve;
lEkosistemi crnog jasena i bjelograbića.
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HILLY LANDSCAPES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Hilly belt in Bosnia and Herzegovina cov-
ers signifcant area going from the peri-
pannonian in the North to the mediterra-
neo-montane belt in the South. Habitats are
scattered over very dynamic and pronounced
relief, up to 900 metres above sea level. Its
dynamism is enhanced by heterogeonus geo-
logic conditions (limestone, silicate, ultraba-
sic rocks), wide spectrum of soil types and
diferent variants of temperate continental
climate. In the complex with other ecologic
factors these conditions have determined
specifcity of life which determines typical
bosnian lanscape.
Especially underlined is a diversity of broad-
leaved decidous woods and meadows. Typi-
cal image of hilly landscapes is made of:
t Ecosystems of hornbeam and sessile oak in several foristic and geo-pedologic variants
(with sedges, dog’s tooth violet, bladdernut);
t Ecosystems of montane beech woods with alpine barrenwort;
t Ecosystems of montane beech woods with melicgrass;
t Ecosystems of beech and Acer obtusatum;
t Ecosystems of black pea and sessile oak;
t Ecosystems of acidophilous sessile oak woods.
On higher inclinated slopes with shallow humus-accumulative soil and over permeable
bedrock occur habitats of azonal forest vegetation represented by:
t Ecosystems of autumn moor grass and
beech;
t Ecosystems of sessile and pubescent oak;
t Ecosystems of fowering ash and pubes-
cent oak;
t Ecosystems of fowering ash and beech;
t Ecosystems of fowering ash and oriental
hornbeam.
Because the landscapes of hilly belt are inter-
cepted by numerous streams (from Una river
in the West to Drina river in the East), present
are ecosystems of hygrophilous woods with
alder, willow, wallnut tree and purpule willow
shrubs.
In the belt of hilly landscapes, signifcant area
on ultrabasic rocks is taken by thermophilous
ecosystems of black pine with heaths and rock
debris communities and screes. Te latter ones
complete the image of relict pine woods.
Hilly landscapes are dense populated, espe-
cially in the area of central, eastern, southeast-
ern and northwestern Bosnia. Natural image
of these landscapes has been altered by inten-
sive clearings, expansion of arable land, aris-
ing of settlements and construction of trafc
network.
Tere are few ecosystems (especially oak-
hornbeam forests) that posses well preserved
primary structure. Except for their land-
scape’s value, these ecosystems are valuable
because of rich wildlife: game species (rabbit,
roe, red-deer), nesting birds, reptiles (lizards
and snakes, such as ratsnakes, common viper,
horn-nosed viper, blind worm etc.).
Forest ecosystems represent wood resources.
In that sense, especially valuable are beech
and sessile oak as a base for future develop-
ment of traditional wood manufacturing in-
dustry. Besides, forest ecosystems are com-
mon habitat of fungi.
“It is a special challenge, in reddish autumn, to
spend some time under transparent crowns of
broadleaved deciduous forests and enjoy meet-
ing the mushrooms of highest nutritional values
(parasol mushroom, king bolete, delicious milk
cap, chanterelle). Nothing less pleasant is to be
plodova divljih trešanja, kada se ovim šumama
protežu i vilina kola mliječnica, presnaca i dr.).
Uz obilje gljiva i plemenitih lišajeva (hrastov
lišaj, djedova brada, plućoliki lišaj), u ovim
šumama utočište nalazi i veliki broj ljekovitih,
jestivih i vitaminskih biljnih vrsta, koje su od
davnina igrale značajnu ulogu u etnologiji i
etnoterapiji bosanskog naroda.“ (Navod iz
TV emisije „Prirodna baština BiH).
U različitim ekosistemima brdskih pe-
jzaža poznato je oko 300 ljekovitih biljaka
koje su odigrale značajnu ulogu u procesu
etnogeneze, kao dopunska ishrana ili u tra-
dicionalnim načinima liječenja. Mnoge od
njih se i danas koriste i predstavljaju neku
vrstu zaštitnog znaka u etnokulturi svih
bosansko-hercego-vačkih naroda. U brd-
skom pojasu se nalaze staništa mnogih lje-
kovitih biljaka, a to su: trava iva („što od
mrtva pravi živa“), kunica (hajdučka tra-
va), kantarion ili gospina trava, kičica ili
crveni kantarion, vranilova trava (origan),
razne vrste bokvica, zečji trn ili gladišika,
čubra ili majčina dušica, lipa, zohva (baz-
ga), trnjina, glog, divlja ruža (šipurak),
šumske jagode, kupine, livadska steža,
kraljica polja, različak crveni , razbicviker,
dobričica, ivica.
Biljni resursi brdskog pojasa danas pred-
stavljaju veliki potencijal za razvoj her-
balnog sektora. Međutim, tradicio-nalno
znanje i iskustva u korištenju biljnih re-
sursa svakim danom sve više blijede, čime
se gube i tradicionalne vrijednosti au-
tohtonog stanovništva. Danas samo u ri-
jetkim mjestima biljne vrste imaju ulogu u
obilježavanju tradicionalnih događaja
svojstvenih kulturama pojedinih naroda
(Đurđevdan), te vjerskih ceremonija i obil-
ježja (upotreba anduza, tamjana, hras-
tova, tise, grančica rutice za „otklanjanje
uroka“, listova miloduha za „zaštitu od
uroka“, izrade hamajlija itd.).
Brdski pejzaži su i staništa onih biljnih
genetičkih resursa koji su osnova za ra-
zvoj voćarstva (divlje trešnje, krušake, mu-
šmule i jarebike). Raznovrsna i kvalitetna
drvna biomasa nekada je bila osnova tra-
dicionalne drvorezbarije, te proizvodnje
tradicionalne drvne galanterije (vretena,
preslice, kace, burad, stapovi, muzički ins-
trumenti: šargije, trube, frule, gusle, dvo-
jnice, bugarije; kašike, kuhače, tanjiri, čas-
e, čanci, sita, sepeti, laki namještaj). U pro-
šlosti Bosne i Hercegovine postojala je po-
tpuna i skladna veza čovjeka i njegovog
okruženja.
Usljed jakih pritisaka, značajne površine
šumskih i šibljačkih ekosistema danas su
pretvorene u livade, pašnjake, obradive
površine i naselja. U brdskom pejzažu da-
nas znatne površine zauzimaju i:
lEkosistemi dolinskih umjereno vlažnih livada;
lEkosistemi umjereno vlažnih eutrofilnih livada pahovke;
lEkosistemi acidofilnih livada rosulje i vlasulje;
lEkosistemi toploljubivih livada ovsika i bokvice;
lEkosistemi toploljubivih livada i kamenjara;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama stijena i sipara.
Velike površine zauzimaju različite ob-
radive kulture, ali i ruderalna i korovska
vegetacija koja se razvija uz puteve i ljud-
ska naselja. Svoj ekološki optimum ovdje
nalaze ječam, zob, ozima i jara pšenica,
kukuruz, heljda, grahovi (trešnjo, kućićar-
ćućo, mesni, aligrah, koma), grašak, leća,
soja, krompir (bjelac, crvenac), kupus,
paradajz, krastavica, patlidžan, razne vr-
ste lukova, salate, mirođija, peršun, ću-
rekot, paštrnak, mrkva, različite sorte ti-
kava, lan, te razno krmno bilje (djetelina,
lucerka, slačica).
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there when the frst wild cherries ripe and when
these forests are intercepted by fairy circles of deli-
cious milk cap. Along with the richness of mush-
rooms and noble lichens (oak’s lichen, old man’s
beard, lung lichen) these forests provide shelter for
many medicinal, edible and vitaminous plant spe-
cies, which have been since ever an important piece
of ethnology and ethnotherapy of bosnia’s people.“
(quoted from TV show “Prirodna baština BiH).
Ecosystems of hilly landscape comprise
about 300 medicinal plants that have played
a crucial role in the ethnogenesis either as a
supplementary food or in traditional heal-
ing practice. Many of them are being used
even today, representing some kind of logo
for the ethnoculture of people living in
Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this belt are to
be found habitats of numerous medicinal
plants, such as: mountain garmander (“that
makes a dead man alive“), yarrow, St.John’s
wort, european centaury, oregano, different
kind of platains,spiny rest harrow, thyme,
linden, black elderberry, blackthorn, haw-
thorn, dog rose, strawberry, blackberry,
dropwort, brown knapweed, ivy, ajuga.
Plant resources in hilly belt represent huge
potential for a herbal sector’s development.
However, traditional knowledge and prac-
tice regarding use of plant resources are
fading away day after day, causing the lost
in traditional values of indigenous people.
Today, plants only occasionaly play a role
in traditional ceremonies and cultures of
some volks (Đurđevdan), as well as in re-
ligous ceremonies and practice (use of in-
cense, oak, yew, twigs of common rue for a
“removal of spells“, hyssop leaves for a “pro-
tection before evil spells“, making of talis-
mans etc.).
Hilly landscapes encompass genetic plant
resources that fruit-gardening is based
upon (wild cherries, pears, cotoneaster and
european mountainash). Diverse and high
quality biomass of wood used to be a base
for wood carving and production of tradi-
tional objects made in wood (spindle, purr,
tub, cask, pistons, musical instruments:
trumpets, f lutes, fiddles, spoons, ladles,
plates, glasses, vessels, griddles, baskets,
light furniture). In the past, in Bosnia and
Herzegovina existed full and well harmo-
nized connection between man and its en-
vironment.
Due to strong pressures, significant surface
that was previously woodland with shrubs
now is transformed into meadows, pastures,
arable land and settlements. In hilly land-
scape considerable area is covered by:
t Ecosystems of lowland’s temperate humid meadows;
t Ecosystems of temperate humid eutrophic meadows with oat grass;
t Ecosystems of acidophilous meadows with bentgrass and fescue;
t Ecosystems of thermophilous meadows with brome and hoary plantain;
t Ecosystems of thermophilous meadows and rocky grassland;
t Ecosystems of rock crevices and screes.
Large area is covered by agricultural crops,
ruderal and weed vegetation developing
along the roads and human settlements. Tis
is optimal ecologic framework for barley, oat,
winter and spring wheat, maize, buckwheat,
various sorts of bean (trešnjo, kućićar-ćućo,
mesni, aligrah, koma), pea, lens, soya bean,
potato (bjelac, crvenac), cabbage, tomato, cu-
cumber, aubergine, diferent sorts of onions,
salads, spices, parsley, love-in-a-mist, wild
parsnip, carrot, diferent sorts of pumpkins,
fax and diverse fooder plants (clover, med-
ick, mustard).
Osnovne prijetnje biološkoj raznolikosti
Pritisci na ekosisteme brdskih pejzaža
brdskih pejzaža su:
lIntenzivna konverzija i fragmentacija šumskih staništa otvaranjem kamenoloma,
građevinskih površina, sječina;
lIntenzivna sječa privredno važnih vrsta (bukva, hrast, plemeniti lišćari)
lIzgradnja putnih komunikacija kroz šumska područja i fragmentacija staništa
životinjskog svijeta;
lEolska erozija i hidroerozija poljoprivrednih zemljišta;
lEutrofikacija površinskih vodotoka;
lNeuravnotežen lov i ribolov;
lprekomjerno iskorištavanje biljnih i životinjskih resursa (puževi, ljekovite i jestive
biljke i gljive).
Brdski pejzaži imaju visok strateški po-
tencijal u razvoju održivog bosansko-
hercegovačkog društva, stoga se ozbiljna
pažnja mora posvetiti iznalaženju od-
rživih modela ekonomski opravdane
upotrebe uz očuvanje servisnih funkcija
ekosistema. U području ovih pejzaža se na-
laze i površinski i podzemni kopovi uglja,
postrojenja za eksploataciju različitih vr-
sta kamena i ekstrakciju šljunka, te po-
strojenja baznih i lakih industrija. Pod-
izanja novih naselja sa pratećom infras-
trukturom uzrokuje dodatne pritiske i
ilustruje ozbiljnost stepena ugroženosti
okoline, kao i potrebu donošenja brzih me-
hanizama za zadovoljavanje potreba za-
jednice na međunarodno prihvaćenim ek-
ološkim standardima.
PERIPANONSKI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
Idući prema jugu od panonskih pejzaža
bosanske Posavine ravnica prelazi u blago
zatalasano podbrežje. Ekološke prilike se
u cijelosti mijenjaju, a pejzaž i živi svijet po-
staju dinamičniji. Peripanonske planine
(Kozara na sjeverozapadu, Prosara i Mo-
tajica na sjeveru, Trebovac i Majevica na sj-
everoistoku) nastale su kroz specifične
procese orogeneze i geogeneze. Čitav pro-
stor do 400 (600) mn.v. zaplju-skuje dosta
topla panonska klima sa značajnim utic-
ajem stepske kontinentalne klime. Geol-
oška podloga je većinom silikatna, a zeml-
jišta su duboka pseudoglejna i ilimerizov-
ana. Na ovim staništima razvijene su bo-
gate lišćarsko-listopadne šume hrastova i
peripanonske bukve, koje zajedno sa ne-
šumskom vegetacijom grade živopisne pe-
ripa-nonske pejzaže. Idući uz vertikalni
profil peripanonskih planina, diferencira
se više tipova ekosistema:
lEkosistemi običnog graba i hrasta lužnjaka;
lEkosistemi hrasta kitnjaka i veprine;
lEkosistemi hrasta kitnjaka i srebrne lipe;
lEkosistemi hrasta kitnjaka i cera;
lEkosistemi hrasta sladuna i cera u sjeveroistočnom dijelu;
lEkosistemi šuma bukve i porebnice;
lEkosistemi acidofilnih šuma bekice i bukve;
lEkosistemi običnog graba i hrasta kitnjaka sa koštrikom;
lEkosistemi običnog graba i hrasta kitnjaka sa klokočikom.
Različitim oblicima degradacije nastali su nešumski ekosistemi:
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Pressures onto ecosystems in hilly landscapes
Main threats to the biodiversity of hilly landscapes are:
t Intensive conversion and fragmentation of forest habitats by new opened quarries,
building sites, fellings;
t Intensive felling of economically important species (beech, oak, fne deciduous woods);
t Building of roads in forest area and fragmentation of wildlife habitats;
t Erosion of arable land by wind and water;
t Eutrophication of surface watercourses;
t Unbalanced hunt and fshing;
t Over-exploitation of plant and animal resources (snails, medicinal and edible plants
and fungi).
Hilly landscapes have got a strategic potential for the sustainable development of bosnia-
herzegovina’s society. Hence, special actions should be undertaken to reveal new models
for sustainable and economically justifed use which is required for the maintenance of
ecosystem’s services. Tese landscapes include open and underground coal mines, facilities
for stone exploitation and gravel extraction, then facilities of basic and light industry. New
settlements with accompanied infrastructure cause additional pressure and illustrate how
threatened the environment really is. By that, emphasized is the need afer urgent design
and establishment of mechanisms required to meet community demands, and based on
internationally embraced ecological principles.
PERI-PANNONIAN LANDSCAPES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
If we shall go from hilly landscapes toward
lowland of Posavina, we would frst encoun-
ter sofly waved hills of Peri-pannonia. Eco-
logic conditions are changed here completely
in sense that the landscapes and wildlife be-
come more dynamic. Te mountains of Peri-
pannonia (northwestern Kozara, northern
Prosara and Motajica, northeastern Trebo-
vac and Majevica) are the product of specifc
oro- and geogenesis. Te entire area, up to
400 (600) m, is splashed by warm pannoni-
an climate which is under strong infuence
from continental climate of steppes. Geo-
logic foundation is mainly silicate with deep
pseudo-gley or ilimerized soils. Here are well
developed broadleaved deciduous forests
with oak and peri-pannonian beech, which
along with non-forest vegetation constitute
the peri-pannonian landsacapes. Going up
hill on vertical profle of the peri-pannonian
mountains, diferentiate several ecosystem
types:
t Ecosystems of woods with hornbeam and common oak;
t Ecosystems of woods with sessile oak and Ruscus hypoglossum;
t Ecosystems with sessile oak and silver linden;
t Ecosystems with sessile and turkey oak;
t Ecosystems with italian and turkey oak in northeastern region;
t Ecosystems of beech woods with hart’s tongue fern;
t Ecosystems of acidophilous beech-melicgrass woods;
t Ecosystems of woods with hornbeam, sessile oak and butcher’s broom;
t Ecosystems of woods with hornbeam, sessile oak and bladdernut.
Afer degradation process take place, emerge non-forest ecosystems:
lEkosistemi higromezofilnih livada busike;
lEkosistemi acidofilnih livada rosulje i vlasulje;
lEkosistemi toploljubivih livada sa ovsikom.
Kao izuzetno povoljno stanište za život čovjeka, peripanonski pojas je naseljen još od
najranijih perioda. Danas su značajne površine šuma ovog pejzaža pretvorene u
agroekosisteme:
lEkosistemi obradivih površina (žitarica i povrtlarskih kultura);
lEkosistemi voćnjaka;
lEkosistemi napuštenih staništa uz puteve i ljudska naselja;
lUrbani i ruralni ekosistemi.
Većina naselja peripanonskog pejzaža (Če-
lić, Maoča, Srebrenik, Gradačac, Derven-
ta, Banja Luka, te donje Pounje na sjever-
ozapadu) je ušorenog tipa, sa veoma uređ-
enim dvorištima i gazdinskom infrast-
rukturom, te sa brojnim spomenicima ma-
terijalne i duhovne kulture.
Peripanonski prostor ima izuzetno
povoljne uslove za razvoj održivog
voćarstva, pa je ovaj dio Bosne i Herceg-
ovine poznat po kvalitetnim i raznovrs-
nim šljivama (Gradačački sajam šljive), do-
maćim sortama jabuka (šarenika, se-
nabija, golubača, kromp-iruša), kruškama
(takiša, karamut, ječme-nka, kantaruša, je-
ribasma), trešnjama (hašlame, bjelice, cr-
nice, hruštovi, alice), dunjama, orasima,
mušmulama, dudovima i cvjetnim ba-
štama sa đulhatmama, ruticama, ši-
mširom, đubešećerkama, zambacima, ka-
dificama, latificama, bosiokom, mi-
loduhom, alkatmerima, minđušicama, ak-
šamom, kandiljima, đurđinima, carevim
okom, nevenom, šebojem, kasumpašom,
pajasminom. Na ovaj prostor su introd-
ucirane i brojne hortikulturne vrste (p-
etunije, lobelije, zvjezdani, žalfije, ma-
ćuhice, zijevalice, jaglaci). Hortikulturne
vrste zajedno sa očuvanim biljnim geneti-
čkim resursima, sadržanim u raznim vr-
stama mahunarki, žitarica, sljezova, po-
moćnica, kupusnjača, glavočika, voćnih bi-
ljaka, te autohtonim vrstama drveća, pred-
stavljaju značajan genofond u biodiverz-
itetu peripanonskih pejzaža i cijele Bosne i
Hercegovine.
Na dinamičnijem karbonatnom reljefu,
prema brdskom pojasu u zoni prostranih
šuma cera i kitnjaka i šuma srebrne lipe i
kitnjaka, diskontinuirano se pojavljuju
ekosistemi crnograbovih i crnojasenovih
šuma i šibljaka (padine Starog grada Sreb-
renika, okolina Banje Luke, sjeverne pa-
dine Motajice i sjeverozapadni dijelovi Ko-
zare).
Posebno vrijedne ambijentalne cjeline či-
ne tvrđave starih gradova (Srebrenik, Gr-
adačac, Derventa, Doboj, Tešanj, Maglaj,
Banja Luka i Dubica), na čijim zidinama je
razvijena posebna flora, fauna i veget-
acija. Stare bosanske zidine su poznato st-
anište endemične bosanske zvončike, te
zlatne paprati, sveznice, žednjaka, ta-
mjanolikog vrisića i slatke paprati. Ove cje-
line čine važne elemente dinamike perip-
anonskih pejzaža.
Posebno ugrožene vrste u ovim pejzažima
su koštrika (Ruscus aculeatus) i veprina (R-
uscus hypoglossum), čije se cijele populacije
uništavaju radi korištenja u dekorativne
svrhe.
Pritisci na ekosisteme peripanonskih pejzaža
Usljed visoke stope naseljenosti peripanonski pejzaži su izloženi jakim antropogenim
uticajima koji predstavljaju ozbiljne prijetnje njihovoj strukturi. Najdominantniji pritis-
ci su:
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t Ecosystems of hygro-mesophilous meadows with tufed hair-grass;
t Ecosystems of acidophilous meadows with bentgrass and fescue;
t Ecosystems of thermophilous meadows with brome.
Te peri-pannonian belt has been inhabitated from the beginning, since it provides an out-
standing conditions for human settlements. Today, substantial woodland area is converted
into agricultural ecosystems:
t Ecosystems of arable land (cereals and gardening cultures);
t Ecosystems of fruit-gardens;
t Ecosystems of abandoned habitats along roads and settlements;
t Urban and rural ecosystems.
Most of the settlements in peri-pannonian
landscapes (Čelić, Maoča, Srebrenik, Gra-
dačac, Derventa, Banja Luka, and lower
Pounje in northwest) are with neatly ar-
ranged yards, settled household’s infra-
structure and monuments of material and
spiritual culture.
This area offers excellent conditions for sus-
tainable fruit-gardening, by which it is fa-
mous. Here are some examples: high qual-
ity plums (the Gradačac’s fair of plums),
indigenous apple sorts (šarenika, senabi-
ja, golubača, krompiruša), pears (takiša,
karamut, ječmenka, kantaruša, jeribasma),
cherries (hašlame, bjelice, crnice, hruštovi,
alice), quinces, wallnuts, cotoneaster, mul-
berries. Besides, addressed should be gar-
dens in blossom with hollyhock, common
rue, common box, rose called đubešećerka,
lilies, marigold, basil, lovage, fuchsia, eve-
ning primerose, tsar’s eye, calendula, wen-
lock beauty, mock orange. Many horticul-
tural species were introduced (petunia,
lobelia, aster, sage, violet, figwort, primer-
ose). Hence, the gen pool of peri-panoni-
an landscapes in Bosnia and Herzegovina
comprises horticultural species and herbal
genetic resources contained in species be-
longing to legume family, cereals, mallow
family, nightshade family, mustard fam-
ily, composite family, fruits and indigenous
tree species.
On more dynamic carbonate relief, in the
broad zone of woodland with turkey and
sessile oak, and woodland with silver linden
and sessile oak, scattered are fragments of
woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam and
f lowering ash (slopes of the old city Srebre-
nik, surrounding of Banja Luka, northern
slopes of Motajica Mt. and northwestern
Kozara Mt.).
Fortresses of old cities (Srebrenik, Gradačac,
Derventa, Doboj, Tešanj, Maglaj, Banja Luka
and Dubica) build unique ambiental com-
plexes with walls that are inhabited by spe-
cific f lora, fauna and vegetation. Those an-
cient walls are well known finding place of
bosnian bellf lower, rustyback, stonecrops,
Micromeria thymifolia and polypodi. These
ambiental units are important segments of
the peri-pannonian landscape.
Herein, should be addressed endangered spe-
cies of which most important are butcher’s
broom (Ruscus aculeatus) and Ruscus hyppo-
glosum. Te entire populations of them are
being completely destroyed for ornamental
purposes.
Pressures onto peri-pannonian landscapes
Due to high population density, the peri-pannonian landscapes are exposed to tremen-
dous anthropogenic impact that seriously endanger their structure.
Te most dominant impacts are:
lPrekomjerna sječa (posebno plemenitih lišćara, kao što je divlja trešnja), čime su
direktno ugrožene različite vrste ptica i sitna divljač;
lEksploatacija privredno važnih vrsta (ljekovitog i dekorativnog bilja);
lNestručno otvaranje kamenoloma;
lNekontrolisano deponovanje otpada;
lIntenzivni procesi urbanizacije i nekontrolisane urbanizacije;
lIzgradnja putne komunikacije i infrastrukture;
lNekontrolisana upotreba pesticida i fertilizatora;
lEmisija polutanata u sve životne sfere;
lNeselektivno kaptiranje prirodnih izvora;
lIntenzivna invazija alohtonih vrsta biljaka, životinja i genetički modificiranih
organizama;
lPeriodične poplave, a naročito tokom vlažnijeg dijela godine;
lInvazija i održavanje brojnih patogenih bakterija, virusa i gljivica (uzročnici šarke,
kilavosti kupusa, virusne bolesti pomočnica).
Dio peripanonskih pejzaža su i izvori termalnih i mineralnih voda (Gradačac, Tešanj,
Maglaj, Teslić, Banja Luka, Laktaši) koji predstavljaju poseban potencijal za razvoj zd-
ravstvenog, edukacijskog i rekreativnog turizma.
PANONSKI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
„Na krajnjem sjeveru Bosne, gdje utihnu i na-
jjači planinski vjetrovi, gdje se dinamični i vr-
letni reljef dinarskih planina stopi sa nepreg-
lednom ravnicom, kroz koju, poput pletenica
najljepše djevojke Bosanke, protiče Sava rijeka
u čijim tišinama trepere sjene vrba, topola, polj-
skog jasena, čije razrasle krošnje kriju tajne sr-
ca usplahirenih na mjesečevom sjaju, tamo gd-
je zriju šljive plavlje i od mora sinjega, a klasa
žito zlatnije i od zlata suhoga, je Bosanska Po-
savina. Pružila se ispod Kozare planine na za-
padu i udarila u zanosnu Unu, pa ispod Pro-
sare planine sve do Save moćne, pa do u Donje
Povrbasje u susret Lijevče polju, pa ispod Mo-
tajice čije padine je još više priljubiše rijeci
Savi pa ispod Vučijaka i Trebovca gdje isprati
rijeku Bosnu svom utočištu, a onda kao da
osnaži, dobi krila moćna i razvuče ih najšire
što može, od zanosne Majevice i duboke Save. I
tako nepreglednom Semberijom, eto je sve do
neustrašive Drine, koja sva odvažna kroz sjene
bijelih vrba i još bjeljih topola, svoje bisere da-
rova još moćnijoj rijeci Savi.“ (Navod iz TV
emisije „Prirodna baština BiH“)
Bosanska Posavina zauzima najniže po-
ložaje (100 do 200 m nadmorske visine). Te-
reni su manje-više zaravnjeni, na dubok-
im aluvijalnim tlima, pseudogleju i prahu-
lji, na staništa sa visokim nivoom po-
dzemne vode. Klima je kontinentalnog ti-
pa. Topla ljeta, duboka hidromorfna i au-
tomorfna tla, blagi reljef i hidro-geološka
prošlost su uslovili razvoj specifičnog ži-
vog svijeta koji danas izgrađuje panonske
pejzaže. Na ravničarskim pejzažima
sjevernog dijela Bosne danas dominiraju
nepregledna žitna polja, kukuruzišta,
polja bostana, raznog povrća i voća, šume
vrba, topola, lužnjaka, jasena, posavski
bagremari, ušorena naselja, arteški bu-
nari i bogomolje.
Panonski pejzaži se diferenciraju na više
različitih ekosistema:
lekosistemi šuma vrbe i topole u priobalnom pojasu rijeke Save i njenih većih pritoka;
lekosistemi poljskog jasena i drijemovca;
lekosistemi crne johe sa šaševima, krušinom i poljskim jasenom, te lužnjakom;
lekosistemi šibljaka rakite i košaraste vrbe;
lekosistemi šibljaka amorfe i niske šume bagrema;
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t Excessively felling (especially of fne deciduous trees, such as wild cherry), which di-
rectly endangers diferent kind of birds and small game species;
t Exploitation of economically important species (medicinal and ornamental plants);
t Unprofessional opening of quarries;
t Uncontrolled waste disposal;
t Intensive and uncontrolled urbanisation;
t Construction of trafc communication network and accompanying infrastructure;
t Uncontrolled use of pesticides and fertilisers;
t Pollutants emission in all spheres of life;
t Unselected catchment of springs;
t Massive introduction of alochthonous plant and animal species, and GMOs;
t Periodical foodings, especially in more humid seasons;
t Invasion and maintenance of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, yeats (agents of check , dull-
ness of cabbage, virus diseases in plants from nightshade family).
Te peri-pannonian landscapes involve many thermal and mineral springs (Gradačac,
Tešanj, Maglaj, Teslić, Banja Luka, Laktaši) which are huge potential for medicinal, edu-
cational and recreational tourism.
PANNONIAN LANDSCAPES OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
“In the utter northern Bosnia, even the stron-
gest winds become silent. Tis is the place where
dynamic and clify relief of Dinaric mountains
merges with vast plane through which runs Sava
river looking like braids of most beautiful bos-
nian girl. In its silence shiver the shadows of
willows and poplars whose crowns conceal the
secrets of anxious hearts trembling in the moon-
light. Tis is the place where ripe plums more
blue than a sea and undulate ears of golden
corn, more golden than true gold. Tis is Bo-
sanska Posavina. It extends from beneath Ko-
zara Mt. in the West, then it meets lovely Una
river and goes, under Prosara Mt., all the way
to mighty Sava river. Ten it gets to Donje Pod-
vrbasje rushing right afer that to Lijevče polje
and turns beneath Motajica Mt. whose slopes
press it even more against Sava river. It sees of
Bosna river toward its shelter at Vučijak and
Trebovac, whereas it gets stonger and as if it had
wings stretches them as wide as possible, from
Majevica Mt. to deep Sava river. Tus, through
vast Semberija it gets to daring Drina river that,
under the white willow and silver leaved poplar
trees, hands over all of its pearls to mighty Sava.“
(quoted from TV show “Prirodna baština BiH“)
Te pannonian area of Bosnia and Herze-
govina takes the lowest positions (between
100 and 200 m above sea level). Te ground is
more or less fatened with deep alluvial kind
of soils, pseudo-gley and moulder, and high
water table. Te climate is continental.
Warm summers, deep hydromorphous or
automorphous soil, douce relief and hydro-
geological past enabled the emergence of
very specifc wildlife of the pannonian land-
scapes. Plain landscapes of northern Bosnia
are dominated by vast felds covered by ce-
reals, maize, watermelons, diferent sorts of
vegetables and fruits, forests of willow, pop-
lar, common oak, ash, robinia, then settle-
ments, artesian wells and houses of worship.
Te pannonian landscapes are diferentiated
in several ecosystems:
t Ecosystems of woods with willow and poplar along riversides of Sava river and its tributaries;
t Ecosystems with Fraxinus angustifolius and summer snowfake;
t Ecosystems with alder and sedges, then alder buckthorn and Fraxinus angustifolius, and common oak;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with purpule and basket willow;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with desert indigo and low forests with robinia;
lekosistemi lužnjaka i žutilovke;
lekosistemi lužnjaka i običnog graba sa koštrikom;
lekosistemi lužnjaka sa srebrnom lipom;
lekosistemi panonske bukve sa veprinom;
lekosistemi vodoljubivih i eutrofilnih livada;
lekosistemi vodoljubivih livada beskoljenke i busike;
lekosistemi vodenjara šašika i trstika;
lekosistemi uz obale slatkih voda.
Kako su u prošlosti primarni ekosistemi najvećim dijelom zamijenjeni ekosistemima ni-
žeg stepena ekološke integracije, najveći dio panonskih pejzaža danas čine:
lEkosistemi obradivih površina;
lRuralni ekosistemi;
lEkosistemi urbanih površina.
Navedeni tipovi ekosistema danas čine do-
minantnu fizionomiju bosanske Panonije.
Najviši stepen produkcije unutar ovih
ekosistema postižu različite vrste žitarica
(pšenice, kukuruza, ječma, zobi, sirka),
povrtlarske kulture (lubenice, bamija,
suncokret, paprike, paradajz, patlidžan,
razne vrste kupusa), biljni genetički re-
sursi (šljive „požegače“, orasi, kruške, ja-
buke, grožđe), te obilje hortikulturnih vr-
sta koje upotpunjuje pejzaže bosanske Po-
savine.
Ruralni ekosistemi su razvijeni u živopis-
nim naseljima ušorenog tipa, sa veoma
uređenim okolnim zemljištem i poljo-
privrednim gazdinstvima. Sličnu struk-
turu imaju i stari urbani centri: Bijeljina,
riječna luka Brčko, Šamac, Brod, Srbac i
Dubica. Ruderalni ekosistemi su takođe ra-
zvijeni uz nasipe i veće kanale, a u njima
dominiraju zajednice sa vratićem, cigans-
kim perjem, kozjim zubom, uskolisnom
nanom, bokvicama i maslačkom.
Pratioci obradivih površina su i brojne ko-
rovske zajednice, u čiji sastav sve češće
ulaze adventivne invazivne vrste.
Šumske i šibljačke zajednice na području
Posavine osnovnu funkciju imaju u očuv-
anju stabilnosti korita vodotoka, (posebno
rijeke Save) i u osiguranju vodnog režima
u ovim ekološki veoma senzitivnim zeml-
jištima. Međutim poseban značaj močv-
arni šumski ekosistemi imaju kao stanište
mnogih vrsta ptica, gmizavaca i vodoz-
emaca.
Zajednice vodenjara, bara i močvara su ra-
zvijene u cijelom području, naročito u sli-
jepim rukavcima površinskih vodotoka
(„starača“). Danas predstavljaju izuzetno
bitna staništa za očuvanje živog svijeta
močvara.
U ekosistemima livada Posavine utočište
nalaze mnoge biljne vrste koje zbog stal-
nih promjena vodnog režima postaju sve
ranjivije. Takve su: prženica livadska,
prženica mala, beskoljenka, busika, mili-
ca, grozničnica, trbulja, pukovica, barski
srčanik, razne vrste ljutića, barskih pres-
lica, šiljeva, šaševa.
Poplave, do kojih u području Posavine
često dolazi, uzrokuju promjene u struk-
turi zemljišta, smanjenje prinosa poljo-
privrednih kultura, ugrožavanje stam-
benih naselja, mijenjanje površinskih
vodotoka, i promjene u vodnom režimu
podzemnih voda. Kao jedan od najint-
enzivnijih faktora u ovom području, po-
plave značajno mijenjaju kvalitet staništa i
sliku živog svijeta.
Poplavna voda sadrži visoke količine nu-
trijenata, što dovodi do nitrifikacije ze-
mljišta i podzemnih voda. Promjene pH
vrijednosti koje usljed toga nastaju uzrok-
uju nestanak acidifilnih vrsta biljaka i pe-
dofaune. Poplave su i jedan od domin-
antnih faktora u širenju invazivnih vrsta.
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t Ecosystems with common oak and dyer’s broom;
t Ecosystems with common oak, hornbeam and butcher’s broom;
t Ecosystems with common oak and silver linden;
t Ecosystems with pannonian beech and Ruscus hypoglossum;
t Ecosystems of hygrophilous and eutrophic meadows;
t Ecosystems of hygrophilous meadows with moorgrass and tufed hairgrass;
t Ecosystems of standing water with sedges and reed;
t Ecosystems in coastal belt of freshwater.
Since many primary ecosystems in the past were replaced by less integrated ecosystems,
among pannonian landscapes now prevail:
t Ecosystems of arable land;
t Rural ecosystems;
t Ecosystems in urban areas.
Te latter ones determine the physiognomy
of the Pannonian area in Bosnia as it is to-
day. Te highest yield is achieved by diferent
crops (wheat, maize, barley, oat and john-
son-grass), then cultivated vegetables (water-
melon, gombo, sunfower, paprika, tomato,
aubergine, diferent sorts of cabbage), herbal
genetic resources (plums called “požegače“,
wallnuts, pears, apples, grapes) and a lot of
horticultural species.
Te rural ecosystems are vivid settlements
with neatly arranged land and agricultural
households around them. Te similar struc-
ture is typical for old urban centres, such as
Bijeljina, river-harbour Brčko, Šamac, Brod,
Srbac and Dubica. Along trenches and dams
emerge ruderal ecosystems with clear domi-
nance of the communities with common
milkweed, goat’s tooth, narrow-leaved mint,
plantains and dandelion. Te accompanying
plant communities of arable land are weed
communities with many adventive and inva-
sive species.
Forest and shrub communities on the ter-
ritory of Posavina exercise protective func-
tion in terms of maintenance the riverbed
stability (especially along Sava river) which
is managed through well balanced water re-
gime in the highly sensitive soil. However,
the wetland woods are important as a habitat
of various birds, reptiles and amphibians.
In the entire area, in dead armlets called
“starače“, emerge communities of standing
water, ponds and marshes. Today, these are
very important habitats from the aspect of
wildlife protection in wetlands.
Te grassland ecosystems of Posavina pro-
vide shelter for plant species which are more
endangered every day because of continual
changes in water regime. Such is the case
with: feld scabious, small scabious, moor-
grass, tufed hairgrass, chamomile, marsh
gentian, diverse buttercups, marsh horsetail,
rushes, sedges.
Frequently occuring foodings cause chang-
es in soil structure, decrease in crops yield,
threatening of populated area, re-direction
of surface streams, changes in water regime
of underground water. Floodings are domi-
nant factor in this area which substantially
change the quality of habitats and image of
living world.
Water that foods the area contains high con-
centration of nutrients which results in the
nitrifcation of soil and underground water.
As a result of changed pH value, disappear
acidophylous plant species and related pe-
dofauna. Alien species are being spread by
Na ovaj način su se na prostor bosanske Pa-
nonije naselile i vrste kao Ehinocistis lobata,
Amorfa fruticosa, nekoliko vrsta dvozuba,
štirovi i brojne druge korovske vrste. S cilj-
em sprečavanja poplava uz Savu su podi-
gnuti visoki nasipi koji su značajno pro-
mijenili prirodni izgled ovih ambijenta-
lnih cjelina.
Poseban prirodni resurs posavskog pro-
stora predstavljaju podzemne vode, blago
od neprocjenjive vrijednosti. Većina pov-
ršinskih voda koje služe za vodosna-
bdijevanje, su niske upotrebne vrijedno-
sti.
Pritisci na ekosisteme panonskih pejzaža
Pored globalnih (klimatske promjene,
prekogranično zagađenje), najznačajniji
pritisci na lokalnom nivou koji predsta-
vljaju ozbiljne prijetnje stabilnosti ovih
ekosistema su:
lMelioracije u području hidromorfnih zemljišta;
lPrekomjerna eksploatacija pijeska i šljunka na aluvijumima uz obale rijeke Save te
ušće rijeke Drine;
lPoplave;
lToksikacija drenažnih voda pesticidima i fertilizatorima;
lStalna eutrofikacija površinskih voda;
lNeuravnotežena urbanizacija kroz konverziju poljoprivrednih u građevinska ze-
mljišta;
lNekontrolirani izlov ribe iz većih vodotoka;
lDeponovanje smeća (svih vrsta otpada uključujići i štetni i opasni otpad) na obalama
vodotoka;
lIntenzivna invazija mnogih alohtonih vrsta biljaka i životinja;
lPojava novih patogena (uzročnici bakterioza, viroza i mikoza na vitalnim
poljoprivrednim kulturama);
lUzgoj vještačkih šuma vrsta;
lNedostatak monitoringa nad genetički modificiranim organizmima.
Brdski pejzaži (Maglaj)
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Hilly landscapes (Maglaj)
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foodings, too. In that way, the Pannonian
area of Bosnia got invaded by Echinocistis
lobata, Amorfa fruticosa, and few Bidens
species, then pigweeds and other weeds. In
order to prevent foodings, along Sava river
constructed were huge dikes that changed
natural appearance of these ambiental units.
Special natural resource in this area is un-
derground water, a priceless treasure. Sur-
face water, which is with low value, is mainly
being used for water-supplies.
Pressures on ecosystems of the pannonian landscapes
Apart from global threats (climate changes, transboundary pollution), the most signif-
cant threats at local scale are:
t Melioration of hydromorphous soil;
t Over-extraction of sand and gravel on the alluvial terrain along Sava river and at Drina
river’s estuary;
t Floodings;
t Toxifcation of drainage water with pesticides and fertilisers;
t Continual eutrophication of surface water;
t Unbalanced urbanisation through the conversion of arable land into construction
sites;
t Uncontrolled fshing on larger streams;
t Waste disposal (of all kind, including toxic and dangerous one) along riverbanks;
t Massive invasion of alochthonous plants and animals;
t Appearance of new pathogens (agents for bacterial, viral and fungal infections on main
crops);
t Planting of artifcial forests;
t Lack of monitoring of GMOs.
SPECIFIC LANDSCAPES OF
BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA
Poseban pečat unikatnosti i neponov-
ljivosti bosansko-hercegovačkom pro-
storu daju ekosistemi planinskih pejzaža
sa visokim diverzitetom bioloških formi i
tipova staništa. Karakteristični za visoke
pl ani ne bosansko- hercegovački h
Dinarida, ovi pejzaži na vertikalnom
profilu zauzimaj u pretplaninski i
planinski pojas (od 1.600 m do najviših
vrhova planina).
Staništa su sa dinamičnim reljefom,
razvijena na strmim padinama, u
planinskim vrtačama, depresijama, na
točilima, sa karbonatnom i silikatnom
geološkom podlogom i plićim humusno-
akumulativnim tlima.
Klima je tipična planinska, sa većom
količinom snježnih padavina, jakim
planinskim vjetrovima i izraženim
t e mpe r a t ur ni m e ks t r e mi ma . U
planinskim depresijama, u kojima se na
nekim mjestima snijeg zadržava i tokom
čitave godine vlada izmijenjena nivalna
ekoklima.
Uprkos sličnim ekološkim uslovima
većina planinskih masiva na bosansko-
VISOKOPLANINSKI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
DIVERZITET EKOSISTEMA VISOKOPLANINSKIH
PEJZAŽA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
hercegovačkim Dinaridima se odlikuje
specifičnostima i unikatnošću živog
svijeta. Svaki od masiva, poput zasebnog
ostrva u moru nekada užarene dinarske
mase pretrpio je vlastite obrasce razvoja i
oblikovanja, te vlastite specifičnosti
naseljavanja živog svijeta. Rezultat ovih
procesa su visok stepen endemičnosti i
reliktnosti, s j edne i međusobne
različitosti, s druge strane.
Visokoplaninski pejzaži izdiferencirani su
u zasebne biogeografske i biološko-
ekološke cjeline. Iako čitav prostor
pripada alpsko-visokonordijskoj regiji,
odnosno visokodinarskoj provinciji, idući
od sjeverozapada prema jugoistoku
pojedini planinski masivi izdiferencirani
su u 10 zasebnih sektora.
Sektori ilustruju bogatstvo živog svijeta,
procese specijacije i endemogeneze,
recentne evolucije, kao i geomorfološko-
ekol ošku raznol i kost . Di verzi t et
planinskih pejzaža je od posebne važnosti
u cjelokupnom biodiverzitetu Bosne i
Hercegovine. Planinski pejzaži u Bosni i
Hercegovini u fizionomskom pogledu se
diferenciraju u dvije cjeline:
lPretplaninski pojas, koji obuhvata niske šume i klekovinu planinskog bora;
lPlaninski pojas iznad klekovine bora (gornje granice šume na bosansko-
hercegovačkim Dinaridima) pod prostranstvima visokoplaninskih rudina,
planinske tundre i diskontinuirane subnivalne vegetacije oko snježanika.
U okviru pretplaninskog, odnosno subalpinskog pojasa dominiraju pejzaži koji se
diferenciraju na sljedeće ekosisteme:
lEkosistemi pretplaninskih šuma ilirske bukve i planinskog javora;
lEkosistemi acidifilnih šuma ilirske bukve i jarebike;
lEkosistemi acidifilnih šuma mezijske bukve i bekice;
lEkosistemi pretplanskih šuma mezijske bukve i grčkog javora;
lEkosistemi pretplaninskih šuma smrče;
lEkosistemi pretplaninskih šuma istočnobosanske omorike;
lEkosistemi klekovine bora sa borovnicom;
lEkosistemi klekovine bora sa dvocvjetnom ljubičicom,
lEkosistemi klekovine bora sa pretplaninskom smrčom i jarebikom;
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81
HIGH MOUNTAIN LANDSCAPES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
ECOSYSTEMS DIVERSITY OF HIGH MOUNTAIN LANDSCAPES
IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
The territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina
is so unique and special because of the
mountain landscapes that comprise high
diversity of biological forms and habitat
types. These ecosystems characterize all
high mountains belonging to Dinaric Alps
in Bosnia and Herzegovina taking place in
the sub-alpine and alpine belt on vertical
profile (from 1.600 m to the highest moun-
tain peaks).
The relief here is highly dynamic with
habitats occuring on steep slopes, in the
sinkholes, depressions, on carbonate and
silicate screes, with shallow humu-accu-
mulative soil.
The climate is typical mountainous one
with plenty of snow, strong mountain winds
and protruding temperature extremes. At
the bottom of mountain depressions in
some places snow is being kept over entire
year, hence, there is even modified nival
type of climate.
Although the ecological conditions on ma-
jor part of mountains in Bosnia and Her-
zegovina are similar, the living world pos-
seses certain specificities and uniqueness.
Each of the mountains was some kind of
insulated island in the sea of melted lava
and has been through its own development
patterns and evolution of living world. The
final result of those processes are high en-
demism and relictness level, on one side,
and on the other differences.
High mountain landscapes are differenti-
ated in separate biogeographic and bio-
ecological units. The entire area belongs to
the Alpine-Highnordic region, respectively
highdinaric province. From northwest to
southeast there are 10 sectors in which the
mountains are differentiated.
These sectors ref lect the richness of wild
life, processes of speciation and endemo-
genesis, ongoing evolution, as well as the
geo-morphologic and ecologic diversity.
The diversity of mountain landscapes is of
great importance for the entire biodiversity
in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The mountain
landscapes in Bosnia and Herzegovina re-
garding physiognomy differentiate in two
major units:
t Sub-alpine belt comprising low woodland and mountain pine woods;
t Alpine belt above mountain pine woods (upper forest line of the Dinaric Alps in Bosnia
and Herzegovina) which is vast space of alpine grassland, mountain tundra and fragment-
ed sub-nival vegetation around snow patches.
In the sub-alpine belt prevail the landscapes diferentiated in following ecosystems:
t Ecosystems of sub-alpine woods with illyrian beech and sycomore;
t Ecosystems of acidophilous woods with illyrian beech and european mountainash;
t Ecosystems of acidophilous woods with moesian beech and melicgrasss;
t Ecosystems of sub-alpine woods with moesian beech and greek maple;
t Ecosystems of sub-alpine spruce woods;
t Ecosystems of sub-alpine Serbian spruce woods;
t Ecosystems with mountain pine and blue berry;
t Ecosystems with mountain pine and twofower violet,
t Ecosystema with mountain pine and sub-alpine spruce and european mountainash;
t Ecosystems with mounatin pine and yellow gentian;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with Genista radiata;
lEkosistemi klekovine bora sa lincurom;
lEkosistemi šibljaka omelike;
lEkosistemi šibljaka omelike sa mlivnjakom;
lEkosistemi planinske smrekovine;
lEkosistemi klekovine bora i alpske ruže;
lEkosistemi šibljaka planinske vrbe (S. silesiaca);
lEkosistemi šibljaka zelene johe na silikatnom masivu Vranice;
lEkosistemi pretplaninskih šuma munike.
Iznad gornje granice šumske vegetacije je pojas sa tipičnim planinskim pejzažima koji
obuhvataju sljedeće ekosisteme:
lEkosistemi planinskih rudina na bazičnim zemljištima sa elinom i šašikama;
lEkosistemi planinskih rudina na kiselim zemljištima sa planinskim šašom i
planinskom sitom;
lEkosistemi oko snježanika na bazičnim zemljištima sa planinskom vrbom;
lEkosistemi oko snježanika na kiselim zemljištima sa bijelim ljutićem;
lEkosistemi planinskih točila na karbonatima;
lEkosistemi planinskih točila na silikatnim stijenama;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama karbonatnih stijena;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama silikatnih stijena;
lEkosistemi sa lišajevima na karbonatnoj i silikatnoj podlozi.
Usljed izraženih degradacionih procesa u
pojasu klekovine i pretplaninskih šuma,
planinska vegetacija danas ulazi i u sastav
ekosistema pretplaninskih rudina. I
planinska točila se ispod vrhova planina
često spuštaju i u pretplaninsko područje
zajedno sa vegetacijom u pukotinama
stijena.
Posebna obilježja planinskim pejzažima
daju ekosistemi pretplaninskih izvora i
potoka, ekosistemi planinskih jezera i
ekosistemi planinskih cretova. Njihova
pojava vezana je uz dinamiku hidrološke
mreže, geološke podloge i tipova
zemljišta.
Zasebnu ekološku cjelinu čini vegetacija
niskih grmova. U sastav planinskih
vriština, koje ostvaruju kontinuitet
između šumskih i nešumskih ekosistema
ul azi naj zdravi j e pl ani nsko voće
(borovnice, brusnice, mlivnjak i planinska
maginja).
Planinski pejzaži sa obiljem zdrave
planinske hrane su područje intenzivnog
stočarstva od prošlosti do danas. Naša
planinska staništa su naročito pogodna za
produktivno ovčarstvo. I danas se na
Vlašiću, Vranici, Cincaru, Vitorogu,
Bjelašnici, Zelengori, te Magliću i
Volujaku nalaze bogata stada ovaca
pramenki, a na nekim planinama i stada
bosanskih krava i konja.
Za planinske pejzaže Bosne i Hercegovine
karakteristični su lj etnj i stanovi,
takozvani „katuni“. To su niske planinske
drvene ili kamene kolibe u kojima se
tokom ljeta prave čuveni sirevi, kajmak i
drugi mliječni proizvodi. Uz domaćinske
nastambe nalaze se i otvoreni torovi za
čuvanje stoke tokom noći. Uz katunska
naselja, inače građena na velikim
nadmorskim visinama (1.640 m Vranica,
1.700 m Maglić) razvijaju se i posebni
ekosistemi u čiji sastav ulaze i uglavnom
nitrofilne vrste biljaka (planinska kiselica,
brašnjenik, čemerika bijela, kopriva).
Ekosistemi planinskih pejzaža sadrže više
od jedne trećine vrsta flore Bosne i
Hercegovine, od koj ih su mnoge
endemičnog i reliktnog karaktera. Mnoge
od vrsta imaju ljekovita, aromatična,
jestiva i medonosna svojstva, pa su se od
davnina koristile u tradicionalnoj
et not erapi j i i pri rodnoj i shrani .
Najpoznatije od ovih vrsta su: borovnica,
brusnica, medvjedka, planinski vrisić,
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t Ecosystems of shrubs with Genista radiata and alpine bearberry;
t Ecosystems with mountain juniper;
t Ecosystems with mountain pine and rhododendron;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with silesian willow (S. silesiaca);
t Ecosystems of shrubs with green alder on silicate bedrock of Vranica Mt.;
t Ecosystems of sub-alpine woods with white-bark pine.
Above upper forest line stretches the belt with typical mountain landscapes that comprises
following ecosystems:
t Ecosystems of alpine grassland on alkaline ground with elyna and sedges;
t Ecosystems of alpine grassland on acid ground with sedge and rush;
t Ecosystems around snow patches on alkaline ground with silesian willow;
t Ecosystems around snow patches on acid ground with white buttercup;
t Ecosystems of alpine screes on carbonate bedrock;
t Ecosystems of alpine screes on silicate bedrock;
t Ecosystems of carbonate rock crevices;
t Ecosystems of silicate rock crevices;
t Ecosystems with lichens on both carbonate and silicate bedrock.
Due to intensive degradation of mountain
pine woodland and sub-alpine woods, the
mountain vegetation often constitutes the
ecosystems of sub-alpine grassland. The
sub-alpine area is frequently reached by
alpine screes and vegetation of rock crev-
ices.
The mountain landscapes are character-
ized by the ecosystems occuring around
sub-alpine springs and rivulets, ecosystems
around mountain lakes and ecosystems of
raised bogs. Their occurence is bound to
dynamic of hydrologic network, geologic
foundation and soil types.
The vegetation of low shrubs is considered
to be a special ecological complex. The
mountain heaths as a connection between
forest and non-forest ecosystems encom-
pass some healthy mountain fruits (blue
berry, red whortelberry, alpine bearberry).
The mountain landscapes ensure plenty of
healthy food which is the reason for them
to be known since ever as a cattle breeding
region. Our mountain areas suit the best
to sheep breeding. There stil can be seen
sheep herds on mountains Vlašić, Vrani-
ca, Cincar, Vitorog, Bjelašnica, Zelengora,
Maglić and Volujak, on some mountains
occur herds of cows and horses.
For the mountain landscapes in Bosnia and
Herzegovina typical are summer cottages
called “katuni“. They are small cottages
made of wood or stone in which are being
made famous chees, cream and other milk
products in summer. Right by the dwell-
ings settled are open sheepfolds where the
cattle is being kept over night. Close to
these settlements which are to be found at
high altitude (at 1.640 m on Vranica Mt.
and at 1.700 m on Maglić Mt.) develop spe-
cial ecosystem types composed of mainly
nitrophilous plant species (alpine dock,
good king Henry, white hellebore, nettle).
The ecosystems of mountain landscapes
comprise more than one third of f lora
of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many of the
plants are endemic and relict, whereby
some posses medicinal, aromatic, edible
and honey-producing features. That is why
they have been used in traditional eth-
notherapy and natural nutrition. Best re-
nowned are: blue berry, red whortelberry,
bearberry, germander, thyme, mountain
pine, mountain violet and widely known
razne vrste majčine dušice, planinski bor,
planinska ljubičica, brđanka ili moravka i
nadaleko poznata, a danas ugrožena,
bosanska lincura. Iako je odavno na
crvenim listama, sa svojim preostalim
populacijama ova vrsta danas služi kao
REFUGIJUMI GLACIJALNE FLORE I FAUNE
Kao rezultat procesa glacijacije, kojim su
bi l i z a hva ć e ni vr hovi vi s oki h
bosanskohercegovačkih masiva, pojedine
dijelove (cirkovi) danas naseljavaju biljne i
životinjske vrste čiji su najbliži srodnici u
borealnom pojasu sjeverne hemisfere.
Glacijalni relikti, kao ostaci nekada
bogatije glacijalne flore i faune, danas su
ograničeni na refugijalna staništa ili
utočišta. Najočuvanija staništa glacijalne
flore, faune i vegetacije su snježanici, u
kojima se na bosanskohercegovačkim
p l a n i n a ma r a z l i k u j e d e s e t a k
endemoreliktnih životnih zajednica sa
većim brojem vrsta biljaka i životinja.
Glacijalni refugijumi, kao razvojni centri
endemične i glacijalno-reliktne flore i
f aune, zaj edno sa ref ugi j umi ma
tercijernog živog svijeta u kanjonima
naših rijeka predstavljaju najvrednije
bl ago, prema koj em se Bosna i
Hercegovina uvrštava u grupu zemalja
najvišeg stepena biodiverziteta na
prostoru Evrope.
Ekosistemi planinskih rudina
Planinski vegetacijski pojas, unutar kojeg
su razvijeni ekosistemi planinskih rudina,
na planinama BiH se javlja iznad 2.000 m
nadmorske visine, iznad krajnje granice
šumske vegetacije. Kako se na mnogim
masivima u BiH pojas šumske vegetacije
često penje i do samih vrhova, planinske
rudine su kod nas slabo zastupljene. S
druge strane, ekološki uslovi, specifičan
sastav vrsta i diverzitet zajednica na
mnogim masivima ukazuju na prisustvo
tipičnih oblika planinskih livada.
Planinske rudine na karbonatima se
razvij aj u na krečnj ako-dolomitnoj
geološkoj podlozi. Zemljišta su planinske
crnice zvane “buavice” koje još imaju
dosta nerazloženog humusa. To su tipični
organogeni kalkomelanosoli. Osim toga,
na rastresitom krečnjačko-dolomitnom
supstratu razvijene su rendzine, dubine
do 20-25 cm. Kako su ova staništa često
izložena djelovanju snažnih planinskih
vjetrova, zemljišta su često sa veoma
degradiranim humusno-akumulativnim
horizontom. Ovdje vladaju ekstremni
ekološki uslovi (srednj e godišnj e
temperature niže od 4° C, apsolutne
minimalne i do – 30 °C, intenzivan vjetar,
obilje snježnih padavina, te veliki broj
dana sa mrazom), pa vegetacijski period
traje svega 2-3 mjeseca. Rezultanta
ekstremnih uslova je niska produktivnost
ovih ekosistema. Planinske rudine na
karbonatima na bosanskohercegovačkim
pl a ni na ma pos t i ž u ma ks i mum
diverziteta.
Planinske rudine na kiselim tlima se po
svojoj fizionomiji i florističkom sastavu
toliko razlikuju od rudina na karbonatima
da su odvojene u zasebnu klasu Caricetea
curvulae. Razvij aj u se na kiselim
rankerima povrh silikatnih sijena, a
ponekad se mogu razviti i na zakiseljenim
tlima na karbonatnim supstratima
(posebno na mjestima blažeg nagiba, u
nešto nižim dijelovima). Acidifilne
planinske livade su u Bosni i Hercegovini
zastupljene znatno manje od karbonatnih.
Najveći diverzitet postižu na planini
Vranici. Na ostalim planinama se javljaju
u obliku manjih ostrva, gdje su razvijene
na podlozi od silifikovanih krečnjaka, a
predstavljene najčešće varijantama
zajednica trave tvrdače (Nardus stricta).
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endangered species – yellow gentian. Even
though it is concerned by Red list, the re-
maining populations of yellow gentian are
main income source for people that have
lost their homes and working places in the
recent war.
REFUGIA OF GLACIAL FLORA AND FAUNA
As a result of glaciation process that stroke
peaks of high mountains in Bosnia and Her-
zegovina, some places (cirques) are still in-
habited by plant and animal species whose
closest kin live in the boreal belt of northern
hemispere.
Glacial relicts, the remnants of formerly nu-
merous glacial fora and fauna, are restricted
unto refugial habitats or shelters. Best pre-
served habitats of glacial fora, fauna and veg-
etation are to be found around snow patches.
On the mountains in Bosnia and Herzegovi-
na, around snow patches can be found sever-
al endemo-relict communities that comprise
dozens of plant and animal species.
Te glacial refugia, as development centres
of endemic and glacial-relict fora and fauna,
along with tertiary refugia in the canyons of
our rivers represent priceless natural trea-
sure. Tat places Bosnia and Herzegovina
among the countries with highest biodiver-
sity level in Europe.
Ecological conditions in alpine grassland
habitats
In B&H the mountain belt, in vegetation
sense, begins at 2.000 m above sea level
stretching above the upper forest line and
comprising the ecosystems of alpine grass-
land. Because the forest vegetation on many
mountains in B&H often climbs to the
mountain peaks, alpine grassland is poorly
present. On the other hand, ecologic con-
ditions, specific f loristic composition and
community diversity indicate the presence
of typical alpine meadows.
Alpine grassland on carbonate bedrock
occurs on limestone-dolomite geologic fo-
undation. Soil is alpine black earth called
“buavica” with high content in non-de-
composed humus. This is typical organog-
enous calcomelanosol. Besides, on mealy
limestone-dolomite substratum develops
up to 20-25 cm deep rendsin. Soil has got
mainly degraded humus-accumulative ho-
rizon, due to strong mountain winds that
blow in the area. The ecologic conditions
here are extreme (mean annual tempera-
ture below 4°C, absolute minimum -30°C,
intense wind, plenty of snow, great number
of days with frost occurence), vegetation
season last only 2-3 months. The result of
these extreme conditions is low ecosys-
tem’s productivity. The highest diversity
level on mountains in B&H is realized in
alpine grassland ecosystems on carbonate
bedrock.
Alpine grassland on silicate bedrock
Alpine grassland on acid soil, concerning its
physiognomy and foristic composition, dif-
fers in signifcant extent from alpine grass-
land on carbonate bedrock. Terefore, it is
separated in its own class Caricetea curvulae.
It develops on acid ranker that emerges on
top of silicate rocks, sometimes it can devel-
op on acidifed soil above carbonate substra-
tum (especially on less inclinated slopes, in
lower part). Acidophilous alpine meadows in
Bosnia and Herzegovina are less represented
than carbonate ones. Te highest diversity
is reached on Vranica Mt.. On rest of the
mountains, on sillifed limestone, this kind
of grassland emerges resembling to islands
represented by communities with matgrass
(Nardus stricta) .
Ecosystems of alpine grassland
Diverzitet ekosistema planinskih rudina
Ekosistemi planinskih i pretplaninskih
rudina i susjednih tipova vegetacije na
prostoru BiH imaju veoma važno mjesto u
ukupnom biološkom i ekološkom
diverzitetu. Odlikuju se velikim brojem
vegetacijskih jedinica, u čiji sastav ulazi
preko 1.500 vrsta vaskularnih biljaka
(trećina ukupne flore BiH). O broju
životinjskih organizama i gljiva ne postoje
ni približno tačni podaci.
Značajan broj vrsta biljaka koje nastanjuju
ova staništa su rijetke, endemične i
reliktne vrste, koje čine genofond od
neprocjenjivog značaja. Veliki broj vrsta
ima izražena ljekovita, jestiva, aromatična
i vitaminska svojstva, od davnina
korištena u etnobotanici, etnofarma-
kologiji i alternativnoj ishrani, te imaju i
ekonomsku vrijednost.
Grafikon 17. – Diverzitet planinskih rudina na karbonatima (prema broju
diferenciranih asocijacija)
Stanje ekosistema planinskih rudina
Planinske rudine predstavljaju posebna
florističko-vegetacijska i faunistička
ostrva u kojima su procesi specijacije tekli
nesmetano po jedinstvenim evolucijskim
kodovima. Vremenom je, kao odgovor na
neponovljivost kombinacije ekoloških
faktora, došlo do formiranja unikatnih
tipova staništa, tipova biljnih zajednica sa
florističkim bogatstvom u endemičnim i
reliktnim vrstama. Često su zastupljeni
stenoendemni oblici, vezani za jedan
planinski masiv ili geografsko područje.
Raznovrsnost i unikatnost procesa
razvoja i uspostave ekoklime, geološke
podloge, tla i reljefa, uslovili su specifične
procese filogeneze i fitocenogeneze, što je
rezul t i ral o snažnom f l ori st i čko-
vegetacijskom diferencijacijom čitavih
Dinarida. Za mnoge autore i istraživače
diverzitet planinskih rudina je poslužio
kao ključni parametar u uspostavi
biogeografske diferencijacije bosansko-
hercegovačkih Dinarida.
Ekosistemi pretplaninskih rudina
U pretplaninskom pojasu, na staništima
degradi rani m sj ečom, požari ma,
krčenjem, u zoni šibljaka i niskih šuma,
danas su, na većini planinskih masiva u
Bosni i Hercegovini, razvijene pretpla-
ninske rudine.
Geološku podlogu na njihovim staništima
čine karbonatne i silikatne stijene.
Predplaninske rudine na karbonatnim
stijenama po svom florističkom sastavu
su dosta slične planinskim rudinama.
Međutim, kako se razvijaju u nešto
povoljnijim uvjetima klime, i od vjetra
zaklonjenijim staništima, bogatije su
biljnim i životinjskim vrstama. Zemljišta
su nešto dublji kalkomelanosoli i
rendzine, sa najčešće očuvanim humu-
sno-akumulativnim horizontom.
84
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Diversity of alpine grassland ecosystems
On the territory of B&H, ecosystems of alpine
and sub-alpine grassland with adjacent veg-
etation types are very important in respect to
total biologic and ecologic diversity. Tey are
characterized by great number of vegetation
units comprising over 1.500 vascular plants
(which is one fourth of total B&H’s fora).
Tere are no reliable data on number of ani-
mals and fungi.
Many plants living in these ecosystems are
rare, endemic and relict, which is why they
represent gen pool of inestimable impor-
tance. Many of them posses also medicinal,
edible, aromatic and vitaminous features
being therefore used for ethnobotanical,
ethopharmacological and alternative nutri-
tion purposes. Some species have got high
economical value, too.
Graph 17. – Diversity of alpine grassland on carbonate
(by number of identifed plant communities)
Alpine grasslands, in respect to their f lo-
ristic, vegetation and faunistic attributes,
represent some kind of islands in which
the speciation processes evolved ease, by
unique evolutionary patterns. As a response
to unique combination of ecologic factors,
in time were created unique habitat types
and plant communities with high f loristic
richness, especially in endemic and rel-
ict species. It is quite often the case that
stenoendemic forms exist, forms that are
bound to sole massif or geographic area.
Diversity and uniqueness of development
of ecoclimate, geologic foundation soil and
relief, have caused specific types of phy-
logenesis and community genesis. This,
on the other hand, has led to a protrude
f loristic-vegetational differentiation of the
Dinaric Alps. Diversity of alpine grasslands
was a key parameter for many authors and
explorers to evolve its own biogeographic
division of the Dinaric Alps in B&H.

State of alpine grassland ecosystems
Ecosystems of sub-alpine grassland
In the sub-alpine belt, in habitats that were
degraded by felling, fires and clearing, in
the zone of low woodland and shrubs, on
most of the massifs in Bosnia and Herze-
govina occur sub-alpine grasslands.
In their f loristic composition they re-
semble to alpine grasslands. But, accord-
ing to more favorable climate conditions
in which they survive, protected from
wind, they comprise more plant and ani-
mal species. Soil is deeper calcomelanosol
and rendsine, with well preserved humus-
accumulative horizon.
In these habitats soil is acid ranker on top
Distribucija ekosistema pretplaninskih rudina
Pretplaninske rudine na karbonatima
danas zauzimaju vrlo širok prostor
teritorije Bosne i Hercegovine.
Na većini bosanskohercegovačkih
planina to j e poj as (danas često
diskontinuiran) klekovine bora, pojas
zelene johe na planini Vranici u centralnoj
Bosni, pojas klekovine subalpinske bukve
(na planinama sjeverozapadnih Dina-
rida), pojas omorikoidne smrče (na
sjevernim padinama Vranice, Hranisave,
Vitoroga), te „klekovine“ munike (na
jugoistočnim Dinaridima, tj. planinskim
masivima Orjena, Prenja, Čvrsnice).
Ovi ekosistemi su zastupljeni na svim
višim masivima bosanskohercegovačkih
Dinarida. Pretplaninske rudine na kiselim
tlima ostvaruju singenetski i ekološki
kontinuitet sa gorskim mezofilnim
livadama.
Diverzitet ekosistema pretplaninskih rudina
Kao i planinske, tako i pretplaninske
rudine na karbonatima i kiselim tlima
odlikuje veoma visok stepen diverziteta
vrsta i zajednica. Specifičnost ovim eko-
sistemima daje visoko prisustvo ende-
mičnih i reliktnih vrsta, usljed čega su
formirane i životne zajednice većinom
dinarskog ili balkanskog raspro-
stranjenja.

Planinske rudine Pretplaninske rudine
Festucion bosniacae 18
Caricion ferrugineae 1 Seslerietalia
juncifoliae
Seslerion juncifoliae

15
Carici-Festucion
paniculatae
6
Edraianthion nivei 7
Crepidetalia
dinaricae
Oxytropidion
dinaricae
22
Festucion
pseudoxanthinae

4
Seslerion robustae 2 Seslerion robustae 2
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Edraiantho-
Seslerietalia
robustae
Seselerio-
Edraianthion pumilii
1
Seselerio-Edraianthion
pumilii
1
Seslerion comosae 4
Jasionion orbiculatae 8
Achilleo-Arnicion 1
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Seslerietalia
comosae
Seslerion comosae

4
Gentianello-Nardion 2
Tabela 29. – Diverzitet planinskih i pretplaninskih rudina u Bosni i Hercegovini
(prema broju diferenciranih asocijacija)
Na silikatnim stijenama u predplaninskom pojasu su formirani rankeri. Predplaninske
rudine se ponekad mogu razviti i na zakiseljenim tlima na karbonatnim supstratima,
naročito na mjestima blažeg nagiba sa intenzivnijim procesima ispiranja.
85
Alpine grassland Sub-alpine grassland
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The sub-alpine grasslands on carbonate
rocks in Bosnia and Herzegovina take very
large surface.
On most of the mountains in B&H this is
a belt with mountain pine (often discon-
tinued today), green alder on Vranica Mt.
in central Bosnia, sub-alpine beech (north-
western Dinaric massifs), spruce (northern
slopes of mountains Vranica, Hranisava,
Vitorog) and white-bark pine (southeast-
ern Dinaric massifs, which are mountains
Orjen, Prenj, Čvrsnica).
These ecosystems occur on every higher
massif of the Dinaric Alps in B&H. Sub-
alpine grasslands on acid soil in term of
syngenesis and ecology are connected with
upland’s mesophilous meadows.
Distribution of sub-alpine grassland ecosystems
of silicate rocks, sometimes even on acidi-
fied soil above carbonate substratum, es-
pecially on less inclinated places with
more intense leaching.
Diversity of sub-alpine grassland ecosystems
Likewise alpine, so the sub-alpine grasslands
on carbonate rocks and acid soil are char-
acterized by high species and community
diversity. Tese ecosystems are specifc by
emphasized presence of endemic and relict
species, hence, the plant communities are
mainly with dinaric or balkan distribution
range.
Table 29. – Diversity of alpine and sub-alpine grasslands in Bosna and Herzegovina
(by number of identifed plant communities)
Ekosistemi diskontinuiranog pojasa subnivalne vegetacije
Najviše položaje na bosanskoherce-
govački m pl ani nama zauzi maj u
ekosistemi snježanika. Često su razvijeni i
u zoni planinskih rudina, u depresijama
gdje se snijeg zadržava dosta dugo. Kako
alterniraju sa planinskim rudinama, u
njihovom sastavu pored tipičnih kriofita,
javljaju se i brojne vrste planinskih rudina.
Vegetacija oko snježanika se razvija kako
na karbonatnoj, tako i na silikatnoj
podlozi. Tla su plitke organogene crnice
„buavice“, te plitki rankeri, sa nižim pH
vrijednostima. Produkcija fitomase je
relativno niska, pa je mala vrba Salix
herbacea, poznata i kao „najmanje drvo -
arbor minima“. U smislu očuvanja
biodiverziteta, ova staništa, na kojima su
se sve do danas održali mnogi glacijalni i
borealni elementi, su veoma vrijedna.
U fitocenološkom pogledu vegetacija
snj ežanika pripada klasi Salicetea
herbaceae, koja je razvijena na ostalim
evroazijskim planinama. Kod nas se
diferencira na dva vegetacijska reda:
snježanike na silikatnim stijenama i
snježanike na karbonatnim stijenama.
Djelovanjem glečera u prošlosti, te
stalnim otkidanj em stij ena ispod
planinskih vrhova, formirala su se
planinska i pretplaninska točila. Zovu ih i
sipari, jer stijena stalno sipi i kreće se
prema podnožju planinskih vrhova. Iako
je geološka podloga nemirna, a čine je
kameni oblici dijametra nekoliko cm do 1
Grafikon 18. - Diverzitet pretplaninskih rudina u Bosni i Hercegovini (prema broju
diferenciranih asocijacija)
Festucion
bosniacae
38%
Seslerion
comosae
9%
Caricion
ferrugineae
2%
Seslerion
robustae
4%
Festucion
pseudoxanthinae
9%
Seslerio-
Edraianthion
2%
Jasionion
orbiculatae
17%
Achilleo-
Arnicion
2%
Gentianello-
Nardion
4%
Carici-Festucion
paniculatae
13%

m, vremenom je došlo do formiranja
rastresitog plitkog kamenjarskog tla
označenog kao regosol. Na ovom tipu
zemljišta su razvijene vrste koje imaju
veoma razvijen korjenov sistem, što im
omogućava da opstanu na dinamičnoj i
često »živoj« geološkoj podlozi.
U singenetskom pogledu vegetacija
siparišta osvaruje vezu sa vegetacijom u
pukotinama stijena na izraženijim
nagibima, a na blažim nagibima i
umirenijim točilima sa zajednicama
pretplaninskih rudina.
Iako u sastav ove vegetacije ulazi
relativno mali broj vrsta, sve su
endemoreliktne. Zajednice koje izgra-
djuju su ekološki i biogeografski diferen-
cirane, te daju snažna geofloristička
obilježja planinskim masivima u BiH. S
obzirom da se na području Bosne i
Hercegovine nalaze neki od najpoznatijih
di nar ski h ci r kova, ova st ani št a
predstavljaju veoma vrijedne centre
diverziteta i za šire područje.
Na pl ani nama vi sokoprenj skog,
visokorj enskog i visokomagličkog
sektora, zbog naglašenih nagiba i
geomorfološke plastičnosti, na najvišim
karbonatnim vrhovima, opstaju i tzv.
ekosi st emi na gol i m pl ani nski m
stijenama. Stijene su veoma čvrste i
kompaktne, te ni surova planinska klima
ne uvjetuje njihovo pucanje, nastanak
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Graph 18. – Diversity of sub-alpine grassland in Bosnia and Herzegovina (
by number of identifed plant communities)
Ecosystems of discontinued nival vegetation belt
The highest positions on the mountains
in Bosnia and Herzegovina take the eco-
systems around snow patches. They often
emerge in the alpine grassland zone, at
depression’s bottom where snow is being
kept for a long time. Because they alter-
nate with alpine grasslands, they comprise,
apart from typical kryophytes, in the alpine
grassland occuring species. The vegetation
around snow patches evolves on both car-
bonate and silicate bedrock. Soil is shallow
organogenous black earth – “buavica“ and
shallow ranker with low pH value. The pri-
mary bioproduction is low, hence, species
Salix herbacea is known as “the smallest
tree in the world – arbor minima”. In term
of biodiversity protection, these habitats are
valuable for they encompass many glacial
and boreal elements.
Considering phytocoenological belonging,
the vegetation around snow patches belongs
to Salicetea herbaceae class as it is on other
euro-asian mountains. In our conditions,
it is being differentiated in two vegetation
orders: vegetation around snow patches on
silicate and carbonate rocks.
By activities of glaciers and continual split-
ting of rocks beneath peaks, arose alpine
and sub-alpine screes. On screes, rock de-
bris runs continuously downhills toward
mountain’s base. Despite unstable substra-
tum, which are stones with size from few
centimeters to one meter, evolves loose and
shallow rocky soil called regosol. On that
kind of soil emerge species with well deve-
loped root, which enables them to endure
on this quite often »alive« geologic founda-
tion.
In term of syngenesis, vegetation of screes is
associated with vegetation of rock crevices
on steep slopes, whereas on less inclinated
terrain and settled screes it is combined with
communities of sub-alpine grasslands.
This vegetation includes relatively small
number of species, but the ones that occur
are endemo-relict. All communities com-
prised by this vegetation type are differen-
tiated in term of ecology and biogeography
characterizing the mountains in B&H. On
the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina are
situated some of the most famous dinaric
cirques, which is why these habitats repre-
sent diversity centres of high importance on
broad scale.
On the mountains belonging to high-Orjen,
high-Prenj and hig-Maglič sectors, due to em-
phasized inclinations and geo-morphologic
plasticity of the highest mountain peaks,
survive ecosystems on bare rocks. Tose
rocks are so hard and compact that it can not
be wheatered by harsh mountain climate,
and later on inhabited by chasmophytes. Te
ecologic conditions are determined by strong
mountain winds, high insolation and sudden
regosola i naseljavanje hazmofita.
Ekološke uslove ovdje determinišu jaki
planinski vjetrovi, visoki intenziteti
svjetlosti, nagle promjene temperaturnih
prilika, pa ipak to nisu gole stijene. Na
njihovoj površini se formirao sloj veoma
sitnih čestica razdrobljene mineralne
mase pomiješane sa još sitnijim česticama
organske materije, vjetrom donesenih
ostataka tla i izmeta planinskih životinja.
Tako dolazi do obrazovanja prvih
inicijalnih faza u razvoju tla, što omogu-
ćava i prve korake u procesima singeneze
u kopnenim ekosistemima.
Prve zajednice koje se formiraju na
ovakvim staništima čine različite vrste
bakterija, modrozelene alge, a u kasnijim
fazama lišajevi i inicijalne faze vegetacije.
Na kvalitet ovih staništa matična podloga
ima direktan uticaj. Zajednice lišajeva koji
ih naseljavaju mogu biti veoma raznolike,
što daje dodatnu dinamičnost planinskom
pejzažu. Lijep primjer ovakve pojave
nalazimo na silikatnim stij enama
planinskog masiva Vranice.
Značajne površine u pretplaninskom i
planinskom pojasu zauzimaju ekosistemi
u pukotinama stijena. Staništa se
karakterišu nagibom i do 90 stepeni,
plitkim tlima tipa regosola i ekstremno
varijabilnom ekoklimom. Variranja
temperature i relativne vlažnosti zraka su
veoma velika. To je jedan od razloga
razvoja dobro prilagođenih, uglavnom
endemičnih i stenoendemičnih zajednica,
koje u najboljoj mjeri odražavaju
biogeografsku unikatnost bosansko-
hercegovačkih planina. Iako se ovaj tip
vegetacije pojavljuje u svim klimazonama
vertikalnog profila BiH, njeno prisustvo je
veoma naglašeno u planinskom i
pretplaninskom pojasu Prenja, Čvrsnice,
Bjelašnice, Vlašića, Maglića, Volujaka,
Lebršnika.
U zoni planinskih i pretplaninskih rudina,
na lokalitetima sa stalnim ili povremenim
hladnim izvorima, na zemljištu tipa
hidrogenih crnica, ili inicijalnim fazama
hidromorfnih tala, diskontinuirano se
javlja higrofilna vegetacija klase Montio-
Cardaminetea. Ovaj tip močvarnih staništa
nastanjuju i mnoge reliktne i endemične
vrste, te imaju poseban značaj u ukupnom
biodiverzitetu Bosne i Hercegovine.
U istom pojasu diskontinuirano se javlja i
vegetacija niskih planinskih i pretpla-
ninskih cretova. Staništa ove vegetacije se
karakterišu blagim nagibom, procesima
zatresećivanja i razvojem planohistosola.
U vegetaciji planinskih tresetišta utočište
nalaze i mnoge glacijalno-reliktne vrste
životinja i biljaka, te ona zauzimaju važno
mjesto u cjelokupnom sistemu diverziteta
staništa.
Vegetacija niskih grmića sa dominacijom
vrsta iz familije Ericaceae razvijena je u
zoni planinskih i pretplaninskih rudina,
na mjestima zaklonjenim od vjetra i tlima
sa više sirovog humusa. Ova vegetacija se
diferencira na dvije ekološko-florističke
varijante: vrištine na kiselim tlima na
silikatnim stijenama i vrištine na
neutralnim do bazičnim tlima na
karbonatnim stijenama. Na prostoru
dinarskih planina znatno su razvijenije i
prisutnije zajednice vriština na kiselim
tlima.
U zoni pretplaninskih rudina na dubljim
kalkomelanosolima i rankerima, na
blagim nagibima i dužim zadržavanjem
snijega, razvijene su zajednice čiju
fizionomiju određuju visoke zeljaste
biljke, sa visinom i do 1 m. U singe-
netskom pogledu predstavljaju stadij u
sukcesiji vegetacije pretplaninskih
rudina, prema klimatogenoj vegetaciji
klekovine bora, zelene johe, pretpla-
ninske bukve ili pretplaninske smrče.
Na staništima pod uticajem nitrata i
fosfata, koja se često nalaze uz torove,
razvija se poseban oblik nitrofilnih
visokih zeleni. Na prostoru bosansko-
hercegovačkih Dinarida ova vegetacija je
diferencirana na više asocijacija od kojih je
nekoliko endemičnih.
Na blažim nagibima terena pretpla-
ninskog pojasa na neutrofilnim tlima, na
nekim dinarskim masivima razvijene su
pr et pl ani ns ke mezof i l ne l i vade
endemične dinarske sveze Pancicion, koje
optimum imaju u gorskom pojasu većine
bosanskohercegovačkih planina.
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temperature changes. So, afer all, those are
not completely bare rocks. At their surface
evolves a layer of tiny little particles arising
from smashed minerals combined with even
smaller particles of organic matter brought
here by wind. In this way forms the initial
stage of soil which ensures frst step of syn-
genesis in terrestrial ecosystems.
First communities in such places are assem-
bled of bacteria, bluegreen alges and later
on lichens. Te quality of these habitats is
directly infuenced by geologic foundation.
Te lichens communities can be very diverse,
which additionaly emphasize the mountain
landscapes dynamics. On silicate rocks of
Vranica Mt. occurs a nice example of this
phenomenon.
Signifcant surface of sub-alpine and alpine
belt is taken by ecosystems of rock crevices.
Habitats are characterized by inclination up
to 90 degrees, shallow soil of regosol type,
and highly variable ecoclimate. Temperature
and relative air humidity vary in wide range.
Tat is one of the reasons for well adapted,
mostly endemic and stenodendemic, com-
munities to develop. Tose communities re-
fect the biogeographic uniqueness of Bosnia
and Herzegovina. Although this vegetation
type emerges in all zones on vertical profle
of B&H, its presence in alpine and sub-alpine
belt of mountains Prenj, Čvrsnica, Bjelašnica,
Vlašić, Maglić, Volujak, Lebršnik is empha-
sized.
In the zone of alpine and sub-alpine grasslands
at localities with permanent or occasionally
occuring cold springs, on hydrogenous black
earth or initial stage of hydromorphous soils,
emerge hygrophylous vegetation type of class
Montio-Cardaminetea. In that kind of marsh
habitats live many relict and endemic species
of great importance for the entire biodiver-
sity in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In the same belt, discontinuously emerges
vegetation of alpine and sub-alpine blanket
bogs. Inclination of its habitats is low, peat
is being formed and planohistosol created.
Te mountain bogs provide shelter for many
glacial relicts, both plants and animals, and
take important place in the system of habi-
tats as whole.
Te vegetation with low shrubs belonging
to family Ericaceae develops in the zone of
alpine and sub-alpine grasslands, on from
wind protected places and soil that contains
high proportion of raw humus. It is being
diferentiated, in term of ecology and foris-
tic composition, in two variants: heaths on
acid soil and silicate rocks, and heaths on
from neutral to alkaline soil and carbonate
rocks. On the dinaric massifs prevail heaths
on acid soil.
In the zone of sub-alpine grassland, on deep-
er calcomelanosol and ranker, on less incli-
nated slopes with longer persistent snow, de-
velop communities with tall, up to 1 m high,
herbs. Considering syngenesis these are suc-
cesive stages between sub-alpine grassland
and climax vegetation, which is woodland of
mountain pine, green alder, sub-alpine beech
or sub-alpine spruce.
Habitats that are enriched with nitrates and
phosphates, ofen next to sheepfolds, are
characterized by special form of nitrophilous
tall herb communities. On the territory of
Dinaric Alps in B&H, this vegetation is be-
ing diferentiated in several plant communi-
ties of which some are endemic.
In the sub-alpine belt of some dinaric massifs,
on places with low inclination and neutro-
philous soil developed are sub-alpine meso-
philous meadows of the endemic dinaric al-
liance Pancicion with optimal conditions in
the upland belt of most mountain in B&H.
Diverzitet ekosistema diskontinuiranog subnivalnog pojasa
Unutar diskontinuiranog subnivalnog
pojasa najviši stepen raznolikosti imaju
ekosistemi u pukotinama stijena i
ekosistemi sipara. Ova pojava proizilazi iz
činjenice da date ekosisteme naseljavaju
samo usko prilagođene vrste, te i
najmanja promjena nekog iz kompleksa
ekoloških faktora dovodi do promjene
sastava životne zajednice.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
ekosistemi oko snježanika
ekosistemi sipara
ekosistemi u pukotinama stijena
ekosistemi niskih cretova
ekosistemi oko izvorišta
ekosistemi vriština
ekosistemi visokih zeleni
ekosistemi na nitrificiranim tlima
ekosistemi mezofilnih livada
Grafikon 19. - Diverzitet ekosistema subnivalnog pojasa (po broju diferenciranih
sveza i asocijacija)
Ekosistemi pretplaninskih šuma
Iznad gornje granice visoke šume na
naj vi š i m pl ani nama bos ans ko-
hercegovačkih Dinarida razvijen je pojas
klekovine bora. Sastojine klekovine bora
nisu razvijene u kontinuiranom pojasu,
nego su zastupljene u mozaiku sa
fragmentima vegetacije planinskih
rudina, sipara i vegetacije u pukotinama
stijena.
Zajednice ekosistema klekovine bora su, u
današnje vrijeme, svedene na vrlo uski
pojas najviših dinarskih planina. Izvan
ovog pojasa klekovine često je moguće
naći pojedinačne primjerke ili cijele grupe
krivulja i na nižim položajima, što je u vezi
sa pojavom temperaturnih inverzija.
Geol ošku podl ogu na stani šti ma
zajednica klekovine bora mogu činiti
karbonatne i silikatne stijene, te se na
njima razvijaju i različiti tipovi zemljišta.
Zemljišta su uglavnom iz klase humusno-
akumulativnih, pa su prisutne crnice,
rendzine i rankeri.
Edifikatorska vrsta, Pinus mugo Turra,
gradi zajednice vrlo gustog sklopa, u
kojima stanište nalaze različite šumske
biljne vrste i vrste pretplaninskih rudina,
ali i mnoge životinjske vrste među kojima
su: medvjed (Ursus arctos), divlja svinja
(Sus scrofa), vuk (Canis lupus), zec (Lepus
europaeus), lisica (Vulpes vulpes), žutogrli
miš (Apodemus flavicolis), dinarska
voluharica (Dolomys sp.), krtica (Talpa sp.) i
druge. Od ptica koje se gnijezde u ovom
ekosistemu najčešće su: Turdus torquatus,
Prunella modularis, Turdus merula, Pyrrhula
pyrulla, Regulus ignicapillus, Parus
cristatus, Carduelis carduelis i druge.
88
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Diversity of ecosystems in discontinuously distributed sub-nival belt
In the discontinuously distributed sub-nival
belt the highest diversity posses ecosystems
of rock crevices and screes, which co-relates
with the fact that in such ecosystems live
only species with narrow tolerance range.
Thus, the smallest change in any of the eco-
logical factors can cause change in the com-
munity composition.
Graph 19. – Diversity of ecosystems in sub-nival belt
(by number of identifed alliances and plant communites)
Ecosystems of sub-alpine woods
Above upper forest line on highest moun-
tains of the Dinaric Alps in Bosnia and
Herzegovina stretches the belt of mountain
pine woods. Mountain pine stands don’t
occcur like continuously developed belt,
but in mosaic like manner with fragments
of alpine grasslands, screes and vegetation
of rock crevices.
The communities of mountain pine, now-
adays, are limited on narrow belt of the
highest dinaric mountains. Out of that belt
mountain pine can be found as a single
tree or in groups which is related to tem-
perature inversions.
Geologic foundation are either carbon-
ate or silicate rocks, with different kind
of solis. Soil belongs mainly to the class of
humus-accumulative ones, which is black
earth, rendsine and ranker.
Edificator species, Pinus mugo Turra,
builds very thick stands in which are to be
found many wood plants and species be-
longing to the sub-alpine grasslands. As
far as animals are concerned, here occur:
bear (Ursus arctos), wild boar (Sus scrofa),
wolf (Canis lupus), hare (Lepus europaeus),
fox (Vulpes vulpes), yellow-necked mouse
(Apodemus f lavicolis), dinaric vole (Do-
lomys sp.), mole (Talpa sp.) and others. In
this ecosystem most frequently build the
nest: Tordus torquatus, Prunella modula-
ris, P. merula, Purrhula pyrulla, Regulus
ignicapuillus, Parus cristatus, Carduelis
carduelis and others.
Gmizavci su rijetki u ovom tipu eko-
sistema. Međutim, na prorijeđenim
mjestima za vrijeme ljetnjih mjeseci lako
mogu se naći Vipera berus bosniaca, V. ursini
macrops, Coronella austriaca, Lacerta
vivipara, te od vodozemaca Salamandra
atra.
Ekosistemi gornje granice visoke šume
Gornj u grani cu vi soke šume na
planinama Bosne i Hercegovine čine
sastojine sa subalpinskom bukvom, te
sastojine subalpinske smrče.
Ekos i s t e me s ubal pi ns ke bukve
karakteriše specifična fizionomija: pod
pritiskom snijega koji se dugo zadržava u
ovom pojasu, stabla bukve su u donjem
dijelu polegnuta i iskrivljena. Relativno
siromašan floristički sastav ovih zajednica
takođe je povezan sa ekoklimatskim
uslovima, koji daju mogućnost opstanka,
tokom godine, manjem broju vrsta
zeljastih biljaka.
Zajednice ekosistema subalpinske bukve i
javora razvijene su na krečnjačkoj
geološkoj podlozi, a zemljišta su
krečnjačke crnice ili smeđa krečnjačka
zemljišta.
U depresijama na staništima ovih
zajednica obrazuje se dublji profil
zemljišta, a naseljavaju ih inverzne šume
smrče.
Poseban značaj ovom prostoru daju
ekosistemi, u kojima značajnu brojnost i
pokrovnost dost i žu vrst e uskog
endemičnog areala. Jedan od ekosistema
u kojem značajnu brojnost dostiže
endemična bosanska vlasulja je Festuco
bosniacae-Fagetum (subalpinum). Razvijena
je na gornjoj granici šumske vegetacije na
planinama Bjelašnica i Hranisava.
Na silikatnoj geološkoj podlozi razvija se
poseban tip subalpskih bukovih šuma.
Karakteriše ih siromaštvo florističkog
sastava, na koje utiču: kratak vegetacioni
per i od, ni s ke s r ednj e godi š nj e
temperature, dugo zadržavanje snijega,
jaki vjetrovi, nedostatak pristupačne vode
i velika kiselost zemljišta, koja potiče od
geološke podloge, a plitka zemljišta ne
umanjuju njen uticaj. Prizemni sprat je
pokriven niskim grmićima borovnice ili je
slabo naseljen drugim vrstama.
Od životinjskih organizama ovaj složeni
ekosistem karakterišu: Ursus arctos, Sus
scrofa, Glis glis, Felis silvestris, Columba
oenas, Erithacus rubecula, Picus canus, Buteo
buteo, Anguis fragilis, Lacerta fragilis, Hyla
arborea, Rana agilis i druge.
Subalpinske četinarske šume čine
zajednice sa smrčom, koje zauzimaju
staništa sa izraženim nagibom terena u
ovom pojasu. Subalpinske smrčeve šume
opstaju u uslovima srednjih godišnjih
temperatura između 4 i 2 °C, a apsolutne
minimalne temperature se mogu spustiti i
do -35 °C.
Sastav ovog tipa ekosistema je siromašan.
Kisela reakcija zemljišta uslovljava pojavu
malog broja vrsta. Fizionomska svojstva
subalpinskim smrčevim šumama daju i
kozokrvina, borovnica, te krušćica,
brusnica, likovac, kiselica, trava od
utrobice, busika i brojne vrste mahovina.
Karakter subalpinskih smrčevih šuma
imaju, takođe, i poznate inverzne šume
smrče, razvijene na Igmanu, Bjelašnici i
Javorniku. Razvijaju se u uslovima
izraženih temperaturnih inverzija,
odnosno spuštanja i zadržavanja hladnih
vazdušnih masa na prostorima Velikog i
Malog Polja i drugih ponikvi na ovom
vertikalnom profilu.
Morenski nanosi, na kojima su razvijene
inverzne sastojine smrče, govore o
nastanku ovih polja radom diluvijalnih
glečera. Može se pretpostaviti da su
inverzne sastojine smrče bile razvijene
cijelom površinom polja. Današnje
livadske zajednice razvijene na ovom
prostoru su sekundarnog karaktera,
nastale krčenjem šuma radi ispaše i
košenja.
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Reptiles occur only occasionally. But, in
summer, in cleared and open places can be
easily found Vipera berus bosniaca, V. ur-
sini macrops, Coronella austriaca, Lacerta
vivipara, and from amphibians Salaman-
dra atra.
Ecosystems in the upper boundary of tall forests
Te upper line of tall forests in Bosnia and
Herzegovina is composed of sub-alpine
beech and spruce stands.
Ecosystems with sub-alpine beech are rec-
ognizable in their physiognomy: under the
pressure of snow that persists here for long
time, basal part of beech trees deforms
and lies close to the ground. Tese com-
munities are relatively poor in the foristic
composition which is connected with eco-
climate that enables the survival of small
number of plants over entire year.
Te communities with sub-alpine beech
and maple emerge on limestone substra-
tum, whereas the soil is either limestone
black earth or limestone brown earth.
In the depressions evoloves soil with deep-
er profle covered with inverted spruce
woods.
Tis space is signifcant in ecosystems with
stenoendemic species that occur here with
high abundance and coverage. One of the
ecosystems in which signifcant abundance
is achieved by the endemic species, which
is bosnian fescue, is Festuco bosniacae-
-Fagetum (subalpinum). It develops in the
upper forest line on mountains Bjelašnica
and Hranisava.
On silicate bedrock develops special kind
of sub-alpine beech woods. Tey are char-
acterized by poor foristic composition,
which is determined by: short vegetation
season, low mean annual temperature, long
persistence of snow cover, strong winds,
lack of available water and acid ground.
Te latter one is induced by substratum,
whereas shallow type of soil can not buf-
fer its infuence. Ground is covered by low
shrubs of blue berries or poorly inhabited
by other species.
Among animals that characterize this
complex ecosystem occur: Ursus arctos,
Sus scrofa, Glis glis, Felis silvestris, Col-
lumba oeans, Erithacus rubeculla, Picus
canus, Buteo buteo, Anguis fragilis, Lac-
erta fragilis, Hyla arborea, Rana agilis and
many others.
Sub-alpine coniferous woods are commu-
nities with spruce taking positions that are
highly inclinated. Mean annual tempera-
tures are between 4 and 2 °C, whereas ab-
solute minimal temperature falls to -35 °C.
Tis ecosystem in term of its composition
is very poor. Te acid ground causes the oc-
curence of small number of species. For the
physiognomy of sub-alpine spruce woods
responsible are honeysuckle, blue berry,
wintergreen, red whortlerberry, mezereon,
sorrel, willow gentian, tufed hairgrass and
diferent kind of mosses.
As sub-alpine spruce woods considered
are also famous inverted spruce woods oc-
curing on mountains Igman, Bjelašnica
and Javornik. Tese woods develop under
conditions of temperature inversions, re-
spectively descend and holding of cold air
masses on the territory of Veliko and Malo
Polje and other sinkholes of above named
vertical profle.
Moraine alluvion, on which the inverted
spruce woods emerge, witnesses the evolu-
tion of Malo and Veliko polje (eng. feld)
that is by dilluvail glacier’s activity. We can
make an assumption that inverted spruce
woods used to cover the entire feld area.
Today, meadows in this area have got sec-
ondary character for they arise afer wood-
land gets cleared for grazing and mowing
purposes.
Pritisci na biodiverzitet visokoplaninskih ekosistema
Pritisci na ekosisteme planinskih pejzaža koji najčešće uzrokuju promjene u njihovoj
strukturi, dinamici, sukcesiji i bioprodukciji su:
lGlobalne klimatske promjene praćene izraženim temperaturnim ekstremima,
naročito u toku toplijeg dijela godine, što dovodi do otopljavanja i prijetnje nestanka
mnogih glacijalnih i borealnih relikata i njihovih staništa;
lPrekomjerna ispaša na pojedinim dijelovima areala ove vegetacije, što dovodi do
promjena strukture pojedinih zajednica;
lIntenzivna deforestacija;
lIzgradnja različitih građevinskih objekata u pretplaninskom pojasu dovodi do
nestanka pojedinih staništa i destabilizacije planinskih ekosistema. Tipičan primjer
su planine oko Sarajeva, te planina Vlašić i Vranica sa Prokoškim jezerom;
lPrekomjerna erozija površinskih slojeva tla. Obično je uvjetovana intenzivnom
ispašom, deforestacijom šuma u pretplaninskom pojasu i prekomjernom
eksploatacijom nekih privredno važnih ljekovitih biljaka;
lKisele kiše (koje se pojavljuju kao rezultat prekograničnog zagađenja atomosfere).
Kisele kiše u značajnoj mjeri mijenjaju pH vrijednost staništa, naročito površinskih
slojeva humusno-akumulativnog horizonta za koji su vezani najintenziviji procesi
dekompozicije organske materije i aktivni dio rizosfere. Smanjenjem pH vrijednosti
kod bazifilnih vrsta dolazi do redukcije vitalnosti i brojnosti, što utiče na
reprodukcijske cikluse. Na taj način može doći do nestajanja pojedinih
stenovalentnih vrsta i zajednica, naročito onih na dolomitima i dolomitičnim
krečnjacima;
lPrekomjerna i neracionalna upotreba prirodnih resursa sadržanih u ljekovitim i
aromatičnim biljkama, a koje imaju optimum u ovim ekosistemima;
Edraianthus niveus G. Beck
Greben (Lebršnik)
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Pressures on biodiversity of high-mountain ecosystems
Pressures on the ecosystems of mountain landscapes that caues changes in their structure,
dynamics, succession and bioproductivity are:
t Global climate changes accompanied by extreme temperatures, especially in warm
season, which leads to warming and arising of threat for many glacial and boreal rel-
icts to disapear;
t Over-grazing in some parts of distribution range which causes changes in the com-
munity structure;
t Intensive deforestation;
t Building sites in the sub-alpine belt that cause disapearance of some habitats and de-
stabilization of mountain ecosystems. Best examples for that are mountains around
Sarajevo, then Vlašić Mt. and Vranica Mt. with Prokoško jezero;
t Over-erosion of surface soil layer. Usually caused by intensive grazing, deforestation in
the sub-alpine belt and over-exploitation of some economically important medicinal
plants;
t Acid precipitation (as a result of transboundary pollution). Acid precipitation changes
substantially pH value in habitats, especially in surface layer of the humus-accumu-
lative horizons to which is bound decomposition of organic matter and active part of
rhyzosphere. Decrease in pH value causes by basophilous species reduction of vitality
and abundance, which afects reproductive cycles. In that way could disapear some
species and communities with narrow tolerance range, especially those on dolomites
and dolomited limestone;
t Over-use and unsustainable use of natural resources contained within medicinal and
aromatic plants of which some fnd their optimal conditions .
RELIKTNO- REFUGIJALNI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I
HERCEGOVINE
Refugijalno-reliktna staništa predstav-
ljaju unikatne dijelove bosansko-herce-
govačkog okoliša. Nastali su u burnim
procesima oblikovanja zemljine kore,
geogeneze, stvaranja klime i živoga
svijeta. To su mjesta koja su pretrpjela
najmanje promjene od predglacijalnog do
postglacijalnog perioda, te tako sačuvala
izvorne ekološke vrijednosti. Na ovim
staništima su zastuplj ene mnoge
tercijerne vrste biljaka i životinja, koje su
uspjele preživjeti i drastične promjene
klime u toku posljednjeg glacijala. Kako
su ova staništa bila utočišta mnogim
biljkama i životinjama tokom ledenog
doba, zovu se i refugijumi. Vrste koje na
njima žive su, u evolucionom pogledu,
veoma stare i označene su kao relikti.
Ovakvi tipovi staništa na kojima žive
brojne tercijerno-reliktne vrste biljaka i
životinja su od najvećeg značaja za
biodiverzitet Bosne i Hercegovine, a time i
globalni biodiverzitet. Pozicija tercijernih
r el i kt ni h ekosi st ema u Bosni i
Hercegovini povezana je prvenstveno sa
kanjonima, klisurama i strmim padinama
planina u slivovima rijeka: Une, Vrbasa,
Bosne, Drine i Neretve.
Živi svijet reliktnih i refugijalnih pejzaža
bosansko-hercegovačkih Dinarida u
ekološkom i biogeografskom pogledu
diferencira se na više jasno izdvojenih
jedinica. Najveći dio ovih ekosistema
pripada eurosibirsko-boreoameričkoj
regiji, koja je ovdje zastupljena sa
zasebnom Provincijom reliktnih borovih
šuma. Pored toga, refugijalna staništa u
nižim dijelovima submediteranskog i
brdskog pojasa u biogeografskim smislu
pripadaju i ilirskoj na zapadu i mezijskoj
provinciji na jugoistoku BiH. Dio
refugijalnih staništa se nalazi i u
srednjojadranskom sektoru, jadranske
provincije Mediteranske regije.
PEJZAŽI RELIKTNIH BOROVIH ŠUMA
Prema Lakušiću (1969; 1980), ovi pejzaži u
biogeografskom pogledu pripadaju
posebnoj provinciji reliktnih borovih
šuma. Podudaraju se sa arealima šuma
munike (Pinus heldreichii), ilirskog crnog
bora (Pinus nigra subsp. austriaca) i
dal mat i nskog crnog bora ( Pi nus
dalmatica).
Pejzaž reliktnih borovih šuma se na
vertikalnom i horizontalnom profilu
diferencira na:
lekosisteme dalmatinskog crnog bora Pinion dalmaticae;
lekosisteme šuma munike Pinion heldreichii;
lekosisteme ilirskog crnog bora Pinion austriacae sa geološko/pedološko/florističkim
serijama:
lserija ekosistema šuma crnog bora na peridotitima i serpentinitima Pinenion austricae
„serpentinicum“ ;
lserija ekosistema šuma crnog bora na dolomitima Pinenion austricae „dolomiticum“ ;
lserija ekosistema šuma crnog bora na krečnjacima Pineion austricae „calcicolum“.
Ekosistemi dalmatinskog crnog bora
Ekosistem je fragmentarno zastupljen u
J adranskoj provi nci j i u Bosni i
Hercegovini. Njegovi fragmenti su nazna-
čeni u području nekadašnjih šuma i šikara
česvine Quercetum ilicis „adriaticum“, na
poluostrvu Klek kod Neuma, u njegovom
jugoistočnom dijelu.
Iako su zastupljene na malim površi-
nama, ove zajednice imaju pejzažni
značaj, te značaj kao dio diverziteta
mediteranske flore i faune BiH.
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REFUGIO-RELICT LANDSCAPES OF BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA
Refugio-relict habitats represent the most
unique share in bosnia-herzegovina’s envi-
ronment, created in a stormy process of the
Earth’s crust formation, geogensis, evolu-
tion of both climate and living world. Those
places have been least altered in a period be-
tween pre- and post-glaciation having pre-
served their natural ecologic values. In the-
se habitats occur many tertiary plant and
animal species which have endured drastic
climate changes in last glaciation period.
For these habitats have been a shelter for
many plant and animal species during an
Ice Age, they are called refugium. Species
living here are considered to be very old in
the evolutionary sense, addressed therefore
as relicts. This kind of habitats where the
numerous tertiary relict species of plants
and animals live, are of the greatest impor-
tance for Bosnia-Herzegovina’s biodiversity,
and by that also for the global biodiversi-
ty. Position of tertiary relict ecosystems in
Bosnia and Herzegovina is connected with,
first of all, canyons, cliffs and steep slopes
of mountains in the basins of: Una, Vrbas,
Bosna, Drina and Neretva rivers.
In the relict and refugial landscapes of Bos-
nia and Herzegovina the wildlife is, in terms
of ecology and biogeography, differentiated
in several clearly separated complexes. Lar-
gest proportion of these ecosystems belongs
to Eurosibirean-boreoamerican region re-
presented here by the province of relict pine
woods. Yet, refugial habitats in lower supra-
mediterranean and montane belt belong to
the illyrian province in the West and mo-
esian in the southeast. Part of it is situated
in the midle-adriatic sector of the Adriatic
province in Mediterranean region.
LANDSCAPES OF RELICT PINE WOODS
Afer Lakušić (1969; 1980), these landscapes
in biogeographic sense belong to the prov-
ince of relict pine woods. Tis corresponds
with a distribution range of woods of white-
bark pine (Pinus heldreichii), illyrian black
pine (Pinus nigra subsp. austriaca) and dal-
matian black pine (Pinus dalmatica).
Te landscape of relict pine woods diferenti-
ates on vertical and horizontal profle as fol-
lows:
t Ecosystems of dalmatian black pine Pinion dalmaticae;
t Ecosystems of white-bark pine Pinion heldreichii;
t Ecosystems of illyrian black pine Pinion austriacae in geologic/pedologic/foristic series:
t Series of black pine ecosystems on peridote and serpentine Pinenion austricae “serpen-
tinicum”;
t Series of black pine ecosystems on dolomites Pinenion austricae “dolomiticum”;
t Series of black pine ecosystems on limestone Pinenion austricae “calcicolum”.
Ecosystems of dalmatian black pine
Tis ecosystem is fragmentary represented
in the Adriatic province of Bosnia and Her-
zegovina. Tese fragments are recognizable
in the former woods and shrubs of evergreen
oak Quercetum ilicis “adriaticum“ on the Klek
peninsula at Neum city, peninsula’s southeast-
ern region.
Althoug covering small surface, these com-
munities are important as a landscape and as a
share of B&H’s mediterranean fora and fauna.
Ekosistemi šuma munike
Ovaj tip ekosistema se razvija u arealu
šuma endemičnog bora munike Pinus
heldreichii, tercijarne reliktne vrste, koja je
jedan od najznačajnijih četinara dana-
šnjice. Areal munike u Bosni i Hercego-
vini obuhvata prostor planina Orjena,
Veleža, Prenja, Čvrsnice, Čabulje i Vrana u
Hercegovini, te zapadne i jugozapadne
padine planine Hranisave u južnoj Bosni.
Ekološki, geografski i floristički, na
prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine se
diferenciraju tri serije:
lŠume munike na Orjenu;
lŠume munike na planinama oko Nerteve,
lŠume na Hranisavi.
Na planini Orjen munika je prisutna na
brojnim lokalitetima koji geografski
pripadaju Bosni i Hercegovini. Optimum
ima u gornjem dijelu brdskog, u gorskom i
subalpinskom pojasu, kojem daje i
najsnažniji pejzažni pečat i diferencira ga
od drugih masiva Dinarida. Pojas munike
daje unikatnost ovom dijelu Dinarida i
kroz posebne obrasce zoni ranj a
vegetacije.
Geološku podlogu na staništima ovih
šuma čine krečnjaci mezozojske starosti
obl i kovani j aki m padavi nama i
planinskim vjetrom. Staništa imaju izgled
tipičnog krškog područja sa obiljem
Šume munike na Orjen planini
kraških formi reljefa. Tla su plitka i
vodopropusna ( kal komel anosol i ,
rendzine, a na zaravnjenim terenima
kalkokambisoli). Na staništima sa
izraženim nagibima terena, kao tipična
hazmofita, munika zalazi u pukotine
karbonatnih stijena, obrazujući endemi-
čne vegetacijske cjeline. Populacije
munike izgrađuju zajednice i na umi-
renim pretplaninskim siparištima. Na
vlažnim tlima hladnih staništa, munika
gradi mezofilne zajednice sa balkanskom
bukvom Fagus moesiaca.
Pejzaž šuma munike na Orjenu čine
sljedeće endemične zajednice:
lŠume munike mediteransko-montanog pojasa Pinetum heldrechii mediterraneo-
montanum Blečić et Lakušić 1969;
lŠume munike i pjegave čibukovine Viburno maculatae-Pinetum leucodermis Fukarek
1970;
lŠume munike i balkanske bukve Fago moesiacae-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004;
lŠume munike i devesilja Peucedano-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004,
lŠume munike i krčagovine Amphoricarpo neumayeri-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004.
U arealu navedenih šuma staništa nalaze
endemoreliktne vrste: krčagovina
(Amphoricarpus neumayeri), munika (Pinus
hel drei chi i ) , kozokrvi na (Loni cera
glutinosa), pjegava čibukovina (Viburnum
maculatum), orjenski pucavac (Silene
tommasinii) i druge.
U pejzažima šuma munike egzistira i čitav
mozaik drugih tipova staništa, sa bio-
cenozama koje daju unikatnost prostoru,
te ga izdvajaju u posebne biogeografske
cjeline. To su zajednice u pukotinama
stijena endemoreliktne sveze Ampho-
ricarpion neumayeri, te siparišta sveza
Silenion marginatae i Peucedanion.
Na planinama oko Neretve munika ima
svoj ekološki optimum u Bosni i
Hercegovini. Javlja se u gorskom i
subalpinskom pojasu planina Velež,
Prenj, Čvrsnica, Čabulja, te jugoistočnim
Šume munike na planinama oko rijeke Neretve
padinama Vran planine koja predstavlja
njenu zapadnu granicu na Balkanskom
poluotoku.
Staništa u zoni tipičnog hercegovačkog
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Tis ecosystem develops within the distribu-
tion range of endemic white-bark pine Pinus
heldreichii. Tis is a tertiary relict species
which is one of the most important conifer-
ous kind of trees today. Its distribution range
in Bosnia and Herzegovina encompasses
mountains Orjen, Velež, Prenj, Čvrsnica,
Čabulja and Vran in Herzegovina, then
western and southwestern slopes of Hra-
nisava Mt. in southern Bosnia. In respect to
ecology, geography and fora, on the territory
of B&H has been diferentiating three series:
Ecosystems of white-bark pine
t Woods of white-bark pine on Orjen Mt.;
t Woods of white-bark pine on the mountains around Neretva river;
t Woods of white-bark pine on Hranisava Mt.
Woods of white-bark pine on Orjen Mt.
White-bark pine on Orjen Mt. occurs in some
localities that regarding geography belong to
Bosnia and Herzegovina. It accomplishes its
optimum in in the upper montane, upland
and subalpine belt characterizing it in the
most protruding way and making it diferent
from the rest of Dinaric Alps. White-bark
pine’s belt make this area of Dinaric Alps so
unique in terms of vegetation zoning.
Te geologic foundation is limestone of me-
sosoic age shaped by intensive precipitation
and mountain winds. Habitats of white-bark
pine look like typical karst area with diverse
karst relief ’s forms. Soil types are shallow and
permeable (calcomelanosol, rendsin, on fat
ground occur calcocambisol). On extremely
inclinated slopes, as a typical chasmophyte,
white-bark pine penetrates deep into the
cracks of limestone rocks, forming endemic
vegetational units. Populations of white-bark
pine build communities on stabilized sub-
alpine screes. In wet and cold places white-
bark pine builds mesophilous communities
with balkan beech Fagus moesiaca.
On Orjen Mt., landscapes with woods of
white-bark pine are composed of endemic
communities:
t Woods of white-bark pine in the mediterraneao-montane belt Pinetum heldrechii mediterra-
neo-montanum Blečić et Lakušić 1969;
t Woods of white-bark pine and Viburnum maculatum Viburno maculatae-Pinetum leucoder-
mis Fukarek 1970;
t Woods of white-bark pine and balkan beech Fago moesiacae-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004;
t Woods of white-bark pine and fennel Peucedano-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004;
t Woods of white-bark pine and Amphoricarpus Amphoricarpo neumayeri-Pinetum heldreichii
Redžić 2004.
Within the distribution range of above
named habitats are to be found endemo-
relict species: Amphoricarpus (Amphoricar-
pus neumayeri), white-bark pine (Pinus hel-
dreichii), honeysuckle (Lonicera glutinosa),
Viburnum maculatum, Tomasini’s Campion
(Silene tommasinii) and others.
Tese landscapes include the entire complex
of habitat types encompassing biocoenoses
which make this area so unique and divide
it into distinct biogeographic units. Tose
are communities in the rock crevices of the
endemo-relict alliance Amphoricarpion neu-
mayeri, and scree communities of the alli-
ances Silenion marginatae and Peucedanion.
Woods of white-bark pine on the mountains around Neretva river
For the white-bark pine optimal habitats in
Bosnia and Herzegovina are on the moun-
tains around Neretva river.It takes positions
in the upland and sub-alpine belt of moun-
tains Velež, Prenj, Čvrsnica, Čabulja, and on
southeastern slopes of Vran Mt. which is its
western borderline on the Balkan peninsula.
In the typical herzegovina’s karst area its
habitat is on limestone, whereby type of
soil is either calcomelanosol or rendsine
krša su na karbonatnoj geološkoj podlozi,
zemljištu tipa kalkomelanosola i rendzina
(rjeđe kalkokambisola). Na blažim
nagibima munika formira sklopljene
sastojine. Na izraženijim nagibima i ovdje
ulazi u izgradnju hazmofitskih zajednica
u pukotinama stijena, te umirenim
siparima. Na Prenju su sastojine munike
veoma dobro očuvane. Pojedina stabla su
stara i do nekoliko stotina godina, sa
promjerom između 2 i 3 metra.
Na planinama oko rijeke Neretve munika
gradi više endemoreliktnih zajednica:
lŠume munike Pinetum heldreichii mediterrano-montanum Blečić et Lakušić 1969;
lŠume munike i ilirskog crnog bora Pinetum nigrae-leucodermis Fukarek 1966;
lŠume munike i vizijanijeve koštrike Senecioni-Pinetum leucodermis Fukarek 1966;
lŠume munike i krivulja Mugheto-Pinetum leucodermis Fukarek 1966;
lŠume munike i lijepe petoprste Potentillo speciosae-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004;
lŠume munike i modrog lasinja Moltkaeo-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004.
Ove šumske zajednice su staništa mnogih
endemo-relikata: čvrsnička sibireja
(Sibirea croatica), vizijanijev koštrik
(Senecio visianus), apeninska petoprsta
(Potentilla apennina), lijepa petoprsta (P.
speciosa), modro lasinje (Moltkaea petraea),
te druge endemične vrste kamenjara,
pretplaninskih rudina, pukotina stijena i
siparišta.
Visok stepen endemizma zajednica i vrsta
predstavlja razlog prioritetnih mjera
konzervacije ovih staništa kao posebno
važnog dijela bosansko-hercegovačkog
biodiverziteta.
Šume munike na Hranisavi planini
Na zapadnim i jugozapadnim padinama
Hranisave (zapadnog dijela Bjelašnice)
egzistiraju šumske zajednice u kojima
munika ima visoku brojnost i vitalnost.
Ovo područje predstavlja sjevernu
granicu areala munike. Staništa su sa
izraženim nagibom terena na krečnjačkoj
podlozi i zemljištu tipa kalomelanosola i
rendzina (1.600-1.800 m n.v.). Na
hladnijim ekspozicijama munika gradi
zajednice sa mezijskom bukvom, a na
najvećim nagibima gradi hazmofitske
zajednice. Na Hranisavi munika gradi
sljedeće endemo-reliktne zajednice:
lŠume munike i mezijske bukve Fago moesiacae-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004;
lŠume munike i devesilja Peucadno longifolii-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2006;
lŠume munike i mlivnjaka Arcstostaphyllo-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2006.
Šume ilirskog crnog bora
Ilirski crni bor kod nas je predstavljen
posebnom podvrstom Pinus nigra subsp.
nigra, koji na bosansko-hercegovačkim
Dinaridima ima disjunktivni areal.
Njegova staništa su na različitim
supstratima (stare vulkanske stijene,
dolomiti i krečnjaci), a imaju obilježja
refugijuma tercijarne flore. Pinus nigra
subsp. nigra je heliofilna, termofilna i
kserotermna vrsta. U zavisnosti od
geološke podloge i ostalih ekoloških
prilika, diferenciraju se geološko/
pedološko/florističke serije:
lŠume crnog bora na peridotitima i serpentinitima Pinenion austricae
„serpentinicum“;
lŠume crnog bora na dolomitima Pinenion austricae „dolomiticum“;
lŠume crnog bora na krečnjacima Pineion austricae „calcicolum“.
Šume crnog bora na peridotitima i serpentinitima
Ovi ekosistemi zauzimaju velike površine
u ofiolitskoj zoni Bosne i Hercegovine
koju izgrađuju stare vulkanske ili
ultrabazične stijene. U njihovom sastavu
dominiraju serpentiniti, peridotiti,
dijabazi i amfiboli. Međutim, najveći
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(seldom calcocambisol). On the less inclinated
slopes, white-bark pine forms closed stands.
On more inclinated slopes it is a component
of chasmophyte communities of rock crevices
and stabilized screes. On Prenj Mt., stands of
white-bark pine are well preserved with trees
that are several hundred years old, and whose
diameter ranges between 2 and 3 metres.
Te white-bark pine on the mountains around
Neretva river builds few endemo-relict com-
munities:
t Woods of white-bark pine Pinetum heldreichii mediterrano-montanum Blečić et Lakušić 1969;
t Woods of white-bark and illyrian black pine Pinetum nigrae-leucodermis Fukarek 1966;
t Woods of white-bark pine and Visiani’s ragwort Senecioni-Pinetum leucodermis Fukarek
1966;
t Woods of white-bark and mountain pine Mugheto-Pinetum leucodermis Fukarek 1966;
t Woods of white-bark pine and potentil Potentillo speciosae-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004;
t Woods of white-bark pine and rock moltkea Moltkeo-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004.
Tese forest communities are habitats of
many endemo-relict species: Sibirea croatica,
Visiani’s ragwort (Senecio visianii), apennines
potentil (Potentilla apennina), potentil (P. spe-
ciosa), rock moltkea (Moltkaea petraea), and
other endemic species of rocky grassland, sub-
alpine grassland, rock crevices and screes.
High endemism level of species and com-
munities represents reason for urgent con-
servation measures to be undertaken for
this is an extremely important bosnia-her-
zegovina’s biodiversity spot.
Woods of white-bark pine on Hranisava Mt.
On western and southwestern slopes of Hra-
nisava Mt. (which is western part of Bjelašnica
Mt.) exist forest communities in which the
white-bark pine reaches high abundance
and vitality. Tis is the northern borderline
of white-bark pine’s distribution range. Te
habitats are inclinated slopes, on limestone
bedrock. Soil type is either calcomelanosol or
rendsine (1.600-1.800 m above sea level). On
colder places, white-bark pine builds the com-
munities with balkan beech or, on extremely
inclinated ground, chasmophyte kind of com-
munities. On Hranisava Mt., white-bark pine
builds following endemo-relict communities:
t Woods of white-bark pine and balkan beech Fago moesiacae-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2004;
t Woods of white-bark pine and fennel Peucedano longifolii-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2006;
t Woods of white-bark pine and bearberry Arcstostaphyllo-Pinetum heldreichii Redžić 2006.
Woods of illyrian black pine
Illyrian black pine in our country is repre-
sented by special sub-species Pinus nigra
subsp. nigra with disjunctive distribution
range on bosnia-herzegovina’s Dinaric Alps.
It lives on diferent kind of bedrocks (old vol-
canic rocks, dolomites and limestone) having
the features of tertiary fora’s refugia. Pinus
nigra subsp. nigra is heliophylous, thermo-
phylous and xerophylous species. Depending
on geologic foundation and other ecologic
conditions, it is being diferentiated in the
geologic/pedologic/foristic series:
t Woods of black pine on peridote and serpentine Pinenion austricae “serpentinicum“;
t Woods of black pine on dolomites Pinenion austricae “dolomiticum“;
t Woods of black pine on limestone Pinenion austricae “calcicolum“.
Woods of black pine on serpentine and peridote
Tese ecosystems take large area in the zone
of ophyolithes in Bosnia and Herzegovina
built of an old volcanic or ultrabasic rocks. In
the composition prevail serpentine, peridote,
značaj za determinaciju geoflorističkih
obilježja imaju serpentinofiti u seriji sa
peridotitima. Veoma davno (Riter-Stu-
dnička, 1963, 1970) je uočen visok uticaj
abiotičke komponente na karakteristike
živog, posebno biljnog svijeta.
Ofiolitska zona se pruža od planine
Kozare na sjeverozapadu BiH kroz dolinu
Vrbanje, gdje pokriva veće površine na
planinama Uzlomcu i Borji, zatim
nastavlja prema slivnom području rijeke
Bosne, gdje između Zavidovića i Nemile
izgrađuje veoma kompaktan kompleks.
Zona se pruža dolinom rijeke Gostović do
planine Konjuh na kojoj ove stijene grade
ogromne komplekse, spuštajući se sve do
Kladnja, Olovskih luka na jugu i Banovića
na sjeveru. Naročito je živopisna,
geomorfološki dinamična dolina rijeke
Krivaje, koja je na većem dijelu svog toka
izgrađena od ultrabazičnih stijena.
Posebne disjunkcije ovih stijena se
pojavljuju na Ozren planini, na desnoj
obali Spreče, oko Maglaja i Lukavca. Idući
prema istoku i jugoistoku naše zemlje ove
stijene se sve rjeđe javljaju. Tek oko
Višegrada (padine Sjemeč planine, Varda
i Banja) poput ostrva se pojavljuju tamne
vulkanske stijene i dalje se pružaju
dolinom Lima u okolini Rudog, te
nastavljaju prema zapadnoj i jugo-
zapadnoj Srbiji.
Tabela 30. - Sintaksonomski pregled zajednica na serpentinitima i peridotitima
Erico – Pinetum nigrae Rt. 1970 (syn. Erico – Pinetum nigrae
serpentinicum Fuk. P.p. MS)
Erico – Pinetum nigrae serpentinicum Stef. 1963
Pinetum nigrae baziferens Stef. 1973
Pinetum silvestris – nigrae Pavl. bosniacum Marv.
Erico – Quercetum petraeae ((Krause et Ludw. 1957) Ht. 1958) Rt.
1970
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Erico – Abieti – Fagetum Rt. 1970
Halacsyo – Seslerietum rigidae Rt. 1970
Dorycnio – Scabiosetum leucophphyllae Rt. 1970
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Silenetum willdenowii serpentinae Rt. 1970

Erysimo – Sempervivetum heuffelii Rt. 1970

Euphorbio – Fumanetum bonapartei Rt. 1970

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Linarietum concoloris Rt. 1970

Dinamičnost geomorfoloških procesa u
prošlosti uslovila je raznovrstan reljef
koji se odlikuje i oštrim vrhovima i
strmim liticama. Na ovim staništima
javljaju se različite razvojne faze
eutričnih zemljišta (rankeri i eutrični
kambisoli). Tla su podložna eroziji, često
degradirana i povezana sa plitkim
eutričnim regosolom i sirozemom. Tla se
veoma brzo zagrijavaju, što uzrokuje
r azvoj manj e- vi še kser ot er mne
vegetacije. Ova karakteristika pred-
stavlj a razlog specifičnosti naše
serpentinske flore i vegetacije.
Geološka podloga sadrži povećanu
koncentraciju teških metala, što zajedno
sa hidrotermičkim režimom čini speci-
fičnu kombinaciju ekoloških uslova.
Flora i vegetacija ovog prostora ima
nesumnjiv tercijerno-reliktni karakter,
koji se očuvao na ovim staništima tipa
refugijuma do današnjih dana. Osim
šuma bora, na ovim staništima se
pojavljuje niz endemoreliktnih vrsta
vezanih za staništa serpentinsko-
peridotitskih kamenjara, pukotina
stijena i sipara. Na staništima sa dubljim
tlima su razvijene šume crnog bora i
hrasta kitnjaka, a terminalnu fazu u
razvoju vegetacije predstavljaju šume
kitnjaka na eutričnom kambisolu.
94
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diabaz and amphibol. However, most impor-
tant for the determination of geo-foristic
features is serpentine in the series with peri-
dote. Long time ago (Riter-Studnička, 1963,
1970), it was recognized strong infuence of
the abiotic component on the characteristics
of living world, especially when it comes to
plants.
Te zone of ophyolithes stretches from Kozara
Mt. (southwestern B&H), through the valley
of Vrbanja river, where it coveres large area
on the mountains Uzlomak and Borja, con-
tinuing towards Bosna river’s basin, where it
creates a dense complex between Zavidovići
and Nemila. Te zone extends further along
the valley of Gostović river till it reaches Kon-
juh Mt. Here, these rocks make huge com-
plexes going all the way down to Kladanj and
Olovske luke in the South, and Banovići in
the North. Highly dynamic and picture-like
is the valley of Krivaja river which is mainly
built of ultrabasic rocks. Tere are some frag-
ments of these rocks on Ozren Mt.( right side
of Spreča river) and in the surrounding of
towns Maglaj and Lukavac. In the East and
southeast of our country these rocks occur
seldom. But, close to Višegrad city (slopes of
Sjemeč Mt., Vard and Banja), like some kind
of islands, occur dark volcanic rocks extend-
ing futher along the valley of Lim river and
near place called Rudo continue toward west-
ern and southwestern Serbia.
A dynamic geomorphologic processes in
the past have led to diverse relief forms with
sharp peaks and vertical standing clifs. On
such places emerge diferent developmen-
tal stages of eutric kind of soils (ranker and
eutric cambisol). Soils are very sensitive to
the erosion being hence ofen degraded and
represented by shallow eutric regosol and
sirozem. Tese soils warm up quickly which
results in more or less xeric vegetation cover.
Tis feature is the reason why our fora and
vegetation on serpentine bedrock are consid-
ered to be highly specifc.
Geologic foundation contains high concen-
tration of heavy metals, which along with
hydro-thermic regime creates specifc com-
bination of the ecologic conditions. Flora
and vegetation in this area have got tertiary-
relict character preserved till present. Beside
pine forests, in these habitats emerge some
endemo-relict species living on serpentine-
peridote’s rocky grassland, rock crevices and
screes. On deeper developed soil occur for-
ests with black pine and sessile oak, whereas
fnal stage of the vegetation development
represent woods of sessile oak on the eutric
cambisol.
Table 30. – Syntaxonomic overview of the communities on serpentine and peridote
Tabela 31. - Specijski diverzitet na serpentinitima i peridotitima
Reliktni serpentinofiti:
Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss.) Doerfl., Potentilla visianii Panc., Fumana bonapartei Maire et Petitm.,
Haplophyllum boissierianum Vis. et Panc., Gypsophila spergulaefolia Gris. f. serbica Vis. et Panč.
Tipični (iskljucivi ) serpentinofiti:
Scrophularia tristis K. Maly, Sesleria latifolia (Adam.) Degen var. serpentinica Deyl., Linaria concolor

Gris. f. rubioides (Vis. et Panč.) Maly, Potentilla rupestris L. var. mollis (Panč.) A. et G., Polygonum
albanicum Jav., Euphorbia gregersenii K. Maly, Potentilla opaca Jusl. f. malyana (Borb.) Hayek,
Centaurea dubia Sut. subsp. nigrescens (Willd.) Hayek var. smolinensis (Hay.) Kušan, Verbascum
bosnense K. Maly (=V. ostrogi Rohl. var. bosnense Maly), Cytisus heuffelii Wierzb. var. maezeius K. Maly,
Leucanthemum montanum DC. var. crassifolium Fiori, Asplenium adulterinum Milde, Asplenium
cuneifolium Viv., Notholaena marantae (L.) Desv.
Biljke pretežno vezane za serpentin:
Cardamine plumierii Villars., Stachys recta L. subsp. baldacci (K. Maly) Hay. var. chrysophaea Panč.,
Viola beckiana Fiala, Sesleria rigida Heuf., Stachys scardica Gris., Silene armeria L., Silene longifolia
Ehrh., Polygala supina Schreb., Euphorbia glabriflora Vis., Scleranthus perennis L., Pedicularis
brachyodonta Schloss. et Vuk. var. heterodonta (Panc.) Maly, Cerastium moesiacum Friv. f. serpentini

Nov., Bupleurum karglii Vis., Silene paradoxa L., Sedum glaucum W. K., Rumex acetosella L., Rubus
zvornikensis Fr.
Na golom
supstratu
U mezofilnim
sumama Porodice
Vrste Rodovi vrste Rodovi
Compositae 45 26 12 10
Caryophyllaceae 27 17 2 2
Fabaceae 23 11 7 2
Scrophulariaceae 22 10 6 3
Gramineae 21 13 15 12
Rosaceae 13 5 10 9
Umbelliferae 9 7 7 5
Životne forme P CH H G T
Vrste na
golom tlu
3.06 18.72 52.28 8.16 17.34
Vrste u mezofilnim
šumama
20.25 11.39 55.70 8.86 3.80
Vrste na vrištinama - 23.80 61.90 - 14.28
Od nekoliko stotina vrsta vaskularnih
biljaka koje se razvijaju na serpentinsko-
peridotitskoj podlozi, najbrojnije su vrste
iz familija Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae i
Fabaceae. Najveći dio serpentinsko-
peridotitske flore javlja se na golom
matičnom supstratu, a znatno je manje
vrsta na razvijenim šumskim tlima.
Tabela 32. - Spektri sistematske
pripadnosti na različitim tipovima staništa
Tabela 33. - Spektri životnih formi
na različitim tipovima staništa
Analiza pripadnosti životnoj formi
(Riter-Studnička, 1963) ukazuje na
dominaciju hemikriptofita na svim
tipovima serpentinsko-perido-
titskih staništa. Ekstremne uslove
na ovoj podlozi ilustruju i mala
proporcija fanerofita te visoka
zastupljenost terofita.
Serpentinsko-peridotitska staništa
su senzitivna, podložna stalnim
erozijama i naglim odronima, a
nalaze se pod intezivnim uticajem
čovj eka ( prekomj erna sj eča,
neselektivna eksploatacija mine-
ralnih resursa). Biljne vrste i zajed-
nice na ovim staništima se usljed
toga karakterišu određenim stepe-
nom ugroženosti.
Relict serpentinophytes:
Halacsya sendtneri %RLVV'RHUÀPotentilla visianii Panc., Fumana bonapartei Maire et Petitm.,
Haplophyllum boissierianum Vis. et Panc., Gypsophila spergulaefolia Gris. f. serbica Vis. et Panc.
Typical (exclusive ) serpentinophytes:
Scrophularia tristis K. Maly, Sesleria latifolia (Adam.) Degen var. serpentinica Deyl., Linaria conco-
lor Gris. f. rubioides (Vis. et Panc.) Maly, Potentilla rupestris L. var. mollis (Panc.) A. et G., Poly-
gonum albanicum Jav., Euphorbia gregersenii K. Maly, Potentilla opaca Jusl. f. malyana (Borb.)
Hayek, Centaurea dubia Sut. subsp. nigrescens (Willd.) Hayek var. smolinensis (Hay.) Kusan, Ver-
bascum bosnense K. Maly (=V. ostrogi Rohl. var. bosnense Maly), Cytisus heuffelii Wierzb. var.
maezeius K. Maly, Leucanthemum montanum DC. var. crassifolium Fiori, Asplenium adulterinum
Milde, Asplenium cuneifolium Viv., Notholaena marantae (L.) Desv.
Plants prefering serpentine bedrock:
Cardamine plumierii Villars., Stachys recta L. subsp. Baldacci (K. Maly) Hay. var. chrysophaea
Panc., Viola beckiana Fiala, Sesleria rigida Heuf., Stachys scardica Gris., Silene armeria L., Si-
lene longifolia Ehrh., Polygala supina Schreb., (XSKRUELDJODEULÀRUD Vis., Scleranthus perennis L.,
Pedicularis brachyodonta Schloss. et Vuk. var. heterodonta (Panc.) Maly, Cerastium moesiacum
Friv. f. serpentini Nov., Bupleurum karglii Vis., Silene paradoxa L., Sedum glaucum W. K., Rumex
acetosella L., Rubus zvornikensis Fr.
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Table 31. – Species diversity on serpentine and peridote
Among few hundred plants occurring on
serpentine-peridote bedrock, most numer-
ous are the ones from families Compositae,
Caryophyllaceae and Fabaceae. Largest pro-
portion of serpentine-peridote fora occurs
on bare rocks, whereas smaller number of
species occur on well developed forest soils.
Table 32. – Spectrum of systematic belonging
in diferent habitat types
Analysis of living forms (Riter-
-Studnička, 1963) shows domina-
tion of hemikryptophytes in all
types of serpentine-peridote habi-
tats. Extreme conditions are illus-
trated by the small proportion of
phanerophytes and high abundance
of terophytes.
Serpentine-peridote’s habitats are
sensitive; continually eroding and
sliding, submitted to tremendous
human pressure (over-logging, un-
selected exploitation of mineral re-
sources). Because all of that, plants
and their communities in these
habitats are endangered.
Table 33. – Spectrum of living forms
in diferent habitat types
Family
On bare
rocks
In the mesophilous
woods
species
Living form
Species in heathes
Species on bare
rocks
Species in the
mesophilous woods
species genera genera
Šume crnog bora na dolomitima
Dolomitna geološka podloga predstavlja
važna staništa za mnoge endemoreliktne
biljne i životinjske vrste, koje vode
porijeklo još iz dalekog tercijera.
Dolomitna staništa su bila refugijumi
mnogim biljnim i životinjskim vrstama,
pa i čitavim zajednicama u doba
glacijacije, kada je naglo zahlađenje
uzrokovalo stradanje najvećeg dijela
tadašnje flore i faune. Neke od tadašnjih
vrsta su na dolomitnoj podlozi uspjele
preživjeti do današnjih dana.
U Bosni i Hercegovini dolomiti se nalaze
na više lokaliteta. Najčešće su to manje
površine, ali postoje i veliki kompleksi na
kojima je kroz prošlost došlo do razvoja
unikatnog živog svijeta.
Najznačajniji kompleksi dolomita u BiH,
koji imaju izuzetne pejzažne vrijednosti
su:
lPodručje oko Konjica u Hercegovini (dolina rijeke Trešanice, Zlatar i Vrataljica),
odavno proglašeno Botaničkim rezervatom dolomitne flore i vegetacije;
lProstor uz gornji tok rijeke Neretve (Borci, Glavatičevo i područje uzvodno prema
Ulogu);
lManji dolomitni kompleks u srednjem toku Neretve (u području Doljanke, nizvodno
od Jablanice, u području Drežnice);
lPodručje oko Lastve, u dolini rijeke Trebišnjice (vještačka akumulacija „Gorica“)
uzvodno od Trebinja;
lPodručje Koprivnice izmedju Bugojna, Donjeg Vakufa, Prusca i Kupresa, uključujući
i Malu Plazenicu;
lPodručje oko Drvara u zapadnoj Bosni;
lManji kompleks kod Rakovice i Lepenice jugozapadno od Sarajeva;
lManji kompleks uz rijeku Glasinac i Bravničku Riku između Bravnica i Janja;
lKompleks Bila kod Travnika i manji lokaliteti, u zoni krečnjačkih stijena.
Osnovna karakteristika bosansko-
hercegovačkih dolomitnih pejzaža je
izuzetno visok stepen endemičnosti i
reliktnosti biljnih i životinjskih vrsta, a
time i njihovih zajednica.
Flora i fauna na dolomitnim kompleksima
je specifična, a mnoge vrste žive isključivo
na ovom t i pu podl oge . To s u
dolomobionti, a među njima je najveći
broj dolomitofita. Na dolomitima svoje
stanište nalaze i mnoge planinske vrste
biljaka kao što su: planinski ljutić,
kupusnjača, dinarski encijan koje se ovdje
spuštaju i do 800 metara n.v. S druge
strane, toplina staništa uzrokovala je i
naseljavanje mediteranskih i subme-
diteranskih vrsta kao što su žutilovka
(Genista dalmatica), mlječika hercegovačka
(Euphorbia hercegovina), žalfija (Salvia
officinalis), modro lasinje (Moltkaea petraea)
i drugih.
Dolomit je trošna stijena, podložna
drobljenju, te stalnim procesima erozije i
odrona. Na ovoj stijeni su razvijene
rendzine, sa relativno plitkim humusno-
akumulativnim horizontom. Zbog
i zražene erozi j e, tl a su naj češće
degradirana i alterniraju sa dolomitnim
sirozemima i regosolima. Na blažim
nagibima terena, razvijena su smeđa
karbonatna tla, u kojima zbog dubine
profila slabi uticaj dolomitne podloge. Na
njima se pojavljuju vrste koje imaju šire
rasprostranjenje. Smatra se da je sadržaj
magnezij a odgovoran za trošnost
dolomitne stijene, ali i kao faktor
det ermi naci j e bi l j nog pokrova i
životinjskih naselja.
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Woods of black pine on dolomites
As a geologic foundation, dolomite repre-
sents a habitat for many endemo-relict plant
and animal species originating from Tertia-
ry. It used to be refugium for plant and ani-
mal species, and even entire communities,
in the glaciation period. During that period,
sudden decrease in temperature has caused
a damage to fora and fauna that existed at
that time. But, some of those species have en-
dured till present on the dolomite bedrock.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina dolomite oc-
curs in several localities. Usually it is a small
surface, but there are also large complexes
where it was created unique living world in
the past.
Most important dolomite complexes in B&H
with the outstanding landscape’s value are:
t Area around Konjic town in Herzegovina (valley of Trešanica river, Zlatar and Vrataljica
hills), long time ago designated as the Botanic Reserve of dolomite fora and vegetation;
t Area in the upper fow of Neretva river (Borci, Glavatičevo and area upstreams to Ulog);
t Smaller dolomite complex in the midle of Neretva river’s fow (area around Doljanka river,
downstreams from Jablanica, Drežnica area);
t Area around Lastva, in the valley of Trebišnjica river (artifcially impoded accumulation
“Gorica“) upstreams from Trebinje town;
t Area of Koprivnica between Bugojno, Donji Vakuf, Prusac and Kupres, including Mala
Plazenica;
t Area around Drvar in the western Bosnia;
t Smaller complex near Rakovica and Lepenica southwestern from Sarajevo;
t Smaller complex along the Glasinac river and Bravnička Rika between Bravnice and Janj;
t Complex called Bila at Travnik city and smaller localities in the limestone zone.
Main characteristic of bosnia-herzegovina’s
landscapes on dolomite is high level of en-
demism and relictness of plant and animal
species, which refers also to their communi-
ties.
Flora and fauna on dolomite is highly spe-
cifc. Many species live exclusively on this
kind of bedrock. Tese are dolomitobionts,
of which biggest proportion make dolomito-
phytes. On dolomite bedrock can be found
many high-mountain plants, such as: moun-
tain buttercup, crucifers, dinaric gentian
which go down till 800 meters above sea
level. On the other hand, warmth of climate
made possible for many mediterranean and
supra-mediterranean plants to live here, such
is the case with greenweed (Genista dalmat-
ica), herzegovina’s spurge (Euphorbia herce-
govina), sage (Salvia ofcinalis), rock molt-
kea (Moltkaea petraea) and others.
Dolomite is a kind of rock that crumbles,
erodes and slides. On dolomite bedrock
emerges mainly rendsine with shallow hu-
mus-accumulative horizon. Due to protrud-
ing erosion, the soil is frequently degraded
and exchanges with sirozem and regosol. On
less inclinated slopes develops brown earth
in which the infuence of dolomite weakens
because of profle’s depth. On that kind of
soil emerge species with wider distribution
range. It is commonly believed that magne-
sium’s content is responsible for the dolo-
mite’s crumbling, but also for the selection of
vegetation cover and animal communities.
Tabela 34. - Sintaksonomski pregled zajednica na dolomitima
ERICO – PINETALIA (Oberd. 49) em. Ht 59

Orno – Ericion dolomiticum Ht 59

Erico verticillati – Pinetum Rt. 67
Orchido zlatari – Pinetum Rt. 67
Cephalario flavae – Pinetum Rt. 67
Orchido (spitzelii) – Pinetum nigrae Rt. 67
Daphno cneori – Pinetum Rt. 67
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Pinetum silvestris dinaricum Stef. 58
SCORZONERO – CHRYSOPOGONETALIA H-ic et Ht (56) 58
Peucedanion neumayeri Rt. 67
Centauretum atropurpureae Rt. 67
Micromerio – Crepidetum pantocseki Rt. 1967
Saponario – Scabiosetum canescentis Rt. 1967
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Alyssetum moelendorfiani Rt. (1956) em. 1967
Bosansko-hercegovačke dolomitofite, kao
š t o s u g r o mo t u l j a ( A l y s s u m
moelendorfianum), majčina dušica (Thymus
aureopunctatus), vrisić (Acinos orontius),
daju visoku vrijednosti ovim staništima.
Zbog prirode dolomitnih stijena s jedne
strane i niza antropogenih uticaja, s druge
strane (prekomjerna sječa, sakupljanje
l j ekovi t i h i aromat i čni h bi l j aka,
intenzivna ispaša) ova staništa, vrste i
zajednice se nalaze pod određenim
stepenom ugroženosti.
Pored bujnih šuma ilirskog crnog bora
(Orno-Ericenion „dolomiticum“), na
dolomitima su razvijene i različite
sastojine kserotermnih hrastovih i
termofilnih bukovih šuma. Najvišim
stepenom endemičnosti i reliktnosti se
odlikuju zajednice dolomitnih kamenjara,
pukotina stijena i sipara.
Šume crnog bora na krečnjacima
Šume crnog bora razvijene su i na
krečnjacima, na plitkim humusno-
akumulativnim tlima (crnicama), pa čak i
na sirozemima i regosolima. Samo na
zaravnjenim terenima su razvijena smeđa
krečnj ačka t l a. Ove šume i maj u
disjunktivni areal u kojem obrazuju
specifične ekosisteme sa naglašenim
pej zažni m vri j ednosti ma, u zoni
lišćarsko-listopadnih termofilnih šuma.
Posebno vrijedna staništa šuma crnog
bora na krečnjacima se nalaze u
kanjonima: Sutjeske, Neretve i Drine, gdje
u pukotinama stijena crni bor izgrađuje
više endemoreliktnih zajednica.
97
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Table 34. – Syntaxonomic overview of the communities on dolomite
Special value to these habitats is provided
by the occurence of bosnia-herzegovina’s
dolomitophytes, such as alyssum (Alyssum
moelendorfianum), thyme (Thymus aure-
opunctatus ), acinos (Acinos orontius). Be-
cause of the characteristics of dolomite and
anthropogenic pressures (over-logging, col-
lection of medicinal and aromatic plants,
over-grazing) these habitats, species and
communities are under certain threat.
Apart from the illyrian black pine woods
(Orno-Ericenion “dolomiticum“), on do-
lomite occur also different kind of xeric
stands of oak and thermophilous beech
woods. The highest level of endemism and
relictness is reached in the communities of
rocky grassland, rock crevices and screes on
dolomite.
Woods of black pine on limestone
Black pine woods are also developed on the
bedrock made of limestone, on shallow hu-
mus-accumulative type of soil (black earth),
even on sirozem and regosol. Brown earth
emerges only on the fattened ground. Tese
woods have got a disjunctive distribution
range with specifc ecosystems of great land-
scape’s value occuring in the zone of broad-
leaved deciduous thermophilous woods.
Highly valuable habitats of black pine on
the limestone are to be found in canyons of:
Sutjeska, Neretva and Drina rivers. In the
rock crevices of these canyons, black pine
builds few endemo-relict communities.
Specifične orografske, geomorfološke,
hidrološke, odnosno ekološke prilike
uslovile su pojavu klisura i kanjona u
slivnim područj ima svih važnij ih
vodotoka Bosne i Hercegovine. Obale
klisura i kanjona su strme, kod nas
izgrađene uglavnom od karbonatnih
stijena (krečnjaka i dolomita). Duboki su
između nekoliko desetina i nekoliko
stotina metara. Kanjon Neretve, između
planina Prenj i Čvrsnica dubok je 1.700 m.
Među najpoznatijim su kanjon rijeke
Sutjeske i kanjon rijeke Une. Na ovim
staništima je tokom prošlosti došlo do
razvoja specifične ekoklime kanjona i
klisura. Ova zaklonjena, sigurna i
nepristupačna staništa su omogućila
preživljavanje populacija brojnih vrsta od
tercijera do danas.
Ekoklimu kanjona i klisura karakterišu
visoka dnevna i sezonska osciliranja svih
faktora, posebno temperature. Na ovim
staništima je česta i pojava temperaturnih
PEJZAŽI RELIKTNO-REFUGIJALNIH EKOSISTEMA U
KLISURAMA I KANJONIMA BOSANSKOHERCEGOVAČ-
KIH RIJEKA
inverzija. Vrlo specifičan kompleks
ekoloških faktora uzrokovao je pojavu
uni katnog ži vog svi j eta bogatog
endemima i reliktima.
Kanjone i klisure Bosne i Hercegovine
danas karakteriše visok geomorfološki,
ekosistemski i specijski diverzitet, pa
mnogi autori smatraju da ova staništa
predstavlj aj u globalnu vrij ednost.
Upravo u refugijumima, kakvi su naši
kanjoni i klisure rijeka, su i razvojni centri
flore, faune i vegetacije.
Zbog izražene dinamike u variranju
osnovnih ekoloških faktora na ovim
staništima se i danas odvijaju intezivni
procesi specijacije i endemogeneze,
odnosno nastajanja novih vrsta. Takvi
razvojni centri se nalaze u slivnim
područjima rijeke Une, Drine, Vrbasa,
Bosne, u Peripanoniji na obroncima
masiva kao što su Kozara, Prosara,
Motajica i Majevica.
Polidominantne zajednice
Jedinstvenost i neponovljivost biodi-
verziteta na ovim staništima ogleda se i
kroz pojavu polidominantnih zajednica i
ekosistema, koje karakteriše najviši nivo
florističkog i faunističkog diverziteta.
Kao rezultat specifičnog djelovanja
ekoloških faktora u klisurama i kanjonima
bosansko-hercegovačkih rij eka uz
izraženo variranje hidrotermičkog režima
u prošlosti, došlo je do formiranja takvih
tipova biocenoza, kojima fizionomiju
determinišu različite vrste drveća.
Posebnost ovim zaj ednicama daj e
neuobičajeno veliki broj drvenastih vrsta
u funkciji edifikatora. Dok se u tipičnim
terestričnim zajednicama pojavljuje
nekoliko edifikatora i subedifikatora, u
refugijalnim zajednicama tu ulogu
preuzima i po nekoliko desetina vrsta
drvenastih biljaka. U sastavu ovakvih
zajednica koje su razvijene jedino na
refugijalnim staništima, kao što su
kanjoni i klisure, nekada ulazi i preko 50
drvenastih vrsta, te ih zovemo polidomi-
nantnim. Jedna od najpoznatijih takvih
zajednica u Bosni i Hercegovini je Aceri-
Tilietum mixtum Stefanović, 1979, razvi-
jena u kanjonima Une, Vrbasa, Drine i
Neretve.
Osi m pol i domi nant ni h zaj edni ca
neponov-ljivost pejzažima kanjona i
klisura daju i zajednice u pukotinama
stijena i sipara, uglavnom endemičnog i
reliktnog karaktera. Ovo su staništa
najvećeg broja endemičnih vrsta i
zajednica na prostoru Bosne i Herce-
govine. Refugijalno reliktni ekosistemi
imaju najviše vrijednosti u biodiverzitetu
Bosne i Hercegovine sa aspekta očuvanja
unikatnog genofonda od nacionalne
vrijednosti, a čine naš dio globalnih
vrijednosti na nivou Evrope i svijeta.
98
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LANDSCAPES OF ENDEMO-RELICT ECOSYSTEMS IN THE
CLIFFS AND CANYONS OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA’S RIVERS
Specifc orographic, geomorphologic and
hydrologic, respectively ecologic, conditions
have caused the occurence of clifs and can-
yons in the basins of all important water-
courses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sides of
the clifs and canyons are steep, mainly built
of the limestone (carbonate and dolomite).
Tey are as ten or hundred metres as deep.
Te canyon of Neretva river, between moun-
tains Prenj and Čvrsnica is 1.700 metres
deep. Te most famous canyons are those of
Sutjeska and Una rivers. In the past, here was
created a specifc ecoclimate of canyons and
clifs. Tose sheltered, safe and remote places
enabled survival of distinct populations from
Tertiary till today.
Te ecoclimate of canyons and clifs is char-
acterized by high diurnal and seasonal varia-
tion in all factors, especially in temperature.
In these habitats frequently occur so called
temperature inversions, which is one of the
world’s rarities. Highly specifc complex of
ecologic factors has led to the development
of unique living world that is rich in endemic
and relict species.
Te canyons and clifs of Bosnia and Herze-
govina are characterized by high diversity
in geomorphology, ecosystems and species,
hence many authors consider it as global val-
ue. In the refugial habitats, such as our can-
yons and clifs, are situated a development
centres of fora, fauna and vegetation.
Because of the underlined dynamics and
variation of the main ecologic factors, in
these habitats still evolve intensive processes
of speciation and endemogenesis, respective-
ly the creation of new species. Tat kind of
development centres are to be found in the
basins of Una, Drina, Vrbas and Bosna riv-
ers, and in the peri-pannonian region on the
slopes of mountains Kozara, Prosara, Mota-
jica and Majevica.
Polydominant communities
Te uniqueness of the biodiversity in these
habitats is refected through the occurence of
polydominant communities and ecosystems
which are characterized by the highest level
of foristic and faunisitic diversity.
As a result of specifc combination of ecolog-
ic factors, in the clifs and canyons of bosnia-
herzegovina’s rivers, along with high varia-
tion in hydro-thermic regime in the past,
evolved such biocoenoses whose physiogno-
my is determined by a diferent tree species.
Tose communities are unique in the high
proportion of trees as edifcator species. In
typical terrestrial kind of communities oc-
cur only few edifcator and sub-edifcator
species. In the refugial communities that
role is overtaken by dozens of tree species.
Tere are even some cases when in the fo-
ristic composition of refugial habitats, such
as clifs and canyons, occur over 50 tree spe-
cies being therefore named as polydominant
communities. One of the most famous such
communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina is
Aceri-Tilietum mixtum Stefanović, 1979, de-
veloped in the canyon of Una, Vrbas, Drina
and Neretva rivers.
Apart from the polydominant communi-
ties, the landscapes of canyons and clifs are
unique by the communities of rock crevices
and screes, which are mainly endemic and
relict ones. Majority of endemic species and
communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina is
situated here. Te refugial-relict ecosystems
posses the highest value within bosnia-her-
zegovina’s biodiversity from the standpoint
of gen pool’s preservation on national scale.
Tis is our share in the global natural value
on European and world’s scale.
REFUGIJALNI I RELIKTNI EKOSISTEMI U SLIVNOM PODRUČJU
RIJEKE UNE
Rijeka Una je tipična kraška rijeka. Izvire
mirnim vrelom ispod Stražbenice, planine
u Hrvatskoj, u zoni reliktnih šuma bukve i
crnog graba (Ostryo-Fagetum). Na svom
toku dugom 207 km, obrazuje više
sedrenih slapova (Martin Brod, Štrbački
Buk, Veliki i Mali Slap uzvodno od Ripča),
a od Bihaća teče manje više brzim tokom,
obrazujući vodene draperije, manje
slapove, sve do Novog, odakle postaje
ravničarska rijeka, mirnog toka. Na svom
putu protiče kroz tjesnace i kanjone, u
kojima se do danas zadržala iskonska
vegetacija, flora i fauna, sa obiljem
endemičnih vrsta. Na slici 8. istaknuti su
refugijumi u slivnom području Une,
utvrđeni uz uvažavanja međunarodnih
kriterija kategorizacije staništa.
Campanula pyramidalis, C. unensis, C. wetsteinii, Moehringia maly, Asplenium lepidum, Edraianthus
croaticus, Potentilla clusiana, Corydalis leiosperma, Micromeria thymifolia, Cerastium dinaricum,
Satureia montana, Ruta divaricata, Satureia subspicata, Iris illyrica, Iris reichenbachii, Daphne cneorum,
Asparagus tenuifolius, Sesleria autumnalis, Ruscus aculeatus, Acer hircanum.
Tabela 35. - Endemoreliktne biljne vrste kanjona Une
Kanjon rijeke Sane, nizvodno
od Ključa, prema Sokolovu
Izvorišna čelenka rijeke
Krušnice, desne pritoke Une
kod Bosanske Krupe

Klisura/Kanjon rijeke Kozice,
desne pritoke Sane
Izorišna čelenka rijeke
Ribnik, desne pritoke Sane
Izvorišna čelenka rijeke
Sanice, uzvodno od mjesta
Sanica
Kanjon Une nizvodno od
„Sedre“ do Bosanske Krupe
sa brojnim slapovima
Klisura Une sa Velikim i Malim
Slapom u predjelu Ripča i
Starog grada Sokolac
Štrbački buk sa tijesnim
kanjonom Une prema Lohovu
Izvorišni dio Unca sa brojnim
vrelima u predjelu mjesta
Preodac
Izvorišna čelenka rijeke Klokot,
lijeve pritoke Une kod Bihaća
Klisura rijeke Une nizvodno
od Srpca, zajedno sa
slapovima na Martin Brodu
Izvorišna čelenka Bastašice,
lijeve pritoke rijeke Unac,
nizvodno od Drvara Kanjon rijeke Unac, desne
pritoke Une kod

Martin Broda
Vodopad i klisura rijeke
Blihe do Kamengrada
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Slika 8. – Reliktno-refugijalna staništa u slivnom području rijeke Une
Posebne atribute refugijalnosti ovih
staništa daju populacije reliktne vrste
Platanus orientalis, koja u priobalnom
pojasu kanjonskog toka rijeke Une sa
crnom j ohom obrazuj e i reliktne
vodoljubive zajednice poznate jedino iz
ovog kanjona.
Fauna bosanskohercegovačkih kanjona je
veoma i nt er esant na. U novi j i m
istraživanjima je konstatovano da su
kanjonski lokaliteti stjecišta rodova
različite starosti i utočišta za reliktne
oblike. Samo u proučavanjima naselja
suhozemnih gastropoda u kanjonu Une je
konstatovano 11 vrsta koje su ostaci
glacijalnih i predglacijalnih razdoblja.
Canyon of Sana river,
downstreams from .OMXþ
Spring area of Krušnica river,
right tributary of Una river at
Bosanska Krupa
Canyon of Kozica river, right
tributary of Sana river
Spring area of Ribnik river,
right tributary of Sana river
Spring area of Sanica river,
upstreams form place called
Sanica
Canyon of Una river
downstreams from „Sedra“to
Bosanska Krupa with
Narrow passage of Una with
9HOLNL DQG 0DOL 6ODS LQ 5LSDþ
area and old city of Sokolac
âWUEDþNL EXN with narrow
canyon of Una river toward
Spring area of Unac river with
numerous wells at place
called Preodac
Spring area of Klokot river, left
WLUEXWDU\RI8QDULYHUDW%LKDü
Narrow passage of Una river
downstreams from Srbac with
cascades at Martin Brod
Spring area of Bastašica river,
left tributary of Unac river,
downstreams from Drvar
Canyon of Unac river, right
tributary of Una river at Martin
Waterfall and narrow
passage of Bliha river
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Canyon of Sana river,
downstreams from Kljuc, toward
Sokolovu
Spring area of Krunica river, right
tributary of Una river at Bosanska
Krupa
Canyon of Kozica river, right
tributary of Sana river
Spring area of Ribnik river, right
tributary of Sana river
Spring area of Sanica river,
upstreams form place called
Sanica
Canyon of Una river downstreams
from Sedrato Bosanska Krupa
with numerous cascades
Narrow passage of Una with Veliki
and Mali Slap in Ripac area and
old city of Sokolac
trbacki buk with narrow canyon
of Una river toward Lohovo
Spring area of Unac river with
numerous wells at place called
Preodac
Spring area of Klokot river, left tirbutary
of Una river at Bihac
Narrow passage of Una river
downstreams from Srbac with
cascades at Martin Brod
Spring area of Bastaica river, left
tributary of Unac river,
downstreams from Drvar Canyon of Unac river, right
tributary of Una river at Martin
Brod
Waterfall and narrow
passage of Bliha river from
Kamengrada
99
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REFUGIAL-RELICT ECOSYSTEMS IN THE BASIN OF
UNA RIVER
Una river is a typical karst river. Its source
is calm and situated beneath Stražbenica
Mt., which is in Croatia, in the zone of relict
beech-hope hornbeam woods (Ostryo-Fage-
tum). On its 207 km long journey, it makes
several tuf cascades (Martin Brod, Štrbački
Buk, Veliki and Mali Slap upstreams from
Ripač), fowing more or less swifly from
Bihać city making on its way to Novi few wa-
ter curtains and small cascades. Tereafer
it becomes lowland river, calm and slow. On
its way Una river fows through the narrow
passages and canyons where it has been pre-
served a genuine vegetation, fora and fauna,
with many endemic species. In Figure 6.
highlightened are refugia in the basin of Una
river, designated in accordance with interna-
tional criteria for habitat’s categorization.
Table 35. – Endemo-relict plant species in the canyon Una river
Figure 8. – Refugial-relict habitats in the basin of Una river
A special refugial attributes to these habitats
are provided by the populations of relict spe-
cies Platanus orientalis, which, in the canyon
area along the riversides, forms relict hydro-
philous community with alder. Tis is a sole
fnding place of that community.
Fauna of bosnia-herzegovina’s canyons is
very interesting, too. Te recent investiga-
tions have confrmed that canyons are fnding
places of genera of diferent age and shelter
for many relict forms. Te study of terrestrial
gastropods in the canyon of Una river has re-
vealed 11 species that are remnants from the
glaciation and pre-glaciation periods.
Tabela 36. - Reliktne vrste gastropoda u slivu rijeke Une
Acanthinulla lamellata, Acanthinulla harpa, Vallonia tenuilabris, Vitrea contortula, Vitrea subefusa,
Vitrea pygmaea, Oxychilus alliarius, Oxychilus diaphanelus, Phenacolimax annularis, Semilimax
semilimax, Acicula polita.
MOLTKEETALIA PETRAEAE Lakušić 1968
Edraianthion Lakušić 1968
Centaureo glaberimae – Onosmetum stellulati Lakušić & Redžić 1991
Hyssopi – Crepidetum hondriloidis Lakušić & Redžić 1991
Centaureo deustae – Campanuletum pyramidalis Lakušić & Redžić 1991
Asplenio lepidi – Campanuletum unaensis Lakušić et Redžić 1991
Euphorbio – Asperuletum scutellaris Lakušić et Redžić 1991
Saxifrago – Polypodietum australis Lakušić et Redžić 1991
Achnanthero – Moehringietum malyi Lakušić et Redžić 1991
AMPHORICARPETALIA Lakušić 1968
Micromerion croaticae Ht. 1931
Leonopodio – Edraianthetum croatici Lakušić et al. 1975
Edraiantho – Potentilletum clusianae Lakušić 1968
Asplenietum fissi Ht. 1931
Potentilletum clusianae Ht. 1931
POTENTILLETALIA CAULESCENTIS Br. – Bl.
Moehringion muscosae Ht. et H-ic. 1959
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Moehringio – Corydaletum Ht. 1962
DRYPEETALIA SPINOSAE Quezel 1967
Peltarion alliaceae H-ic (1956) 1958
Micromerio thymifolii – Corydaletum leiospermae Lakušić & Redžić 1991
Asplenio – Ceterachetum officinari unaensis Lakušić & Redžić 1991
ARABIDETALIA FLAVESCENTIS Lakušić 1968
Silenion marginatae Lakušić 1968
Cerastietum dinaricae Ht. 1931
Bunion alpini Lakušić 1968
Bunio – Iberetum carnosae Ht. 1931
THLASPEETALIA ROTUNDIFOLII Br. – Bl. 1926
Thlaspeion rotundifolii Br. – Bl. 1926
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Petasitetum paradoxi Beg. 1922 dinaricum Lakušić 1990
SCORZONERO – CHRYSOPOGONETALIA H-ic & Ht. (1956) 1958
Satureion montanae Ht. 1962
Physospermo – Satureietum montanae Redžić et Lakušić 1991
Artemisio albae – Rutetum Redžić et Lakušić 1991
Satureion subspicatae Ht. 1962
Satureio subspicatae – Festucetum dalmaticae Redžić et Lakušić 1991
Thymi – Teucrietum chamaedrys Redžić et Lakušić 1991
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Achilleo nobilis – Dorycnietum herbacei Redžić et Lakušić 1991
PINETALIA MUGHI Lakušić 1972
Pinion mughi Pawlow. 1928
Pinetum mughi dinaricum calcicolum Lakušić et al. 1973
PINETALIA HELDREICHII – NIGRAE Lakušić 1972
Pinion nigrae Lakušić 1972 V
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Daphno cneori – Pinetum Rt. 1967

Pored relikata iz ovog perioda u slivu Une su konstatovane i populacije tercijernog
relikta Scolopendrellopsis microcolpa Muhr 1881, te reliktnih rodova oligocenske starosti
Cochlostoma i Vitrea.
Naročite vrijednosti i dinamiku pejzažima u slivu Une daju i ekosistemi sedrenih
barijera i slapova, kao prirodni fenomeni u ovom dijelu Dinarida i svijeta.
Tabela 37. – Sintaksonomski pregled zajednica na reliktno-refugijalnim staništima u
slivnom području rijeke Une
100
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Table 36. – Relict gastropods in the basin of Una river
In the basin of Una river were recorded populations of Scolopendrellopsis microcolpa Muhr
1881, which is a tertiary relict, and relict species from genera Cochlostoma and Vitrea dating
back in Oligocoen.
Special value and dynamics to the landscapes of Una river’s basin are ensured by the ecosys-
tems of tuf barriers and cascades, natural phenomena in the Dinaric Alps and this part of
the world in general.
Table 37. – Syntaxonomic overview of the communities in
refugio-relict habitats of the Una river’s basin
ABIETI – PICEETALIA (Br. – Bl. 1939) Lakuši ć et al. 1979
Abietion albae (Ht. 1956) Lakušić et al. 1979
Calamagrosti – Abietetum Ht. 1950
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Rhamno – Abietetum Fuk. 1958
QUERCETALIA PUBESCENTIS Br. – Bl. (1931) 1932
Quercion pubescentis – petraeae Br. – Bl. 1931
Asparago tenuifolii – Quercetum pubescentis Lakušić et Redžić 1991
Quercion petraeae – cerris (Lakušić 1976) Lakušić et B. Jovanovic 1980
Orno – Quercetum cerris Stefanovic 1968
OSTRYO – CARPINETALIA ORIENTALIS Lakušić, Pavlovic, Redžić 1982
Carpinion orientalis Blecic &Lakušić 1966
Aceri – Carpinetum orientalis Blecic &Lakušić 1966
Rusco – Carpinetum orientalis continentale Lakušić et Redžić 1991
Seslerio – Ostryon Lksic., Pavlov. & Redži ć 1982 (Syn.: Orneto – Ostryon Tom.
1940 p.p.)
Seslerio autumnalis – Ostryetum carpinifoliae Ht. et H-ic. 1950
Rusco aculeati – Ostryetum carpinifoliae Redžić et Lakušić 1991
FAGETALIA MOESIACAE Lakušić 1991
Ostryo – Fagenion moesiacaeae B. Jovanovic 1976
Aceri obtusati – Fagetum (moesiacae) Fab., Fuk. & Stef. 1963
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Aceri – Tilietum mixtum Stef. 1979


„Vodeni rukavci se vješto provlače između
stabala crne johe, bijele i lomljive vrbe,
poljskog jasena, crne zove ili bazge i obično se
spuštaju niz strme sedrene padine koje nastaše
kroz dugi niz godina, djelovanjem bistre i
kisikom bogate vode, algi i modrozelenih
bakterija, vodenih insekata i mahovina. Kako
sedra raste iz godine u godinu, ona mijenja
mikroreljef i pravac vodenih rukavaca. Nisu
zato rijetke prilike da su neki od njih presušili i
stvorili se novi. U toj dinamici su i posebne
prirodne čari i fenomen sedrotvoraca i samih
sedrenih naslaga. Ovako nastale sedrene
barijere uticale su na postanak mnogih
depresija u kojima se voda umiri kao u kakvom
jezeru. Na ovaj način su nastala i mnoga
sedrena jezera u dinarskom kršu.“ (Navod iz
TV emisije „Prirodna baština BiH“)

Flora sedrenih cijanobakterija i algi:
Dinamičnost organogene sedrene stijene,
visok biološki kvalitet voda, i funkcio-
nalna veza sa priobalnim ekosistemima,
uslovile su razvoj endemoreliktnih
zajednica mikro i makrofita sa velikim
bogatstvom vodenih insekata (iz grupa
Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Psihodida,
Simulida), među kojima su mnoge
stenoendemične vrste. Osim ovih grupa
organizama, neprocjenjivu vrijednost
ovim ekosistemima daju populacije
brojnih vrsta riba, od kojih su se neke
salmonidne vrste još zadržale jedino u
ovim ekosistemima.
Chamaesiphon incrustans, Homoeothrix crustacea, Homoeothrix varians, Hydrocoleum
homoeotrichum f. tenue, Hydrocoleum uncinatum, Microcoleus subtorulosus, Nostoc punctiforme,
Nostoc sphaericum, Phormidium faveolarum, Phormidium uncinatum, Rivularia haematites,
Schizotrix fasciculata, Tolypotrix distorta, Bangia atropurpurea, Chantransia pygmea, Lemanea
fluviatilis, Hydrurus foetidus, Vaucheria sessilis, Closterium ehrenbergii, Closterium moniliferum,
Microspora amoena, te dijatomeje Achnanthidium minutissimum, Amphora ovalis, Amphora
pediculus, Caloneis silicula, Cocconeis pediculus, Cocconeis placentula, Cymatopleura solea,
Cymbella prostrata, Cymbella sinuata, Denticula tenuis, Diploneis oblongella, Ellerbeckia arenaria,
Fragilaria capucina, Fragilaria ulna var. ulna, Melosira varians, Navicula reinhardtii, Nitzschia
fonticola, Surirella angustata, Surirella spiralis.
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“Te armlets run skillfully between trees of al-
der, white and crack willow, Fraxinus angusti-
folius, elder bourtree and usually descend steep
tuf slopes which are created by the longlasting
activity of clear, oxygen rich water, alges, blue-
green bacteria, aquatic insects and mosses. As a
tuf layer gets bigger year afer year, it changes
the microrelief features and direction of the arm-
lets. Tus, it is quite common the case that some
of them dry out, while the new ones emerge. Tis
dynamics includes a magic of nature, tuf-form-
ing organisms and tuf itselfs. Tuf barriers that
were created in this way had an impact onto
formation of depressions in which water settle
down like in some kind of lake. In this way cre-
ated are many tuf lakes within dinaric karst.“
(quoted from TV show “Prirodna baština BiH“)
Flora sedrenih cijanobakterija i algi:
Chamaesiphon incrustans Grun., Homoeothrix crustacea W.Oronichin, Homoeothrix varians Geitler, Hydrocoleum
homoeotrichum Kütz f. tenue, Hydrocoleum uncinatum, Microcoleus subtorulosus Bréb., Nostoc punctiforme (Kutz.)
Hariot, Nostoc sphaericum Vacher ex Bornet et Flahault, Phormidium faveolarum (Mont.) Gom., Phormidium un-
cinatum (Ag.) Gom., Rivularia haematites (DC.)Ag., Schizotrix fasciculata ( Naeg.)Gom., Tolypotrix distorta Kutz.ex
Bornet et Flahault, Bangia atropurpurea (Roth) Ag., Chantransia pygmea Kutz., Lemanea fuviatilis (L.) C.Agardh,
Hydrurus foetidus Kirch., Vaucheria sessilis Dcand., Vaucheria sp. Dcand., Spirogyra sp., Mougeotia sp.,Closterium
ehrenbergii Menegh. ex Ralfs, Closterium moniliferum (Bory)Ehrenb., Cladophora glomerata (Kutz.), Microspora
amoena (Kutz.)Rabenh., Oedogonium sp., te dijatomeje Achnanthidium minutissimum ( Kutz.) Czarn., Amphora ova-
lis ( Kutz.) Kutz., Amphora pediculus ( Kutz.)Grunow, Caloneis silicula (Ehrenb.)Cleve, Cocconeis pediculus Ehrenb.,
Cocconeis placentula Ehrenb., Cymatopleura solea (Breb.) W.Smith, Cymbella prostrata (Berkely)Cl., Cymbella sinuata
W.Greg., Denticula tenuis Kutz., Diploneis oblongella (Naeg.)Cl.,Ellerbeckia arenaria ( Moore)Craw., Fragilaria capu-
cina Desmazieres, Fragilaria ulna (Nitzsch.) Ehrenb.var.ulna Nitzsch.Lan.-Bert., Melosira varians C.A:Ag., Navicula
reinhardtii Grun ., Nitzschia fonticola (Grunow) Grunow, Surirella angustata Kutz., Surirella spiralis Kutz.
High dynamics of, by organisms made, tuf
rocks, high biological quality of water and
fuctional connection with the riverside eco-
systems, all that has led to the development
of endemo-relict communities with micro-
and macrophytes and enormous aquatic
insect’s richness (belonging to Plecoptera,
Trichoptera, Psychodida, Simulida). Among
latter ones, many are stenoendemic. Besides,
the priceless value to these ecosystems is en-
sured by the fsh populations that include
some salmonids maintained only here.
Flora of tuff cyanophytes and alges:
Chamaesiphon incrustans Grun., Homoeothrix crustacea W.Oronichin, Homoeothrix varians Geitler,
Hydrocoleum homoeotrichum Kütz f. tenue, Hydrocoleum uncinatum, Microcoleus subtorulosus Bréb., Nostoc
punctiforme (Kutz.)Hariot, Nostoc sphaericum Vacher ex Bornet et Flahault, Phormidium faveolarum (Mont.)
Gom., Phormidium uncinatum (Ag.) Gom., Rivularia haematites (DC.)Ag., Schizotrix fasciculata (Naeg.)
Gom., Tolypotrix distorta Kutz.ex Bornet et Flahault, Bangia atropurpurea (Roth) Ag., Chantransia pygmea
Kutz.,/HPDQHDÀXYLDWLOLV (L.) C.Agardh, Hydrurus foetidus Kirch., Vaucheria sessilis Dcand., Vaucheria sp.
Dcand., Spirogyra sp., Mougeotia sp.,Closterium ehrenbergii Menegh. ex Ralfs, Closterium moniliferum (Bory)
Ehrenb., Cladophora glomerata (Kutz.), Microspora amoena (Kutz.)Rabenh., Oedogonium sp., te dijatomeje
Achnanthidium minutissimum ( Kutz.) Czarn., Amphora ovalis ( Kutz.) Kutz., Amphora pediculus (Kutz.)Grunow,
Caloneis silicula (Ehrenb.)Cleve, Cocconeis pediculus Ehrenb., Cocconeis placentula Ehrenb., Cymatopleura
solea (Breb.) W.Smith, Cymbella prostrata (Berkely)Cl., Cymbella sinuata W.Greg., Denticula tenuis Kutz.,
Diploneis oblongella (Naeg.)Cl.,Ellerbeckia arenaria (Moore)Craw., Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres,
Fragilaria ulna (Nitzsch.) Ehrenb.var.ulna Nitzsch.Lan.-Bert., Melosira varians C.A:Ag., Navicula reinhardtii
Grun ., Nitzschia fonticola (Grunow) Grunow, Surirella angustata Kutz., Surirella spiralis Kutz.
REFUGIJALNI I RELIKTNI EKOSISTEMI U SLIVNOM
PODRUČJU RIJEKE VRBAS
”Rijetko koja voda u Bosni i Hercegovini toliko
priraste za srca naočitih momaka i djevojaka i
nađe mjesto u dubinama duša njihovih kao što
je to Vrbas, plahovita, moćna i raskošna rijeka.
Poput kakvog nestašnog bosanskog vragolana
pružio se kao niska smaragda u dužini od 253
km. Sve kapi kiše, jutranje rose i biserna voda
od snježnih pahuljica slivaju se u Vrbas sa
2
površine od 5.400 km , koliko iznosi i porječje
ove vodom bogate rijeke. Vrbas se rađa manjim
izvorom negdje ispod padina vrletne Vranice,
po imenu Zec planina. S obje mu strane obale
se dižu sve do planinskih vrhova i do 2.000
metara nad morem. I nedugo zatim, odvažna
planinska rječica Vrbas se otisnu niz slikoliku
dolinu. Korito gusto obraslo vrbama, johama,
rakitama i drugim vodoljubivim drvećem i
šibljem, kao da krije ovu prirodnu ljepotu od
pogleda ljudi.” (Navod iz TV emisije
”Prirodna baština BiH”).
Sliv rijeke Vrbas odlikuje izuzetna
geomorfološka, hidrološka, biološka,
odnosno ekološka raznolikost. Iako cijeli
tok obiluje prirodnim vrijednostima, ipak
je moguće izdvojiti ekološke cjeline sa
obilježjima refugijalnih i reliktnih
staništa.
Vrijednostima refugijalnih staništa sa
bogatstvom živog svijeta doprinosi i
raznolikost geološke podloge (silikatne
stijene, krečnjaci, dolomiti, gips i sedra).
To čini dolinu rijeke Vrbas jednom od
najbogatijih u različitim formama
geoloških i hidroloških fenomena. Osim
posebnih oblika reljefa (klisure, kanjoni,
klanci, depresije, litice, potkapine,
sedr ene t vor evi ne) , hi dr ol oškoj
raznolikosti doprinose i tipična kraška
vrela, pištaline, gorski izvori, planinski
potoci, planinske rječice, rijeke, mirni
vodotoci, brojni bukovi, slapovi i
vodopadi, prirodna jezera i izvori
termalne vode.
Uni ka t ne pe j z a ž ne vr i j e dnos t i
refugijalnim staništima slivnog područja
Vrbasa daju:
lEkosistemi toploljubivih šuma ilirskog bora na dolomitnoj podlozi i rendzinama;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara crnog graba i jesenje šašike;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šibljaka bjelograbića i bosanskog javora;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara crnog jasena i ruja;
lEkosistemi koštrike i bijelograbića u kanjonu Vrbasa;
lEkosistemi polidominantnih šuma lipe i javora gluhača;
lEkosistemi polidominantnih šuma javora gluhača i običnog graba;
lEkosistemi šuma i šikara sitnolisnog kitnjaka.
Najvišim stepenom endemičnosti i
reliktnosti i ovdje se odlikuju staništa u
pukotinama karbonatnih stijena i sipara, i
to naročito u kanjonskim dijelovima
rijeke Janj, Prusačke Rijeke, Vrbasa i rijeke
Ugar.
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REFUGIAL AND RELICT ECOSYSTEMS IN THE
BASIN OF VRBAS RIVER
”Tere are not many streams in Bosnia
and Herzegovina as attached to the hearts
of handsome boys and girls as Vrbas river.
Tis mighty and splendid river has found
its place deep in their souls. Like some kind
of frivolous bosnian child it stretches as a
253 km long emerald necklace. Each drop of
rain, dew and pearl-like water arosen from
the snowfakes, from the surface of 5.400
km
2
that is its basin size, fows into Vrbas
river. It is being born like a small source
somewhere beneath the slopes of Vranica
Mt., called Zec Mt.. Both of its riversides
reach the mountain peaks up to 2.000 me-
tres above sea level. Soon afer that, Vrbas,
a daring mountain river rushes into pic-
ture-like valley. Its riverbed surrounded by
willows, alders, purpule willows and other
hydrophilous woods and shrubs seems to
hide this natural beauty from people sight.”
(quoted from TV show ”Prirodna baština
BiH”).
Te basin of Vrbas river is characterized by
the outstanding geomorphologic, hydrolog-
ic, biologic and ecologic diversity. In its etire
length Vrbas river posses natural values, but
there are some ecologic complexes that can
be selected as refugial and relict. Tis is un-
derlined by the diversity of geologic foun-
dation (silicate rocks, limestone, dolomites,
gypsum and tuf). Te valley of Vrbas river is
hence very rich in both geologic and hydro-
logic phenomena. Apart from special forms
of relief (clifs, canyons, depressions, nar-
row passages, tuf creations), the hydrologic
diversity is supported by typical karst wells,
mountain springs and brooks, mountain
small rivers, rivers, calm streams, numerous
swirls, cascades and waterfalls, natural lakes
and thermal water springs.
Te unique landscape’s value to the refugio-
relict habitats in the basin of Vrbas river is
given by:
t Ecosystems of thermophilous illyrian black pine woods on dolomite and rendsine;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam and autumn moor grass;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with oriental hornbeam and bosnian maple;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam and young fustic;
t Ecosystems of butcher’s broom and oriental hornbeam in the Vrbas canyon;
t Ecosystems of polydominant woods with linden and Acer obtusatum;
t Ecosystems of polydominant woods with Acer obtusatum and hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of woods and shrubs with Quercus daleschampii.
Te highest level of endemism and relictness
is also accomplished in the habitats of lime-
stone rock crevices and screes, especially in
the canyons.
Slika 9. – Reliktno-refugijalna staništa u slivnom području rijeke Vrbas
Klisura Crne rijeke
kod Mrkonjić Grada

Kanjon Gračaničke
rijeke kod G. Vakufa
Izvoršna
čelenka Plive u
mjestu Pljeva

Kanjon, klisura Vrbasa od
Skele do Bašćeluka u Jajcu
Kanjon Vrbasa oko
Krupe na Vrbasu

Klisura Kupreške
rijeke, lijeve pritoke
Vrbasa kod Bugojna
Kanjon rijeke Ugar,
desne pritoke
Kanjon Vrbasa od
Podmilačja do Bočca

Klisura Kalinske rijeke, desne
pritoke Vrbasa kod Bugojna

Izvorišni dio Vrabasa,
te klisure pritoka u
području

Zec planine

Klisura Glasinačkog
potoka, lijeve obale,
izmedju Vinca i
Bravnica

Klisura Vrbasa kod Vinca
Klisura Sandžačkog
potoka,desne pritoke, oko 15
km nizvodno od D. Vakufa

Klisura I kanjon
Prusačke rijeke
kod Donjeg Vakufa
Klisura Šemišnice,
lijeve pritoke, nizvodno
od D. Vakufa

Klisura, kanjon Vrbasa
kod Babinog Potoka

Klisura Plive od
Velikog Plivskog jezera
do Volijaka, te sedrene
barijere sa vodopadom
Plive i ušćem u Vrbas
Kanjon rijeke
Janj, desne
pritoke Plive
kod Šipova

Klisura Vrbanje u
predjelu Borja planine
Kanjon Vrbasa – Tijesno
klisura Suturlije i Rebrovca
kod Banja Luke

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103
Narrow passage of
Crna rijeka at Mrkonjic
Grad
Canyon of Gracanicka
river at G. Vakuf
Source of Pliva
river at place
called Pljeva
Canyon, narrow passage of
Vrbas from Skela to Baceluka
in Jajce
Canyon of Vrbas
around Krupa on Vrbas
Narrow passage of
Kupreka rika, left
tributary of Vrbas at
Bugojna
Canyon of Ugar river,
right tributary
Canyon of Vrbas from
Podmilacje to Bocac
Narrow passage of Kalinska
rijeka, right tributary of Vrbas at
Bugojno
Spring area of Vrbas,
narrow passages of its
tributaries around Zec Mt.
Narrow passage of
Glasinacki potok, left
riverside, between
Vinac and Bravnica
Narrow passage of Vrbas at
Vinac
Narrow passage Sandzacki potok,
right tributary, 15 km downstreams
from D. Vakuf
Narrow passage and
canyon of Prusacka
rijeka at Donjeg
Vakufa
Narrow passage of
eminica, left
tributary, downstreams
f D V k f
Narrow passage and
canyon of Vrbas at Babin
Potok
Narrow passage of Pliva
from Veliko Plivsko jezero
to Volijak, tuff barriers with
Plivas waterfall and
estuaryem u Vrbas
Canyon of Janj
river, right
Plivas tributary
at ipovo
Narrow passage of
Vrbanja at Borja Mt.
Canyon of Vrbas Tijesno
narrow passage Suturlije,
Rebrovac at Banja Luka
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Figure 9. – Relict-refugial habitats in the basin of Vrbas river
Tabela 38. – Sintaksonomski pregled zajednica na reliktno-refugijalnim staništima
slivnog područja rijeke Vrbas

POTENTILLETALIA CAULESCENTIS Br. – Bl.
Moehringion muscosae Ht. et H-ic. 1959
Moehringio – Corydaletum Ht. 1962
Saxifrago – Polypodietum australis Lakušić et Redžić 1991
Achnanthero – Moehringietum malyi Lakušić et Redžić 1991
Potentillion caulescentis
Potentilletum persicinae Blečić 1958
Moehringio-Potentilletum persicinae Redžić

Dianthetum petraeae Redžić
Symphyandrion hofmanni Redžić 1983
Symphyandretum hofmanni Redžić 1983
Hieracio-Symphyandretum hofmanni Lakušić et al. 1980
Campanulo balcanicae-Symphyandretum hofmannii Redžić 1983
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Diantho-Symphyandretum hofmannii Redžić et Omerović 1986
DRYPEETALIA SPINOSAE Quezel 1967
Peltarion alliaceae H-ic (1956) 1958

Coridalo leiospermae-Symphyandretum hofmannii Redžić et Omerović
1986
Micromerio thymifolii – Corydaletum leiospermae Lakušić & Redžić 1991
Asplenio – Ceterachetum officinari Lakušić & Redžić 1991
Campanulo sibiricae-Pelltarietum alliaceae Redžić 1983
Achnatherion calamagrostis Jenny-Lips 1930.
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Corydalo-Achnatheretum Redžić et Omerović 1986
PINETALIA HELDREICHII – NIGRAE Lakuši ć 1972
Pinion nigrae Lakušić 1972
Daphno cneori – Pinetum Rt. 1967
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Aquilegio-Pinetum nigrae Redžić
ABIETI – PICEETALIA (Br. – Bl. 1939) Lakuši ć et al. 1979
Abietion albae (Ht. 1956) Lakušić et al. 1979
Calamagrosti – Abietetum Ht. 1950
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Rhamno – Abietetum Fuk. 1958
QUERCETALIA PUBESCENTIS Br. – Bl. (1931) 1932
Quercion pubescentis – petraeae Br. – Bl. 1931
Asparago tenuifolii – Quercetum pubescentisLakušić et Redžić 1991
Ostryo- Quercetum daleschampi Redžić 1990
Aceri obtusati-Carpinetum betuli Redžić et Omerović 1986
OSTRYO – CARPINETALIA ORIENTALIS Lakuši ć, Pavlovic, Redžić 1982
Carpinion orientalis Blecic &Lakušić 1966
Aceri – Carpinetum orientalis Blecic &Lakušić 1966
Rusco – Carpinetum orientalis continentale Lakušić et Redžić 1991
Seslerio – Ostryon Lksic., Pavlov. & Redžić 1982 (Syn.: Orneto – Ostryon
Tom. 1940 p.p.)
ć
Seslerio autumnalis – Ostryetum carpinifoliae Ht. et H-ic. 1950

FAGETALIA MOESIACAE Lakuši ć 1991
Ostryo – Fagenion moesiacaeae B. Jovanovic 1976
Aceri obtusati – Fagetum (moesiacae) Fab., Fuk. & Stef. 1963
Aceri – Tilietum mixtum Stef. 1979
FAGETALIA SYLVATICAE Pawlowsky 1928
Acerion pseudoplatani (Oberd. 1959) Fukarek P. 1969
Staphylleo-Fraxinetum angustifoliae Redžić 1983
Asplenio scolopendrii-Fraxinetum angustifoliae Redžić
Adiantetalia
Adiantion
Adianthetum capili-veneri
Symphyandro-Adiaantetum capili-veneri
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Asplenio scolopendrii-Symphyandretum hofmannii Redžić
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Table 38. – Syntaxonomic overview of the communities in
refugio-relict habitats in the basin of Vrbas river
“Refugijume u slivnom području Vrbasa
odlikuje i unikatna i neponovljiva biološka
raznolikost, predstavljena brojnim vrstama
biljaka, životinja i gljiva.
Upravo u stijenama doline rijeke Vrbas su i
l ocus cl as s i cus bos ans ke zvonči ke
Symphyandra hoffmanni Pantocs., koju
prikupi Florian Hoffmann, strastveni
sakupljač biljaka u dolini Suturlije kod
Banjaluke, a opisa znameniti mađarski
botaničar Jozef Pantoček. Osim još nekoliko
rijetkih lokaliteta u slivu rijeke Bosne, ovaj
dragulj zemlje Bosne je isključivo vezan za
sliv plahovitog Vrbasa.
Na stijenama Hum planine, iznad bajkovitog
Jajca grada, je i locus classicus žute mlađe
Corydalis ochroleuca subsp. leiosperma koju
opisa i ovoj zemlji podari botaničar Paul
Conrath.” (Navod iz TV emisije “Prirodna
baština BiH”)
Specifični genofond ovog prostora čine i:
Malijeva merinka (Moehringia maly),
bavarska merinka (Moehringia muscosa),
petoprsta (Potentilla caulescens subsp.
persicina), zvjezdan (Aster bellidiastrum),
balkanska zvončika (Campanula balcanica),
sibirska zvončika (Campanula sibirica),
jezičasta zvončika (Campanula lingulata),
karanfili (Dianthus sp.), lukica (Peltaria
alliacea), pucalina (Silene petraea),
kockavica (Fritilaria tenella) i druge.
U sedrenim barijerama i naslagama, gdje
dominiraju razne vrste alga, cijano-
bakterija, mahovina i vodenih insekata
(Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera,
Ephemeroptera) sadržan je vrijedan
genofond. Po procesu travertinizacije,
pojedina staništa u refugijumima sliva
Vrbasa su jedinstvena u svijetu. Najljepši
primjer od globalnih vrijednosti je slivno
područje rijeke Plive, sa vodopadom u
samom srcu grada Jajca.
Dio vrbaskih pejzaža čine i termalne
vode (Gornji Šeher kod Banjaluke,
Vrbanja i Laktaši). Osim vrijednosti
termalnih voda, zbog sadržaja različitih
minerala, ova staništa obiluju i oblicima
termalnih algi i cijanobakterija koje
upotpunjuju diverzitet mikroflore Bosne
i Hercegovine. Uz termalne vode su i
staništa zajednica viline vlasi Adiantum
capillus-veneris, dekorativne i ljekovite
vrste, sa utvrđenim statusom ugro-
ženosti.
REFUGIJALNI I RELIKTNI EKOSISTEMI U SLIVNOM
PODRUČJU RIJEKE BOSNE I NJENIH PRITOKA
I sliv rijeke Bosne odlikuje izuzetna hete-
rogenost staništa, raznolikost flore, faune
i pejzaža. Zbog specifičnih oblika oroge-
neze, te obrazaca formiranja ekoklime i
zemljišta, u prošlosti je došlo do
obrazovanja staništa sa visokim biološkim
i ekološkim vrijednostima kojima se sve
do danas održala tercijerna flora i fauna.
Ova staništa imaju poseban značaj u
ukupnom pejzažnom diverzitetu Bosne i
Hercegovine.
U slivnom području rijeke Bosne izdva-
jaju se različiti tipovi refugijuma u odnosu
na osnovni tok i pritoke. Među njima
posebno značajnu funkciju u očuvanju
reliktne flore i faune imaju staništa u
izvorišnom dijelu rijeke Bosne, te u
klisurama i kanjonima gornjih pritoka.
Visoke pejzažne vrijednosti na refugijal-
nim staništima rijeke Željeznice, Miljacke
i Vogošće ostvaruju:
lEkosistemi u pukotinama karbonatnih stijena;
lEkosistemi karbonatnih sipara;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara crnog graba i jesenje šašike;
lEkosistemi crnog graba i uskolisne šašike;
lEkosistemi sitnolisnog kitnjaka i crnog graba;
lEkosistemi šikara i šibljaka crnog jasena i ruja;
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“Te refugia in the basin of Vrbas river are
characterized by a unique biodiversity, repre-
sented by many plant, animal and mushroom
species.
Right here, in the rocks of Vrbas river’s canyon,
is the locus classicus of bosnian bellfower Sym-
phyandra hofmanni Pantocs., for the frst time
collected by Florian Hofmann, passionate co-
llector of plants in the valley of Suturlija near
Banjaluka, and described by famous Hungar-
ian botanist Jozef Pantoček. Tis jewell of Bo-
snia is exclusively bound to the basin of mighty
Vrbas river, yet it can be found in few localities
in the basin of Bosna river.
On the rocks of Hum Mt., above the fairy tale
Jajce city, is the locus classicus of Corydalis
ochroleuca subsp. leiosperma described and
gifed to this country by Paul Conrath, famous
botanist.” (quoted from TV show “Prirodna
baština BiH”)
This area’s gen pool encompasses: Maly’s
sandwort (Moehringia maly), bavarian sand-
wort (Moehringia muscosa), potentil (Poten-
tilla caulescens subsp. persicina), aster (Aster
bellidiastrum), balkan’s bellfower (Campan-
ula balcanica), sibirian bellfower (Campanu-
la sibirica), Campanula lingulata, pinks (Di-
anthus sp.), Peltaria alliacea, rocks campion
(Silene petraea), fritillary (Fritilaria tenella)
and others.
In the tuff barriers and its layers prevail
alges, cyanophytes, mooses and aquatic
insects (Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera,
Ephemeroptera) representing a valuable gen
pool. In its travertine creations, some refu-
gial habitats in the basin of Vrbas river are
unique in the world. The most beautiful ex-
ample of global importance is the basin of
Pliva river, with the waterfall in Jajce city
itself.
Thermal springs too take share in the land-
scapes of Vrbas river (Gornji Šeher near
Banjaluka, Vrbanja and Laktaši). The ther-
mal water habitats are rich in thermal kind
of alges and cyanophytes, which supple-
ments the value that they have got for their
mineral content. There is a habitat of com-
munity with maidenhair fern Adiantum
capillus veneris, which is very decorative
and medicinal species, also considered as
endangered.
REFUGIO-RELICT ECOSYSTEMS IN THE BASIN OF
BOSNA RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES
The basin of Bosna river is characterized
by the habitat’s heterogeneity, diversity of
f lora, fauna and landscapes. Due to specific
orogenesis and patterns of both ecoclimate
and soil creation, formed were habitats of
high biologic and ecologic value. Here has
been preserved tertiary f lora and fauna.
These habitats are important for the entire
landscape’s diversity of Bosnia and Herze-
govina.
There are different kind of refugial habitats
relating to the main streamline and major
tributaries. Among them, sources of Bosna
river have got a significant function for the
preservation of relict f lora and fauna, which
reffers also to the canyons of its upper trib-
utaries.
High landscape’s value of the refugial habi-
tats of Željeznica, Miljacka and Vogošća
rivers is accomplished by:
t Ecosystems of carbonate rock crevices;
t Ecosystems of screes on carbonate;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam and autumn moor grass;
t Ecosystems of hope hornbeam and narrow-leaved moor grass;
t Ecosystems of Quercus daleschampii and hope hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of shrubs and scrubs with hope hornbeam and young fustic;
lEkosistemi šume mezijske bukve i jesenje šašike;
lEkosistemi šuma klokočike i običnog graba;
lEkosistemi sive johe;
lEkosistemi submediteranskih i kontinentalnih kamenjara na krečnjačko-dolomitnoj
podlozi;
lEkosistemi šibljaka krušine i jesenje šašike.
U refugijumima rijeke Misoče i Stavnje i desnih pritoka Bosne, uzvodno od Visokog, na-
jveći doprinos pejzažnoj vrijednosti daju tercijerno-reliktni ekosistemi:
lEkosistemi karanfila i zvončaca u pukotinama stijena;
lEkosistemi karbonatnih siparišta sa mlađom;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara crnog graba i jesenje šašike;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara crnog graba i medunca;
lEkosistemi šuma bosanskog javora gluhača i mezijske bukve;
lEkosistemi javora gluhača i bjelograbića.
U slivnom području rijeke Fojnice (lijeve pritoke Bosne), reliktni karakter imaju:
lEkosistemi šuma i šikara bosanskog javora gluhača i ilirske bukve u regionu rijeke
Lepenice;
lEkosistemi javora i bjelograbića sa crnim jasenom u regionu Lepenice;
lEkosistemi jesenje šašike i ilirske bukve sa crnim grabom u regionu Lepenice;
lEkosistemi crne čemerike i bjelograbića u regionu Visočice kod Visokog;
lEkosistemi crnog jasena i bjelograbića u predjelu Buci kod Visokog;
lEkosistemi sive johe u klisuri rijeke Fojnice kod Fojnice;
lEkosistemi ilirske bukve i bosanske zvončike u dolini Kozice;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama stijena sa tamjanolikim vrisićem.
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t Ecosystems of woods with moesian beech and autumn moor grass;
t Ecosystems of woods with bladdernut tree and hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of grey alder;
t Ecosystems of supra-mediterranean and continental rocky grassland on limestone and do-
lomite;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with alder buckthorn and autumn moor grass.
In the refugial habitats of Misoča and Stavnja rivers, right tributaries of Bosna river upstreams
from Visoko town, the highest contribution to the landscape’s value is given by tertiary-relict
kind of ecosystems:
t Ecosystems with pinks and bellfowers in the rock crevices;
t Ecosystems of screes on carbonate with Corydalis leiosperma;
t Ecosystems of woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam and autumn moor grass;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam and pubescent oak;
t Ecosystems with bosnian maple and moesian beech;
t Ecosystems with Acer obtusatum and oriental hornbeam.
In the basin of Fojnica river (lef tributary of Bosna river), relict are:
t Ecosystems of woods and shrubs with bosnian maple and illyrian beech in the region of Lepenica
river;
t Ecosystems with maple, oriental hornbeam and hope hornbeam in the region of Lepenica;
t Ecosystems with autumn moor grass, illyrian beech and hope hornbeam in the region of Lep-
enica;
t Ecosystems with false hellebore and oriental hornbeam in the region of Visočica at Visoko;
t Ecosystems with fowering ash and oriental hornbeam in the region of Buci at Visoko;
t Ecosystems with grey alder in the narrow passage of Fojnica river at Fojnica;
t Ecosystems with illyrian beech and bosnian bellfower in the valley of Kozica;
t Ecosystems of rock crevices with Micromeria thymifolia.
Slika 10. – Reliktno-refugijalna staništa u slivnom području rijeke Bosne
Kanjon Bijele i Crne rijeke,
desnih pritoka Željeznice

Kanjon, klisura rijeke
Bioštice u podrucju
Sljemenskih planina
Mokranjske Miljacke sa
Orlovackom pecinom

Kanjon rijeke Željeznice
od Krupca do Trnova

Vodopad Skakavac,
Peracki potok,
kanjon Sušice

Kanjon rijeke Krivaje, nizvodno
od sastavaka kod Olova

Klisura u dolomitnom kompleksu
Lepenice desne pritoke Fojnice
Izvorišna celenka
Šumece u Travniku

Klisura Bosne kod
Starog grada kod
Doboja

Klisura Bosne
kod Maglaja

Klisura rijeke (od Vranice
prema Kacunima)

Klisura rijeke
Usore (Borja)

Klisura Sprece uzvodno
od ušca u Bosnu

Klisura Gostelje sa
pritokama u
podrucju Stupara
Izvorišna celenka rijeke
Bosne sa impozantnim vrelom
Bioštica
kod
Knežine
Kanjon rijeke Misoce
Klisura, kanjon
Paljanske Miljacke
Izvorišno podrucje
Paljanske Miljacke
Kanjon rijeke
Miljacke od
Sastavaka do
Bentbaše
Klisura Nahorevskog
i Koševskog potoka
Izvorišno podrucje Mošcanice,
sa amfiteatrom Gornji Faletici
Sastavci (ušce rijeke
Zujevine i Miljacke u
Bosnu)

Kanjon, klisura rijeke
Lapišnice

Stupcanica od
Olovskih Luka
prema Karauli

Klisura rijeke Krivaje u
podrucju serpentinsko-
periotitskog kompleksa
(Careva Cuprija – Maoca)
Izvorišno podrucje
rijeke Fojnice

Termalni izvori oko
Kiseljacke rijeke,
desne pritoke Fojnice

Klisura rijeke Bila,
desne pritoka Lašve

Klisura Bosne na ušcu
rijeke Lašve, klisura
kod Kaonika

Klisura Kraljeve Sutjeske, rijeka
Trstionica desne pritoke Bosne
Kanjon Bosne
kod Vranduka
Klisura Gracanice kod
Donje Racanice u Zenici
Termalni izvori kod Žepca,
Maglaja, Zavidovica u podrucju
serpentinsko-peridotitdkih stijena
Klisura Bosne kod serpentinsko-
peridotitskog kompleksa Žepce
sa pritokama Papratnicom
Klisura Mackovca
kod Banovica
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Kanjon Stavnje
Klisura rijeke Gostovic

Narrow passage of
Gostovic river
Canyons of Bijela and Crna
rijeka,right tributaries of
Zeljeznica river
Canyon of Biostica
river in the area of
Sljemenske planine
Mokranjska Miljacka with
Orlovacka pecina
Canyon of Zeljeznica
river from Krupac to
Trnovo
waterfall Skakavac,
Peracki potok, canyon
of Susic river
Canyon of Krivaja river,
downstreams from Olovo town
Narrow passage in dolomite
complexof Lepenica, right
tributary of Fojnica river
Spring area of
umece in Travnik
Narrow passage
of Bosna river at
old city of Doboj
Narrow passage of
Bosna river at Maglaj
Narrow passage of river
(on Vranica Mt. toward
Kacuni)
Narrow passage
of Usore
river(Borja)
Narrow passage of Spreca
river downstreams from
estuary
Narrow passage of
Gostelja with
tributaries in the area
of Stupari
Spring area of Bosna river
with powerful sources
Biostica
at
Knezina
Canyon of Misoca
Canyon of
Paljanska Miljacka
Spring area of
Paljanska Miljacka
Canyon of
Miljacka river
from Sastavci
to Bentbaa
Narrow passages of
Nahorevski and
Koevski potok
Spring area of Mocanica river,
with amphytheatar Gornji Faletici
Sastavci (esturay of
Zujevina and
Miljacka in Bosna
i )
Canyon of Lapisnica
river
Stupcanica at
Olovske Luke
towards
Karaula
Narrow passage of Krivaja
river in the area of serpentine-
peridote complex (Careva
Cuprija Maoca)
Spring area of
Fojnic river
Thermal wells around
Kiseljacka rijeka, right
tributary of Fojnica
i
Narrow passage of
Bila river, right
tributary of Lasva river
Narrow passage of
Bosna river esturay of
Lasva river, narrow
passage at Kaonik
Narrow passage of Kraljeva
Sutjeska, Trstionica river, right
tributary of Bosne river
Canyon of Bosne
river at Vranduka
Narrow passage of
Gracanica at Donje
Racanice in Zenica
Thermal sources at Zepce, Maglaj,
Zavidovic on serpentine-peridote
rocks
Narrow passage of Bosna river
on serpentine-peridote complex
at Zepce with Papratnica
t ib t
Narrow passage of
Mackovac at
Banovici
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Canyon of Stavnja
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Figure 10. – Refugio-relict habitats in the basin of Bosna river
Jedan od najvećih refugijuma tercijerne flo-
re i faune u ovom dijelu Bosne nalazi se u
dubokoj klisuri (kanjonu) rijeke Bosne
kod Vranduka, dubine preko 1.000 m. Po-
stoje brojne indicije o povezanosti ovog di-
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara koštrike i bjelograbića;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara bjelograbića i javora;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama silikatnih stijena;
lEkosistemi šuma ilirske bukve i visibabe;
lEkosistemi šuma crnog graba i ilirske bukve.
jela sa nekadašnjim Panonskim morem i
prodorom toplih kontinentalnih masa sa
sjevera. Ekosistemi tercijerno-reliktnog ka-
raktera na ovom prostoru su:
U slivnom području rijeke Lašve (lijeve pritoke Bosne), postoji nekoliko refugijalnih
staništa (Kaonik, klisura Bile i izvorište Šumeće). Osnovne elemente refugijalnosti ovim
staništima daju brojne sedrene naslage i zajednice u ekosistemima:
lEkosistemi bosanske zvončike na sedrenim naslagama;
lEkosistemi bjelograbića i ruja;
lEkosistemi izvorišta sa vodenim mahovinama;
lEkosistemi ilirske bukve i jarebike;
lEkosistemi ilirske bukve i dinarskog encijana.
U središnjem dijelu doline Bosne, u okolini Žepča, u zoni veoma dinamičnog reljefa i sta-
rih vulkanskih stijena (peridotiti, serpentiniti, amfiboli, pirokseni) u refugijumima
tercijerne flore i faune su:
lEkosistemi u pukotinama stijena i na siparima;
lEkosistemi serpentinskih kamenjara sa halačijom;
lEkosistemi serpentinskih sipara sa zijevalicom;
lEkosistemi reliktnih crnoborovih šuma sa crnjušom;
lEkosistemi šibljaka sa rujem, crnim grabom i crnim jasenom;
Slivno područje rijeke Gostović (desne pritoke Bosne) kod Zavidovića, odlikuje se broj-
nim specifičnostima prisutnih ekosistema:
lEkositemi serpentinsko-peridotitskih kamenjara;
lEkosistemi serpentinsko-peridotitskih stijena i sipara;
lEkosistemi crnoborovih šuma;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara crnog graba, crnog jasena i bukve;
lEkosistemi termalnih izvorišta.
Rijeka Krivaja (desna pritoka Bosne) sa
ušćem kod Zavidovića odlikuje se
najvišim stepenom biološke raznolikosti u
čitavom slivu Bosne. Ovdje do punog
izražaja dolazi raznolikost reljefa,
geološke podloge, tala, a posebno flore,
lEkosistemi sa vodenim mahovinama, makro i mikrofitama;
lEkosistemi crnog graba i jesenje šašike;
lEkosistemi bukve i jarebike;
lEkosistemi bjelograbića i javora;
lEkosistemi sive johe;
faune i vegetacije. Posebne pejzažne
vrijednosti ima slivno područje rijeke
Bioštice u čijem su izvorišnom dijelu kod
Knežine, i dubokoj klisuri u Sljemenskim
planinama očuvani reliktni ekosistemi:
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Te largest refugium of tertiary fora and fauna
in this area of Bosnia is the 1.000 m deep nar-
row passage (canyon) of Bosna river at Vran-
duk. Tere are many evidences that this area
used to be connected with former Pannonian
Sea which is obvious in the protrusion of warm
continental masses coming from the North. Te
ecosystems with tertiary-relict character are:
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with butcher’s broom and oriental hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with oriental hornbeam and maple;
t Ecosystems of silicate rock crevices;
t Ecosystems of woods with illyrian beech and snowdrop;
t Ecosystems of woods with hope hornbeam and illyrian beech.
In the basin of Lašva river (lef tributary of Bosna river) occur several refugial habitats (Kaon-
ik, narrow passage of Bila and source of Šumeća). Its main refugial elements are tuf creations
and communities in the ecosystems:
t Ecosystems with bosnian bellfower on tuf layers;
t Ecosystems with oriental hornbeam and young fustic;
t Ecosystems around springs with aquatic mosses;
t Ecosystems with illyrian beech and european mountainash;
t Ecosystems with illyrian beech and dinaric gentian.
In the midle of Bosna river’s valley, near Žepče, in the zone of very dynamic relief and old
volcanic rocks (peridote, serpentine, amphibol, piroxen) occur refugia of tertiary fora and
fauna:
t Ecosystems of rock crevices and screes;
t Ecosystems of serpentine rocky grassland with Halacsya sendtneri;
t Ecosystems of serpentine screes with fgwort;
t Ecosystems of relict black pine woods with heath;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with young fustic, hope hornbeam and fowering ash;
t Ecosystems of thermal springs.
Te basin of Gostović river (right tributary of Bosna river) at Zavidovići, is characterized by
the specifcity of occuring ecosystems:
t Ecosystems of serpentine-peridote rocky grassland;
t Ecosystems of serpentine-peridote rock crevices and screes;
t Ecosystems of black pine woods;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam, fowering ash and beech;
t Ecosystems of thermal springs.
Krivaja river (right tributary of Bosna river) with its estuary at Zavidovići is characterized by
the highest biodiversity level in the entire basin of Bosna river. Te diversity of relief, geologic
foundation, soil types, especially fora, fauna and vegetation is fully expressed here. Te basin
of Bioštica river has got special landscape’s value for its spring area at Knežina, in deep can-
yon between Sljemenske Mt., encompasses relict ecosystems:
t Ecosystems with aquatic mosses, macro- and microphytes;
t Ecosystems with hope hornbeam and autumn moor grass;
t Ecosystems with beech and european mountainash;
t Ecosystems with oriental hornbeam and maple;
t Ecosystems of grey alder;
t Ecosystems of carbonate rock crevices.
Nakon sastavaka, Bioštice i Stupčanice
nastaje Krivaja kod mjesta Olovo, odakle
protiče kroz impresivan kanjon dubok
oko 300 m, uglavnom građen od
lEkosistemi jesenje šašike i crnog graba;
lEkosistemi uskolisne šašike i crnog graba;
lEkosistemi ilirske bukve i crnog graba;
lEkosistemi javora i bjelograbića;
lEkosistemi sive johe;
lEkosistemi karanfila i zvončaca u pukotinama karbonatnih stijena;
lEkosistemi karbonatnih sipara.
karbonatnih stijena. Ovdje se nalazi jedan
od najvećih refugijuma tercijerne flore i
faune ovog dijela Dinarida, a karakterišu
ga:
U klisurama Krivaje i njenih pritoka u području ofiolitske zone (Careva Ćuprija, Maoča)
su brojni refugijumi u kojima su ekosistemi:
lEkosistemi crnoborovih šuma i blagajevog likovca;
lEkosistemi crnoborovih šuma i širokolisne šašike;
lEkosistemi običnog graba i pasjeg zuba;
lEkosistemi crnog bora i lincure;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama stijena sa selaginom.;
lEkosistemi siparišta sa bekovom ljubicom;
lEkosistemi kamenjara sa malijevom petoprstom;
lEkosistemi kamenjara sa halačijom i pljevikom.
Klisura Bosne u regionu Maglaja odlikuje se prisustvom tercijerno-reliktnih zajednica
na refugijalno-reliktnim staništima. Posebna pejzažna svojstva daju:
lEkosistemi kamenjara sa Halacsya sendtneri, gdje se nalazi i locus classicus ove
endemoreliktne vrste;
lEkosistemi serpentinskih kamenjara sa devesiljem;
lEkosistemi crnoborovih šuma;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara crnog graba i bjelograbića.
Na dijelu toka Bosne u kojem se osjeća
snažan prodor kontinentalnih masa sa
sjevera, na dinamičnom peripanonskom
terenu, razvijeni su i refugijumi u
području sela Mravići. To su staništa na
lEkosistemi crnog graba i srebrne lipe sa ozimicom;
lEkosistemi crnog i običnog graba sa ozimicom;
lEkosistemi sitnolisnog kitnjaka i srebrne lipe sa koštrikom;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama karbonatnih stijena sa slatkom paprati.
kar bonat noj geol oš koj podl ozi ,
izraženom nagibu terena (do 70 %),
plitkim zemljištima tipa rendzina i
regosola i dosta toplom klimom. Reliktni
ekosistemi ovog dijela pejzaža Bosne su:
U području rijeke Usore (lijeve pritoke Bosne) sa ušćem kod Doboja, na serpentinsko-
peridotitskom kompleksu Borje su refugijumi reliktnih ekosistema:
lEkosistemi serpentinskih kamenjara i sipara sa vildenovim pucavcem;
lEkosistemi crnoborovih šuma;
lEkosistemi termalnih izvora.
U predjelu Tešanjskog kiseljaka, na nadmorskoj visini od oko 300 m, se nalaze vrijedna
staništa zajednica jele i ilirske bukve. U klisuri Tešanjke zastupljene su interesantne
zajednice u pukotinama karbonatnih stijena.
109
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Afer the junction of two rivers, Bioštica and
Stupčanica, emerges Krivaja river at Olovo.
From there, it fows through the most im-
pressive canyon of 300 m depth, which is
mainly built of carbonate rocks. Here is one
of the largest tertiary fora and fauna refugia
in this dinaric area, characterized by:
t Ecosystems with autumn moor grass and hope hornbeam;
t Ecosystems with narrow-leaved moor grass and hope hornbeam;
t Ecosystems with illyrian beech and hope hornbeam;
t Ecosystems with maple and oriental hornbeam;
t Ecosystems with grey alder;
t Ecosystems with pinks and bellfowers in the carbonate rock crevices;
t Ecosystems of carbonate screes.
Narrow passages of Krivaja river and its tributaries, in the zone of ophiolites (Careva Ćuprija,
Maoča) encompass many refugia with:
t Ecosystems of black pine woods and Balkan daphne;
t Ecosystems of black pine woods with broad-leaved moor grass;
t Ecosystems with hornbeam and dog’s tooth violet;
t Ecosystems with black pine and yellow gentian;
t Ecosystems of rock crevices with Selaginella sp.;
t Ecosystems of screes with beck’s violet;
t Ecosystems of rocky grassland with maly’s potentil;
t Ecosystems of rocky grassland with Halacsya sendtneri and Notholaena maranthe.
Narrow passages of Bosna river at Maglaj city are characterized by the occurence of tertiary-
relict communities on refering habitats, whereby special landscape attributes are given by:
t Ecosystems of rocky grassland with Halacsya sendtneri, at locus classicus of this endemo-
relict species;
t Ecosystems of serpentine rocky grassland with fennel;
t Ecosystems of black pine woods;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam and oriental hornbeam.
In the area of Mravići village, on dynamic peri-pannonian terrain where the protrusion of
continental masses from the North is obvious, emerge refugial habitats. Tese are habitats oc-
curing on carbonate bedrock, steep slopes (up to 70°), shallow soil like rendsine and regosol,
and warm climate. In this landscape of Bosnia, relict ecosystems are:
t Ecosystems with hope hornbeam, silver linden and Eranthis hyemalis;
t Ecosystems with hope hornbeam, hornbeam and Eranthis hyemalis;
t Ecosystems with Quercus daleschampii, silver linden and butcher’s broom;
t Ecosystems of carbonate rock crevices with Polypodium vulgare.
In the area of Usora river (lef tributary of Bosna river) with its estuary at Doboj city, on the
serpentine-peridote complex of Borja Mt. occur refugia of the relict ecosystems:
t Ecosystems of serpentine rocky grassland and screes with Silene wildenovi;
t Ecosystems of black pine woods;
t Ecosystems of thermal springs.
In the area of mineral spring in Tešanj, at altitude of 300 m, emerge valuable habitats of the
communities with fr and illyrian beech. In the narrow passage of Tešanjka river occur inter-
Slivno područje rijeke Spreče odlikuje visok stepen raznolikosti staništa i ekosistema.
Među njima se ističe refugijum u klisuri Gostilje i njenih pritoka u području Stupara,
gdje stanište nalaze tercijerno-reliktni ekosistemi:
lEkosistemi visokih šuma crnog graba u predjelu Kozice;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara crnog graba i ruja;
lEkosistemi niskih šuma i šikara crnog graba i jesenje šašike;
lEkosistemi šuma bosanskog javora gluhača i ilirske bukve;
lEkosistemi šuma bosanskog javora gluhača i običnog graba;
lEkosistemi u pukotinama karbonatnih stijena sa kamenjarkama;
lEkosistemi šibljaka bjelograbića;
lEkosistemi srebrne lipe i koštrike u klisuri Spreče (Stanić rijeka).
U dolini rijeke Oskove (lijeve pritoke Gostilje), u okolini Banovića, Svatovca i Mačkovca
se nalaze refugijumi sa ekosistemima:
lEkosistemi crnoborovih šuma sa crnjušom;
lEkosistemi crnoborovih šuma sa halačijom;
lEkosistemi kitnjaka i crnjuše;
lEkosistemi serpentinskih kamenjara i siparišta;
lEkosistemi termalnih i mineralnih izvora.
REFUGIJUMI PERIPANONSKOG PODRUČJA
U peripanonskom dijelu Bosne i Hercegovine postoji više refugijuma sa unikatnim
vrijednostima biološkog diverziteta.
Maoča
padine Majevice kod
Bosanske Bijele
Rašljanska rijeka,
između Brčkog i Ćelića kanjon rijeke Tinje
dio Motajice
dio Prosare, uz Savu
klisura rijeke Moštanice
Slika 11. – Reliktno-refugijalna staništa u peripanonskom području
Dominantni faktori koji su omogućili
nastanak i održanje refugijuma na ovom
prostoru su: specifična geogeneza i oroge-
neza, specifična geološka i geomorfološka
raznolikost, postojanje i povlačenje
Pratetisa, i kasniji uticaj kontinentalne kli-
me.
Klisure i kanjoni, pećine i polupećine, te
drugi prirodni fenomeni na ovom
području su veoma očuvani i svjedoče o
dejstvu navedenih faktora.
U uskoj klisuri Moštanice, refugijalno
stanište su našli ekosistemi srebrne lipe i
jele (250 m n.v.), te ekosistemi planinskih
tekućica na silikatima sa izraženim
bogatstvom algi i zajednica visokih zeleni.
Kanjon rijeke Tinje (između mjesta Tinja i
Srebrenik), izgrađuju karbonatne stijene.
Polazeći od Panonije prema središnjoj
Bosni ovo je prvi kanjon, te je imao veliko
110
0DRþD
Slopes of Majevica Mt.
at Bosanska Bijela
Rašljanska rijeka,
EHWZHHQ%UþNRDQGûHOLü Canyon of Tinja river
Motajica river
Prosara area,along
Sava river
Narrow passage of
Moštanica river
Maoca
Slopes of Majevica
Mt. at Bosanska
Bijela
Raljanska rijeka,
between Brcko and
Celic
Canyon of Tinja
river
Motajica river
Prosara area,along
Sava river
Narrow passage of
Motanica river
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esting communities of carbonate rock crevices.
Te basin of Spreča river is characterized by high diversity of habitats and ecosystems. Among
whome protrude the refugia in the narrow passages of Gostilja river and its tributaries near
Stupari, with tertiary-relict ecosystems:
t Ecosystems of tall woods with hope hornbeam at Kozica;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam and young fustic;
t Ecosystems of low woods and shrubs with hope hornbeam and autumn moor grass;
t Ecosystems of woods with bosnian maple and illyrian beech;
t Ecosystems of woods with bosnian maple and hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of carbonate rock crevices with saxifrage;
t Ecosystems of shrubs with oriental hornbeam;
t Ecosystems of silver linden and butcher’s broom in Spreča canyon (Stanić rijeka).
In the valley of Oskova river (lef tributary of Gostilj river), near Banovići, Svatovac and
Mačkovac, occur the refugia with ecosystems:
t Ecosystems of black pine woods with heath;
t Ecosystems of black pine woods with Halacsya sendtneri;
t Ecosystems with sessile oak and heath;
t Ecosystems of serpentine rocky grassland and screes;
t Ecosystems of thermal and mineral springs.
REFUGIA IN THE PERI-PANNONIAN AREA
In the peri-pannonian area of Bosnia and Herzegovina occur several refugial habitats with
the unique biodiversity values.
Figure 11. – Refugio-relict habitats in the peri-pannonian area
Te creation and maintenance of the refugia
in this area was enabled by factors that are
most dominant here: specifc geogensis and
orogenesis, geologic and geomorphologic di-
versity, existance and withdrawal of Pratetis,
and impacts of the continental climate.
Here emerge many well preserved narrow
passages, canyons, caves, half-caves and oth-
er similar phenomena witnessing the activity
of above named factors.
In the narrow passage of Moštanica river, its
refugial shelter have found the ecosystems
with silver linden and fr (at 250 m above sea
level), then ecosystems of mountain streams
on silicate bedrock with high richness of al-
ges and tall herb communities.
Te canyon of Tinja river (between places
Tinja and Srebrenik) is built of carbonate
rocks. Tis ought to be the frst canyon from
the Pannonia toward central Bosnia, being
therefore very important for the survival of
tertiary-relict species. It is under strong in-
značenje za opstanak mnogih tercijerno-reliktnih vrsta. Nalazi se pod snažnim
uticajima umjereno-kontinentalne klime sa juga i tople kontinentalne klime sa sjevera.
Kanjon karakteriše visok stepen geološke raznolikosti izražene kroz:
lEkosisteme u pukotinama organogenih karbonatnih stijena sa bosanskom zvon-
čikom oko pećina i polupećina;
lEkosisteme srebrne lipe, sitnolisnog kitnjaka i zimzelena;
lEkosisteme jesenje šašike i crnog graba;
lEkosisteme medunca i ruja.
Slični tipovi ekosistema se javljaju i u
neposrednoj blizini starog grada
Srebrenika, gdje zajedno sa toploljubivim
ekosistemima šuma i šibljaka čine
ambijentalnu cjelinu od neprocjenjivog
značaja u pejzažnoj raznolikosti Panonije i
Peripanonije.
Na sjevernim padinama Majevice, idući
od Bosanske Bijele prema Ćeliću, do
punog izražaja dolazi raznolikost
geološke podloge i raznolikost živog
svijeta, koje su rezultat prisustva
nekadašnjeg Panonskog mora. Ovdje su
prisutne slojevite karbonatne naslage sa
brojnim fosilima, pećine i polupećine i
različite sedrene tvorevine.
U ovim peripanonskim refugijumima
danas staništa nalaze:
lEkosistemi u pukotinama organogenih stijena sa bosanskom zvončikom;
lEkosistemi medunca i crnog graba;
lEkosistemi crnog graba i jesenje šašike;
lEkosistemi bosanskog javora gluhača i peripanonske bukve;
lEkosistemi sitnolisnog kitnjaka i srebrene lipe;
lEkosistemi srebrene lipe, kitnjaka i koštrike;
lEkosistemi lužnjaka i koštrike;
lEkosistemi srebrene lipe i kitnjaka sa veprinom;
lEkosistemi peripanonske bukve i veprine.
REFUGIJALNI I RELIKTNI EKOSISTEMI U SLIVNOM
PODRUČJU RIJEKE DRINE I NJENIH PRITOKA
Klisura Osaničke rijeke
Manji dio klisure Drine nizvodo
od Drinjače do Zvornika
Klisura rijeke Govze kod Jeleča
Kanjon rijeke Bistrice (sa
eocenskim piramidama kod
Miljevine)
Klisura Prače sa Rakitnicom
nizvodno od Rogatice do
Ustiprače
Kanjon rijeke Dobropoljke ispod
Dobrog Polja
Kanjon rijeke Sutjeske od
Izgorke do Tjentišta
Kanjon rijeke Lim
Klisura rijeke Žepe, Kameničkog
potoka, i drugih vodotoka
nizvodno od ušća Žepe do
Skelana (u području vještačkog
jezera Perućac)
Klisura rijeke Drinjače (lijeve
pritoke Drine)
Kanjon rijeke Rzav, desne
pritoke Drine u Razdolini kod
Dubruna
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Kanjon rijeke Drine nizvodno
od Višegrada do Skelana
Kanjon rijeke Drine nizvodno od
Međeđe do Višegrada
Slika 12. – Reliktno-refugijalna staništa u slivnom području rijeke Drine
111
Narrow passage of
Osanicka river
Smaller share of narrow
passage of Drina river
downstreams from Drinjace to
Zvornika
Narrow passage of Govza river
at Jelec
Canyon of Bistrica river (with
pyramids from eocen at
Miljevina)
Narrow passage of Praca river
with Rakitnica, downstreams
from Rogatica to Ustipraca
Canyon of Dobropoljka river
beneath Dobro Polje
Canyon of Sutjeska river from
Ìzgorka to Tjentite
Canyon of Lim
river
Narrow passage of Zepa river,
Kamenicki potok, and other
streams downstreams from
esturay from Zepa to Skelani
(artificial lake of Perucac)
Narrow passae of Drinjaca
river (left tributaryof Drina)
Canyon of Rzav river, right
tributary of Drina river in
Razdolina at Dubrun
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Canyon Drina river
downstreams from Viegrad
to Skelana
Canyon of Drina river
downstreams from Mededa to
Viegrad
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fuences of temperate continental climate from the South and warm continental climate from
the North. Te canyon is characterized by high geologic diversity refected in:
t Ecosystems of organogenous and carbonate rock crevices with bosnian bellfower around
caves and half-caves;
t Ecosystems with silver linden, Quercus daleschampii and english holy;
t Ecosystems with autumn moor grass and hope hornbeam;
t Ecosystems with pubescent oak and young fustic.
Similar ecosystem types occur in the nearest surrounding of an old city called Srebrenik,
where in the complex with thermophilous woods and shrubs they create an ambiental unit
of immense importance for the landscape’s diversity in the pannonian and peri-pannonian
region.
On the northern slopes of Majevica Mt., going from Bosanska Bijela to Ćelić, is fully ex-
pressed the diversity of both geologic foundation and living world. Tis is the result of the
former Pannonian Sea’s presence. Here, in the carbonate layers, can be found fossiles, caves
and half-caves, and diferent kind of tuf creations.
Tese peri-pannonian refugia are well known habitats of:
t Ecosystems on organogenous rocks with bosnian bellfower;
t Ecosystems with pubescent oak and hope hornbeam;
t Ecosystems with hope hornbeam and autumn moor grass;
t Ecosystems with bosnian maple and peri-pannonian beech;
t Ecosystems with Quercus daleschampii and silver linden;
t Ecosystems with silver linden, sessile oak and butcher’s broom;
t Ecosystems with common oak and butcher’s broom;
t Ecosystems with silver linden, sessile oak and Ruscus hypoglossum;
t Ecosystems with peri-pannonian beech and Ruscus hypoglossum.
REFUGIO-RELICT ECOSYSTEMS IN THE BASIN OF
DRINA RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES
Figure 12. – Refugio-relict habitats in the basin of Drina river
U slivnom području rijeke Drine utvrđeni
su brojni refugijumi reliktne flore, faune i
vegetacije.
Refugijalna staništa u slivnom području
rijeke Drine su centri specijske i ekološke
raznolikosti. Na ovom području se nalaze
populacije brojnih stenoendemičnih i
endemičnih vrsta (endemi Bosne,
Dinarida i Balkana), što ovom prostoru
daje globalnu vrijednost. Slični centri
postoje još u refugijumima rijeke Neretve,
a takvi tipovi ekosistema danas se sreću
još na Pirinejskom i Apeninskom
poluostrvu, u Maloj Aziji i na Himalajima.
Upravo u ovim refugijumima se nalaze
najočuvaniji dijelovi prirode na nivou
čitave Evrope (prašuma Perućica,
prašumski rezervati ilirskog crnog bora,
mezijska bukva u kanjonima Sutjeske,
istočnobosanska ili Pančićeva omorika u
središnjem dijelu kanjona Drine, Žepe i
Govze, polidominantne zajednice crnog
graba, crnog jasena, srebrene lipe,
bosanskog javora, bjelograbića i oraha, te
brojne stenoendemične zajednice u
pukotinama stijena i siparima na
karbonatnoj podlozi).
Tabela 39. - Endemični biljni genofond tercijernih refugijuma sliva rijeke Drine

Edraianthus sp., Daphne malyana, Atamantha haynaldii, Saxifraga rocheliana, Centaurea incompta,
Dianthus kitaibelii, Cerastium lanatum Centaurea derventana, Auilegia grata, Amphoricarpus
autariatus, Valeriana brauni-blanceti, Campanula balcanica, Adenophora liliifolia, Cirsium wetsteinii,
Cicerbita pancicii, Melampyrum hoermanianum, Opoponax hironium, Corylus colurna, Achillea
abrotanoides, Teucrium arduinii, Corydalis leiosperma, Taxus baccata, Acer hircanum, Acer intermedium,
Cytisus tomasinii, Iris bosniaca, itd.


AMPHORICARPETALIA Lakušić 1968

Protoedraianthion tarae Lakušić 1988

Protoedraianthetum glisicii Lakušić 1988 ass. nova
Amphoricarpion autariati Lakušić 1968

Silenetum (petraeae) serbicae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Atamanthetum haynaldii Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Edraiantho-Globularietum cordifoliae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Genisto dalmaticae – Daphneetum malyanae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Saxifragetum rochelinae Blecic 1958
Seslerio – Saxifragetum crustatae Lakušić et Puvelic 1979
Centaureo incompte – Asteretum belidiastri Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Micromerio – Dianthetum kitaibeli Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Edraianthion jugoslavici Lakušić 1975

Achilleo serbicae – Edraianthetum jugoslavici Lakušić 1969
Edraiantho – Dianthetum kitaibeli Lakušić 1975
Cerastietum lanati Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Edraiantho – Centauretum derventanae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Moehringio – Asplenietum lepidi Lakušić 1972
MOLTKEETALIA PETRAEAE Lakušić 1968

Edraianthion Lakušić 1968

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Campanuletum balcanicae Lakušić et Redžić 1988

Tabela 40. – Sintaksonomski pregled zajednica na reliktno-refugijalnim staništima
slivnog područja rijeke Drine
112
üüüüüüüü Lakušiæ1968
Protoedraianthion tarae Lakušiæ1988
Protoedraianthetum glisicii Lakušiæ1988 ass. nova
Amphoricarpion autariati Lakušiæ1968
Silenetum (petraeae) serbicae/DNXãLHW5HGåL
Atamanthetum haynaldii/DNXãLHW5HGåL
Edraiantho-Globularietum cordifoliae/DNXãLHW5HGåL
Genisto dalmaticae – Daphneetum malyanae/DNXãLHW5HGåL
Saxifragetum rochelinae Blecic 1958
Seslerio – Saxifragetum crustatae Lakušiæet Puvelic 1979
Centaureo incompte – Asteretum belidiastri/DNXãLHW5HGåL
Micromerio – Dianthetum kitaibeli/DNXãLHW5HGåL
Edraianthion jugoslavici Lakušiæ1975
Achilleo serbicae – Edraianthetum jugoslavici Lakušiæ1969
Edraiantho – Dianthetum kitaibeli Lakušiæ1975
Cerastietum lanati/DNXãLHW5HGåL
Edraiantho – Centauretum derventanae/DNXãLHW5HGåL
Moehringio – Asplenietum lepidi Lakušiæ1972
MOLTKEETALIA PETRAEAE Lakušiæ1968
Edraianthion Lakušiæ1968
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In the basin of Drina river recognized are
many refugia of tertiary fora, fauna and veg-
etation.
Refugial habitats in the basin of Drina river
are centres of both species and ecologic diver-
sity. In this area occur the populations of many
stenoendemic and endemic species (endemic
species of Bosnia, Dinaric Alps and Balkan)
making it valuable on the global scale. Simi-
lar centres are to be found in the refugia of
Neretva river, whereas on larger scale they oc-
cur today on Pirines and Apennine peninsula,
Little Asia and Himalays. Right here in these
refugia emerge best preserved fragments of
nature in the entire Europe (primeval forest
Perućica, primeval forest reserve with illyrian
black pine and moesian beech in the canyon
of Sutjeska river, woods with Serbian spruce
in the midle of Drina river’s canyon, than can-
yons of Žepa and Govza rivers, polydominant
communities with hope hornbeam, fower-
ing ash, silver linden, bosnian maple, oriental
hornbeam and wallnut, then many stenoen-
demic communities of carbonate rock crev-
ices and screes.
Table 39. – Endemic geen pool of plants in tertiary refugia of Drina river’s basin
Edraianthus sp., Daphne malyana, Atamantha haynaldii, Saxifraga rocheliana, Centaurea incompta, Dianthus
kitaibelii, Cerastium lanatum Centaurea derventana, Auilegia grata, Amphoricarpus autariatus, Valeriana bra-
uni-blanceti, Campanula balcanica, Adenophora liliifolia, Cirsium wetsteinii, Cicerbita pancicii, Melampyrum
hoermanianum, Opoponax hironium, Corylus colurna, Achillea abrotanoides, Teucrium arduinii, Corydalis
leiosperma, Taxus baccata, Acer hircanum, Acer intermedium , Cytisus tomasinii, Iris bosniaca, itd.
Table 40. – Syntaxonomic overview of the communities in refugio-relict
habitats of Drina river’s basin
ARABIDETALIA FLAVESCENTIS Lakušić 1968

Corydalion ochraleucae Lakušić 1975

Corydalo – Geranietum macrorhyzi Blecic 1958
Thalictro – Geranietum macrorhyzi Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Corydalo – Cardaminatum graecae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Moehringio – Corydaletum ochroleucae Lakušić 1975
Peltarion alliaceae H-ic (1956) 1958
Marrubio – Rumicetum scutati Lakušić et Redžić 1988 ass. nova
Achnatherion calamagrostis Jenny – Lips 1930 (Stipeion calamagrostidis Jenny – Lips
1930)

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Achnanthero – Petasitetum kablikianii Lakušić et Redžić 1988 ass. nova
CICERBITETALIA Lakušić 1978

Cirsio – Cicerbitum pancici Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Cicerbito – Petasitetum hybridi Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Molinio – Adenophoretum liliifoliae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
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Chaerophyllo – Cirsietum wettsteinii Lakušić et Redžić 1988
OSTRYO – CARPINETALIA ORIENTALIS Lakušić, Pavlovic, Redžić 1982
Querco – Carpinetum montenegrinum Blecic 1957/8
Carpino orientalis – Quercetum cerris Lakušić 1976
Aceri – Carpinetum orientalis Blecic et Lakušić 1966
Seslerio angustifoliae – Ostryetum carpinifoliae Lakušić 1975
Carpino betuli – Ostryetum carpinifoliae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
FAGETALIA SYLVATICAE Pawlowsky 1928
Fagion moesiacae Blecic et Lakušić 1970
Fraxino excelsioris – Fagetum moesiacae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
Convallario – Fagetum moesiacae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
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Seslerio autumnalis – Fagetum moesiacae Blecic et Lakušić 1970
ABIETI – PICEETALIA (Br. – Bl. 1939) Lakušić et al. 1979
Piceion omorikae Lakušić 1982

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Ostryo – Piceetum omorikae Lakušić et al. 1982
PINETALIA HELDREICHII – NIGRAE

Pinion nigrae Lakušić 1972

Junipero – Pinetum nigrae Lakušić et Redžić 1988
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Fago moesiacae – Pinetum nigrae Lakušić et Vuckovic 1984
Specifični procesi geogeneze, pedogeneze
i singeneze priobalnih ekosistema uslovili
su i jedinstvene obrasce razvoja higro-
filnih i hidrofilnih zajednica biljaka i živo-
tinja. Među različitim grupama insekata
(Psihodida, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera,
Trichoptera, Ortoptera, Ropalocera),
veliki je broj endemičnih oblika i
tercijernih relikata. Bogatstvo vrsta i
broj nost sisara, ptica, gmizavaca,
vodozemaca, vrsta iz svijeta pedofaune i
carstva gljiva, čine stepen biodiverziteta
ovog područja izrazito visokim. Posebno
značajno je bogatstvo salmonidnih vrsta
riba, među kojima su mladica i potočna
pastrmka sačuvale čiste prirodne linije
genofonda.
U priobalnom pojasu dubokih kanjona
danas još egzistira bogatstvo prirodnog
genofonda, u malo istraženim, a
potencijalno privredno važnim vrstama,
kao što su: divlje trešnje, divlje jabuke,
113
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Te unique development patterns of both hy-
grophilous and hydrophilous plant and animal
communities is the result of specifc geogen-
esis, pedogenesis and syngenesis in the eco-
systems of riverside. Tere is a great number
of endemic forms and tertiary relicts among
insects (Psychodida, Ephemeroptera, Plecop-
tera, Trichoptera, Orthoptera, Ropalocera).
Te biodiversity in this area is high due to the
diversity and abundance of mammals, birds,
reptiles, amphibians and species belonging to
pedofauna or realm of fungi. In the biodiver-
sity in general, important place take salmo-
nids, of which Hucho hucho and brown trout
have preserved their indigenous genetic lines.
Along the riversides of deep canyons still exists
the diversity of natural gen pool, contained in
least investigated and potentially, in economic
sense, signifcant species, such as wild cherry,
apple tree, common plar tree, rockcherry, eu-
divlje kruške, rašeljke, jarebike, maline, kupine, dunjice, orah.
Visok stepen specijskog biodiverzieta izražen je u prostornoj i vremenskoj organizaciji
kroz brojne ekosisteme koji čine mozaik pejzaža sliva Drine.
REFUGIJALNI I RELIKTNI EKOSISTEMI U SLIVNOM
PODRUČJU RIJEKE NERETVE
Rijeka Neretva na svom dugom toku
prolazi kroz najdublje i najočuvanije
kanjone i klisure ne samo na prostoru
Bosne i Hercegovine nego i u svijetu.
Usljed orografske izolovanosti sa sjevera i
snažnog uticaja mediteranske klime sa
juga ovaj prostor je prošao kroz
jedinstvene procese postanka klime i
živog svijeta.
Rijetki su primjeri klimatskog diverziteta
kao u području sliva rijeke Neretve, u
kome se smj enj uj u mediteranska,
submediteranska, umjereno-kontinen-
talna i tipična planinska klima u vršnom
dijelu.
Dubina kanjona (koja na pojedinim
mjestima iznosi blizu 2.000 m), karbo-
natna geološka podloga i ekoklimatske
specifičnosti uslovili su pojavu više
razvojnih centara endemične flore, faune i
vegetacije u slivu Neretve. Stepen
biodiverziteta ovo područje svrstava u
jedan od najznačajnijih i najočuvanijih
fl ori sti čko-fauni sti čki h endemni h
razvojnih centara na globalnom nivou.
Refugijumi slivnog područja rijeke
Neret ve posj eduj u neponovl j i ve
geomorfološke forme, raznolikost tipova
tala, hidrološke mreže i ekoklime, koji su
generisali najviše nivoe specijskog i
ekol oškog di verzi t et a u Bosni i
Hercegovini, pa i Dinaridima. U kanjo-
nima gornjeg toka rijeke Neretve, sadrža-
ni su iskonski oblici žive i nežive prirode,
a bogatstvo stenoendemičnih i reliktnih
biljnih i životinjskih vrsta ovom prostoru
daje važno mjesto u globalnom biodiver-
zitetu. Jedan od jedinstvenih kanjona
ovog prostora je kanjon Rakitnice, a
refugijumi Prenja, Čvrsnice i Čabulje su
centri razvoja i opstanka endemičnog
genofonda. Pejzažne vrijednosti ovim
refugijalnim staništima daju endemične
zajednice lišćarsko-listopadnih šuma i
šikara, svijetlih četinarskih šuma i
šibljaka, higrofilnih šuma i šibljaka vrba,
joha, topola i platana, a naročito neponov-
ljivi svijet u pukotinama karbonatnih
stijena i sipara.
Reliktno-refugijalna staništa u kanjonu Neretve
114
CanyonoINeretvariver
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ropean mountainash, raspberry, black berry,
wallnut tree.
Te spatial and temporal organisation refect
high species biodiversity, which is visible in
the ecosystems that landscapes of Drina river’s
basin are composed of.
REFUGIAL AND RELICT ECOSYSTEMS IN THE
BASIN OF NERETVA RIVER
Te Neretva river on its long journey fows
through the deepest and best preserved can-
yons and narrow passages not only in Bos-
nia and Herzegovina, but in the entire world.
Te insulation in orographic sense toward
the North, and strong infuence of mediter-
ranean climate from the South, enabled the
unique process of both climate and living
world evolution in this area.
It is not ofen the case that the climate diver-
sity is as high as in the basin of Neretva riv-
er. Namely, here exchanges mediterranean,
supra-mediterranean, temperate continental
and typical mountain climate in the upper
area.
Te canyon’s depth (reaching in some places
close to 2.000 m), carbonate geologic foun-
dation and ecoclimate specifcities have
caused the occurence of development centres
of endemic fora, fauna and vegetation. By its
biodiversity level, this area is one of the most
signifcant and best preserved endemic de-
velopment centres on global scale.
Te refugial habitats in the basin of Neretva
river posses unique geomorphologic forms,
high diversity of: soils, hydrologic network
and ecoclimate, which resulted in the high-
est level of species and ecologic diversity in
Bosnia and Herzegovina, and even wider in
Dinaric Alps.
In the upper fow of Neretva river, in the can-
yons, contained are a genuine forms of both
biotic and abiotic nature, as well as the rich-
ness of stenoendemic and relict plant and
animal species. One of the most unique can-
yons in the area is canyon of Rakitnica river.
Te refugia of mountains Prenj, Čvrsnica
and Čabulja are development and survival
centres for the endemic gen pool. Tese refu-
gial habitats owe their landscape’s value to
the endemic communities of broadleaved
deciduous forests and shrubs, light conifer-
ous woods and shrubs, hygrophilous woods
and shrubs with willow, alder, poplar and
oriental plane, and especially to the wildlife
of carbonate rock crevices and screes.
Idući od izvorišnog dijela rijeke uz cijeli tok i pritoke Neretve mogu se izdvojiti brojne pr-
ostorno-ekološke cjeline sa karakteristikama refugijuma:
Kanjon rijeke Idbar
Klisura i kanjon rijeke Rame sa
više pritoka (Klek, Here, krupić I
vodopad u selu Duge)
Kanjon rijeke
Neretvice

Kanjon od donje Jablanice do
mostarskog polja (Salakovac)
Klisura rijeke Neretve sa
plahovitim tokom od Blagaja do
Čapljine
Klisura-kanjon rijeke Trešanice

Klisura Glogošnice
Izvorišni sliv u području
Borač planine, nizvodno
do Uloga – klisura
između Zelengore na
istoku i Crvanj planine na
zapadu
Kanjon otoke- jezernice
od Boračkog jezera
Kanjon rijeke Rakitnice
Kanjon Ljute
Kanjon od Glavatičeva do
Đajića, uzvodno od Konjica
Kanjon nizvodno od Uloga do
Glavatičeva, jedan od najočuvanjijh,
najprirodnijih dijelova životne sredine
Bosne i Hercegovine
Kanjon rijeke Drežnice
Kanjon rijeke Doljanke
kod Jablanice
Kanjon rijeke Grabovice
Izvorišna čelenka rijeke Bune
kod Blagaja
Dolina rijeke Kupe
Klisura i kanjon rijeke Trebižat
od Gabela do Vrlike
Klisura sa kanjonom rijeke
Bregave uzvodno od Stoca
Kanjon rijeke Bijele
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Slika 13. – Reliktno-refugijalna staništa u slivnom području rijeke Neretve
Jedinstvenosti pejzaža refugijalnih
staništa Neretve doprinose i toploljubive
zajednice sladuna (koji kod Donje
Jablanice obrazuje zasebne hecegovačke
šume), te zajednice kestena, (koji na
silikatnim stijenama donjeg toka i ušća
Neretvice, obrazuju hercegovačke šume
pitomog kestena).
Osim izuzetnog endemoreliktnog geno-
fonda, refugijumi rijeke Neretve i njenih
pritoka sadrže i genofond sa potencijalom
za r azvoj odr ži vog pč el ar s t va,
proizvodnju zdravih fitofarmaka, održivo
stočarstvo, voćarstvo i povrtlarstvo.
Ishodišni oblici mnogih kulturnih biljaka
(divlje vrste vinove loze, trešnje, jabuke,
kruška, rašeljke, smokve i nara), su još
veoma slabo istraženi.
Vode rijeke Neretve su u velikom dijelu
toka sa visokim biološkim kvalitetom, pa
i h j oš nastanj uj u broj ne (mnoge
endemične) vrste algi, mahovina, rakova,
vodenih insekata i riba.
Međutim, sve jači antropogeni pritisak
ugrožava naročito endemične vrste
(neretvanska mekousna, potočna
pastrmka), kojima prijeti potpuno
uništenje.
U slivnom području Neretve značajan je
broj refugijuma sa osobinama kraškog
reljefa. Očuvanje ovih tipova staništa je u
direktnoj vezi sa stanjem cijelog sliva, a
posebno sa stanjem jedne od najvećih delti
Canyon of Ìdbar
river
Narrow passage and canyon of
Rama river with tibutaries (Klek,
Here, Krupic and waterfall inin the
village Duge)
Canyon of
Neretvica
ri er
Canyon of Bijela river from
Jablanica to mostar's field
(Salakovac)
Narrow passage of Neretva river
with mighty flow from Blagaj to
Capljina
Narrow passage of Treanica
river
Narrow passage of
Glogonica
Catchment area of spring
beneath Borac Mt.,
upstreams to Ulog
narrow passage between
Zelengora in East and
Crvanj Mt. in West
Canyon of Jezernica
running out of Boracko
jezerao
Canyon of Rakitnica
river
Canyon of Ljuta
Canyon from Glavaticevo to
Ĉajici, upstreams from Konjic
Canyon downstreams from Ulog to
Glavaticevo, one of the best
preserved natural parts of the
environment in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Canyon of Dreznica
river
Canyon of Doljanka river
at Jablanica
Canyon of Grabovica
river
Spring area of Buna river at
Blagaj
Valley of Kupa river
Narrow passage and canyon
of Trebizat river from Gabela
to Vrlike
Narrow passage and canyon of
Bregava river upstreams from
Stolac
Canyon of Bijela
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115
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If we go downstreams from the source of Neretva river and its tributaries we can selecte many
spatial and ecologic units with the refugial character:
Figure 13. – Refugio-relict habitats in the basin of Neretva river
The uniqueness of landscapes in the refu-
gial habitats is underlined by the commu-
nities of thermophilous italian oak (form-
ing special form of herzegovina’s woods
at Donja Jablanica) and chestnut (that on
silicate bedrock in lower f low of Neretva
river and around Neretvica’s estuary forms
herzegovina’s chestnut forests).
The refugial habitats of Neretva river and
its tributaries are important for their en-
demo-relict gen pool, but also for the gen
pool that enables sustainable bee keeping,
production of phytopharmacs, sustainable
cattle breeding, fruit-gardening and pro-
duction of vegetables. The primary lines
of many cultivated plants (wild sorts of
vine, cherry, apple, pear, rockcherry, fige
and pomegranate) have been poorly inves-
tigated yet.
In Neretva river, water is characterized by
high biologic quality in most of its f low.
Thus, many (endemic) alges, mosses, crabs,
aquatic insects and fish live in it.
However, the anthropogenous impact that
grows each day endangers mainly endemic
species (soft-muzzled and brown trout),
which are under threat to become extinct.
In the basin of Neretva river, many refugial
habitats posses karst relief ’s features. The
maintenance of these habitats is directly
Tabela 41. – Sintaksonomski pregled zajednica na reliktno-refugijalnim staništima
slivnog područja rijeke Neretve
u Evropi u kojoj se nalazi Hutovo Blato,
močvarno područje od međunarodnog
značaja.
Pejzažnoj jedinstvenosti ovog prostora
doprinose i sedrene tvorevine nastale
procesom travertinizacije. Stalnom radlji-
vošću vode uz prisustvo algi, mahovina i
vodenih insekata, došlo je do formiranja
najrazličitijih oblika „žive“ stijene (sedre
ili biga). Sedra formira pregrade i barijere
preko kojih se obrušava čista i bistra voda,
te padajući u slapovima i vodopadima
očaravajuće ljepote, čini smaragde u
prirodnom nasljeđu Bosne i Hercegovine.
Među njima su najpoznatiji slapovi na
Gornjoj Neretvi, Đajića buk, slap na rijeci
Krupić u selu Duge, te vodopadi i slapovi
na rijeci Trebižat (Kravice i Koćuša).
U potkapinama sedrenih barijera su
staništa viline vlasi (Adiantum capillus-
veneris), ugrožene reliktne vrste izuzetnih
dekorativnih vrijednosti.

MOLTKEETALIA PETRAEAE Lakušić 1968

Edraianthion Lakušić 1968
Centaureo glaberimae – Onosmetum stellulati Lakušić & Redžić 1991
Centaureo deustae – Campanuletum pyramidalis Lakušić & Redžić 1991
Heliospermo retzdorffiani-Oreoherzogietum illyricae Šilić 1970
AMPHORICARPETALIA Lakušić 1968

Amphoricarpion autariati

Lakušić 1968.

Athamanthetum haynaldii Lkšić.et Redž. 1988

Micromerion croaticae Ht. 1931

Edraiantho – Potentilletum clusianae Lakušić 1968
Asplenietum fissi Ht. 1931
Potentilletum clusianae Ht. 1931
POTENTILLETALIA CAULESCENTIS Br. – Bl.

Moehringion muscosae Ht. et H-ic. 1959

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Moehringio – Corydaletum Ht. 1962
DRYPEETALIA SPINOSAE Quezel 1967
Peltarion alliaceae H-ic (1956) 1958

Micromerio thymifolii-Corydaletum leiospermae Lkšić.et Redž. 1991
Marrubio-Rumicetum scutati Lkšić.et Redž. 1988
Achnatherion calamagrostis Jenny-Lips 1930.
Achnathero-Petasitetum kablikiani Lkšić.et Redž. 1988
Micromerio thymifolii – Corydaletum leiospermae Lakušić & Redžić 1991
Asplenio – Ceterachetum officinari Lakušić & Redžić 1991
ARABIDETALIA FLAVESCENTIS Lakušić 1968

Silenion marginatae Lakušić 1968

Cerastietum dinaricae Ht. 1931
Bunion alpini Lakušić 1968

Bunio – Iberetum carnosae Ht. 1931
Euphorbio-Valerianetum bertisceae Lkšić. 1968

Silenion marginatae Lakušić 1967.

Geranio-Heracleetum balcanicum Lkšić. 1967
Dripidi-Silenetum marginatae Lkšić.1967
Saxifragion prenjae Lakušić 1967.

Saxifrago-Papaveretum kerneri Lkšić. 1967
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Sagino-Gnaphalietum pichlerii Lkšić. 1968


116
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connected with the state in the entire ba-
sin, especially with the state in one of the
largest deltas in Europe – Hutovo blato,
which is the wetland of international im-
portance, is placed within.
To the uniqueness of landscapes contrib-
ute tuff creations as a result of travertine
building processes. The continual activity
of water, alges, mosses and aquatic insects
results in the formation of different “alive“
rocks (tuff or travertine). Travertine makes
barriers that clear and clean water f lows
over building cascades and waterfalls of
the magnificient beauty. These are true
emeralds of bosnia-herzegovina’s natural
heritage.
Most famous cascades are at GornjaNere-
tva, Đajića buk, on Krupić river at Duge
village, and waterfalls and cascades on
Trebižat river (Kravice and Koćuša). Un-
der tuff barriers occur habitats of maid-
enhair fern (Adiantum capillus veneris),
which is endangered relict species with the
outstanding decorative attributes.
Table 41. – Endemic gen pool of plants in tertiary refugia of the Neretva river’s basin
SCORZONERO – CHRYSOPOGONETALIA H-ic & Ht. (1956) 1958
Satureion montanae Ht. 1962
Physospermo – Satureietum montanae Redžić et Lakušić 1991
Artemisio albae – Rutetum Redžić et Lakušić 1991
Satureion subspicatae Ht. 1962

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Satureio subspicatae – Festucetum dalmaticae Redžić et Lakušić 1991
PINETALIA HELDREICHII – NIGRAE Lakušić 1972

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Pinion nigrae Lakušić 1972

ABIETI – PICEETALIA (Br. – Bl. 1939) Lakušić et al. 1979

Abietion albae (Ht. 1956) Lakušić et al. 1979
Calamagrosti – Abietetum Ht. 1950
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Rhamno – Abietetum Fuk. 1958
QUERCETALIA PUBESCENTIS Br. – Bl. (1931) 1932
Quercion pubescentis – petraeae Br. – Bl. 1931
Quercion petraeae – cerris (Lakušić 1976) Lakušić et B. Jovanovic 1980
OSTRYO – CARPINETALIA ORIENTALIS Lakušić, Pavlovic, Redžić 1982
Carpinion orientalis Blecic &Lakušić 1966
Aceri – Carpinetum orientalis Blecic &Lakušić 1966
Rusco – Carpinetum orientalis continentale Lakušić et Redžić 1991
Seslerio – Ostryon Lksic., Pavlov. & Redžić 1982 (Syn.: Orneto – Ostryon Tom. 1940
p.p.)

Seslerio autumnalis – Ostryetum carpinifoliae Ht. et H-ic. 1950
FAGETALIA MOESIACAE Lakušić 1991

Ostryo – Fagenion moesiacaeae B. Jovanovic 1976

Aceri obtusati – Fagetum (moesiacae) Fab., Fuk. & Stef. 1963
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Aceri – Tilietum mixtum Stef. 1979
Tabela 42. - Endemični biljni genofond tercijernih refugijuma sliva rijeke Neretve

Campanula hercegovina, Euphorbia hercegovina, Peteria ramentacea, Moltkaea petraea, Edraianthus
tenuifoliuss, Pinus heldrechii, Pinus illyrica, Seseli tomasinii, Peucedanum neumayeri, Heliosperma
retzdorphianum, Oreoherzogia illyrica, Potentilla speciosa, Potentilla persicina, Tanacetum
cinerarifolium, Cardamine fiala, C. graeca, Reichardia macrophylla, Crepis pantocseki, Festuca
corabensis, Silene reichenbachii, Centaurea nicolai, Acinos orontius, Onosma stellulata, Micromeria
croatica, Rus coriaria, Celtis australis, Periploca graeca, Vitex agnus-castus, Platanus orientalis, Drypis
jacquiniana, Peltaria aliacea.
Vipera ammodytes (Linnaeus 1758).
117
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Table 42. – Syntaxonomic overview of the communities in
refugio-relict habitats of the Neretva river’s basin
Campanula hercegovina, Euphorbia hercegovina, Peteria ramentacea, Moltkaea petraea, Edraianthus
tenuifoliuss, Pinus heldrechii, Pinus illyrica, Seseli tomasinii, Peucedanum neumayeri, Heliosperma retz-
dorphianum, Oreoherzogia illyrica, Potentilla speciosa, Potentilla persicina, Tanacetum cinerarifolium,
Cardamine fala, C. graeca, Reichardia macrophylla, Crepis pantocseki, Festuca corabensis, Silene reichen-
bachii, Centaurea nicolai, Acinos orontius, Onosma stellulata, Micromeria croatica, Rus coriaria, Celtis
australis, Periploca graeca, Vitex agnus-castus, Platanus orientalis, Drypis jacquiniana, Peltaria aliacea.
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MOČVARNI PEJZAŽI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
Močvare i vodenj are danas či ne
najugroženije ekosisteme i u Bosni i
Hercegovini. Kako sadrže vrijedan geno-
fond (različite biljne, a od životinjskih
vrsta naročito ptice, gmizavce, vodo-
zemce i ribe) u sistemu održive konzer-
vacije imaju puni prioritet.
Zbog ograničenosti hidromorfnih zemlji-
šta na prostoru BiH (svega do 15 % površi-
ne), te njihove stalne melioracije i isušiva-
nja, močvarna staništa pa i čitavi ekosiste-
mi su ograničeni na male površine.
Ovaj tip staništa, koji u Bosni i Hercego-
vini često ima lokalni karakter uvjetovan
je specifičnim orografsko-edafskim
prilikama. Močvarna staništa se nalaze na
vododrživoj geološkoj podlozi, različitim
sedimentima i hidromorfnim dubokim
tlima.
U sastav močvarnih pejzaža ulazi veći broj
ekosistema sa visokim pej zažnim
vrijednostima koje čitavim ravničarskim
prostorima daju posebna ekološka i
biogeografska obilježja.
Ekosistemi na močvarnim staništima su
oduvijek imali izražene i ekonomske
vrijednosti. Svoje stanište ovdje nalaze
mnoge plemenite vrste riba, te divljač koje
su osnova uspješnog ribarstva i lova.
Šumski močvarni ekosistemi, pored
ekološkog značaj a također imaj u
vrij ednost u sticanj u dobiti kroz
proizvodnju drvne biomase. Močvarni
ekosistemi sadrže i značajne resurse
ljekovitih, jestivih i vitaminskih biljaka.
S obzirom na ukupnu ekološku sliku
Bosne i Hercegovine, u kojoj dominiraju
različiti tipovi terestričnih tala i
vegetacije, močvarni ekosistemi imaju
posebnu važnost, jer predstavljaju
prirodne raritete.
Tabela 43. – Sintaksonomski pregled zajednica na močvarnim staništima BiH
Vegetacija visokih tresetišta
OXYCCOCO – SPHAGNETEA Br.-Bl. et Tx. 1943
SPHAGNETALIA FUSCI
Sphagnion fusci Br.-Bl. 1920
Comaro-Menyanthetum trifoliatae Lkšić et col. 1969

Sphagnetum fusci Luq. 1926
Sphagnetum medii Kasn. et al. 1933

Vegetacija primorskih močvara

JUNCETEA MARITIMI Br.-Bl. 1931

JUNCETALIA MARITIMI Br.-Bl. 1931
Juncion maritimi Br.-Bl. 1931
Juncetum maritimo-acuti H-ić 1934
Vegetacija brakičnih voda

RUPPIETEA MARITIMAE J. Tx 1960
RUPPIETALIA MARITIMAE J. Tx 1960
Ruppion maritimae J. Tx 1960

Ulvaetum lactucae adriaticum Lkšić 1975

Vegetacija niskih cretova
SCHEUCHZERIO – CARICETEA FUSCAE (Nordh.
1936) Tx. 1937
CARICETALIA DAVALLIANAE Br.-Bl. 1949

Caricion davallianae Klika 1934

Schoenetum nigricantis W. Koch 1926

Valeriano – Caricetum buxbaumii Rt. 1972

Eryophoro – Caricetum davallianae Rt. 1972

Carici – Orchidetum bosniacae Lkšić et Mišić1969


Močvarni ekosistemi u Bosni i Hercego-
vini su formirani na nepropusnoj geološ-
koj podlozi, često na različitim jezerskim i
riječnim sedimentima, ravnim terenima i
prirodnim depresijama.
Ovi ekosistemi danas u BiH obuhvataju i
područja uz veće vodotoke (Una, Vrbas,
Bosna, Drina, Neretva), na kojima su
razvijene higrofilne zajednice šuma i
šibljaka vrba, joha, rakite i ive.
Idući uz vertikalni profil bosansko-
hercegovačkih Dinarida, susreću se i
posebni tipovi vlažnih staništa oko
planinskih izvora i potoka, a na pojedinim
mjestima i ekosistemi tresetišta (cretova).
Na ni ži m nadmorski m vi si nama
formiraju se niski bazifilni treseti, dok su
u zoni tamnih četinarskih šuma (na
visinama iznad 1.000 m) formirani visoki
cretovi sa dominacijom mahovina
tresetarki. U pretplaninskom pojasu, u
manjim depresijama, uz izvore (pištaline)
razvijen je poseban oblik niskih treseta
borealno-reliktnog karaktera.
118
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WETLAND LANDSCAPES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Moorland and standing water are most en-
dangered type of ecosystems today in Bosnia
and Herzegovina. Due to valuable gen pool
contained within them (diferent plant and
animal species, birds, reptiles, amphibians
and fshes) they enjoy highest priority in the
systems of sustainable conservation.
Distribution of hydromorphous soils in Bos-
nia and Herzegovina is very limited (taking
15% of its territory) tending to become even
less than that by melioration and drainage,
which is the reason for wetlands to be distrib-
uted over small area.
Tis habitat type with ofen local character in
Bosnia and Herzegovina is induced by specifc
orographic and edaphic conditions. Wetland
is being formed either on leakage proof geo-
logic foundation or diferent kind of deposi-
tions and deep hydromorphous soil.
Wetland landscapes include series of ecosys-
tems with high ambiental values that give spe-
cial ecologic and biogeographic features to the
entire lowland.
Tese ecosystems have been possesing an out-
standing economic value ever since. Tis is a
habitat of many noble kind of fshes and game
species that are considered to be a base for suc-
cessful fshing and hunt. Wetland ecosystems
that are actually forests, beside their ecologic
importance, are important for making a gain
based on wood production. Wetland ecosys-
tems comprise signifcant resource of medici-
nal, edible and vitaminous plants.
Considering whole ecologic picture of Bosnia
and Herzegovina, dominated by diverse ter-
restric kind of soils and vegetation, marsh
ecosystems have got special importance in
terms of being rare.
Table 43. – Syntaxonomic overview of the communities of B&H’s wetlands
Wetland ecosystems in Bosnia and Herze-
govina emerge on leakage proof geologic
foundation, frequently these are lake and
river depostions, plain ground and natural
formed depressions.
At present, that kind of ecosystems in Bosnia
and Herzegovina occur along large water-
courses (Una, Vrbas, Bosna, Drina, Nerteva)
with hygrophylous woods and shrubs of wil-
low, alder, purpule and marsh willow.
Going upwards on vertical profle of bosnia-
herzegovina’s Dinaric Alps, emerges special
kind of wet habitats around springs and
brooks. On some places occur bog ecosys-
tems. At lower altitude form alkaline blanket
bogs, whereas in the zone of dark coniferous
woods (at altitude over 1.000 m) form raised
bogs with a domination of bogmosses. In
the subalpine belt. In the small depressions
and around springs develop special form of
boreo-relict blanket bogs.
Wetlands occur in many karst felds, too
(Ždralovac area in Livanjsko polje, Buško
Močvarna staništa su prisutna u mnogim
kraškim poljima (Ždralovac u Livanjskom
polju, Buško blato, Duvanjsko, Kupreško,
Popovo, Dabarsko, Fatničko, Gatačko,
Nevesinjsko i Podrašničko polje)
Najznačajnija močvarana područja
obuhvaćena makrofitskom vegetacijom
trstika i mrijesnjaka u Bosni i Hecegovini
su:
Osim ovih lokaliteta, postoji i znatan broj
močvarnih ekosistema koji su staništa za
stacionarne i migratorne vrste ptica uz
starače ravničarskih rijeka, manje
depresije i priobalni pojas rijeka.
Šumski močvarni ekosistemi
Osim vegetacije vodenjara, šašika, trstika i
cretova močvarna staništa Bosne i Herceg-
ovine nastanjuju i različite zajednice vo-
doljubivih šuma i šibljaka.
U ravničarskim predjelima, na hidro-
morfnim zemljištima tipa fluvisola i mo-
čvarnih glejnih tala, uz obale rijeke Save i
ušća njenih pritoka razvijeni su:
lHutovo blato u području delte Neretve
nedaleko od Čapljine;
lŽdral ovac (sj everozapadni di o
Livanjskog polja prema Bosanskom
Grahovu);
lPlivska jezera kod Jajca;
lBardača kod Srpca na ušću rijeke Vrbas
u Savu;
lVelika i Mala Tišina kod Bosanskog
Šamca na ušću rijeke Bosne u Savu;
lHan Kram kod Han Pijeska;
lPojedini dijelovi jezera Modrac kod
Tuzle;
lPlaninska jezera na bosansko-hercego-
vački m Di nari di ma ( Šat orsko,
Kukavičko, Rastićevsko i Turjača na
Kupreškom polju, Prokoško jezero na
Vranici, Blatačko jezero na Bjelašnici,
Idovačko jezero na Raduši, Blidinje
j ezero u Dugom Polj u između
Čvrsnice i Vran planine, Uloško jezero
na Crvnju, Boračko jezero ispod
Prenja, Veliko, Blatno, Crno i Bijelo
jezero na Treskavici, Kotlaničko,
Orlovačko, Crno, Bijelo, Štirinsko,
Kladopoljsko, Donje Bare i Gornje Bare
na Zelengori.
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blato, Duvanjsko, Kupreško, Popovo, Dabar-
sko, Fatničko, Gatačko, Nevesinjsko and
Podrašničko polje).
Te most important wetland areas with
macrophyte vegetation made of reedbed and
pondweed in Bosnia and Herzegovina are:
t Hutovo blato in the Neretva delta’s area
not far from Čapljina;
t Ždralovac (northwestern part of Livan-
jsko polje toward Bosansko Grahovo);
t Plivska jezera by Jajce town;
t Bardača near Srbac at Vrbas river’s estu-
ary;
t Velika and Mala Tišina near Bosanski
Šamac at Bosna river’s estuary;
t Han Kram at Han Pijesak;
t Some regions on Modrac lake near Tuzla;
t Mountain lakes of bosnia-herzegovina’s
Dinaric Alps (Šatorsko, Kukavičko,
Rastićevsko and Turjača on plateau of
Kupres, Prokoško jezero on Vranica
Mt., Blatačko jezero on Bjelašnica Mt.,
Idovačko jezero on Raduša Mt., Blidinje
jezero in Dugo Polje between Čvrsnica
and Vran Mt., Uloško jezero on Crvanj
Mt.;
t Boračko jezero beneath Prenj Mt., Veliko,
Blatno, Crno and Bijelo jezero on Treskav-
ica Mt., Kotlaničko, Orlovačko, Crno, Bi-
jelo, Štirinsko, Kladopoljsko, Donje Bare
and Gornje Bare on Zelengora Mt.

Apart from these localities, there is a signif-
cant number of wetland ecosystems which
provide habitats for stationary and migra-
tory birds and are situated by lowland river’s
efuents, in the small depressions and along
riverbanks.
Ecosystems of wetland forest
Wetland’s area in Bosnia and Herzegovina
comprises standing water, reedbeds, sedges
and bogs, but also hygrophilous woods and
shrubs.
In the lowland area, on hydromorphous
soil, such as fuvisol or swamp kind of gleys,
along riverbanks of Sava river and estuaries
of its tributaries, developed are:
lEkosistemi šuma bijele i crne topole;
lEkosistemi šuma bijele vrbe i crne topole;
lEkosistemi crne johe i šaševa;
lEkosistemi crne johe i krušine;
lEkosistemi drijemovca i poljskog jasena;
lEkosistemi bijele vrbe;
U slivnom području rijeke Neretve, nizvodno od Počitelja (Hutovo Blato, donji tok ri-
jeke Trebižat, Buna i Krupa), posebnu vrijednost pejzažima daju:
lEkosistemi platana i crne topole;
lEkosistemi bijele topole i luštrike;
lEkosistemi šibljaka konopljike.
Na hidromorfnim zemljištima niskih treseta bazične reakcije, na višim nadmorskim vi-
sinama, razvijene su zajednice ekosistema:
lEkosistemi montanih šuma johe;
lEkosistemi šuma bijele i lomljive vrbe;
lEkosistemi šuma sive johe;
lEkosistemi šuma sive i crne johe;
lEkosistemi šibljaka barske ive;
lEkosistemi šibljaka zelene johe na planini Vranici.
Na staništima nadignutih treseta razvijene su borealno-reliktne zajednice ekosistema:
lEkosistemi maljave breze;
lEkosistemi smrče i mahovina tresetarki;
lEkosistemi maljave breze i bijelog bora;
lEkosistemi planinske vrbe;
lEkosistemi sive johe i mahovina tresetarki
lEkosistemi sive johe i smrče;
lEkosistemi šibljaka ive;
lEkosistemi šibljaka zelene johe i mahovina tresetarki na planini Vranici.
U gorskom i pretplaninskom pojasu, na hidromorfnim zemljištima, u zoni lišćarsko-
listopadnih šuma bukve i tamnih četinarskih šuma, na manjim površinama, ali sa
visokim ekološkim vrijednostima su:
lEkosistemi gorskog jasena i gorskog javora;
lEkosistemi graba i gorskog javora na planini Vranici;
lEkosistemi sive johe i bahornice;
lEkosistemi gorskog javora i gorskog brijesta;
lEkosistemi običnog graba i sive johe.
Na fluvisolima koji su bogati mehaničkim sastavom, često uz obale bujičnih rijeka i
potoka, na staništima sa izraženim variranjem vodnog režima razvijene su zajednice
koje čine producentsku komponentu ekosistema:
lEkosistemi žutilovke i lužnjaka;
lEkosistemi crne johe i lužnjaka;
lEkosistemi šibljaka rakite;
lEkosistemi šibljaka košaraste vrbe.
lEkosistemi šibljaka sive vrbe i tilovine;
lEkosistemi šibljaka sive i ružmanolike vrbe sa kaduljom.
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t Ecosystems of silver leaved and black poplar;
t Ecosystems of white willow and black poplar;
t Ecosystems of alder and sedges;
t Ecosystems of alder and buckthorn;
t Ecosystems of snowfake and Fraxinus angus-
tifolia;
t Ecosystems of white willow;
t Ecosytsmes of woadwaxen and common oak;
t Ecosystems of alder and common oak;
t Ecosystems of purpule willow shrubs;
t Ecosystems of basket willow shrubs.
In the basin of Neretva river, downstreams from Počitelj (Hutovo Blato, lower fow of Trebižat,
Buna and Krupa rivers), landscapes are valuable for the occurence of:
t Ecosystems of oriental plane and black poplar;
t Ecosystems of silver leaved poplar and luštrike;
t Ecosystems of chaste tree shrubs.
At higher altitude, on hydromorphous soils of the alkaline blanket bogs, occur communities
belonging to:
t Ecosystems of montane alder woods;
t Ecosystems of white and crack willow;
t Ecosystems of grey alder;
t Ecosystems of grey and black alder woods;
t Ecosystems of marsh willow shrubs;
t Ecosystems of green alder shrubs on Vranica Mt.
On raised bogs occur boreo-relict communities of:
t Ecosystems of downy birch;
t Ecosystems of spruce and bogmosses;
t Ecosystems of downy birch and Scot’s pine;
t Ecosystems of mountain willow;
t Ecosystems of grey alder and bogmosses;
t Ecosystems of grey alder and spruce;
t Ecosystems of marsh willow shrubs;
t Ecosystems of green alder shrubs and bogmosses on Vranica Mt.
In the upland and subalpine belt, on hydromorphous soil, in the zone of broadleaved decidu-
ous woods of beech and dark coniferous woods, covering small surface but possesing high
ecologic value occur:
t Ecosystems of European ash and sycomore;
t Ecosystems of hornbeam and sycomore on Vranica Mt.;
t Ecosystems of grey alder and marsh pea;
t Ecosystems of sycomore and Scotch elm;
t Ecosystems of hornbeam and grey alder.
On stone rich fuvisols, ofen along the riverbanks and brooks, on places where the water re-
gime strongly varies, developed are communities belonging to:
t Ecosystems of grey willow and Petteria ramentacea shrubs;
t Ecosystems of grey and creeping willow shrubs with sage.
Na staništima močvarnih šumskih
zajednica, zbog stalnih promjena vodnog
režima izazvanih i antropogenim
aktivnostima, mnoge vrste su sa
određenim stepenom ugroženosti, a
među njima su: drijemovac proljetni i
ljetni, žutilovka, crna joha, siva joha,
tresetne mahovine, maljava breza, lovor,
vrba, močvarni kaćun, luštrika i bijela
topola.
Pritisci na močvarne ekosisteme
Šumski močvarni ekosistemi se takođe nalaze pod visokim antropogenim pritiscima
usljed čega proizilazi opasnost od narušavanja njihove strukture i ekološke
stabilnosti.Osnovne prijetnje njihovoj strukturi i stabilnosti su:
lGlobalne klimatske promjene praćene izraženim temperaturnim ekstremima i
čestim pregrijevanjem, što uz druge faktore uzrokuje povećanje stepena
eutrofikacije, a rezultira povlačenjem osjetljivih biljnih vrsta;
lKisele kiše, kao rezultat prekograničnog zagađenja atmosfere, u značajnoj mjeri
mijenjaju pH vrijednost staništa, naročito površinskih slojeva zemljišta i vode.
Smanjenje pH vrijednosti utiče na vitalnost i brojnost bazifilnih vrsta, sa efektima na
uspješnost reprodukcijskog ciklusa. Na ovaj način može doći do nestajanja
stenovalentnih vrsta i vrsta vezanih za neutralne i bazične vode;
lEutrofikacija i priliv organskih materija, najčešće kroz površinske tokove;
lKonverzija močvarnih staništa kao posljedica procesa tranzicije vlasništva često
dovodi do ireverzibilnih promjena u strukturi ekosistema (primjer: na području
Bardače, nizvodno od Banja Luke, posječena je sva priobalna vegetacija šuma i
šibljaka vrba, topola i rakite, na površini od oko 600 ha. S ciljem proizvodnje visokoih
količina riblje biomase, močvarna vegetacija se mašinski odstranjuje iz skoro svih
bazena čime se uništava „srce“ močvare. Slične prilike vladaju u području
Ždralovca, između Livna i Bosanskog Grahova gdje je bez prethodne studije o
procjeni uticaja na okoliš odobrena koncesija za eksploataciju treseta, čime su
nanesene ogromne štete ovom biseru među močvarama Evrope, pa i svijeta. Slični
trendovi se mogu očekivati i u području Parka prirode Hutovo Blato, na području
Buškog blata i svim drugim lokalitetima gdje postoji ekonomski interes za razvoj
lova i ribolova);
lIsušivanje kao posljedica melioracije;
lPreusmjeravanja površinskih vodotoka koji napajaju vodom močvarna područja
(primjer: zahvati u zoni Gornjih horizonata, istočna Hercegovina);
Pritisci na šumske močvarne ekosisteme
Močvarni šumski ekosistemi su pod vrlo visokim antropogenim pritiskom, te im prijeti
opasnost narušavanja njihovog florističkog i faunističkog sastava, te ekološke
stabilnosti. Kao osnovne prijetnje na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovini su:
lNeselektivna i intenzivna sječa;
lStalna drenaža i odvodnja podzemne vode;
lPoremećaji režima površinskih voda na većini vodotoka;
lStalna eutrofikacija vode;
lNeuravnoteženi lov i ribolov;
lStalni priliv ostataka ferilizatora i pesticida sa poljoprivrednih površina;
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In wetland forest communities, due to con-
tinual changes in water regime caused by hu-
man activities, many species are endangered
including following ones: spring and sum-
mer snowfake, woadwaxen, black and grey
alder, bogmosses, downy birch, laurel, wil-
low, orchis and silver leaved poplar.
Pressures onto wetland ecosystems
Forest wetlands are also under severe anthropogenic pressures which arise a danger that
structure and ecologic stability of these ecosystems could get disturbed, whereby main
threats are:
t Global climate changes followed by temperature extremes and frequent over-heating,
which causes increase in eutrophication level resulting in the regression of sensitive
plant species;
t Acid precipitation as a result of transboundary atmophere’s pollution, changing signif-
cantly pH value in habitats, especially in upper layer of soil and water. Decrease in pH
value infuences the vitality and abundance of basophilous species efecting their re-
production success. Tis can cause disapearance of stenophyllous and species bound to
neutral and alkaline water;
t Eutrophication and infow of organic matter, most frequently by surface water;
t Conversion of wetland habitats as a consequence of property’s transition leading to
irreversible changes in ecosystem’s structure (example: in the area around Bardača,
downstreams from Banja Luka city, cleared was complete shore vegetation of woods and
shrubs with willow, poplar and purpule willow, of surface amounting 600 ha. In order to
produce large quantity of fsh, wetland vegetation is being removed by machinery from
almost each basin which destroys the wetlands’”heart“ itself. Te similar situtation is in
the Ždralovac area, between Livno and Bosansko Grahovo, where it was permited con-
cession for peat exploitation without a prior environmental impact assessment. Tis has
caused severe damage to this pearl among the European, even world’s, wetlands. Similar
trends are to be expected in the Nature Park Hutovo Blato, also in the Buško blato area,
and other localitites where there is an economic interest for fshing and hunt);
t Dry out as a result of melioration;
t Re-direction of surface streams that water-supply the wetlands (example: actions in the
zone called Gornji horizonti, eastern Herzegovina);
t Impacts of drainage water arising from the agricultural acitivities.
Pressures on wetland forests
Wetland forests are under tremendous anthropogenic presssure hence being in danger to
have their foristic and faunistic composition disturbed and by that their ecologic balance,
too. Main threats in Bosnia and Herzegovina are:
t Unselected and intensive felling;
t Continual drainage of underground water;
t Disturbances in surface water regime for a majority of watercourses;
t Continual water eutrophication;
t Unbalanced hunt and fshing;
t Continual infow of fertilisers and pesticides washed out from arable land;
Konzervacijski status
Usljed navedenih pritisaka močvarni
ekosistemi se nalaze pod određenim
stepenom ugroženosti. Posebno ugroženi
su ekosistemi vodenjara, bara, niskih i
visokih tresetišta. Slijedeći kriterije
Internacionalne unije za konzervaciju
lUgrožene vrste na staništima visokih cretova (Drosera rotundifolia, Betula pubescens,
Sphagnum subsecundum, S. squarosum, Polytrichum commune, Carex stellulata);
lVrste na staništima niskih treseta u ravničarskim predjelima (Sagittaria sagitifolia,
Butomus umbellatus, Typha laxmanii, T. schuttelewortii, Acorus calamus, Thelypteris
palustris, Periploca graeca);
lVrste na staništima bara i močvara: (Marsillea quadrifolia, Salvinia natans, Castalia alba,
Nuphar luteum, Ludwigia palustris, Trapa natans, Hippuris vulgaris, Hottonia palustris,
Utricularia neglecta, Utricularia vulgaris, Nymphoides peltata, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae,
Zanichellia palustris, Wolffia arrhiza);
lVrste na staništima niskih visokoplaninskih bazifilnih cretova (Caltha longirostris,
Potentilla palustris, Pinguicula leptoceras, Pinguicula hirtiflora, Pinguicula vulgaris,
Menyanthes trifoliata, Iris sibirica, Eriophorum gracile, Carex davalliana, Orchis bosniaca,
Orchis maculata).
lEksploatacija humusno-akumulativnog sloja;
lVještački izazvani požari na pojedim mjestima;
lNeuravnotežena izgradnja različite stambene, privredne i putne infrastrukture na
obalama vodotoka.
prirode (IUCN), te prijedlog liste
vaskularnih biljaka za Crvenu knjigu BiH
(Šilić, 1996), te druge spoznaje o stanju
močvarnih vrsta i staništa među
ugroženim vrstama vaskularne flore
Močvarni ekosistemi su staništa brojnih
vrsta riba, vodozemaca, gmizavaca, ptica,
sisara, te različitih grupa beskičmenjaka,
kao što su vodeni insekti, puževi, školjke,
pijavice, glavonošci itd.
Među ribama broj nošću se ističu
ciprinidne vrste (od kojih su mnoge ugro-
žene): šaran, karaš, tinka, crvenperka,
bodorka, štuka, som, grgeč. Među
vodozemcima najčešći su: mali vodenjak,
veliki vodenjak, šareni daždevnjak, crveni
mukač, močvarna žaba, žaba krastača. Od
gmizavaca ovdje su najčešći: vodena
kornjača, živorodni gušter, obična
bjelouška i ribarica.
Močvarni ekosistemi su posebno važna
staništa za skupinu ptica, unutar koje su
najugroženiji: divlja patka, patka njorka,
patka žiličarka, bijela roda, siva čaplja,
riđa čaplja, mali plijenor, srednji plijenor,
ždral i mnoge druge.
Močvarna staništa u Livanjskom polju
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t Exploitation of humus-accumulative horizon;
t Artifcially induced fres in some places;
t Unbalanced construction of residental, economic and travel infrastructure on riverbanks.
Conservation status
Due to above named pressures, wetland eco-
systems are threatened in certain extent. Es-
pecially endangered are ecosystems of stand-
ing water, small ponds, blanket and raised
bogs. Afer criteria of the International Union
for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and pro-
posed list of vascular plants for the Red Book
B&H (Šilić, 1992-96), as well as considering
current information on state of marsh spe-
cies and habitats, among endangered vascular
plants are to be found:
t Endangered species on raised bogs (Drosera rotundifolia, Betula pubescens, Sphagnum sub-
secundum, S. squarrosum, Polytrichum commune, Carex stellulata);
t Blanket bog’s species in the lowland area (Sagittaria sagitifolia, Butomus umbellatus, Typha
laxmanii, T. Schuttelewortii, Acorus calamus, Telypteris palustris, Periploca graeca);
t Species occuring in ponds and marshes: (Marsillea quadrifolia, Salvinia natans, Castalia
alba, Nuphar luteum, Ludwigia palustris, Trapa natans, Hippuris vulgaris, Hottonia palus-
tris, Utricularia neglecta, Utricularia vulgaris, Nymphoides peltata, Hydrocharis morsus ra-
nae, Zanichellia palustris, Wolfa arrhiza);
t Species occuring in high-mountain’s alkaline blanket bogs (Caltha longirostris, Potentilla
palustris, Pinguicula leptoceras, Pinguicula hirtifora, Pinguicula vulgaris, Menyanthes tri-
foliata, Iris sibirica, Eriophorum gracile, Carex davalliana, Orchis bosniaca, Orchis macu-
lata).
Wetland ecosystems represent habitats for
many fshes, amphibians, reptiles, birds,
mammals and invertebrates, such as aquatic
insects, snails, shells, leeches, cephalopods
etc.
Among fshes protrude ciprinids (of which
many are endangered): carp, crucian carp,
rudd, roach, pike, catfsh, perch. Among am-
phibinas most frequently occur: small and
large newt, salamander, red-bellied toad,
swamp frog, european toad. As far as rep-
tiles are concerned, common are: european
pond turtle, viviparous lizard, grass snake
and dice snake.
Wetland ecosystems ought to be important
habitat for birds, of which most threatened
are: wild duck, ferruginous duck, northern
shoveler, great stork, heron, goosander, crane
and many others.
PEJZAŽI KRAŠKIH POLJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
Jedinstveni fenomeni koji ukazuju na
specifične obrasce razvoja Zemljine kore,
hidrološke mreže, te biološke i ekološke
raznolikosti su različite kraške tvorevine
u bosansko-hercegovačkim Dinaridima.
Krš (kras) u širem smislu podrazumijeva
kamenu pustoš ili vrlet, a u užem smislu,
specifičan reljef sa posebnom, pretežno
podzemnom, cirkulacij om vode u
topivim stijenama (krečnjak, dolomit,
sedra). Krš nastaje otapanjem vapnenca u
vodi koja u sebi ima CO , pri čemu se
2
CaCO pretvara u, u vodi topivi Ca(CO ) .
3 3 2
Korozijom se pukotine u vapnencu
proširuju i međusobno spajaju u mrežu
podzemnih šupljina i kanala, koji dopiru
do velikih dubina i ispod morske razine.
Uvale su prostrane zavale duž većih
pukotina u kršu. Polja, najveće zaravni sa
ravnim naplavnim dnom, pretežno
nas t aj u na dodi r u kr eč nj aka i
nepropusnih stijena. Ponornice su vodeni
tokovi koji sa površine poniru kroz kraške
pukotine ili ponore, gdje se nastavlja
njihov podzemni tok.
Kraška polja predstavljaju ekološki
najinteresantnije fenomene u oblasti krša.
Specifični tokovi orogeneze, geogeneze i
hidrogeneze u klimatski raznolikim
uslovima uslovili su formiranje brojnih
kraških polja, koja bosansko-hercegovač-
kom biološkom i ekološkom diverzitetu
daju prepoznatljivost na evropskom i
globalnom nivou.
S obzirom na ekoklimatske karakteristike,
kraška polja Bosne i Hercegovine se
diferenciraju na skupine:
lKraška polja zapadne Bosne (Glamočko, Livanjsko, Kupreško, Duvanjsko i Šuićko);
lKraška polja zapadne Hercegovine (Posuško, Grudsko);
lKraška polja donje zapadne Hercegovine (Lištićko, Ljubuško i Mostarsko Blato);
lDonja kraška polja istočne Hercegovine (Buško Blato i Popovo Polje);
lSrednja kraška polja istočne Hercegovine (Ljubinsko, Dabarsko, Fatničko i Plansko);
lVisoka kraška polja istočne Hercegovine (Nevesinjsko i Gatačko).
Kraška polja su najčešće izduženog
oblika, a pravac pružanja im je paralelan
sa Dinarskim planinama. Dna polja su
prekrivena kvartarnim sedimentima, a
strane su uokvirene karstifikovanim
karbonatnim masama. Po obodu polja se
nalaze izvori i vrela, a u najnižim
položajima su ponori, kojima se voda sliva
u kraško podzemlje. Od izvora do ponora
poljima se pruža stalni ili periodični
površinski tok. U kvartarnim nanosima
često se nalaze i takvi hidrografski objekti
kroz koje vode u vlažnim sezonama
izviru, a u vrijeme suše uviru. Najniži
dijelovi polja, posebno oko ponorske
zone, su plavljeni nakon obilnih pada-
vina.
Neka kraška polja (Gradac polje), nemaju
površinski tok, niti značajnije izvore i
vrela. Kupreško polje ima odlike kraške
visoravni. Nije homogeno, niti ravno, a
sastoji se od nekoliko manjih polja
razdvojenih manjim uzvišenjima.
Mnoga od kraških polja predstavljaju i
endemne centre flore i faune Bosne i
Hercegovine.
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LANSCAPES OF KARST FIELDS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Tese are unique phenomena that refect spe-
cifc patterns of Earth’s crust development.
Here are diferent karst creations, such as spe-
cifc hydrological network, biological and eco-
logical diversity.
Karst (kras) in wider sense, represents rocky
desert or crag. In narower sense, it is a specifc
relief with special, mainly underground, wa-
ter circulation ongoing within soluble rocks
(limestone, dolomite, tuf). Te karst is being
created by calcite’s dissolution in water that
contains CO
2
, whereby CaCO
3
is being trans-
formed into, in water soluble, Ca(CO
3
)
2
. Lime-
stone fssures are being increased by a corro-
sion and joined together to form a network of
underground cavities and tunnels, which then
extend deep into the ground, even under a sea
level.
Depressions are huge bays extending along
large karst fssures. Fields, the largest plains
with fattened alluvial bottom, evolve in con-
tact zones of limestone and leakage proof rocks.
Sinking rivers are streams which, through
cracks or abysses, dissolve into the ground,
where they continue its underground fow.
Karst felds are most interesting phenomena
within a karst region. As a result of specifc
orogenesis, geogenesis and hydrogenesis un-
der diferent climate conditions, created are
numerous karst felds. Tey make bosnia-
herzegovina’s biological and ecological diver-
sity recognizable at the European and global
scale.
Considering the ecoclimate, karst felds of
Bosnia and Herzegovina are divided in several
groups:
t Karst felds in western Bosnia (Glamočko, Livanjsko, Kupreško, Duvanjsko and Šuićko
polje);
t Karts felds in western Herzegovina (Posuško, Grudsko);
t Karst felds in lower western Herzegovina (Lištićko, Ljubuško and Mostarsko Blato);
t Lower karst felds in eastern Herzegovina (Buško Blato and Popovo Polje);
t Mid karst felds in eastern Herzegovina (Ljubinsko, Dabarsko, Fatničko and Plansko);
t Upper karst felds in eastern Herzegovina (Nevesinjsko and Gatačko).
Karst felds are mostly elongated follow-
ing the extension direction of Dinaric Alps.
Field’s bottom is usually covered by quarter-
nary deposits, while its sides are encircled
by karstifed carbonate masses. Along feld’s
margin are sources and wells, and at the
deepest places are abysses, through which
water dissolves into the karst underground.
Between sources and abysses, across the feld,
extend permanent or periodical overground
water network. In quarternary depositions
are to be found some hydrographic objects
through which water in wet season comes
to the surface, and in dry season vanishes
again. Te lowest positions in the feld, espe-
cially around abysal zone, are fooded afer
heavy rain.
Tere are some karst felds (Gradac polje)
that neither have got overground water nor
any siginifcant sources and wells. Kupreško
polje has got features of karst plateau. It is
neither homogenous nor fat, but composed
of several smaller felds connected by low el-
evations.
Many karst felds are endemic centres of fora
and fauna of B&H.
Kraška polja zapadne
Bosne (Glamočko,
Livanjsko,Kupreško,
Duvanjsko i Šuićko
polje)
Kraška polja donje
zapadne Hercegovine
(Lištićko, Ljubuško i
Mostarsko Blato)
Kraška polja zapadne
Hercegovine (Posuško,
Grudsko)
Donja kraška polja
istočne Hercegovine
(Buško Blato i Popovo
Polje)
Visoka kraška polja
istočne Hercegovine
(Nevesinjsko i Gatačko)
Srednja kraška polja istočne
Hercegovine (Ljubinsko,
Dabarsko, Fatničko i Plansko)
Slika 14. – Kraška polja Bosne i Hercegovine
Kraška polja zapadne Bosne
U ovom dijelu Bosne i Hercegovine nalaze
se naša najveća kraška polja (Livanjsko,
Glamočko i Kupreško) sa još dobro očuva-
nom prirodnom slikom živog svijeta.
Zajedno sa okolnim planinama (Kame-
šnica, Dinara, Cincar, Staretina, Šator,
Vitorog i Raduša), koje karakteriše izra-
zito visok stepen biodiverziteta, ova
kraška polja čine neponovljive geomorfo-
loške i ekološke cjeline. Mreža površin-
skih, a posebno podzemnih voda je
bogata (rijeke, površinski i podzemni
izvori, jezera i riječni rukavci). Poseban
fenomen ovih polja su estavele (otvori
kroz koje se ostvaruje hidrološka i biolo-
ška komunikacija podzemnog reljefa i
površine polja).
Ovo su rijetka kraška polja u svijetu, u
kojima se prirodni proces karstifikacije još
ostvaruje. U ovom prirodnom fenomenu
sudjeluju čestice karbonata, ekološki
tvrda voda i, u nekim slučajevima,
mikroorganizmi.
U hidrogeološkom pogledu, kraška polja
ovog područja ostvaruju vezu sa slivom
rijeke Cetine, te sa Grahovskim poljem na
sjeverozapadu i Duvanjskim poljem na
jugoistoku.
2
U Livanjskom polju (oko 400 km
površine), a naročito na Ždralovcu
(sjeverozapadni dio polja), i danas teku
postglacij alni procesi obrazovanj a
nizijskih bazifilnih treseta. Planohistosoli,
kao unikatni tip hidromorfnog zemljišta,
su od životne važnosti za opstanak svijeta
divljine močvara. Specifična flora, fauna i
vegetacija organizovana je u ekosisteme
prikazane na slici 13.
Posebno mjesto u pejzažima ovih polja
imaju i ekosistemi obradivih površina, te
ljudska naselja, koja se nalaze izvan
uticaja podzemne vode. Naselja su
smještena uz obod polja, na izdignutijim
kraškim terenima, a u njihovoj arhitekturi
dominira kamen kao građevni materijal.
Vrlo živopisne i ponegdje još očuvane
vodenice na kraškim vodotocima, te
različiti spomenici kulturne baštine (stari
gradovi i tvrđave u Livnu, Kupresu,
Glamoču), otkrivaju i čuvaju specifične
oblike razvoja kulture kroz dugi period
naseljavanja ovih prostora.
Posebne pejzažne vrijednosti ovim
kraškim poljima daju estavele, prirodne
ponornice, planinska jezera (na Kupre-
škoj visoravni), te živopisni tok rijeke
Šuice sa kraškim meandrima i klisurama.
Izvorišni tok ove rijeke, kao važan
124
Karst fields in western
Bosnia (Glamocko,
Livanjsko,Kupreko,
Duvanjsko and
uicko polje)
Karst fileds in lower
western Herzegovina
(Liticko, Ljubuko i
Mostarsko Blato)
Karst fields in western
Herzegovina (Posuko,
Grudsko)
Karst fields in lower
eastern Herzegovina
(Buko Blato and
Popovo Polje)
Upper karst fields in
eastern Herzegovina
(Nevesinjsko i Gatacko)
Mid karst fields in eastern
herzegovina (Ljubinsko,
Dabarsko, Fatnicko and
Plansko)
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Figure 14. – Karst felds in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Karst felds in western Bosnia
In this part of B&H occur our largest karst
felds (Livanjsko, Glamočko and Kupreško
polje) with still well preserved nature image.
Along with surrounding mountains
(Kamešnica, Dinara, Cincar, Staretina, Šator,
Vitorog and Raduša) characterized by high
biodiversity, this karst felds represent un-
repeatable geomorphological and ecologi-
cal units. Te network of overground and
especially underground water is well devel-
oped (rivers, overground and underground
sources, lakes and river armlets). As a special
phenomenon should be mentioned estavels
(openings through which, in both hydrologic
and biologic sense, communicate the under-
ground with feld’s surface).
Tese felds are true rarity in the world, for in
them has been evolving the natural karstifca-
tion process. It includes carbonate particles,
ecologically hard water and, in some cases,
microorganisms.
From the hydro-geological standpoint, karst
felds of this area make connection with the
confuence of Cetina river, then with Gra-
hovsko polje in northwest and Duvanjsko
polje in southeast.
In Livanjsko polje (surface of 400 square ki-
lometers), especially in Ždralovac area (feld’s
northwestern part), have been ongoing post-
glacial processes of alkaline bogs formation.
Te unique type of hydromorphous soil which
occurs here, planohystosol, is vitally impor-
tant for the survival of wilderness in swamps.
Ecosystems encompass specifc fora, fauna
and vegetation shown in Figure 15.
Special place within the landscape of these
karst felds take ecosystems of arable land
and human settlements that are out of under-
ground’s water reach.
Settlements are situated along the feld’s
margin, on elevated karst ground, with clear
dominance of stone as a main construction
material in the local architecture. Tere are,
in some places well preserved and colourfull,
mills along riverbanks and diferent cultural
monuments (old cities and citadels of Livno,
Kupres, Glamoč), which reveal and maintain
specifc forms of cultural development hap-
pening through a long period of inhabitation.
As a special landscape’s value in this karst
felds considered are estavels, sinking rivers,
mountain lakes (at the plateau of Kupres) and
picture-like fow of Šuica river with meanders
and narrow passages. Te upper fow of this
river, around its source, is an important refu-
gium for the unique living world. Hence, it
refugijum unikatnog živog svijeta odavno
ima status zaštićenog područja.
Svijet flore i faune je interesantan i bogat.
Čine ga hidromorfne biljne vrste, među
kojima su mnogi endemi (dinarski
procjepak), endemične vrste riba (oštrulj,
podbila, pijurica), brojne ptice močvarice,
te raznoliki svij et vodozemaca i
gmizavaca.
Ekosistemi:
-močvara sa šašicima i trsticima
-higrofilnih livada sa panonskim različkom i
grahorom
-higrofilno-eutrofilnih livada sa bokvicom i repnicom
-šibljaka barske rakite
-konopljike
-bijele vrbe i poljskog jasena
-bijele vrbe i periploke
-pseudomakija sa česvinom, crnim jasenom
-šibljaka bjelograbića, koštrike i nara po obodu
polja
Ekosistemi:
-bara i močvara sa trsticima i šašicima
-higrofilnih livada sa beskoljenkom i busikom
-dinarskog procjepka i močvarme šašike
-umjereno vlažnih livada pahovka i livadske vlasulje
-toploljubivih livada ovsika i crnog korijena
-submediteranskih kamenjara sa vrijeskom
-šibljaka rakite
-niskih šuma bijele vrbe
-šuma kitnjaka i cera po obodu
-hercegovačkih šuma sladuna
Ekosistemi:
-vodenjara
-trstika
-šaševa
-bazičnih tresetišta
-higrofilnih livada ilirske
beskoljenke
-higrofilnih livada busike
-higrofilnih livada procjepka
-žute i sibirske perunike
-tresetne breze
-montanih šuma lužnjaka
-šuma bijele i lomljive vrbe
-šibljaka ive
-šibljaka rakite
-crne johe
-sremze
-umjereno vlažnih livada
-toploljubivih livada i
mediteransko-montanih kamenjara
-hrastovih šuma (u obodnom
V 54,50%
K 0,90%
E 7,30%
R 37,30%
V E R K
Slika 15. – Ekosistemi kraških polja zapadno od doline Neretve
Zbog produktivnosti livadskih staništa u
području ovih pejzaža tradicionalno je
razvijeno održivo stočarstvo, ratarstvo i
povrtlarstvo. Ovdje se nalaze i bogata
staništa krupne divljači (bosanski vuk,
mrki medvjed, lisica, zec, srna), što daje
vrijednost i ukazuje na potencijale ovih
složenih ekosistema.
Močvarna staništa kraških pejzaža imaju
nezamjenjivu ulogu u opstanku, ne samo
stacionarnih vrsta ptica, nego su dio
koridora mnogih migratornih vrsta
(Ždralovac i Buško Blato). Ranija
istraživanja na ovom području bilježe 96
vrsta avifaune (63 tokom proljetne i 49
vrsta tokom jesenje seobe ptica).
Svijet divljine u kraškim poljima danas je
pod određenim stepenom ugroženosti što
je rezultat izraženih pritisaka. Među
rijetke biljne vrste ovdje ubrajamo:
Helleborus hercegovinus, Ranunculus
croaticus, Corydalis leiosperma, Hesperis
dinarica, Rhamnus intermedius, Bupleurum
karglii, Athamantha haynaldii, Scrophularia
bosniaca, Onosma visianii i dr., dok su u
kategoriji ranjivih: Salvia bertolonii,
Urticularia vulgaris, Scilla litardierei,
Narcissus radiiflorus, Iris illyrica itd.
Ecosystems of:
-marshes with reed and sedges
-hygrophilous meadows pannonian knapweed and
pea
-hygrophilous-eutrophic meadows with plantain
-shrubs of marsh willow
-chaste tree
-white willow and Fraxinus angustifolius
-white willow and silkvine
-pseudo-maquis with evergreen oak and flowering
ash
-shrubs of oriental hornbeam,butcher's broom and
pomegranate
Ecosystems of:
-ponds and marshes with reed and sedges
-hygrophilous meadows with moorgrass and tufted
hairgrass
-dinaric squill and moor grass
-temperate humid meadows with oat grass and fescue
-thermophilous meadows with brome and viper grass
-sub-mediterranean ricky grassland with savory
-shrubs of purpule willow
-low woods of white willow
-woods of sessile and turkey oak in marginal field's area
-herzegovina's woods with italian oak
Ecosystems of:
-standing water
-redbeds
-sedges
-alkaline bogs
-hygrophilous meadows of illyrian
moorgrass
-hygrophilous meadows of tufted
hairgrass
-hygrophilous meadows with squill
-yellow and sibirean iris
-hoary birch
-montane oak woods
-woods with white and crack willow
-shrubs of marsh willow
-shrub of purpule willow
-sticky alder
-Prunus padus
-temperate humid meadows
-thermophilous meadows and
mediterraneo-montane rocky
125
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was designated as a protected area long time
ago.
Te world of fora and fauna happens to be
interesting and rich. It is made of hydro-
morphous plant species, of which many are
endemic (dinaric squil), then endemic fshes
(Dalmatian barbelgudgeon, sneep, roach),
numerous swamp birds and diverse amphib-
ians and reptiles.
Figure 15. – Ecosystems of karst felds western from Neretva’s valley
Due to high biomass production of mead-
ows, it is traditionally developed sustainable
cattle breeding, agriculture and gardening.
Here are to be found habitats of large game
species (bosnian wolf, brown bear, fox, hare,
roe deer), which makes this area even more
valuable and indicates what the potentials of
this complex ecosystems are.
Swamp habitats in the karst landscape are ir-
replaceable not only for the survival of sta-
tionary birds, but also as a route for many mi-
gratory species (Ždralovac and Buško Blato).
By previous investigation in this area were
recorded 96 bird species (63 during spring
and 49 during autumn migration of birds).
Te wilderness in karst felds is threatened
in some extent, which is the result of various
impacts. Among rare plant species belong:
Helleborus hercegovinus, Ranunculus croati-
cus, Corydalis leiosperma, Hesperis dinarica,
Rhamnus intermedius, Bupleurum karglii,
Athamantha haynaldii, Scrophularia bosnia-
ca, Onosma visianii and others, while to the
category of vulnerable belong: Salvia berto-
lonii, Utricularia vulgaris, Scilla litardierei,
Narcissus radiiforus, Iris illyrica etc.
Kraška polja zapadne Hercegovine
Na nižim nadmorskim visinama u
uslovima nešto toplije submediteranske i
medi t eransko- mont ane ekokl i me
razvijena su kraška polja zapadne
Hercegovine (Posuško, Grudsko). I ova
polja odlikuje sličan vodni režim kao i
prethodnu grupu, pa su plavljena tokom
kasne jeseni, zime i proljeća. Iako
zauzimaju manje površine karakteriše ih
izražen ekosistemski diverzitet. (Slika 15)
Kraška polja donje zapadne Hercegovine
U ravni čarskom di j el u zapadne
Hercegovine se nalaze sljedeća kraška
polja: Ljubuško, Lištićko i Mostarsko
Blato. Njihovoj specifičnosti, pored
geomorfoloških fenomena i bogate
podzemne mreže vodotoka, doprinosi i
posebna varijanta mediteranske klime.
Centralni dijelovi polja karakterišu
tipične higrofilne zajednice, dok je u
obodu polja razvijena pseudomakija
(Slika 15).
Posebnu vrijednost pejzažima ovih polja
daju stabla čempresa koja svojim
piramidalnim oblikom dinamiziraju
degradirane ekosisteme oboda. Ravne
dijelove polja zauzimaju danas ekosistemi
obradivih površina, sa vinogradima i
voćnjacima nadaleko poznatih trešanja,
plantažama visokokvalitetnog duhana i
raznog povrća (posebno u Ljubuškom
polju).
Živopisnu pejzažnu sliku čine naselja
smještena uz obod polja. Odlikuje ih
specifična submediteranska arhitektura
sa dominacijom hercegovačkog bijelog
kamena, koja uz plavo nebo, bistru vodu i
bogate kulture čini tipičnu sliku ovog
dijela Bosne i Hercegovine.
Dio ovih pejzaža je i rijeka Lištica čije
„Trebižat, rijeka sa četiri imena (Tihaljina,
Koćuša, Klobuk), bogata je slapovima i
vodopadima među kojima se ističe impozantni
vodopad Kravice, krško-sedreni fenomen
natprirodne ljepote, raskošnog oblika i visokih
ekoloških vrijednosti. Uz ova polja su i korijeni
civilizacije na ovim prostorima, o čemu
svjedoče ostaci različitih kultura: romanske,
otomanske, austrougarske i slavenske (stari
grad Ljubuški, Široki Brijeg) koji i danas daju
smiraj ljudskim dušama u bogomoljama
poznatim širom svijeta.“ (Navod iz TV
emisije „Prirodna baština Bosne i
Hercegovine“)
Višegodišnji procesi travertinizacije
uslovili su pojavu sedrenih barijera na
Tihaljini do njenog ušća kod Gabele što,
uz snažan uticaj mediteranske klime sa
juga i izmijenjene planinske klime sa
sjevera, stvara tipičnu sliku ovog
raskošnog dijela Hercegovine.
Donja kraška polja istočne Hercegovine
U području submediteranske i medite-
ranske klime, na lijevoj obali Neretve
idući prema jugoistoku Hercegovine,
razvijeni su posebni tipovi kraških polja
(Hutovo Blato, Popovo, Ljubinjsko i
Stolačko).
I postanak i budućnost ovih fenomena
vezani su za hidrološki i ekološki režim
vodotoka Bregave i Trebišnjice. Osim toga
opstanak ovih polja određen je i
hidrološkim režimom kraških polja
istočne Hercegovine na višim nadmor-
skim visinama. U geomorfološkom i
hidrološkom smislu ovaj pejzaž opstaje na
bogatoj i raznovrsnoj mreži vodotoka i
kraškog reljefa, uvezanoj u jedinstvenu
strukturno-funkcionalnu cjelinu i samo u
takvim okolnostima može zadržati svoje
prirodne izvornosti.
Posebno su donja polja sudbonosno
vezana sa hidrološkim režimom gornjih
polja (Fatničko i Dabarsko), a njihov
opstanak uslovljen je vodama Nevesinj-
skog i Gatačkog polja.
126
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Karst felds in western Herzegovina
Karst felds in lower western Herzegovina
“Trebižat, river that carries four names (Ti-
haljina, Koćuša, Klobuk), is rich in cascades
and waterfalls, of which the most imposing is
Kravice waterfall, karst-tuf phenomenon of
surreal beauty, splendid form and high ecologi-
cal value. To those felds are bound civilization
roots of the area, witnessed in remains of difer-
ent cultures: roman, otoman, austrio-hungari-
an and slavic (old town of Ljubuški, Široki Bri-
jeg) that even today bring peace to human souls
in troughout the world known houses of wor-
ship.“ (qouted from TV show “Prirodna baština
Bosne i Hercegovine“)
At lower altitudes, under the conditions of
supra-mediterranean and montane mediter-
ranean ecoclimate, occur the karst felds in
western Herzegovina (Posuško, Grudsko).
Tese are felds characterized by the same
water regime as previous ones, being, hence,
fooded in late autumn, winter and spring.
Although covering small area, they posses
high ecosystem’s diversity.
Flat area of western Herzegovina encom-
passes following karst felds: Ljubuško, Lišti-
ćko polje and Mostarsko Blato. Tey owe its
specifcify to geomorphological phenom-
ena, well developed underground network
and special variant of the mediterranean
climate. Te central feld’s part is character-
istic in its hygrophilous communities, while
in the marginal area occurs pseudo-maquis
(Figure 15).
Te landscape gets its special features by
cypresses trees whose pyramid-like shapes
bring some dynamics into degraded mar-
ginal feld’s area. Te fattened feld’s area
is taken by arable land, vineyards and fruit-
gardens of widely known cherries, plantages
of high quality tobbaco and diferent sorts of
vegetables (especially in Ljubuško polje).
Picture-like landscape image is made of
settlements placed along the feld’s margin.
Tey are specifc in their supra-mediterra-
nean architecture with dominance of the
white herzegovina’s stone that along with the
blue sky, crystal clear water and rich culture
create typical image of this Bosnia and Her-
zegovina’s area. To that landscape belongs
also Lištica river, whose spring is some kind
of refugial place for tertiary fora and fauna.
A tuf formation process streching over many
years, has caused the occurence of tuf barri-
ers on Tihaljina river all the way down to its
estuary at place called Gabela. Tis, along with
the infuence of mediterranean climate coming
from the South and modifed mountain climate
coming from the North, completes typical im-
age of this splendid Herzegovina’s region.
Lower karst felds in eastern Herzegovina
On the left side of Neretva river, in the
area belonging to supra-mediterranean and
mediterranean climate and going toward
southeastern Herzegovina, emerges special
kind of karst fields (Hutovo Blato, Popovo,
Ljubinjsko and Stolačko polje).
Both, past and future of this phenomena is
related to hydrologic and ecologic regimes
of Bregava and Trebišnjica rivers. Besides,
the survival of these fields is defined by
hydrologic regime of upper situated karst
fields in eastern Herzegovina. In geomor-
phological and hydrological sense, this
landscape survives thanks to the rich and
diverse network of watercourses and karst
relief, which are united into single struc-
ture-functional unit. Only under such con-
ditions, it is possible to maintain its natural
genuinity.
Destiny of lower fields is closely related
to the hydrological regime of upper fields
(Fatničko and Dabarsko polje), whereby
Upravo od stabilnosti hidrološkog režima
ovih pejzaža zavisi i budućnost drugih
izvorišta (vrela u slivu rijeke Bregave,
vrela u području Deranskog jezera -
Hutova Blata, izvor rijeke Bune i vodni
režim donjeg toka rijeke Neretve).
Očuvanje bioloških i ekoloških fenomena
delte rijeke Neretve, kao močvarnog
staništa od međunarodne važnosti je u
direktnoj vezi sa održavanjem vodnog
režima kraških polj a ovog dij ela
Hercegovine. U direktnoj vezi s tim je
takođe i očuvanje bogatog podzemnog
reljefa i živog svijeta u njemu, kakav
nalazimo u Vjetrenici u Popovom polju,
pećini sa nesumnj ivim globalnim
vrijednostima.
Zbog intenzivnih procesa antropo-
genizacije (hidromelioracijski zahvati,
izgradnja hidroenergetskih potencijala
tokom posljednjih 50 godina, betoniranje
korita rijeke Trebišnjice na dužini od
preko 60 km, podizanje kompenzacionog
Svitavskog jezera za potrebe HE Čaplji-
na), slika ovih pejzaža je u cjelosti
izmijenjena. Na ovaj način su nepovratno
izgubljene mnoge ambijentalne i biološke
vrijednosti Popovog polja i Hutova blata.
Ipak, ovdje još postoje oaze močvarnog
svijeta divljine u uvjetima mediteranske
klime, kao što je Ramsar site i Park prirode
Hutovo Blato. Brojne vrste močvarnih
biljaka, veliki broj vrsta životinja (naročito
ptica i riba), od kojih su mnoge
endemične, ulaze u sastav zajednica koje
daju današnje pejzažne vrijednosti ovom
području. (Slika 16)
Prepoznatljive pejzažne vrijednosti čita-
vom području daju i čempresi, obradive
površine pod vinogradima, duhanom,
žitaricama i povrćem.
Naselja koja su smještena na rubnim
dijelovima polja, često u području krša,
odlikuju se prepoznatljivom arhitek-
turom i dominacijom bijelog hercego-
vačkog kamena, koji se nekada koristio i
za izgradnju funkcionalnih i dekorativnih
krovova. Ova, ekološki i ekoklimatski, za
čovjeka povoljna područja, naseljena su
još od najranijih vremena. Mnogi narodi
ostavili su ovdje bogate izraze svoje
duhovne i materijalne kulture, koje danas
nalazimo u tvrđavama, bogomoljama i
naroči t o u graci ozni m kameni m
mostovima. Poznati putopisac Evlija
Čelebija je u svoje vrijeme Popovo polje
nazvao Misirom ovog dijela svijeta.
Snažan prodor mediteranske klime
odrazio se i na arhitekturu Trebinja,
izuzetne kulturne i ambijentalne cjeline.
Srednja kraška polja istočne Hercegovine
Na višim nadmorskim visinama (oko 600
m), na sljedećoj kraškoj terasi, u uslovima
izmijenjene submediteranske i medite-
ransko-montane klime smješteni su
Dabarsko, Fatničko i Plansko polje. Ovi
izuzetni prirodni fenomeni imaju speci-
fične obrasce vodnog režima. U priro-
dnim okolnostima, polja su u hladnom
dijelu godine pod vodom, pa izgledaju
kao prava jezera. Zbog toga su naselja
pomjerena uz same rubove polja, a poljo-
privredna proizvodnja je bila ograničena
na kulture sa kraćim vegetacionim
periodom. Sve donedavno ova kraška
polja su bila očuvana u svim elementima
svoje izvornosti. I danas je ovdje prisutan
unikatan živi svijet u formi veoma razno-
likih zajednica, odnosno ekosistema.
(Slika 16)
Pritisci na kraška polja istočne Hercegovine
Naročite prijetnje opstanku ovih polja i u
njima sadržanoj biološkoj i pejzažnoj
raznolikosti danas predstavlja ekološki
neprihvatljivo upravljanje vodama. U
okviru megaprojekta „Gornji horizonti“
vode iz ovih polja se preusmjeravaju
specijalno izgrađenom infrastrukturom u
vještačku akumulaciju Bilećko jezero, što
je suprotno smjeru njihovog prirodnog
oticanja.
127
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their survival depends upon water level in
Nevesinjsko and Gatačko polje.
Future of other wells too depends upon the
stability in hidrological regime of this land-
scapes (wells in the conf luence of Bregava
river, wells around Deransko lake – Huto-
vo Blato, sources of Buna river and water
regime in upper f low of Neretva river).
Maintenance of biologic and ecologic phe-
nomena in Neretva river’s delta, which is a
wetland area of international importance,
is directly connected with maintenance of
water regime in karst fields of this Herze-
govina’s area.
Directly co-related is also maintenance of
underground relief and life in it, as it is the
case in Vjetrenica cave in Popovo polje,
which is doubtless the cave of global value.
Due to intensive anthropogenic activi-
ties (melioration, construction of hydro-
power plants in last 50 years, concreting of
Trebišnjica’s riverbed in length of 60 kilo-
meters, building of the compensation Svi-
tavsko lake for purposes of HE Čapljina),
landscape’s image has changed completely.
In this way were lost many ambiental and
biologic values of Popovo polje and Hutovo
blato forever.
Yet, there are still few oasis hiding wetland’s
wildlife under mediterranean climate con-
ditions, such as the Ramsar site and Park
of Nature – Hutovo Blato. There are many
swamp plants, animals (especially birds and
fishes) that are endemic and part of com-
munities characterizing this landsapce.
This landscape is recognizable in cypress
trees, arable land with vineyards, tobbaco
plants, cereals and vegetables.
Settlements in marginal field’s area, which
is often the karst, are recognizable in their
architecture and dominance of white Her-
zegovina’s stone that used to be a building
material for highly functional and decora-
tive roofs. This, regarding ecology and eco-
climate for a man suitable area, has been in-
habited since the earliest days. Many people
have left rich expressions of their material
and spiritual culture contained within for-
tresses, houses of worship and especially in
graceful stone bridges. Evlija Čelebija, fa-
mous travel writer, termed Popovo polje as
Misir in this part of the world.
Strong mediterranean inf luence is ref lect-
ed in the architecture of Trebinje city, in its
cultural and scenic units placed on river-
banks of once timid Trebinjčica river.
Mid karst felds of eastern Herzegovina
At higher altitude (600 m), on the next
karst terrace, under conditions of modified
supra-mediterranean and montane medi-
terranean climate situated are Dabarsko,
Fatničko and Plansko polje. These natural
phenomena have got special patterns of wa-
ter regime. Under natural conditions, dur-
ing cold period of a year, fields are covered
with water looking like a true lakes. Because
of that, settlements are moved toward the
edge and agriculture is limited onto crops
having short vegetation season. Not so long
time ago, these karst fields used to encom-
pass well preserved natural elements. Yet,
unique living world occuring organised in
diverse communities, respectively ecosys-
tems, still exists. (Figure 16)
Pressures onto karst felds in eastern Herzegovina
Survival of these felds including the entire biological and landscape’s diversity encompassed
within them is jeopardized by, in ecological sense, unacceptable water management. Te
mega-project called “Gornji horizonti“ is designed to collect and re-direct water from these
felds by specially constructed infrastructure into artifcial water accumulation – Bilećko
jezero. Tat is completely opposite to the natural drain direction.
Visoka kraška polja istočne Hercegovine
Na narednoj kraškoj terasi, u uslovima
ljutog hercegovačkog krša, pod uticajem
planinske klime smještena su kraška polja
gornje istočne Hercegovine (Gatačko na
istoku i Nevesinjsko na zapadu). Oba
polja su okružena visokim dinarskim
planinama (Bjelašnica, Zelengora, Crvanj
i Velež), što uslovljava njihovu geomorfo-
lošku i ekološku unikatnost. Diverzitet
klime, geomorfoloških fenomena i tipova
zemljišta, djelovao je kao ekološki faktor u
nastanku bogatog i raznovrsnog biljnog i
životinjskog svijeta. Brojni endemi i relikti
sa staništem na ovim kraškim poljima
ulaze u strukturu specifičnih ekosistema
ovog područja. (Slika 16)
Prepoznatljivu dimenziju pejzažima ovih
polja daju i ekosistemi obradivih površina
(nadaleko poznati krompir, raž, ječam,
heljda). Tradicionalno stočarstvo i
proizvodnja cijelog spektra domaćih
sireva, te zdrava, hladna i pitka voda, čine
izvanredne osnove za razvoj ekološkog i
otvorenog turizma.
Pejzažne vrijednosti ovog prostora čine i
ekosistemi uz vodotoke, kao što je rijeka
Mušnica i na njoj stotinu godina stara
hidroakumulacija Klinje, klisura rijeke
Gračanice, a posebno živopisna klisura
Zalomke, izuzetnog refugijuma tercijerne
vegetacije koja povezuje Gatačko i
Nevesinjsko polje.

























Ekosistemi:
-vodenjara sa mrijesnjacima
-vodenjara sa lokvanjima i lopočima
-trstika
-šašika
-šiljeva
-priobalnih područja sa Fimbristiles
-šuma bijele vrbe i bijele topole
-šibljaka rakite
-higrofilnih livada beskoljenke i ražolikog ječma
-toploljubivih livada
-mediteranskih i submediteranskih kamenjara sa
bijelim vrijeskom, kaduljom i smiljem
-pseudomakija
-bjelograbića i koštrike
-makedonskog hrasta
-medunca i crnog graba
Ekosistemi:
-vodenjara sa mrijesnjacima
-higrofilnih livada dinarskog procjepka i sibirske sabljice
-higrofilnih livada beskoljenke i busike
-higrofilnih livada različka i grahora
-trstika i šašika
-higrofilnih livada košute
-mezofilnih livada pahovke, rosulje i vlasulje
-termifilnih livada ovsika i crnog korijena
-mediteransko-montanih kamenjara crvenog vrijeska
-šibljaka košaraste vrbe, rakite i barske ive
-bijele vrbe i poljskog jasena
-šuma hrasta cera, hrasta kitnjaka
-šibljaka lijeske
-niskih šuma i šikara medunca sa dinarskom
grahoricom.
Ekosistemi:
-sporotekućih meandrirajućih voda
-higrofilnih i eutrofnih livada
-drijemovca
-higrofilnih livada ilirske gladiole
-higrofilnih livada dinarskog procjepka i
uskolisne bokvice
-livad panonskog različka i divljeg peršuna
-šibljaka rakite i barske ive
-poljskog jasena
-crne johe
-submediteranskih kamenjara sa bijelim
vriskom
-toploljubivih hrastovo-grabovih šuma
-medunca i bjelograbića po obodu polja
Slika 16. – Ekosistemi kraških polja istočno od doline Neretve
128

Ecosystems of:
-standing water with pond weed
-standing water with pond lillies
-reed beds
-sedges
-rushes
-coastal area with Fimbristiles
-woods of white willow and silver leaved poplar
-shrubs of purpule willow
-hygrophylous meadows with moor grass and
rye-like barley
-thermophylous meadows
-mediterranean and sub-mediterranean rocky
grassland with winter savory,sage and
everlasting
-pseudo-maquis
-oriental hornbeam and butcher's broom
Ecosystems of:
-standing water with pondweed
-hygrophilous meadows with dinaric squill and sibirian iris
-hygrophiolus medaows with moor grass and tufted
hairgrass
-hygrophilous meadows with knapweed and pea
-reed and sedges
-hygrophilous meadows with kouta
-mesophilous meadows with oat grass,bentgrass and
fescue
-thermophylous meadows with brome and viper grass
-mediterranen-montane rocky grassland with red savory
-shrubs of basket willow, purpule and marsh willow
-white willow and Fraxinus angustifolius
-woods of turkey and sessile oak
-ibljaka lijeske
-niskih uma i ikara medunca sa dinarskom grahoricom.
Ecosystems of:
-slow meandering streams
-hygrophylous and eutrophic meadows
-snowflake
-hygrophylous meadow with illyrian gladiola
-hygrophylous meadows with dinaric squill and
narrow leaved plantain
-meadows with pannonian knapweed and wild
parsley
-shrubs of purpule and marsh willow
-Fraxinus angustifolius
-sticky alder
-sub-mediterranean rocky grassland with winter
savory
-thermophilous woods with hornbeam and sessile
oak
-medunca i bjelograbica po obodu polja
Ecosystems of:
-standing water with pond weed
-standing water with pond lillies
-reed beds
-sedges
-rushes
-coastal area with Fimbristiles
-woods of white willow and silver leaved poplar
-shrubs of purpule willow
-hygrophylous meadows with moor grass and rye-
like barley
-thermophylous meadows
-mediterranean and sub-mediterranean rocky
grassland with winter savory,sage and everlasting
-pseudo-maquis
-oriental hornbeam and butcher's broom
-makedonskog hrasta
-medunca i crnog graba
Ecosystems of:
-standing water with pondweed
-hygrophilous meadows with dinaric squill and sibirian iris
-hygrophiolus medaows with moor grass and tufted
hairgrass
-hygrophilous meadows with knapweed and pea
-reed and sedges
-hygrophilous meadows with košuta
-mesophilous meadows with oat grass,bentgrass and
fescue
-thermophylous meadows with brome and viper grass
-mediterranen-montane rocky grassland with red savory
-shrubs of basket willow, purpule and marsh willow
-white willow and Fraxinus angustifolius
-woods of turkey and sessile oak
-šibljaka lijeske
-niskih šuma i šikara medunca sa dinarskom grahoricom.
Ecosystems of:
-slow meandering streams
-hygrophylous and eutrophic meadows
-snowflake
-hygrophylous meadow with illyrian gladiola
-hygrophylous meadows with dinaric squill
and narrow leaved plantain
-meadows with pannonian knapweed and
wild parsley
-shrubs of purpule and marsh willow
-Fraxinus angustifolius
-sticky alder
-sub-mediterranean rocky grassland with
winter savory
-thermophilous woods with hornbeam and
sessile oak
-medunca i bjelograbiüa po obodu polja

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Upper karst felds in eastern Herzegovina
On next terrace under conditions of harsh
herzegovina’s karst and mountain climate,
situated are upper karst felds in eastern Her-
zegovina (Gatačko in the East and Nevesin-
jsko in the West). Both are surrounded with
high Dinaric mountains (Bjelašnica, Ze-
lengora, Crvanj and Velež) completing its
geomorphologic and ecologic uniqueness.
Diverse climates, then diversity of geomor-
phologic phenomena and soil types, have
shaped rich and diverse plant and animal
world. Ecosystems are composed of many
endemic and relict species inhabiting these
karst felds. (Figure 16)
Field’s landscapes are also recognizable in the
ecosystems of arable land (widely known po-
tato, rye, barley, buckwheat). In the area ex-
ists an excellent ground for the ecologic and
open kind of tourism refected in traditional
cattle bredding, chees production, availabil-
ity of healthy and cold drinking water.
Landscape’s value of the area make ecosys-
tems stretching along watercourses, such as
Mušnica river and 100 years old accumula-
tion lake called Klinje made on it, narrow
passages of Gračanica river and picture-like
passage of Zalomka river, which is an out-
standing refugium of tertiary vegetation
connecting two felds Gatačko and Nevesin-
jsko polje.
Figure 16. – Ecosystems of karst felds eastern from Neretva river
Pritisci na kraška polja Bosne i Hercegovine
Pejzaži kraških polja čine najosjetljiviju grupu ekoloških fenomena na prostoru Bosne i
Hercegovine. Dominantni faktori koji značajno mijenjaju strukturu i funkciju prisutnih
ekosistema i djeluju na stanje biodiverziteta su:
lMelioracioni zahvati različitih vrsta;
lPreusmjeravanje vodenih tokova u druge slivove;
lNeuravnotežena površinska eksploatacija humusnog horizonta močvarnih
zemljišta;
lNeuravnotežena eksploatacija naslaga uglja;
lNamjerno izazvani požari u vrijeme suše;
lProcesi eutrofikacije površinskih voda;
lProcesi prirodne i vještačke sukcesije;
lSječa šuma u obodnom pojasu;
lGlobalne klimatske promjene (kisele kiše).
Svaka promjena uobičajenog toka
variranja dovodi do poremećaja koji
mogu uticati kako na populacije pojedinih
vrsta, tako i na uobičajenu smjenu
različitih zajednica.
Neophodno je istaknuti značaj kraških
polja kao dijelova koridora za migratorne
vrste ptica. Ovdje staništa nalaze i
globalno ugrožene vrste ptica, kao što su:
Anthya nyroca, Aquila pomarina, Falco
neumanni, Crex crex (IUCN Redlist), te
njihovi ugroženi srodnici. Među vrstama
koje EU Wild Bird Directive navodi kao
vrste koje trebaju biti predmet specijalne
zaštite, koja uključuje i staništa značajna
za njihov opstanak i reprodukciju, a
stanište nalaze na ovom prostoru su:
Gavia artica, Ixobrychus minutes, Nycticorax
nycticorax, Ardeola ralloides, Egretta alba,
Egretta garzetta, Ardea purpurea, Platalea
leucorodia, Plegadis falcinellus, Ciconia
ciconia.
Stepen biodiverziteta kraških polja s
jedne, te stepen pritisaka s druge strane
zahtijeva cjelovitu i integralnu zaštitu i
upravljanje svakim segmentom ovih
izuzetno složenih ekosistema i pejzaža.
Pejzaži kraških polja
129
Karst felds in Bosnia
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Pressures on karst felds in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Landscapes of karst felds are thought to be the most sensitive group of ecologic phenomena
in Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereby their structure and functions have been changing. Fac-
tors that alter the structure and function in most signifcant way infuencing by that the bio-
diversity’s state are as follows:
t Diferent kind of melioration activities;
t Re-directing of streams into other basins;
t Unbalanced exploitation of moorland’s humus horizon;
t Unbalanced coal’s extraction;
t Purposely caused fres in dry season;
t Eutrophication of surface water;
t Succession either natural or by human activities induced;
t Logging in the marginal feld’s area;
t Global climate changes (acid precipitation);
t Globalne klimatske promjene (kisele kiše).
Any change in variation pattern results in
disturbance that affects either distinct pop-
ulations or common process of succession.
It has to be stressed that karst fields are an
integral part of migratory birds routes. Even
globally threatened bird species find their
habitats here, for instance Anthya nyroca,
Aquila pomarina, Falco neumanni, Crex
crex (IUCN Redlist) and kindred species.
Species listed by EU Wild Bird Directive in
terms of requiring special protection that
includes habitats needed for their reproduc-
tion and survival, and which are to be found
in this area are as follows: Gavia artica,
Ixobrychus minutes, Nycticorax nycticorax,
Ardeola ralloides, Egretta alba, Egretta gar-
zetta, Ardea purpurea, Platalea leucorodia,
Plegadis falcinellus, Ciconia ciconia.
A demand afer full and integral kind of pro-
tection, as well as management in each land-
scape’s segment, is posed by the karst feld’s
biodiversity and pressures afecting it.
GENETIC
DIVERSITY
Genetička raznolikost podrazumijeva
raznovrsnost genofonda sadržanog u
različitim biljnim i životinjskim oblicima
kultivisanih i domestificiranih biljaka i
GENETIČKA RAZNOLIKOST BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
životinja, kroz dugi proces etnogeneze na
bosanskohercegovačkim prostorima.
Akteri genetičke raznolikosti na nivou
Bosne i Hercegovine su:
lvisok stepen heterogenosti ekosistema i pejzaža Bosne i Hercegovine,
ljedinstveni procesi i nivoi kulturne raznolikosti,
listorijski proces naseljavanja,
luticaji različitih civilizacija sa istoka i zapada,
lukupna biološka raznolikost autohtonog genofonda uslovila je izuzetno visoku
raznolikost i genetičkih resursa na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine, sadržanih u
izuzetno velikom broju originalnih oblika (naročitih geno- i ekotipova), pasmina
životinja i sorti biljaka.
Kao i u drugim oblastima biodiverziteta,
tako i u genetičkoj raznolikosti BiH još
postoje velike nepoznanice. Veoma mali
broj naučnih i stručnih podataka govori o
utvrđenim sortama i pasminama. Smatra
se da je tokom vremena došlo do gubitka
elementarnih podataka o nekadašnjem
izuzetno bogatom genetičkom diverzitetu
biljaka i životinja. Zakonska regulativa
koja bi regulisala probleme inven-
tarizacije i zaštite ove vrste genofonda još
ne postoji. Posebnu važnost ima činjenica
da još nije urađena naučna inventarizacija
genetičke raznolikosti te da nij e
uspostavljena banka gena u kojoj bi se, u
skladu sa međunarodnim propisima,
traj no očuvao genofond Bosne i
Hercegovine.
Od nekada nesagledivog bogatstva
autohtonih (ili duboko ukorijenjenih i
odomaćenih) sorti jabuka, krušaka, šljiva,
i drugog voća, povrća, „pšenice bjelice“ i
drugih žitarica, ostali su samo tragovi
zapisani u narodnim pjesmama i
pripovijetkama, koje ujedno ilustruju i
nekada veliko kulturno bogatstvo i
etnološku raznovrsnost.
Biljni genetički resursi Bosne i Hercegovine
Izuzev nekoliko sorti vinove loze
(„Blatina“ i „Žilavka“), te jedne sorte
jabuka, drugih zaštićenih oblika ove vrste
genofonda još nema.
Kada je u pitanju diverzitet biljnih
genetičkih resura može se još govoriti o
značaj nom genofondu. U Bosni i
Hercegovini je poznato bogatstvo
vrijednih sorti povrća, voća i žitarica, koje
danas egzistiraju u određenim oblicima
na pojedinim dijelovima teritorije.
Od genetičkih resursa žitarica, posebne
vrijednosti su sadržane u brojnim sortama
kukuruza (Zea mays), pšenice (Triticum
sp.), ječma (Hordeum sp.), zobi (Avena
sativa), raži (Secale cereale), prohe (Panicum
miliaceum).
131
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Y
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Genetic diversity means richness of gen pool
comprised within diferent plant and animal
forms both cultivated and domesticated ones
through a long process of ethnogenesis in
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Factors that determine genetic diversity on
national scale are:
As in any other aspect of biodiversity, genet-
ic biodiversity in B&H too is a big mistery.
There are only sporadic scientific and expert
data on identified sorts and breeds.
Now, it is being believed that basic data on
rich genetic diversity of plants and animals
were lost in time. Legislative that would con-
sider the issues of inventory and protection
hasn’t been inforced yet. Special importance
comes to the fact that the scientific invento-
ry of genetic diversity hasn’t been completed
yet, meaning that bank of gens that should
obey the international rules hasn’t been es-
tablished neither.
What once used to be the richness in indig-
enous (either deeply rooted or domesticat-
ed) sorts of apples, pears, plums and other
fruits, and sorts of wheat such as “bjelica“
and other cereals, now are only traces re-
corded in volk’s songs and tales illustrating
former cultural richness and ethnologic di-
versity.
t High heterogeneity of ecosystems and landscapes in Bosnia and Herzegovina;
t Unique processes and levels of cultural diversity;
t Hystorical process of inhabitation;
t Other civilization’s infuences coming from the East and West;
t A total biodiversity of indigenous gen pool results in high diversity of genetic resources in
Bosnia and Herzegovina contained in great number of original (especially genotypes and
ecotypes) animal breeds and plant sorts.
Except for several sorts of grape (“Blatina“
i “Žilavka“) and one sort of apples, there
are no gen pool’s protection measures in
place.
The diversity of herbal genetic resources is
addressed as a significant gen pool, which
is based on available information on veg-
etable, fruit and cereal richness in Bosnia
and Herzegovina.
Among cereals as a genetic resource valu-
able are sorts of maize (Zea mays), wheat
(Triticum sp.), barley (Hordeum sp.), oat
(Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale), broom-
corn millet (Panicum miliaceum).
Herbal genetic resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina
U povrtlarskim genetičkim resursima
raznolikošću oblika i posebnih ekotipova
posebno se ističu: tikve i bundeve iz roda
Cucurbita, grahovi (Phaseolus vulgaris:
čućo, bubnjo, trešnjo, kućićar, mesni),
kupusi iz roda Brassica, paprika
(Capsicum annuum), nadaleko čuvene
bamije (Hibiscus esculentum), lubenice
semberke (Cytrullus colocynthus), dinje
(Cucumis melo), te spektar sorti krompira
(Solanum tuberosum: romanijski, kupreški,
fojnički, glamočki, itd.).
Tabela 44. - Pregled priznatih sorti pšenice
są područja Bosne i Hercegovine
Sorte Institucija
Bosanka Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Granada Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Kristina Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Prijedorčanka Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Banjalučanka Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Orion Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Stojanka Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Jelena Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Šamčanka PIK “Šamac” - Šamac
Sorta Godina
priznavanja
Institucija
Sana 1997 Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Sonja 1997 Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Marina 1999 Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Milica 1999 Poljopr. inst. Banja Luka
Amigdalus communis L. - badem Crataegus oxyacantha L. - glog
Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. – kajsija

Olea europea L. - maslina
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.- džanarika

Prunus avium l. trešnja
Prunus domesticaL. - šljiva

Prunus mahaleb L. - rašeljka
Castanea sativa Miller – kesten pitomi

Prunus persica L. - breskva
Cerasus vulgaris Mill - višnja Punica granatum L. - nar
Cornus mas L. – dren Pyrus pyraster L - kruška
Cydonia oblonga Mill. - dunja Rosa canina L. – Ružin šipak
Juglans regia L. – orah Sambucus nigra L. – domaća zova
Malus sylvestris Mill. – divlja jabuka Sorbus domestica L. – oskoruša
Mespilus germanica L. - mušmula Sorbus aucuparia L. - jarebika
Tabela 45. - Pregled priznatih sorti soje
są područja Bosne i Hercegovine
Raznolikost ekoklime doprinosi još
očuvanoj raznolikosti voćnih genetičkih
resursa. Diverzitet ove grupe ogleda se u
velikom broju sorti trešanja (Prunus
avium: alice, ašlame, hašlamuše, hrušćovi,
crnice, bjelice); šljiva (Prunus domesticus:
bijele, prskulje, mrkulje, savke); krušaka
(Pyrus sp.: ječmenke, krivočke, mednjače,
takiše, bijeli karamut, crni karamut,
krupnjače, jeribasme); jabuke (Malus sp.:
petrovače, golubače, šarenike, zelenike,
senabij e, šahmanuše, krompiruše,
crvenike, itd.), kao i višnji, kajsija, breskvi,
badema, malina, kupina, jagoda i ribizli.
Veliku vrijednost imaju i mnoge biljke
voćarice, koje služe kao podloga za
kalemljenje i koje se u dosta slučajeva
navode kao naučno i stručno priznate
vrste podloga za uzgoj određenih sorti.
Tabela 46. - Priznate sorte podloga
U bilj nim genetičkim resursima BiH značaj no mj esto zauzimaj u i različite sor-
te krmnih biljaka.
132
G
E
N
E
T
I
C

D
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
Table 44. – Overview of recognized wheat
sorts from the territory of B&H
Among gardening genetic resources diver-
sity of forms and special ecotypes character-
izes: pumpkins from genus Cucurbita, bean
(Phaseolus vulgaris: čućo, bubnjo, trešnjo,
kućićar, mesni), cabbage from genus Bras-
sica, paprika (Capsicum annuum), widely
known okra (Hibiscus esculentum), water-
melon called semberka (Cytrullus colocyn-
thus), melon (Cucumis melo), and spectrum
of potato’s sorts (Solanum tuberosum: ro-
manijski, kupreški, fojnički, glamočki etc.).
Te diversity of ecoclimate has supported high
and still well preserved diversity of genetic re-
sources contained in fruits. Tis is refected
in great number of sorst of cherries (Prunus
avium: alice, ašlame, hašlamuše, hrušćovi,
crnice, bjelice); plums (Prunus domesticus:
bijele, prskulje, mrkulje, savke); pears (Pyrus
sp.: ječmenke, krivočke, mednjače, takiše,
bijeli karamut, crni karamut, krupnjače, jeri-
basme); apples (Malus sp.: petrovače, golubače,
šarenike, zelenike, senabije, šahmanuše,
krompiruše, crvenike etc.), as well as sour
cherries, apricots, peaches, almonds, raspber-
ries, blackberries, strawberries and currants.
Of high importance are many fruit sorts that
are being used for inoculation purposes cited
ofen by scientists and experts as a base for
growing of certain sorts.
Table 45. – Overview of recognized soya bean
sorts from the territory of B&H
Table 46. – Recognized sorts used as base for growing
Within herbal genetic resources of B&H, diferent sorts of fodder plants take signifcant
place.
Sort Institution
Sort
Year of
recognition
Institution
Važno mjesto u diverzitetu biljnih
genetičkih resursa naše zemlje ima
ornamentalna flora, koja i danas krasi
brojna dvorišta i avlije. Naročito je
značajan genofond sadržan u različitim
oblicima ruža (Rosa sp.), kao što je
đulbešećerka (Rosa poliantha); đulhatma ili
trandavilje (Althaea rosea); rutica (Ruta
graveolens); rejhan ili bosiok (Ocymum
basillicum); selen ili miloduh (Levisticum
officinale); šekaik ili božur (Paeonia sp.);
šeboj (Erysimum sp.) i mnoge druge kojima
se već odavno zametnuo trag.
Zahvaljujući savremenim molekularno-
Tabela 47. - Sorte krmnog bilja
genetičkim istraživanjima danas postoje i
pionirski podaci o identificiranim
genetičkim markerima endemičnog
genofonda Bosne i Hercegovine (Lilium
bosniacum, L. cataniae, Iris bosniaca, L.
martagom, Hypochoeris macullata, Juniperus
sabina). Genetički diverzitet ovih vrsta
ogleda se u broju lokusa ribozomalne
DNK, u broju tzv. repeticija ribozomalnih
gena, aktivnosti ribozomalnih gena, tj.
broja nukleolusa; u prisustvu i broju B
hromosoma, vel i či ni genoma, t e
prisustvu različitih nivoa ploidije.
Vrsta Domestificirane pasmine BH pasmine
Konj
Equus caballus L., 1758;
E. ferus Boddaert, 1785 (E. f.
przewalskii, E. f. gmelini) i
njihovi križanci
Bosansko–hercegovački
brdski
Buša Govedo
Bos taurus domesticus L., 1758;

B. primigenius Bojanus, 1827
(=B. primigenius taurus) i
njihovi križanci
Gatačko
Ovca
Ovis aries L., 1758
(O. a. domestica = O. ovis);
O. orientalis, O. musimon, O.
vignei i njihovih mogućih
križanaca
Pramenka
Koza
Capra hircus L., 1758;
C. h. domestica Domaća balkanska rogata
Svinja
Sus scrofa L., 1758;
S. s. domestica (=S.
domesticus)
Šiška

Sorta
Lucerka (Medicago sativa L.) : BL-422, Banjalučanka, Sonja, Biljana
Smiljkita (Lotus corniculatus L.): BL-17, Tera
Ježevica (Dactylis glomerata L.): BL-4, BL-Krajina
Mačiji rep (Phleum pratense L.): BL-B
Crveni vijuk (Festuca rubra L.): Buki
Stočni grašak (Pisum sativum ssp. arvense L.): Saša
Genetička raznolikost autohtonih pasmina domaćih životinja
Kroz dugo postojanje različitih civilizacija
na prostoru BiH domestificirane su
mnoge pasmine životinja. Mnoge od njih
su vremenom poprimile atribute zasebnih
ekotipova, pa danas predstavljaju
izdiferencirane, pa i izolovane oblike u
općem genofondu domaćih životinja.
Naročitom raznolikošću se ističu pasmine
konja, goveda, ovaca, koza, svinja, pasa i
golubova.
Tabela 48. - Autohtone pasmine domaćih životinja u BiH
133
G
E
N
E
T
I
C

D
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
Table 47. – Sorts of fodder plants
Ornamental fora too takes signifcant place
in the diversity of herbal genetic resources
of our country as a decoration for many gar-
dens and backyards. Highly signifcant gen
pool is contained within diferent forms of
roses (Rosa sp.), such as đulbešećerka (Rosa
poliantha); đulhatma or hollyhock (Althaea
rosea); common rue (Ruta graveolens); rejhan
or basil (Ocymum basillicum); miloduh or
lovage (Levisticum ofcinale); šekaik or peo-
ny (Paeonia sp.); wenlock beauty (Erysimum
sp.) and many other of which the last trace
was lost long time ago.
Tanks to modern molecular-genetic stud-
ies, there are pioneer information on genetic
markers identifed within endemic gen pool
of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Lilium bosni-
acum, L. cataniae, Iris bosniaca, L. mart-
agom, Hypochoeris macullata, Juniperus sa-
bina). Te genetic diversity of afore named
species is refected in the number of ribo-
somal DNA’s loci, number of repetitions of
ribosomal genes, activity of ribosomal genes,
respectively the number of nucleoli; oc-
curence and number of B chromosomes, size
of genom and diferent levels of ploidia.
Genetic diversity within indigenous breeds of domestic animals in Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Trough the longlasting existance of difer-
ent civilizations on the territory of Bosnia
and Herzegovina, domesticated were many
animal breeds. Majority of them evolved in
time as distinct ecotypes representing today
clearly separated, even insulated, forms in
the general gen pool of domestic animals.
High diversity is achieved among the breeds
of horses, cattle, sheeps, goats, pigs, dogs and
pigeons.
Table 48. – Indigenous breeds of domestic animals in B&H
Sort
Kao dobar pokazatelj održivog korištenja
ukupne biološke raznolikosti i poimanja
Konvencije o biološkom diverzitetu mogu
poslužiti i primjeri proizvoda, koji nastaju
kroz tradicionalne biotehnološke procese.
U različitim kulturama duge i bogate
tradicije Bosne i Hercegovine nastajali su i
mnogi tradicionalni proizvodi iz domena
pekarstva, mlj ekarstva, pivarstva,
vinarstva, a posebno u proizvodnji
različitih vrsta sireva.
Posebna vrijednost Bosne i Hercegovine
su hiljadugodišnji korijeni različitih
varijanti biotehnoloških procedura u
dobijanju i očuvanju životnih namirnica,
od tradicionalnih osvježavajućih napitaka
i turšija, preko ”kisele” zimnice do blagih i
žestokih alkoholnih pića. U početku su to
bili proizvodi namijenjeni sopstevnim
kućnim potrebama, a kasnije su poprimili
i komercijalne dimenzije. Na temeljima
bogatog iskustva ”domaće” biote-
hnologije, već dugo vremena u Bosni i
Hercegovini se razvija veoma uspješna
industrijska biotehnološka proizvodnja
prehrambenih namirnica i alkoholnih
pića.
Biološka raznolikost genetičkih resursa je
Bosansko–hercegovački
pastirski tornjak
Pas
Canis familiaris L., 1758
(=C. canis= C. donmsticus=C. lupus
familiaris=C. l. domesticus)

Bosanski oštrodlaki gonič
barak
Travnički kratkokljuni
Sarajevski prevrtač
Bihaćki prevrtač
Golub
Columba livia L., 1758;


C. l. domestica
Zenički prevrtač
Vrsta Podvrsta
Srna /Capreolus capreolus (L.)/ C. c. grandis
Divokoza /Rupicapra rupicapra (L.)/ R. r. balcanica
Divlja svinja /Sus scrofa (L.)/ S. s. reiseri
Vuk /Canis lupus (L.)/ C. l. kurjak
Kuna bjelica (Samsar) /Martes foina (Erxleben)/ M. f. bosniaca
Mrki medvjed /Ursus arctos (L.)/ U. a. bosniensis
Tradicionalne naznake autohtonosti se odavno vežu za hercegovačkog magarca, psa i
kokoši.
Bosanskohercegovačka divljač se posebno ističe svojom osobenošću i čini jedinstven
Tabela 49. - Autohtone podvrste divljači u BiH
Tradicionalne biotehnologije
u visokoj korelacij i sa spektrom
tradicionalnih biotehnoloških procesa.
Od autohtonih sorti vinove loze proizvodi
se nadaleko poznata ”Blatina” i
”Žilavka”, te poznata hercegovačka
lozovača; rakija ”šljivovica” od šljive
savke, razne vrste piva od zdravog ječma i
hmelja, mnogobrojne vrste domaćih
pekmeza, bestilja i ”himbera”, od
domaćih jabuka, krušaka i šljiva.
Naročit odraz etnogeneze, kulture
ishrane, te tradicionalnih biotehnoloških
umijeća i rješenja, iskazan je kroz izuzetno
bogatstvo autohtonih sireva, napravljenih
u ”tajnovitim” biotehnološkim procesima
od najkvalitetnijeg mlijeka bosanskih
krava, bosanskih ovaca i koza. Tajna
unikatnog kvaliteta i sastava ovih sireva
nesumnjivo leži i u unikatnosti diverziteta
biljaka na bogatim pašnjacima Bosne i
Hercegovine, na kojima se napasaju
domaće životinj e. Pored do sada
registrovanih i priznatih 15 vrsta
autohtonih sireva, sigurno postoje mnoge
još nepoznate biotehnološke formule,
duboko zakopane u katunima bosansko-
hercegovačkih dinarskih planina.
134
Species Sub-species
Roe deer Capreolus capreolus (L.) C. c. grandis
Chamoix Rupicapra rupicapra (L.) R. r. balcanica
Wild boar Sus scrofa (L.) S. s. reiseri
Wolf Canis lupus (L.) C. l. kurjak
Beech marten (Samsar) Martes foina (Erxleben) M. f. bosniaca
Brown bear Ursus arctos (L.) U. a. bosniensis
G
E
N
E
T
I
C

D
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
In the tradition, traces of indigenous breeds have been linked since ever with herzegovina’s
donkey, dog and chicken.
Te game species of Bosnia and Herzegovina too posses underlined uniqueness taking its share
in B&H’s gen pool.
Table 49. – Indigenous sub-species of game species in B&H
Traditional biotechnologies
As a good indicator for the sustainable use
of biodiversity and comprehension of the
Convention on Biodiversity could be taken
products made by traditional biotechno-
logical processes. Diferent cultures emerg-
ing in long and rich tradition of Bosnia and
Herzegovina used to make many traditional
products out of domain of bread making,
milk-production, brewery, viniculture and
especially chees production.
Special value of Bosnia and Herzegovina is
represented by thousand-year old roots of
various biotechnological procedures in food
production and preservation, from tradi-
tionally refreshing drinks and sour salad,
over ”sour” food supplies for winter to mild
and strong alcohol drinks. In the beginning
those products were ment for personal needs,
getting later more comercial dimension.
Based on rich experiences from the ”home-
made” biotechnological practice, in Bosnia
and Herzegovina has been developing very
successful industrial biotechnological pro-
duction of livegoods and alcohol drinks.
Te biodiversity of genetic resources is high-
ly co-related with the traditional biotechno-
logical processes. Among indigenous sorts
of grape grown are widely known ”Blatina”
and ”Žilavka”, produced are also herze-
govina’s grape brandy; ”šljivovica” brandy
made of plums called savke, diferent kinds
of beer from healthy barley and hops, then
home-made jams, marmelades, and ”him-
bers” from domestic sorts of apples, pears
and plums.
As a special expression of ethnogenesis, nu-
tritional culture and traditional biotechno-
logical skills and solutions considered is high
richness in indigenous sorts of chees, made
by ”secret” biotechnological procedures from
the highest quality milk of bosnian cows,
sheeps and goats. In the uniqueness of herb-
al diversity comprised by pastures in Bosnia
and Herzegovina, where domestic animals
graze, lies a secret on the quality and compo-
sition of chees. Apart from so far identifed
and recognized 15 sorts of indigenous chees,
for sure exist many other unknown biotech-
nological formulas, deeply hidden in the
mountain cottages of Dinaric Alps in B&H.
Duga tradicija u proizvodnji mliječnih
proizvoda, te značajni raspoloživi
kapaciteti uslovili su bogatu mrežu
mljekarsko-biotehnološke prerade, koja
broji preko 60 jedinica, smještenih u
različitim dijelovima Bosne i Herce-
govine.
Razvoj privrednih subjekata u oblasti
pekarsko-biotehnološke proizvodnje,
Tabela 50. - Autohtoni sirevi Bosne i Hercegovine
Sir Identifikacijsko područje
Travnički (Vlašićki) Kompleks Vlašića i okolnih planina
Masni Istočna Bosna: oko Čajniča, Tjentišta, Sokoca i neki drugi krajevi
Presukača Hercegovina i Piva (Crna Gora); Bosna I Hercegovina: šira područja
Gacka, Konjica i Sjemeča
Sirac Bosanska krajina, osobito planinska područja
Livanjski Proizvodi se na kompleksu Cincara i okolnih planina, te na kraškim
poljima: Livanjskom, Glamočkom i Duvanjskom
Posni Široko područje Bosne i Hercegovine
Suhi ili mješinski
punomasni
Hercegovina
Svježi kiseli i sušeni kiseli Područja koja gravitiraju sjevernoj Bosni
Zajednica Istočna Bosna: krajevi gdje se proizvodi kajmak.
Basa Bosanska krajina, oko Bihaća i šire (Lika, Hrvatska)
Kalenderovački Sjeverna Bosna:
obronci Motajice, neki krajevi oko Majevice i Šekovića
Tvrdi kozji Hercegovina
Bijeli kozji Hercegovina i
neka podvlašićka sela (Bosna)
Zarica Istočna Bosna
Urda Sva planinska područja BiH
pi varsko-bi ot ehnol oški h rj ešenj a,
produkciji vina i drugih tradicionalnih
alkoholnih pića, prerada voća i povrća na
tradicionalnim iskustvima danas pred-
stavljaju važne segmente bosansko-
hercegovačke ekonomije. Ove grane
privrede upošljavaju veliki dio radno
sposobnog stanovništva.
Pritisci
Kako svijet divljine, tako i genetički resursi danas trpe veoma izražene pritiske koji vode
redukciji, a vjerovatno i izumiranju brojnih sorti i pasmina sa prostora Bosne i Herce-
govine.
Najdominantniji pritisci na genetičke resurse su:
lIntenzivne promjene u oblicima poljoprivredne proizvodnje kroz upotrebu
mehanizacije, te sredstava kao što su pesticidi i fertilizatori;
lVeoma intenzivne migracije i raseljavanje stanovništva iz sela u gradove, a
naročito iz prirodno i etnološki izoliranih područja (planinska sela na: Bjelašnici,
Čvrsnici, Zelengori, Kupresu, Vlašiću, Vitorogu itd.);
lDruštvena nezainteresovanost za očuvanje ovog dijela prirodno-kulturne baštine;
lIntenzivno širenje invazivnih vrsta biljaka i životinja;
lPromjene tradicionalnog oblika življenja i privređivanja bosanskohercegovačkog
čovjeka;
Chees ,GHQWL¿FDWLRQDUHD
7UDYQLþNL9ODãLüNL FRPSOH[RI9ODãLü0WDQGQHLJKERXULQJPRXQWDLQV
Masni
HDVWHUQ%RVQLDDURXQGýDMQLþH7MHQWLãWH6RNRODFDQGLQVRPH
other areas
3UHVXNDþD
Herzegovina and Piva river(Montenegro); Bosnia and Herzegov-
LQDZLGHUDUHDRI*DFNR.RQMLFDQG6MHPHþ
Sirac Bosanska krajina, especially its mountain areas
Livanjski
Proizvodi se na kompleksu Cincara i okolnih planina, te na
NUDãNLPSROMLPD/LYDQMVNRP*ODPRþNRPL'XYDQMVNRP
Posni wide area in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Suhi ili mješinski
punomasni
Herzegovina
6YMHåLNLVHOLLVXãHQLNLVHOL areas oriented toward northern Bosnia
Zajednica eastern Bosnia: areas in which cream is being produced.
Basa %RVDQVNDNUDMLQDDURXQG%LKDüDQGZLGHU/LND&URDWLD
.DOHQGHURYDþNL
northern Bosnia:slopes of Motajica Mt., some areas around Ma-
MHYLFD0WDQGâHNRYLüL
Tvrdi kozji Herzegovina
Bijeli kozji
Herzegovina and
VRPHYLOODJHVEHQHDWK9ODãLü0W%RVQLD
Zarica eastern Bosnia
Urda all mountain areas in B&H
135
G
E
N
E
T
I
C

D
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
Table 50. – Indigenous sorts of chees in Bosnia and Herzegovina
A long tradition in milk production and sub-
stantial capacities that are available, made
base for the branched network of milk-bio-
technological facilities, with more than 60
units located all around Bosnia and Herze-
govina.
Development of economy subjects in the feld
of bread-making biotechnological produc-
tion, brewering-biotechnological solutions,
production of vine and other alcochol drinks,
treating of fruits and vegetables based on tra-
ditional knowledge, represent important seg-
ments of the economy in Bosnia and Herze-
govina. Tese economy branches employ the
largest proportion of working population.
Pressures
Like the wildlife so the genetic resources too sustain sever pressures raised upon them,
which tend to cause the reduction, most probably even extinction, of many sorts and breeds
from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Prevailing pressures on genetic resources are:
t Intensive change in the agricultural production through mechanisation use, and use of
such means as pesticides and fertilisers;
t Very intensive migration and displacement of population from villages to cities, especially
from insulated areas in respect to nature and ethnology (mountain villages on: Bjelašnica,
Čvrsnica, Zelengora, Kupres, Vlašić, Vitorog etc.);
t Social negligence for the protection of this segment in natural and cultural heritage;
t Intensive dispersal of alien plants and animals;
t Changes in traditional mode of living and income gain of people in Bosnia and Herze-
govina;
lIskorjenjivanje kulturnih tradicija u kojima su nesumnjivu ulogu imale autohtone
sorte i pasmine biljaka i životinja;
lGlobalne promjene potpomognute komunikacijskim pogodnostima za brzo širenje
raznih patogena;
lFavoriziranje oblika biljaka i životinja nastalih dirigovanom selekcijom, koji
direktno ili indirektno potiskuju autohtoni genofond;
lSve jače prisustvo genetički modificiranih oblika kao i prehrambenih i ljekovitih
proizvoda proizvedenih iz njih.
Zbog navedenih pritisaka značajan dio
genofonda autohtonih pasmina i sorti je
već davno iščezao. Mnogi oblici nestaju na
naše oči, što nalaže potrebu brzih akcija u
inventarizaciji i konzervaciji preostalih
biljnih i životinjskih genetičkih resursa.
Unatoč tome, raspoloživa genetička
raznolikost predstavlja izuzetan resurs i
moćan potencijal u proizvodnji zdrave i
kvalitetne hrane, kao i dobij anj u
plemenitih sorti voća, povrća, žitarica, te
zdravih pasmina životinja.
Pomenuti potencijal je jedna od najvećih
komparativnih prednosti Bosne i
Hercegovine u odnosu na zemlje u
regionu i čitavoj Evropi. U bliskoj
budućnosti bogatstvo jedne zemlje će se
mjeriti raznolikošću i potencijalima
sadržanim u genetičkim resursima biljaka
i životinja.
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t Disrooting of cultural traditions in which indigenous plant sorts and animal breeds play
undoubtedly important role;
t Global changes supported by communication advantages which enable swif dispersal of
pathogens;
t Favoring of plants and animals evolved by controlled selection, which either directly or indi-
rectly supress the indigenous gen pool;
t Steady increasing in the occurence of GMOs and dietary and medicinal products obtained
by their usage.
Due to above stated pressures, large proportion of indigenous gen pool of breeds and sorts
vanished long time ago. And many are dissapearing right in front of our eyes. Hence, urgent
actions are required in order to make an inventory and ensure conservation of herbal and
animal genetic resources remained.
Inspite of that, genetic diversity that is available represents the outstanding resource and
mighty potential for the production of healthy and high quality food, as well as for the ob-
taining of noble sorst of fruits, vegetables, cereals and healthy breeds of animals.
Te mentioned potential is one of the greates comparative advantages of Bosnia and Herze-
govina compared to other countries in the region and entire Europe. In the nearest future,
country’s richness shall be assessed by its diversity level and potentials contained within its
genetic resources.

ALIEN SPECIES
Pod invazivnim vrstama podrazumi-
jevaju se one vrste biljaka, životinja i gljiva
koje potiču iz drugih florno-zoogeo-
grafskih oblasti, a u procesu kompeticije
potiskuju autohtoni genofond osvajajući
raspoložive ekološke niše. Invazivne vrste
se najčešće šire kao slučajan pratilac
različitih ljudskih aktivnosti. Ove vrste
ponajprije zauzimaju urbana i ruralna
INVAZIVNE VRSTE U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
staništa, a kasnije se šire i u slobodnoj
prirodi.
Ni prostor BiH nije pošteđen dolaska
adventivnih vrsta, gdje pored invazivnih
spadaju i različite vrste biljnih genetičkih
resursa (povrtlarske, voćarske, žitarice,
ornamentalne i kulturne biljne vrste, te
različite životinje i gljive.
INVAZIVNE BILJNE VRSTE
Mnoge alohtone vrste su pratioci
različitih biljnih genetičkih resursa. To su
korovi koji se zadržavaju u kulturama, a
veoma rijetko izlaze izvan agroeko-
sistema i zauzimaju ekološke niše
autohtone flore. Međutim, jedan dio
alohtonih vrsta, potpuno je prilagođen
uslovima lokalnih staništa i odavno je
izmakao kontroli čovjeka.
Prema međunarodnim standardima
poimanja invazivnih vrsta i stepenu
spoznaje raznolikosti BiH flore može se
tvrditi da je u BiH registrovano na
desetine invazivnih vrsta.
Tabela 51. - Neke invazivne vrste registrovane u BiH
Vrsta Podrijetlo
Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson S.Amerika
Asclepias syriaca L. S. Amerika
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Amerika
Artemisia verlotiorum Lamotte Kina
Artemisia vulgare L. Sjeverna Amerika
Bidens bipinnata L. Južna Amerika
Bidens frondosus L. Sjeverna Amerika
Bidens subalaternus D.C. Južna Amerika
Coniza canadensis ( L.) Sjeverna Amerika
Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Sjeverna Amerika
Galinsoga ciliata (Rafin.) S. F. Meksiko - Čile
Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Južna Amerika
Helianthus tuberosum L. Sjeverna Amerika
Iva xanthifolia Nutt. Sjeverna Amerika
Picris eschioides L. Južna Europa
Solidago gigantea Ait. Sjeverna Amerika
Tagetes minuta L. Južna Amerika
Xanthium strumarium L. subsp. strumarium
subsp. italicum ( Moretti) D. Love
Južna Amerika
Bunias erucago L. Južna Europa
Euclidium siriacum (L.) R.Br. in Aiton Istočna i srednja Europa
Lepidium virginicum L. Srednja Amerika
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ALIEN SPECIES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
ALIEN PLANTS
As an alien species considered are those spe-
cies of plants, animals and mushrooms that
originate from other foristic and zoogeo-
graphic regions and which in the competi-
tion with indigenous gen pool supress it by
taking all available ecological niches. An
alien species are the most commonly spread
as accidental followers of diferent human ac-
tivities. At the beginning, these species take
urban and rural habitats, and later on they
spread all across the free nature.
Not even the territory of B&H has been
spared from the arrival of adventive species,
which beside alien include all sorts of plant
genetic resources (vegetables, fruits, cereals,
ornamental and cultural plant species), and
diverse animals and mushrooms.
Many indigenous species are followers of
diferent herbal genetic resources. Tose are
weeds that retain in crops and leave an agro-
ecosystem seldom by taking ecological niches
of the indigenous fora. But, there is a share
of alochthonous species which adjusted en-
tirely to local habitat’s conditions and got out
of the human control long time ago.
Afer international standards regarding un-
derstanding of alien species and degree of
knowledge of B&H’s foristic diversity, it can
be stated that in B&H were identifed dozens
of alien species.
Table 51. – Some alien species recorded in B&H
Species Origin
Od hortikulturnih vrsta koje su izmakle
ljudskoj kontroli, u Bosni i Hercegovini su
danas najprisutnije: Asclepias siriaca,
Helianthus tuberosus, Solidago gigantea,
Tagetes minuta, Amorpha fruticosa, Robinia
pseudacaci a, Phyt ol aca ameri cana,
Reynoutria japonica, Ailanthus altissima,
Impatiens glandulifera.
Većina ovih vrsta nastanjuje priobalne
pojaseve ravničarskih rijeka, sječine,
šumske proplanke i slična staništa.
Ove vrste (Asclepias syriaca, Helianthus
tuberosus i Amorpha fruticosa) uslovljavaju
posebno negativne uticaje na staništima
ekosistema higrofilnih šuma vrba, joha i
topola, koje su u Bosni i Hercegovini
rasprostranjene naročito u Posavini.
Higrofilni ekosistemi se danas nalaze pod
visokim stepenom ugroženosti od
invazivnih vrsta.
Sisymbrium altissimum L. Centralna i Istočna Europa
Coronilla valentina L.
Sedum sarmentosum Bunge I. azija
Juniperus communis L.
Euphorbia spinosa L.
Euphorbia maculata L. S. Amerika
Euphorbia nutans Lagasca S. Amerika
Amorpha fruticosa L. C. I Amerika
Lathyrus tuberosum L.
Robinia pseudacacia L. S. Amerika
Iris germanica L.
Stachys annua L.

Oxalis stricta L. S. Amerika
Phragmites communis L.
Phytolacca americana L. S. Amerika
Eleusine indica ( L.) Geartn. Tropi i subtropi
Paspalum dilatatum Poir. in Lam. S. Amerika
Paspalum paspaloides ( Michx) Scribn. tropi
Sorghum halepense ( L.) Pers. S. Afrika i jugozapadna Azija
Polygonum communis L.
Reynoutria japonica Houtt. Japan
Rubus ceasiues L.
Ailanthus altissima ( Mill.) Swingle Kina
Urtica dioica L.
Echynocistis lobata (Michx) Torrey & A. Gray Sjeverna Amerika
Elodea canadensis Michx. Sjeverna Amerika
Dobro aklimatizirane vrste, kao što su
Robinia pseudacacia, Ailanthus glandulosa.
pa čak i Syringa vulgaris, danas osvajaju
staništa u zoni zajednica hrastovo-
grabovih i bukovih šuma na čitavom
prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine. Bagrem
čak izgrađuje i posebne antropogene
ekos i s t eme ( Smyr ni o- Robi ni e t um
pseuacaciae). Ailanthus glandulosa zauzima
i staništa priobalnog pojasa rijeka
peripanonskog, brdskog i submediteran-
skog pojasa.
Impatiens glandulifera je vrsta koju u
posljednje vrijeme sve češće nalazimo u
zoni šuma johe, šuma krhke vrbe i rakite, a
naročito u slivnom području rijeke Vrbas.
Neke od invazivnih vrsta raširene su
zajedno sa kulturnim biljkama, a danas
vrlo česti korovi su:
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Among species that are used for horticultural
purpose and which got out of human control,
in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the most com-
mon are: Asclepias siriaca, Helianthus tubero-
sus, Solidago gigantea, Tagetes minuta, Amor-
pha fruticosa, Robinia pseudacacia, Phytolaca
americana, Reynoutria japonica, Ailanthus
altissima, Impatiens glandulifera.
Te largest proportion of these species lives
in the river banks belt of ravine rivers, clear
cuttings, wood clearings and similar kind of
habitats.
Species given in brackets (Asclepias syriaca,
Helianthus tuberosus and Amorpha frutico-
sa) negatively afect habitats of hygrophilous
woods of willow, alder and poplar, which in
Bosnia and Herzegovina are to be found espe-
cially in the Posavina area. Hygrophilous eco-
systems today are under severe threat coming
from the alien species.
Well adjusted species, such as Robinia pseuda-
cacia, Ailanthus glandulosa and Syringa vul-
garis, envade today habitats in the belt of oak
– hornbeam woods and beech woods over the
entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Acacia even creates special kind of anthropog-
enous ecosystems (Smyrnio-Robinietum pseu-
dacaciae). Ailanthus glandulosa takes habitats
in the river banks belt of the peripannonian,
mountainous and supra-mediterranean zone.
Syringa vulgaris got out of human control long
time ago and envaded even sensitive habitats
with relict-refugial character. Tough, this
species hasn’t got any tendency to spread in
larger extent and to envade new habitats.
Impatiens glandulifera occurs lately more of-
ten in the zone of alder, fragile and purpule
willow woods, especially in the confuence of
Vrbas river.
Some alien species spread along with crops
and today are considered as frequently occur-
ing weeds:
lAmbrosia artemisifolia, koja intenzivno osvaja staništa vlažnih i poplavnih šuma,
ruderalna i urbana staništa, te vještačke livade;
lBidens bipinata, B. frondosus, B. subalaternus i Echinocystis lobata osvajaju staništa svih
tipova zajednica u priobalnom pojasu ravničarskih i brdskih rijeka.
Na sječinama bukovih šuma peripano-
nskog pojasa u velikom broju pojavljuje se
vinobojka, Phytolaca americana, nekada
dekorativna biljka koja se upotrebljavala
za bojenje vina.
Elodea canadensis osvaja mirne slatke vode
relativno visokog kvaliteta.
Kada su u pitanju morski ekosistemi, ne
postoje pouzdani podaci o prisustvu
invazivnih vrsta iz roda Caulerpa u
vodama bosanskohercegovačkog mora.
INVAZIVNE VRSTE ŽIVOTINJA
Alohtone životinjske vrste su dospijevale
na prostor Bosne i Hercegovine direktnim
uticajem čovjeka s ciljem uzgoja ili
spontano.
Od invazivnih vrsta u vodenim ekosiste-
mima najprisutnije su vrste riba koje su
dospjele iz kulture u slobodne vode ili
spontano iz dodirnih rijeka i jezera.
Prirodna i vještačka jezera su staništa koja
invazivne vrste lako osvajaju. Invazivne
vrste riba nalazimo u hidroakumula-
cijama: Salakovac, Grabovica, Svitavsko
jezero, Gorica, Bilećko jezero na Trebi-
šnjici, Buško jezero, hidroakumulacijama
na rijeci Vrbas, te Višegradsko jezero,
Perućac i Zvorničko jezero na rijeci Drini.
U prirodna jezera (Prokoško; Kotlaničko,
Orlovačko, Crno, Bijelo, Donje Bare,
Gornje Bare, Štirinsko i Kladopoljsko na
Zelengori; Veliko i Blatno jezero, Crno i
Bijelo jezero na Treskavici; Blatačko jezero
na Bjelašnici; Uloško jezero u podnožju
Crvnja; Boračko jezero ispod Prenja;
Blidinje jezero u Dugom Polju; između
Čvrsnice i Vrana; Idovačko na Raduši;
Šatorsko na Šator pl.; Kukavičko,
Rastićevsko i Turjača na Kupresu; te
Veliko i Malo Plivsko jezero), invazivne
vrste su dospjele prilikom poribljavanja,
nakon čega su u mnogim promijenile
sliku biljnog i životinjskog svijeta.
Tabela 52 - Alohtone riblje vrste i njihovo rasprostranjenje u BiH
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t Ambrosia artemisifolia, which ofen envades habitats of moist and fooded woods, then
ruderal and urban type of habitats and artifcial meadows;
t Bidens bipinata, B. frondosus, B. subalaternus and Echinocystis lobata envade habitats of all
kind of communities along banks of great ravine and mountainous rivers.
Pokeweed, Phytolaca americana that ear-
lier used to be an ornamental plant and
mean to colour the vine, now occurs mas-
sively on clear-cuttings of beech woods in
the peripannonian belt.
Elodea canadensis invades calm freshwater
of relatively high quality.
As far as marine ecosystems are concerned,
there are no reliable records on the oc-
curence of alien species belonging to genus
Caulerpa in water of the bosnia-herzegov-
ina’s Sea.
ALIEN ANIMALS
Alochthonous animal species have been
reaching territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina
either by direct human infuences for breed-
ing purposes or spontaneously.
Alien species of aquatic ecosystems are the
most frequently fsh species that came into
free water from fsh farms or occured spota-
neously from adjacent rivers and lakes. Natu-
ral and artifcial lakes are kind of habitats that
are easily envaded by alien species. Alien fsh
species are to be found in following hydro-ac-
cumulations: Salakovac, Grabovica, Svitavsko
jezero, Gorica, Bilećko jezero on Trebišnjica,
Buško jezero, hydro-accumulation on Vrbas
river, then Višegradsko jezero, Perućac and
Zvorničko jezero on Drina river.
Natural lakes get envaded through the intro-
duction of alien species, thereafer the pic-
ture of living world in those lakes changes
(that kind of lakes are: Prokoško; Kotlaničko,
Orlovačko, Crno, Bijelo, Donje Bare, Gornje
Bare, Štirinsko and Kladopoljsko on Zelen-
gora Mt.; Veliko and Blatno jezero, Crno and
Bijelo jezero on Treskavica Mt.; Blatačko jeze-
ro on Bjelašnica Mt.; Uloško jezero beneath
Crvanj Mt.; Boračko jezero beneath Prenj
Mt., Blidinje jezero at Dugo Polje in between
Čvrsnica and Vran Mt.; Idovačko on Raduša
Mt.; Šatorsko on Šator Mt.; Kukavičko,
Rastićevsko and Turjača on plateau of Ku-
pres; Veliko and Malo Plivsko jezero).
Table 52. – Alochthonous fsh species and their distribution in B&H
CONFLUENCE
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LATIN NAME
Oncorhynchus mykiss X X X X X X X X X X
Salvelinus fontinalis X X X X X
Salvelinus alpinus X X X X X
Carassius auratus gibelio X X X
Carassius auratus auratus X
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix X X X X
Pseudorasbora parva X
Ctenopharyngodon idella X X X X X X X X X X
Ameiurus nebulosus X X X X X X X X
*DPEXVLDDI¿QLV X X
Lepomis gibossus X X X X X X X
TOTAL 8 5 4 6 4 4 7 1 4 4 1 7 1
Krkuša (Gobio gobio) spada među
najznačajnije invazivne vrste riba kod nas.
U toplijim hidroakumulacijma kao što su
Bardača, Hutovo Blato, Buško blato
veoma je česta babuška (Carassius auratus
g i b e l i o ) . U n e r e t v a n s k i m
hidroakumulacijama se pojavljuje i šaran
(Cyprinus carpio), koji dostiže izuzetno
visoku broj nost populacij a. Zbog
nepažnje, iz mnogih ribogojilišta kontroli
je izmakla i kalifornijska pastrmka
(Oncorhynchus mykiss), dok je jezerska
z l a t ovč i c a ( Sa l v e l i nus a l p i nus )
introducirana višekratnim poribljav-
anjima Neretve i hidroakumulacija.
Invazivne vrste riba su u značajnoj mjeri
narušile strukturu ekosistema mnogih
vodotoka. U posebnoj opasnosti se nalazi
endemi čni genof ond, kao št o j e
neret vanska mekousna past rmka
(Salmothymus obtusirostris oxyrhynchus).
Dolaskom invazivnih vrsta danas su
posebno ugrožene endemične vrste
kraških rijeka i ponornica kao što su
Paraphoxinus metohiense i Leuciscys svallize.
Od sisara su introducirani dabar (Castor
fiber), koji se dobro prilagođava u
priobalnom pojasu voda gornjevrbaskog
sliva i muflon (Ovis aries musimon), koji
kod nas naseljava planinsko područje.
Zbog naglašenog krivolova brojnost
populacije muflona je izuzetno mala.
Na područje Rakovice kod Sarajeva
nedavno je introducirana populacija od
300 jedinki jelena lopatara (Dama dama).
Iako se još nalazi pod kontrolom čovjeka,
pitanje je dana kada će ova vrsta dospjeti u
slobodnu prirodu.
U Bosni i Hercegovini postoji više
invazivnih vrsta iz grupe beskičmenjaka.
Među najznačajnijim je krompirova
zl at i ca i l i kol or ador ska zl at i ca
(Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Životno je
vezana uz biljku krompira, a napada i
druge biljne vrste iz iste familije. U našim
uslovima je izuzetno dobro adaptirana i
uz r okuj e oz bi l j ne pr obl e me u
bioprodukciji, te značajno smanjuje
prinose kultura.
Tokom 1995. godine na prostor Bosne i
Heregovine dospjela je i izuzetno opasna
invazivna vrsta kukuruzna zlatica
(Diabratica virgifera), koja značajno
smanjuje prinose kukuruza na prostoru
Semberije, te drugih dijelova Posavine.
Popisima vrsta koje se invazivno šire treba
dodati i specifične nametnike koji su
životno vezani za invazivne vrste, te
žitarice, povrtlarice, voćkarice i ukrasne
biljke. Mnogi od ovih nametnika su razlog
upotrebe pesticida i herbicida, te ozbiljne
kontaminacije životne sredine.
Određeni oblik invazivnosti ispoljavaju i
gljivice i bakterije, koje na svojim
domaćinima izazivaju različite oblike
patoloških promjena. Gljivice koje
parazitiraju na različitim kultivisanim
biljkama su dobro istražene. Međutim, još
ne postoje podaci o širenju ovih vrsta u
slobodnu prirodu i invaziji na autohtonu
floru i faunu.
Faktori invazivnosti
Kao osnovni faktori koji omogućavaju invaziju različitih vrsta biljaka, životinja i gljiva
na prostor Bosne i Hercegovine, mogu se navesti sljedeći:
lHeterogenost bosanskohercegovačkih staništa, koja mogu pružiti utočište velikom
broju invazivnih vrsta sa različitim ekološkim valencama;
lGeografska i biogeografska povezanost Bosne i Hercegovine sa ostalim područjima
Evrope;
lHidrološka mreža koja povezuje različita geografska i ekološka područja i
omogućava širenje sjemena različitih invazivnih vrsta biljka;
lKomunikacijske veze sa drugim dijelovima svijeta, što omogućava širenje različitih
invazivnih oblika;
lNedovoljna kontrola pri unosu hortikulturnih biljaka, njihovog sjemena te
sjemenskog i sadnog materijala povrtlarskih, voćarskih i žitarskih kultura;
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Gudgeon Gobio gobio is one of the most im-
portant invasive fsh species in our country.
Within warmer hydro-accumulations, such
as Bardača, Hutovo Blato and Buško blato,
ofen occurs goldfsh Carassius auratus gi-
belio. In the hydro-accumulation of Neretva
river occurs carp Cyprinus carpio that reach-
es extremely high abundance of its popula-
tions. Due to lack of the attention, from many
fsh farms has fed californian trout, Onco-
rhynchus mykiss, while arctic char Salvelinus
alpinus was introduced in several occasions
by ranching of Neretva river and its hydro-
accumulations.
Invasive fsh species have substantially dis-
trubed the ecosystem’s structure of many
watercourses. Tis has endangered the en-
demic gen pool of species, such as neretva’s
sof-muzzled trout Salmothymus obtusirostris
oxyrhynchus. Trough the arrival of inva-
sive species, today are especially endangered
endemic species of karst and sinking rivers,
such as Paraphoxinus metohiense and Leucis-
cus svallize.
Among mammals, introduced was beaver
Castor fber, now well adjusted in the coastal
belt of waterbodies in upper confuence of Vr-
bas river and moufon Ovis aries musimon,
which lives in the high mountain area of our
country. Due to an intensive poaching, the
abundance of moufon’s population is very
small.
Not far from Sarajevo city, in the area called
Rakovica, recently was introduced a popu-
lation counting 300 deer fallow deer Dama
dama individuals. Although still under hu-
man surveillence, it is only matter of time
when it will get into free nature.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina occur several in-
vasive species belonging to the invertebrates.
One of the most important is potato beetle
Leptinotarsa decemlineata. It is vitally bound
to a potato plant, but it also attacks other
species from the same family. It is extremely
well adapted to our conditions causing sever
troubles in the bioproduction, and therefore,
signifcant decrease in crop’s yield.
In 1995, on the territory of Bosnia and Her-
zegovina arrived very dangerous invasive
species, which is Diabratica virgifera that has
been decreasing corn’s yield in the area of
Semberija and other parts of Posavina.
To the list of invasive species should be add-
ed certain intruders that are vitally bound
to some alien species, or cereals, vegetables,
fruits and ornamental plants. Many of them
are reason for a massive use of pesticides and
herbicides, which severly contaminates the
environment.
Tere is a certain form of invasivity expressed
by some fungi and bacteria that cause difer-
ent pathological stages on their hosts. Fun-
gi that live as parasites on diferent sorts of
cultivated plants, are well investigated. But,
there are still data missing on the distribu-
tion of these species, the way they get into
free nature and how do they envade indig-
enous fora and fauna.
Factors of invasivity
Basic factors that enable the invasion of diferent species of plants, animals and fungi onto the
territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina are as follows:
t Heterogeneity of bosnia-herzegovina’s habitats that can support a large number of invasive spe-
cies possessing diverse tolerance ranges;
t Geographic and biogeographic connection of Bosnia and Herzegovina with other european
regions;
t Hydrological network connecting diferent geographical and ecological areas, which enables
seed’s dispersal for alien plant species;
t Communication with other parts of the world, which enables spreading for diferent invasive
forms of life;
t Unsufcient control by import of horticulture plants, their seeds and planting and seed mate-
rial for vegetable, fruit and cereals cultures; unsufcient control by domestic animals import;
nedovoljna kontrola pri unosu različitih domaćih životinja;
Nekontrolisana urbanizacija bez ekološki prihvatljive i održive infrastrukture,
odgovarajuće upravljanje različitim vrstama otpada;
Neizgrađena monitoring mreža praćenja invazivnih vrsta;
Nizak stepen ekološke svijesti o potrebi očuvanja autohtone flore i faune.
l
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Širenje invazivnih vrsta u BiH
za sada nije pod kontrolom zajednice
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t Uncontrolled urbanisation without ecologically acceptable and sustainable infrastructure, and
adequate waste management’s practice;
t Lack of network for the monitoring of invasive species;
t Low ecological awareness on need afer maintenance of indigenous fora and fauna.
MANAGEMENT OF
THE BIOLOGICAL AND
LANDSCAPE’ S DIVERSITY IN
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Na osnovu procjene stanja kroz NBSAP projekat, istaknute su sljedeće karakteristike pe-
jzažne i biološke raznolikosti u BiH:
STANJE BIOLOŠKE I PEJZAŽNE RAZNOLIKOSTI U
BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
lvisok stepen genetičke, specijske i ekosistemske raznolikosti;
lvisok stepen očuvanosti cjelina pejzažne raznolikosti od evropskog i globalnog
značaja;
lznačajan stepen promjena, u odnosu na distribuciju i sastav klimatogenih
ekosistema;
lizražen trend gubitka biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti, uslovljen širokim spektrom
antropogenih faktora;
Značajan stepen ugroženosti biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti ogleda se kroz identifi-
cirane:
lkritično ugrožene vrste/staništa/ekosisteme/pejzaže od nacionalne, regionalne i
globalne važnosti;
lstaništa i ekosisteme sa velikim brojem endemičnih i reliktnih ili ugroženih vrsta ili
sa visokom stopom bogatstva biološke raznolikosti;
lekosisteme sa značajnom ekonomskom i ekološkom vrijednošću;
lpejzaže sa značajnom biološkom i kulturnom raznolikošću;
Slika 17. – Specifični ekosistemi i područja pod antropogenim pritiscima u Bosni i
Hercegovini
Area under anthropogenous impact
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STATE OF THE BIOLOGICAL AND LANDSCAPE’S
DIVERSITY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Based on the state’s assessment made in the framework of NBSAP’s project, emphasized are
following characteristics of landscape’s and biological diversity in B&H:
t High level of genetic, species and ecosystem’s diversity;
t High preservation level of landscape diversity’s units important on european and global
scale;
t Signifcant degree of changes, refering to the distribution and composition of climax eco-
systems;
t Protruding loss trend regarding biological and landscape’s diversity, caused by wide spec-
trum of anthropogenous factors.
Te signifcant threat’s level to the biological and landscape’s diversity is refected through:
t Critically endangered species/habitats/ecosystems/landscapes of national, regional and
global importance;
t Habitats and ecosystems with numerous endemic and relict or threatened taxa or with
high biodiversity richness;
t Ecosystems possessing high economic and ecologic value;
t Landscapes with the signifcant biological and cultural diversity.
Figure 17. – Specifc ecosystems and areas under anthropogenous
impacts in Bosnia and Herzegovina
U upravljanju biodiverzitetom Bosne i Hercegovine posebno mjesto zaslužuju;
lDiverzitet endemičnih reliktnih vrsta, vrsta ugroženih na nacionalnom, evropskom
i globalnom nivou; privredno važnih vrsta i autohtonih genetičkih resursa;
lBogatstvo kanjona i klisura kao razvojnih centara flore, faune i vegetacije; te
refugijuma biodiverziteta tercijerne starosti;
lDiverzitet staništa izvan uobičajenog područja rasprostranjenja i prirodno rijetkih
staništa (tresetišta, slatine, planinski izvori, morske hridine, manje močvare, male
pećine itd.);
lDiverzitet kraških ekosistema kao najvećih prirodnih fenomena (kraška polja,
ponornice, pećine, krš) ;
lDiverzitet visokoplaninskih ekosistema - ostrva očuvane glacijalne flore i faune;
lDiverzitet ekosistema provincije reliktnih borovih šuma na različitim geološkim
supstratima (krečnjaci, dolomiti, ofioliti, travetini i sl.).
Na biološku i pejzažnu raznolikost BiH djeluju pritisci sa nacionalnog i globalnog
nivoa.
Tabela 53. – Pritisci na biološku i pejzažnu raznolikost sa globalnog i nacionalnog nivoa
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Te biodiversity management in Bosnia and Herzegovina leaves special place for the priorities
of a long-termed protection, as follows:
t Diversity of endemic or relict taxa, species that are endangered on national, european and
global scale; economically important species and autochtonous genetic resources;
t Richness in canyons and clifs considered as development centres of fora, fauna and veg-
etation; then refugia of biodiversity from Tertiary;
t Diversity of habitats out of their usual distribution range and of naturally rare habitats
(bogs, saltmarshes, mountain sources, sea clifs, smaller marshes, caves etc.);
t Diversity of karst ecosystems as the largest natural phenomena (karst felds, sinking rivers,
caves, karst);
t Diversity of high-mountain ecosystems – islands of the preserved glacial fora and fauna;
t Diversity of ecosystems belonging to the province of relict black pine woods on diferent
foundation (limestone, dolomites, ophyolites, tuf).
Pressures onto the biological and landscape’s diversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina
On the biological and landscape’s diversity of B&H exercised are pressures on both scales na-
tional and global.
Table 53. – Pressures onto biological and landscape’s diversity on global and national scale
Pressures on national scale
Pressures on global scale
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‡ Habitats conversion
‡ Unsustainable use of resources
‡ Logging, hunt and poaching
‡ Permanent pollution of all environmental spheres
‡ Devastation and destruction of ecosystems
‡ Degradation and fragmentation of ecosystems
‡ Disturbance in willderness
‡ Unsustainable gathering of economically important
species
‡ Uncontrolled use of pesticides and fertilisers
‡ Uncontrolled introduction of alien species
‡ Uncontrolled introduction and manipulation with
GMOs
‡ Growth of human
population
‡ Unsustainable use of
resources
‡ Climate changes
‡ Conversion of habitats
‡ 'HVHUWL¿FDWLRQ
‡ Usage of GMOs
‡ Spreading of invasive
species
‡ Poor agreement’s
implementation
‡ Low public awareness
level on global scale
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‡ Construction of full infrastructure:
¸ &RQVWUXFWLRQRIWUDI¿FQHWZRUN
¸ Construction of power facilities (hydro-accumula-
tion, power plants, power transmission, pipelines,
gasslines etc.;
¸ Construction of water supply facilities (catchment
areas, trenches, dam lakes,retentions, dams);
‡ Agricultural activities (melioration, replotting, exhaust-
ing of habitats by monoculture, use of pesticides and
fertilisers);
‡ Uncontrolled urbanisation and ruralistion;
‡ Disharmony between development goals by sectors;
Institucionalni okvir za upravljanje biološkom i pejzažnom raznolikošću u BiH čine:
UPRAVLJANJE BIOLOŠKOM I PEJZAŽNOM
RAZNOLIKOŠĆU U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
A) Međunarodna regulativa i zakonski okvir Bosne i Hercegovine za očuvanje i
zaštitu biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti;
B) Institucije vladinog sektora;
C) Institucije za proučavanje, inventarizaciju i konzervaciju biološke raznolikosti;
D) Organizacije nevladinog sektora.
A) MEĐUNARODNA REGULATIVA I ZAKONSKI OKVIR
BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE ZA OČUVANJE I ZAŠTITU
BIOLOŠKE I PEJZAŽNE RAZNOLIKOSTI
Međunarodna regulativa zaštite biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti
Zaštita i održivo upravljanje prirodnim
resursima na internacionalnom nivou
uređeno j e nizom međunarodnih
dokume na t a t e bi l a t e r a l ni m i
multilateralnim dogovorima. U skladu sa
ovim dokumentima svaka suverena
zemlja uređuje upravljanje vlastitom
biološkom raznolikošću uzimajući u
obzir: a) vlastite potrebe i ciljeve; b)
društveno ekonomske interese i c)
međunarodne obaveze.
Bosna i Hercegovina je potpisnica 46
međunarodnih dokumenata iz oblasti
okoliša. Zaštita i održivo upravljanje
biodiverzitetom su predmet sljedećih
dokumenata, na čiju implementaciju se
Bosna i Hercegovina obavezala:
Tabela 54. – Pregled relevantne međunarodne regulative
Dokument Status u BiH
Konvencija o biološkoj raznolikosti (Rio de Janeiro, 1992.) Ratificirana 2002.
Konvencija o močvarama od međunarodne važnosti (Ramsar, 1971.) Preuzeto sukcesijom
Konvencija o zaštiti svjetske kulturne i prirodne baštine (Pariz, 1972.) Preuzeto sukcesijom
Konvencija o zaštiti Sredozemnog mora od zagađivanja (Barcelona, 1976.) Preuzeto sukcesijom
Međunarodna konvencija o zaštiti biljaka (Rim, 1951.) Ratificirana 1994.
Okvirna konvencija Ujedinjenih naroda o klimatskim promjenama (Rio de
Ženeiro, 1992.)
Ratificirana 2000.
Konvencija UN o suzbijanju desertifikacije u zemljama pogođenim jakim
sušama i/ili desertifikacijom, (Pariz, 1994.)
Ratificirana 2002.
Konvencija o nadzoru prekograničnog prometa opasnog otpada i
njegovom odlaganju (Bazel, 1989.)
Ratificirana 2000.
Konvencija o prekograničnom zagađivanju zraka na velikim udaljenostima
(Ženeva, 1979.)
Preuzeto sukcesijom
Bečka konvencija o zaštiti ozonskog omotača (Beč, 1985.) Preuzeto sukcesijom
Protokol o zaštiti Sredozemnog mora od zagađivanja sa kopna (Atina,
1980).
Preuzeto sukcesijom
Međunarodna konvencija o zaštiti od zagađivanja sa brodova (London,
1973.)
Preuzeto sukcesijom
Konvencija o perzistentnim organskim polutantima (Štokholm, 2001) Ratificirana 2001.
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MANAGEMENT OF THE BIOLOGICAL AND LAND-
SCAPE’S DIVERSITY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
A) INTERNATIONAL RULES AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF BOS-
NIA AND HERZEGOVINA FOR THE MAINTENANCE AND PRO-
TECTION OF BIOLOGICAL AND LANDSCAPE’S DIVERSITY
Institutional framework for the management of the biological and landscape’s diversity in
B&H is composed of:
A) International rules and legal framework of Bosnia and Herzegovina for the maintenance
and protection of the biological and landcape’s diversity;
B) Institutions of the governmental sector;
C) Institutions for study, inventory and conservation of the biodiversity;
D) Non-governmental organisations.
International rules for the protection of biological and landscape’s diversity
On the international level, the protection and
sustainable management of natural resources
is treated by the line of international docu-
ments and bilateral and multilateral agree-
ments. According to these documents each
country is souveren to deal with management
of its own biodiversity taking into consider-
ation:
a) its own needs and goals; b) socio-economic
interest and c) international obligations.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a signatory of 46
international documents considering envi-
ronmental issues. Te protection and sustain-
able management of biodiversity is an objec-
tive of following documents, to whome Bosnia
and Herzegovina is obliged to implement:
Table 54. – Overview of relevant international rules
Document Status in B&H
Convention on Biodiversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1992.) Ratifed in 2002.
Convention on wetlands of international importance (Ramsar, 1971.) Overtaken by succesion
Convention on protection of world cultural and natural heritage (Paris, 1972.) Overtaken by succesion
Convention on Mediterranean Sea’s protection from the pollution (Barcelona, 1976.) Overtaken by succesion
International convention on plants protection (Rome 1951.) Ratifed in 1994.
Framework UN Convention on climate changes (Rio de Janeiro, 1992.) Ratifed in 2000.
UN Convention on desertifcation combat in the countries stroke by severe droughts
and/or desertifcation, (Paris, 1994.)
Ratifed in 2002.
Convention on survey of trans-boundary trafc with dangerous waste and its dis-
posal (Basel, 1989.)
Ratifed in 2000.
Convention on trans-boundary air pollution over big distance (Geneva, 1979.) Overtaken by succesion
Vienna’s Convention on ozon layer ‘s protection (Vienna, 1985.) Overtaken by succesion
Protocol on protection of Mediterranean Sea from the land pollution (Athen,
1980).
Overtaken by succesion
International Convention on pollution by ships (London, 1973.) Overtaken by succesion
Convention on persistent organic pollutants (Štockholm, 2001) Ratifed in 2001.
Konvencija o međunarodnoj trgovini ugroženim vrstama divlje flore i
faune (Washington, 1973)
U proceduri
Konvencija o zaštiti divljih vrsta i prirodnih staništa Evrope (Bern,1979) U proceduri
Arhus konvencija (Arhus) U proceduri
Kyoto protokol U proceduri
Konvencija o zaštiti migratornih vrsta divljih životinja (Bon,1979)
Sporazum o zaštiti euroazijsko-sjevernoameričkih migratornih ptica
močvarica;
Sporazum o zaštiti evropskih šišmiša
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Konvencija o procjeni uticaja na okoliš u prekograničnom smislu (ESPOO,
1991.)
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Konvencija o zaštiti i korištenju prekograničnih vodotoka i
internacionalnih jezera (Helsinki, 1992.)
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Protokol o posebno zaštićenim područjima i biološkoj raznolikosti u
sredozemlju (Barcelona,2000)
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Protokol o biološkoj sigurnosti (Kartagena, 2000) -
Konvencija o evropskim pejzažima (Firenca, 2000) -

Ustav BiH
Prema članu III 2.c Aneksa 4 Dejtonskog sporazuma: „entiteti će osigurati sigurnu i
zaštićenu sredinu za sve osobe u svojim jurisdikcijama, održavanjem Agencije za
provođenje građanskog prava koje će funkci onisati u skladu sa međunarodno priznatim
standardima uz poštovanje ljudskih prava i temeljnih sloboda na koje je ukazano u članu II
i preduzimajući i druge mjere u skladu sa potrebama“.
Ustav Federacije BiH
Prema članu 2., uz član 3. Glave III, ovlasti federalne Vlade i kantona iz domena okoliša
su ekološka politika i iskorištavanje prirodnih bogatstava.
Federalna vlast bi trebala kreirati politiku i donositi zakone shodno svakoj od ovih
oblasti, kada je u pitanju obaveza na području Federacije BiH. Ovlasti se mogu
ispunjavati zajednički, zasebno ili na nivou kantona, koordinirano od federalne vlasti.
Bosna i Hercegovina je potpisnik Konven-
cije o biodiverzitetu od 2002. godine. NFP
za i mpl ementaci j u Konvenci j e j e
Federalno Ministarstvo turizma i okoliša.
Kao operativno tijelo Ministarstvo je
odgovor no za komuni kaci j u sa
internacionalnim institucijama, iniciranje
aktivnosti pod Konvencijom i koordi-
naciju sa drugim relevantnim autorite-
tima i zaintresovanim stranama.
Zakonski okvir zaštite biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti Bosne i
Hercegovine
Nacionalni zakonski okvir zaštite biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti čine Ustav BiH, Ustav
FBiH, Ustav RS, Statut Brčko Distrikta, te setovi okolinskih zakona na entitetskom i
nivou Brčko Distrikta.
146
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Since 2002, Bosnia and Herzegovina has
been a Party of the Convention on biodiver-
sity. NFP for the implementation of the Con-
vention is Federal Ministry of tourism and
environment. Being an operational body, the
Ministry is responsible for the communica-
tion with international institutions, initiat-
ing of activites considered by the Conven-
tion and co-ordination with other relevant
authorities and stakeholders.
Legal framework for the protection of biological and landscape’s
diversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Legal framework for the protection of biological and landscape’s diversity at national level
make the Constitution of B&H, the Constitution of FB&H, the Constitution of RS, Statut of
Brčko District, and sets of environmental laws at level of entities and Brčko District.
Convention on international trade with endangered species of wild fora and fauna
(Washington, 1973)
In the procedure
Convention on protection of wildlife and natural habitats in Europe (Bern,1979) In the procedure
Arrhus Convention (Arrhus) In the procedure
Kyoto protocol In the procedure
Convention on protection of migratory wild animals (Bonn,1979)
Agreement on protection of euroasian-boreoamerican migratory wetland birds;
Agreement on protection of European bats
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Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in trans-boundary sense (ES-
POO, 1991.)
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Convention on protection and use of trans-boundary streams and international
lakes (Helsinki, 1992.)
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Protocol on especially protected areas and biodiveristy in the Mediterranean
(Barcelona,2000)
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Protocol on biosafety (Kartagena, 2000) -
Convention on European landscapes (Firenca, 2000) -
Te constitution of B&H
Afer article III 2.c, Annex 4 of Dayton Agreement: “entities shall ensure safe and protect-
ed environment for all people living under their jurisdiction, by sustaining the Agency for
the implementation of civil law that shall be functioning in accordance with internationally
acknowledged standards respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms addressed in
article II, and undertaking other measures according to needs“.
Te constitution of Federation B&H
Afer article 2., along with article 3. Chapter III, in the environmental domain the federal
Government and cantons are in authority to defne ecological policy and natural resources
use.
Te federal Government should create policy and make the laws for each of these objectives as
far as the obligations on the territory of Federation of B&H are concerned. Competencies can
be accomplished together, separately or at canton’s level, co-ordinated by federal authorities.

Ustav Republike Srpske
Prema članu 12. ustavnog zakona za provođenje Ustava Republike Srpske (Sl. Glasnik
RS 21/92) primjenjuju se zakoni i propisi SFRJ i SRBiH koji su u saglasnosti sa Ustavom
Republike Srpske.
Prema članovima 35., 64. i 68. čovjek ima pravo na zdravu životnu sredinu, a Republika
štiti i podstiče racionalno korištenje prirodnih bogatstava te osigurava zaštitu životne
sredine .

Statut Brčko Distrikta
Prema članu 9.Statuta, jedna od funkcija i ovlasti Brčko Distrikta je i zaštita okoline.


Federacija BiH Republika Srpska Brčko Distrikt
Zakon o zaštiti prirode Zakon o zaštiti prirode Zakon o zaštiti prirode
Zakon o zaštiti okoliša Zakon o zaštiti životne
sredine
Zakon o zaštiti životne
sredine
Zakon o zaštiti zraka Zakon o zaštiti vazduha Zakon o zaštiti zraka
Zakon o zaštiti voda Zakon o zaštiti voda Zakon o zaštiti voda
Zakon o upravljanju
otpadom
Zakon o upravljanju
otpadom
Zakon o upravljanju
otpadom
Zakon o Fondu za zaštitu
okoliša
Zakon o Fondu za zaštitu
životne sredine
Zakon o komunalnim
aktivnostima
Prema Dejtonskom mirovnom sporazumu, odgovornost u oblasti okoliša imaju
entitetske vlade i vlada Distrikta, koje su, u periodu 2003-2004., usvojile setove
okolinskih zakona, i to:
Doneseni zakoni o zaštiti prirode
Federacije BiH, Republike Srpske i Brčko
Distrikta za osnovu imaju Direktivu o
staništima {(EU HABITATS DIRECTIVE
(92/43/EEC)} i Direktivu o pticama
(Council Directive 79/409/EEC).
Entitetska ministarstva su dužna da
uspostave i razvij u podzakonsku
regulativu kako bi bila omogućena
provodivost seta okolinskih zakona.
Kantonalna ministarstva u Federaciji BiH
imaju pravo da razviju svoj vlastiti
zakonski okvir konzistentan sa setom
okolinskih zakona Federacije.
Efikasnost zakonske regulative
Kad je u pitanju biološka raznolikost
jedan od temeljnih zakona je Zakon o
zaštiti prirode. Unatoč nizu vrijednosti,
zakon karakteriše i neprimjerenost
bosanskohercegovačkim prilikama, kao i
izuzetno složen proces implementacije
temeljnih odredbi.
Probl emi i mpl ementaci j e važeći h
entitetskih zakona o zaštiti prirode su:
lNerazvijena podzakonska regulativa
lNedostatak stručnih institucija na državnom i entitetskim nivoima
lStrategija razvoja Bosne i Hercegovine nije usklađena sa ekoturističkim i
ekonomskim potencijalima, koje sadašnja i buduća zaštićena područja posjeduju.
Ova činjenica je krajnja konsekvenca opšteg stanja javne svijesti, te slabog i
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Federation B&H Republic of Srpska %UþNR'LVWULFW
Law on nature protection Law on nature protection Law on nature protection
Law on environment protection Law on environment protection
Frame law on environment
protection
Law on air protection Law on air protection Law on air protection
Law on water protection Law on water protection Law on water protection
Law on waste management Law on waste management Law on waste management
Law on Fund for environment
protection
Law on Fund for environment
protection
Law on comunal activities
Afer Dayton Peace Agreement, the responsibility in the feld of environment comes to gov-
ernments of entities and District, which have, in the period from 2003 to 2004, adopted sets
of environmental laws, as follows:
Endorsed laws on nature protection in Fed-
eration B&H, Republic of Srpska and Brčko
District are based on Habitat’s Directive (EU
HABITATS DIRECTIVE (92/43/EEC) and
Birds Directive (Council Directive 79/409/
EEC).
Entity ministries are obliged to establish and
develop sub-legal rules in order to enforce
the set of environmental laws.
Cantonal ministries in Federation B&H are
in power to develop its own legal framework
that shall be consistent with the set of envi-
ronmental laws in Federation.
Efciency of legal rules
As far as biodiversity is concerned, among fundamental laws is the Law on nature protection.
Although it possess many good sides, this law is also characterized by inadequacy to bosnia-
herzegovina’s circumstances and complex implementation process for some basic terms.
For the implementation of valid entity laws on nature protection encountered are problems of:
t Undeveloped sub-legal rules;
t Lack of expert institutions at state and entity level;
t Disaccordance between the Development Strategy of Bosnia and Herzegovina and ecot-
ouristic and economic potentials that present and future protected areas posses. Tis fact
is a fnal consequence of public awareness state and poor knowledge on environmental
management;
Te constitution of Republic of Srpska
Afer article 12. of the Constitutional Law for the realization of Constitution of Republic
of Srpska (Ofcial Herald of RS 21/92) applied are laws and rules of SFRJ and SRBiH
which are in accordance with the Constitution of Republic of Srpska.
Afer articles 35., 64. and 68. an individual has got right to healthy environment, whereby
the Republic protects and encourages rational use of natural resources and ensures pro-
tection of the environment
Statut of Brčko District
Afer article 9. of the Statut, one of functions and competency of Brčko District is the
environment protection.
nedovoljnog znanja o upravljanju okolišem;
lNepostojanje krovnog zakona o upravljanju prirodom Bosne i Hercegovine s ciljem i
mehanizmima implementacije Konvencije o biološkoj raznolikosti na
nacionalnom/državnom nivou.
Zakonom o ministarstvima i drugim
administrativnim tijelima u Bosni i
Hercegovini odgovornost za okolinska
pitanj a na državnom nivou nosi
Ministarstvo za vanjsku trgovinu i
ekonomske odnose. Između ostalog,
pomenuto ministarstvo je odgovorno za
provođenj e j uri sdi kci j e Bosne i
Hercegovine i harmoniziranje planova
ent i t et ski h vl ada i i nst i t uci j a u
poljoprivredi, energetici, upravljanju
okol i šem, razvoj u i ekspl oataci j i
prirodnih resursa. Sektor za prirodne
resurse, energetiku i zaštitu okoline ovog
ministarstva sastoji se iz tri odjela (Odjel
za koordinaciju upravljanja prirodnim
resursima, Odjel za energetiku i Odjel za
zaštitu okoliša). Upravljanje biološkom
r a z nol i koš ć u j e u na dl e ž nos t i
Ministarstva za okoliš i turizam (Fede-
racija BiH) i Ministarstva za prostorno
uređenje, urbanizam, građevinarstvo i
ekologiju (Republika Srpska), dok u
Distriktu Brčko ovu aktivnost provode
službe komunalnog sektora i sektora
poljoprivrede. Navedena ministarstva
raspolažu posebnim službama, koje se
bave zaštitom biološke i pejzažne
raznolikosti (Sektor za zaštitu okoliša u
FBiH; OJ za vodu i prirodna staništa u RS).
U FBiH dalju nadležnost za imple-
mentaciju okolinskih zakona preuzimaju
kantonalna (županijska) ministarstva.
Upravljanje genetičkim i biološkim resur-
sima se nalazi u nadležnosti entitetskih
resornih ministarstava (Ministarstvo
poljoprivrede, vodoprivrede i šumarstva
u FBiH i Ministarstvo poljoprivreda,
šumarstvo i vodoprivreda u RS).
Zaštita prirodnog nasljeđa i implemen-
tacija odredaba UNESCO-a su takođe u
nadležnosti entitetskih resornih ministar-
stava (Ministarstvo obrazovanja i nauke u
FBiH i Ministarstvo prosvjete i kulture u
RS).
B) INSTITUCIJE VLADINOG SEKTORA
Efikasnost institucija vladinog sektora
Iako se svakim danom otkine poneki
dragulj iz prirodne baštine, na nivou
Bosne i Hercegovine ne postoji stručna
institucija zadužena za pitanja evaluacije i
reevaluacije prirodnih vrijednosti i
nasljeđa, te razvoja zakonodavnog i
institucionalnog okvira za održivo
upravljanje njima.
Zbog složenosti implementacije zakona
na svim administrativnim nivoima u
posdejtonskoj Bosni i Hercegovini
stradaju biološki i pejzažno vrijedna
područja (obale rijeka, kanjoni, planinska
područja, itd.). Iako su pitanja iz domena
očuvanja prirodne raznolikosti takođe i
predmet Zakona o krivičnom postupku,
njegova implementacija nije efikasna kad
se radi o ekološkim deliktima. Incidentne
situacije odnose se na unošenje otrovnih,
opasnih i drugih materija u prirodu,
nezakonitu sječu šuma, eksploataciju
zaštićenih biljnih i životinjskih vrsta i
krivolov, koji nisu dovoljno i efikasno
sankcionisani. Postojeća inspekcijska
mreža je nedovoljna, a monitoring
korištenja biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti
nije razvijen.
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t Lack of decking law on nature management in Bosnia and Herzegovina with targets and
mechanisms for the CBD’s implementation at national level.
B) INSITUTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENTAL SECTOR
Te responsibility for environmental issues at
state level is by law on ministries and other
administrative bodies in Bosnia and Herze-
govina assigned to the Ministry of foreign
trade and economic relationships. Apart from
that, afore mentioned Ministry is in charge
for the enforcement of B&H’s jurisdiction
and harmonization of entity government’s
plans with institutions from sectors of agri-
culture, energetics, environmental manage-
ment, development and exploitation of natu-
ral resources. Sector for natural resources,
energetics and environment protection of
the Ministry is divided in three departments
(department for coordinated management of
natural resources, department for energet-
ics and department for environment protec-
tion). Te biodiversity management is within
the competency of Ministry for tourism and
environment (Federation B&H) and Ministry
for physical planning, urbanism, construc-
tion and ecology (Republic of Srpska), while
in Brčko District related activities are under-
taken by comunal sector services and sector
of agriculture. Named ministries encompass
special services engaged with the protection
of biological and landscape’s diversity (Sector
for the environment protection in FB&H; OJ
for water and natural habitats in RS).
Further competency for the implementation
of environmental laws in FB&H comes to
cantonal (municipality) ministries.
Management of genetic and biological re-
sources is within the competency of entity
resor’s ministries (Ministry of agriculture,
water management and forestry in FB&H and
Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water
management in RS).
Te protection of natural heritage and imple-
mentation of UNESCO’s terms are too within
the competency of entity resor’s ministries
(Ministry of education and science in FB&H
and Ministry of education and culture in RS).
Efciency of institutions from governmental sector
Although natural heritage of Bosnia and
Herzegovina looses each day some of its jew-
els, there isn’t any state institution in Bosnia
and Herzegovina in charge for the evalua-
tion and re-evaluation of its natural heritage
and creation of legislative and institutional
framework for the sustainable management.
Because of poor efciency in application of
entity and state laws in Bosnia and Herze-
govina afer Dayton Peace Agreement, and
complex law implementation at any admin-
istrative level, stroke are areas that are valu-
able from biological and landcape’s point of
view (river banks, canyons, mountain areas
etc.). Although the biodiversity protection
is an objective of the Law on criminal pro-
cedure, its implementation regarding eco-
logical criminal deeds isn’t efcient enough.
Incidents related to disposal of toxic, danger-
ous and other substances in the nature, ille-
gal logging, exploitation of protected plants
and animals, poaching aren’t penalised in
sufcient and efective manner. Te inspec-
tion network in place can not meet all needs,
while the monitoring on usage of biological
and landscape’s diversity doesn’t exist.
C) Institucije za proučavanje, inventarizaciju i konzervaciju biološke
raznolikosti
Naučno-istraživačke institucije
Istraživanjima iz oblasti biodiverziteta i
pejzažne raznolikosti danas se u Bosni i
Hercegovini uglavnom bave timovi
stručnjaka pri fakultetima Univerziteta u
Sarajevu, Banja Luci, Tuzli, Mostaru,
Bihaću i Zenici. I pored vrlo duge tradicije
u istraživanjima biološke raznolikosti
današnji stepen inventarizacije i uređe-
nosti podataka iz oblasti biodiverziteta
nije zadovoljavajući. Evidentan je nedo-
statak izdvojenih naučno-istraživačkih
institucija, čija bi osnovna djelatnost bila
istraživanja iz oblasti biodiverziteta, te
utvrđivanj e odgovaraj ućih statusa
konzervacije vrsta, staništa i ekosistema.
Srodne institucije
Pitanjima biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti
se na određeni način bave i institucije čija
je osnovna djelatnost planiranje razvoja
( Zavodi za pl ani ranj e razvoj a i
Urbanistički zavodi). Oblast upravljanja
šumama je uređena kroz sistem javnih
preduzeća ( šumarst ava) . Obl ast
upravljanja vodenim resursima i u njima
sadržanom biološkom raznolikošću je
uređena kroz javna preduzeća (Vode RS,
Slivno područje Save, Slivno područje
Neretve, Zavodi za vodoprivredu).
Konzervacija biološke raznolikosti u Bosni i Hercegovini
Bosna i Hercegovina ima dugu tradiciju
zaštite posebnih prirodnih vrijednosti. Još
je Zakonom o zaštiti prirode NR BiH iz
1946. godine bilo regulisano adekvatno
upravljanje onim dijelovima prirode, koje
karakterišu posebne biološke i pejzažne
vrijednosti. Isti zakon je nalagao
inventarizaciju i utvrđivao stepen zaštite
za objekte različite prirodne vrijednosti.
Pored velikog broja područja sa visokim
prirodnim vrijednostima s jedne strane, te
efekata razvoja s druge strane, u Bosni i
Hercegovini status zaštićenog područja
ima izuzetno mali dio teritorije (0,67%).
Ovako nizak procenat zaštićene teritorije
Bosnu i Hercegovinu dovodi na samo dno
evropske ljestvice.
Prema Zakonu o zaštiti prirode FBiH i
Zakonu o zaštiti prirode RS, u Bosni i
Hercegovini su definisana četiri tipa
zaštićenih područja:
lZaštićeno područje prirode (Ia, Ib i IV kategorija IUCN-a);
lNacionalni park (II kategorija IUCN-a);
lSpomenik prirode (III kategorija IUCN-a);
lZaštićeni pejzaž (V kategorija IUCN-a).
Nacionalni akcioni plan za okoliš, prostorni planovi entiteta Bosne i Hercegovine i
Srednjoročna razvojna strategija preporučuju proširenje teritorija zaštićenih područja.
Osnovni problemi u konzervaciji biološke raznolikosti Bosne i Hercegovine kroz efekte
zaštićenih područja su:
lNerazvijeni i neodgovarajući oblici finansiranja;
lStepen neusaglašenosti prijeratnih i današnjih kategorija zaštite područja,
(donesenih u skladu sa IUCN kategorijama) je visok. Proces usaglašavanja kategorija
zaštite područja nije proveden;
lStvarna zaštita se provodi nad veoma malim brojem područja, što se odnosi na
nekoliko prašumskih rezervata, dva nacionalna parka, dva močvarna područja od
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C) INSTITUTIONS FOR STUDY, INVENTORY AND CONSER-
VATION OF BIODIVERSITY
Scientifc and exploring institutions
Today in Bosnia and Herzegovina, exploring
of biological and landscape’s diversity is car-
ried out mainly by expert teams within facul-
ties at the University of Sarajevo, Banja Luka,
Tuzla, Mostar, Bihać and Zenica. Currently
achieved level of inventory and systematic
order of biodiversity records doesn’t satisfy,
inspite of long research tradition. Tere is
obvious lack of independent scientifc and
exploring institutions dedicated exclusively
to biodiversity research and the assessment
of conservation status for species, habitats
and ecosystems.
Related institutions
Te biological and landscape’s diversity are
in a way objectives of institutions occupied
by planning of development (Institute for
planning of development and Urbanistic
institute). Forest management is arranged
through a system of public enterprises (For-
estry). Water management, including the
biodiversity comprised by water resources, is
arranged through a system of public enter-
prises (Waterbodies of RS, Watershed of Sava
river, Watershed of Neretva river, Institute
for water management).
Conservation of biodiversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina has got a long tradition
in protection of natural values. Te law on na-
ture protection NR BiH from 1946 has regulated
an adequate management on nature character-
ized by special biological and landscape’s values.
Te same law requires an inventory to be com-
pleted and designation of protection level for
natural objects possessing diferent values.
Despite to a large number of areas with high
natural values, and on the other hand, the way
that development has afected the nature, ex-
tremely small proportion of B&H’s territory
is designated as a protected area (0,67%). Tis
small amount of the protected territory places
Bosnia and Herzegovina at very bottom of the
European scale.
Afer Law on nature protection of FB&H and
Law on nature protection of RS, in Bosnia and
Herzegovina are defned four protected area
types:
t protected natural area (Ia, Ib and IV IUCN’s category);
t national park (II IUCN’s category);
t nature monument (III IUCN’s category);
t protected landscape (V IUCN’s category).
Te extention of protected territory is advised by National environmental Action Plan, Physi-
cal Plan of Bosnia and Herzegovina and midle-termed Development Strategy.
Te biodiversity conservation in Bosnia and Herzegovina faces several crucial problems:
t undeveloped and inadequate fnancing modes;
t dissaccordance degree between before-war and present protected area categories (desig-
nated in accordance with IUCN’s categorization) is high. Te adjustment of those catego-
ries has never been completed;
t real protection is conducted in very limited number of areas, which are several primeval
forest reserves, two national parks, two wetlands of international importance, two nature
monuments, one protected landscape and two parks of nature (protection category at can-
tonal level). Remaining areas protected by previous laws haven’t got a management plan
with clearly defned responsibilities.
međunarodne važnosti, dva spomenika prirode, jedan zaštićeni pejzaž i dva parka
prirode (kantonalna kategorija zaštite). Sva ostala područja, zaštićena prethodnim
zakonima nemaju utvrđen plan upravljanja sa jasno definisanim obavezama.
Upravljanje zaštićenim područjima je
povjereno posebnim javnim preduzećima
ili šumarstvima u čijoj nadležnosti se
područje nalazi. U oblasti upravljanja
poljoprivrednim i genetičkim resursima
značajnu ulogu imaju i ustanove kao što
su poljoprivredni instituti, institucije za
upravljanje zemljištem, te institucije čija je
djelatnost organska proizvodnja i
certifikacija održive upotrebe divljih
biljaka i životinja.
U postdejtonskoj BiH stanje regulisane
zaštite prirodnih vrijednosti je u daleko
nepovoljnijem položaju usljed:
lUkidanja temeljnih institucija (Zavod za zaštitu prirodnog i kulturnog nasljeđa);
lNedostatka državnih interesa i strategije zaštite prirode;
lIntenzivnih procesa tranzicije i privatizacije bez utemeljnih planskih dokumenata;
lNeadekvatne razvojne strategije;
lNerazvijenih mehanizama sticanja dobiti kroz zaštitu prirodnih cjelina i nedostatka
finansijskih sredstava za istraživanja konzervacijskih vrijednosti;
lNeadekvatnog pozicioniranja biodiverziteta u procesu planiranja;
lNiskog stepena javne svijesti.
In situ konzervacija
Zaštita u in situ uslovima predstavlja
sistem ekoloških i zakonodavnih normi za
očuvanje temeljnih bioloških i ambijental-
nih vrijednosti biološke raznolikosti na
konkretnom prostoru u datoj dimenziji
vremena.
Zaštita genetičkog diverziteta podrazu-
mijeva njegovo očuvanje u okruženju u
kojem postiže svoja prirodna svojstva i
ostvaruje najviši stepen prilagođenosti.
Zaštita specijskog diverziteta ogleda se
kroz stvoreni zakonski okvir za zaštitu
pojedinih biljnih i životinjskih vrsta na
njihovim staništima.
Zaštita pejzažne raznolikosti i u njoj
sadržanih ekosistema rezultira usposta-
vom zaštićenih područja različitog nivoa i
karaktera.
Slijedeći evropske trendove s ciljem
prilagođavanja savremenom tempu u
procesi ma održi vog upravl j anj a
okolinom, Bosna i Hercegovina je postala
dio mreže koju razvija Evropska agencija
za okoliš. Kao država, BiH nastoji razviti
vlastite i prihvatiti evropske indikatore o
stanju okoliša, te ispuniti obaveze stalnog
izvještavanja prema Agenciji. U oblasti
biodiverziteta, kao jedan od indikatora,
uspostavljene su osnove Common
Database of Designated Areas (CDDA),
koja i u domaćim okvirima služi kao
osnova za registar i inventuru zaštićenih
područja.
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Te managament of protected area is assigned to special public enterprises or forestry, whose
jurisdiction the area is within. In the feld of agricultural and genetic resources management,
signifcant role comes to institutions like agricultural institutes, institutions for soil manage-
ment, institutions dealing with organic production and certifying of sustainable wild plants
and animals use.
In B&H afer Dayton Peace Agreement, the condition of well managed natural value’s protec-
tion is far from being satisfying because of:
t Dismissing of key institutions (Institute for protection of natural and cultural heritage);
t Lack of state’s interest and strategy for nature protection;
t Intensive transition and privatisation without fundamental documents;
t Inadequate development strategy;
t Undeveloped mechanisms for making a gain through protection of natural units and lack
of fnancial means for conservation value’s research purposes;
t Inadequate position of biodiversity issue within planning process;
t Low public awareness level.
In situ conservation
In situ protection represents a system of eco-
logic and legislative rules streaming to main-
tain key biological and ambiental values of
biodiversity in concrete space and given time
dimension.
The protection of genetic diversity means
its preservation within medium where it ful-
flls its natural features and accomplishes the
best adaptibility.
Te protection of species diversity is achieved
through a legal framework created for pro-
tection purpose of plant and animal species
at their habitats.
Te protection of landscape’s diversity, in-
cluding all comprised ecosystems, results in
designation of protected areas with difer-
ent level and character. Trying to keep up
with the european trend of sustainable envi-
ronmental management and to adjust to its
modern tempo, Bosnia and Herzegovina has
become a member of the network developed
by the European Environment Agency. As a
state, B&H tends to develop its own and ac-
cept european indicators on environmental
state. As one of its obligations toward the
Agency is to submitt regular reports on the
environmental state. In terms of biodiver-
sity, as an indicator established is the Com-
mon Database of Designated Areas (CDDA),
which is some kind of fundament for the
register and inventory of protected areas at
national level.
Tabela 55 – Pregled područja zaštićenih zakonima SR BiH (NEAP, 2003)

Kategorija zaštite Broj Podkategorija Broj
Strogi prirodni rezervat 3
Upravljani prirodni rezervat 2
Nacionalni park 2

Geološki 2
Botanički 5 Specijalni rezervat

Ornitološki 1
Rezervat prirodnih predjela 9
Biljne vrste 7
Životinjske vrste 5
* Ptice pjevice 153
* Ptice mocvarice 66
* Ptice grabljivice 38

Geološki 3
Geomorfološki 65
Paleontološki 1
Pojedinačna stabla 21

Spomenik prirode

Grupe stabala 1
Ex situ konzervacija
Ovaj način konzervacije prirodnih
vrijednosti podrazumijeva sistem mjera
za očuvanj e odabranih elemenata
biološke raznolikosti izvan prirodnih
staništa, što danas ima posebnu ulogu u
očuvanju izuzetno ugroženih vrsta svijeta
divljine.
Današnji oblici ex situ konzervacije
podrazumijevaju uspostavu posebnih
botaničkih zbirki (botanički vrtovi,
arboretumi i mediteranetumi). Ex situ
konzervacija genetičkih resursa kao i
ugroženih autohtonih vrsta vrši se u
rasadnicima, kroz uspostavu sjemenskih
kolekcija i uspostavu banaka gena.
U Bosni i Hercegovini ovaj oblik zaštite
postaje sve više zanemaren, sudeći prema
stanju Botaničkog vrta Zemaljskog
muzeja Bosne i Hercegovine.
Botanički vrt je počeo rad odmah nakon
osnivanja Zemaljskog muzeja (1888.
godine), a zvanično ga je utemeljio Karlo
Maly. Međutim mnoge zbirke su u
proteklom ratu potpuno uništene. Nakon
tog perioda nisu izdvajana sredstva za
njegovu revitalizaciju i rekonstrukciju, te
ovaj dio Muzeja, kao značajne kulturne i
naučne institucije, nije sposoban za
aktivnosti efikasne ex situ konzervacije.
Na sjevernim padinama Trebevića nalazi
se Alpinetum, koji je odavno prestao
služiti svojoj namjeni. Alpinetum (osnivač
V. Gligić), je služio konzervaciji mnogih
glacijalno-reliktnih vrsta.
Mediteranetum na poluotoku Klek je
uspostavljen prije pedeset godina s ciljem
očuvanja mediteranske flore i faune.
Danas ne služi svojoj primarnoj namjeni.
Odmah nakon osnivanja Zemaljskog muzeja uspostavljena je i Herbarijumska zbirka s ciljem do-
kumentiranja elemenata biološke i genetičke raznolikosti, do kojih se dolazilo kroz dugotrajna is-
traživanja i inventarizaciju. I pored teških uslova u kojima se nalazi od 1992. godine Herbarijum
Zemaljskog muzeja još čuva neprocjenjivo blago sadržano u više od dva miliona primjeraka flore
BiH. U okviru Prirodnjačkog odjela Zemaljskog muzeja, od njenog osnivanja pa do danas, uspos-
tavljene su i veoma bogate zbirke životinja (beskičmenjaka, riba, amfiba, reptila, ptica i sisara). Po-
sebnu vrijednost imaju bogate i vizuelno atraktivne zbirke leptira, tvrdokrilaca i ptica. Danas ove
zbirke trebaju materijalno-tehničku i kadrovsku pomoć u rekonzervaciji u skladu sa IUCN krite-
151
S
T
A
T
E

O
F

T
H
E

B
I
O
L
O
G
I
C
A
L

A
N
D

L
A
N
D
S
C
A
P
E

S

D
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y

I
N

B
O
S
N
I
A

A
N
D

H
E
R
Z
E
G
O
V
I
N
A
Table 55. – Overview of areas protected by laws of SR B&H (NEAP, 2003)
Ex situ conservation
Tis method of nature conservation includes
a system of measures designed for the protec-
tion of selected biodiversity elements out of
their natural habitats, which plays a special
role in preservation of highly endangered
wild species.
At present, ex situ conservation means the
creation of botanic collections (botanic gar-
dens, arboretums and mediterranetums).
Ex situ conservation of both genetic resourc-
es and endangered autochtonuos species is
conducted in greeneries through the estab-
lishment of seed collections and gen’s bank.
Tis form of protection in B&H gets form
one day to another more and more neglected,
if it is to be judged by the state that Botanic
Garden of the National Museum is in.
Te Botanic Garden has begun to work in
1888, right afer the National Museum was
established. It was ofcialy established by
Karlo Maly. However, many of its collections
got destroyed entirely in recent war. Afer the
war, there was no fnancial means for its re-
vitalisation and reconstruction. Hence, this
part of the Museum, which is very important
scientifc institution, isn’t in capacity to pro-
vide an efective ex situ conservation.
On the northern slopes of Trebević Mt. is to
be found Alpinetum whose original purpose
was forgotten long time ago. It was estab-
lished by V. Gligić and intended for the con-
servation purpose of many glacial and relict
species.
Fify years ago, on Klek peninsula was estab-
lished Mediterranetum with purpose to pre-
serve mediterranean fora and fauna. Today,
it doesn’t accomplish its original purpose.
Right afer the National Museum was established, initiated was Herbarium’s collection with
purpose to document biological and genetic diversity. Tis was accomplished through a longlast-
ing research and inventory. Despite hard conditions in which it has been working since 1992, the
Herbarium of the National Museum still preserves a priceless treasure contained in more than 2
milions specimens of B&H’s fora. In the nature department of the National Museum exist, since
it was founded, very rich animal collections (of avertebrates, fshes, amphibians, reptiles, birds
and mammals). Special value comes to rich and visually attractive butterfy collection, then col-
lections of beetles and birds. In order to ensure its re-conservation according to IUCN principles,
those collections require at the moment frm fnancial, technical and skilled manpower help.
Category of protection zaštite number Under-category number
Strict nature reserve 3
Managed nature reserve 2
National park 2
Special reserve
Geologic 2
Botanic 5
Ornithologic 1
Reserve of natural areas 9

Plant species 7
Animal species 5
* Ptice pjevice 153
* Ptice mocvarice 66
* Ptice grabljivice 38
Nature monument
Geologic 3
Geomorphologic 65
Paleontologic 1
Individual trees 21
Group of trees 1
rijima.
Herbarijumske zbirke kao i kolekcije pojedinih skupina životinja koje su bile u funkciji edukacije i
istraživanja, situirane na Prirodno-matematičkom, Šumarskom i Poljoprivrednom fakultetu, u
toku proteklog rata su u cjelosti uništene razornim požarima i eksplozijama.
U postdejtonskoj Bosni i Hercegovini nisu uspostavljeni nikakvi novi oblici ex situ
konzervacije.
D) Organizacije nevladinog sektora
Prema bazi podataka Regionalnog centra
za okoliš, ured u Bosni i Hercegovini
egzistira sa preko 120 nevladinih
organizacija, sa preko 85.000 članova.
(Environmental Performance Reviews,
UNECE, 2004.)NVO-i u svom programu
rada imaju i pitanja u vezi sa okolišem, sa
naglaskom na podizanje okolinske svijesti
i edukacije. U Bosni i Hercegovini su u
poslijeratnom periodu nevladine orga-
nizacije provele veliki broj okolinskih
projekata i programa.
Najveći problem rada i razvoja nevladinih
organizacija predstavlja izvor finansi-
ranja.
Rad nevladinih organizacija je regulisan
državnim i entitetskim Zakonom o
društvima i udruženjima, prema kojem
nevladine organizacije imaju status
pravnih lica. Prema podacima REC-a, za
2003. godinu, 34% od ukupnih prihoda
NVO-i ostvaruju preko internacionalnih
organizacija i bilateralnih donacija.
Podr ška od l okal ni h i nst i t uci j a
(ministarstva, lokalna zaj ednica i
privreda) postepeno raste. Neke od
nevladinih organizacija se samofinan-
siraju, najčešće kroz članarinu.
Okolinska svijest i pristup informacijama
Stepen okolinske svijesti građana Bosne i
Hercegovine je generalno nezadovoljava-
jući. Među razloge ovakvog stanja se
mogu ubrojati: nivo okolinske edukacije,
zastupljenost okolinske problematike u
medijima, informisanost o građanskim
pravima, informisanost o dužnostima
odgovornih vladinih struktura, zakonska
osnova zaštite okoliša.
Iako je Zakon o slobodnom pristupu
informacijama u Bosni i Hercegovini
usvojen 2002. godine, slabo je iskorišten u
smislu ostvarivanja prava na pristup
informacijama o okolišu.
Mediji u Bosni i Hercegovini ne pokazuju
zadovoljavajući interes i educiranost u
lokalnim okolinskim pitanjima i proble-
mima. Međutim u lokalne, entitetske i
državne radio i televizijske programe se
sve češće uključuju i ciljani dokumentarni
serijali (Eko leksikon, Eko-emisija,
Ekologika, Ekovizija, Živjeti s prirodom,
Prirodno naslijeđe Bosne i Hercegovine).
Jačanje okolinske svijesti
kao prvi zadatak
152
Environmentalawarness
S
T
A
T
E

O
F

T
H
E

B
I
O
L
O
G
I
C
A
L

A
N
D

L
A
N
D
S
C
A
P
E

S

D
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y

I
N

B
O
S
N
I
A

A
N
D

H
E
R
Z
E
G
O
V
I
N
A
Tere has been herbarium’s and some animal group’s collections situated at the Faculty of Sci-
ence, Faculty of Forestry and Agricultural Faculty that used be applied in education and re-
search, but got completely destroyed in recent war by fres and explosions.
In B&H afer Dayton, it hasn’t been established any kind of new ex situ conservation forms.
D) Non-governmental organisations
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, afer database
created by the Regional Environmental Cen-
tre – B&H’s Ofce, exist 120 NGOs with more
than 85.000 members (Environmental Per-
formance Reviews, UNECE, 2004.) that are
environmentally oriented by the programme
of their activities, underlining the environ-
mental awareness raising and education.
Since the war, in Bosnia and Herzegovina
have been ongoing numerous environmental
projects and programmes co-ordinated and
conducted by NGOs.
Te bigest issues for NGO’s activities and fur-
ther development represents a fnancial sup-
port.
Te activity of NGOs is regulated by Law on
societies and unions at state and entity lev-
el, afer whome NGOs have got legal entity
status. Afer REC’s records in 2003, 34% of
NGO’s total product was reached through in-
ternational and bilateral donations. Te sup-
port from local institutions (ministries, local
community and economy) has been increas-
ing slowly. Some of NGOs fnance themselfs
through member fees.
Environmental awareness and approach to information
Te public awareness level regarding envi-
ronmental issues in Bosnia and Herzegovina
is not satisfactory. Reasons for that are: en-
vironmental education, presence of environ-
mental issues in media, information on civil
rights, information on duties of responsible
governmental structures, legal background
for the environment protection.
Te law on free approach to information
in Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted in
2002, yet it is poorly applied in terms of ac-
complishment the right of free approach to
environmental information.
Te media in Bosnia and Herzegovina don’t
show enough interest and education regard-
ing local environmental issues and troubles.
However, there are many topic documenta-
ries (Eco-lexicon, Eco-show, Eco-logic, Eco-
vision, To live with nature, Natural heritage
of Bosnia and Herzegovina) included into lo-
cal, entity and state radio and TV shows.
OCJENA PROCESA UPRAVLJANJA BIOLOŠKOM
RAZNOLIKOŠĆU U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
Opšte karakteristike i ocjena procesa upravljanja biološkom raznolikošću u Bosni i
Hercegovini
lnedovoljna količina podataka o prostornoj i vremenskoj organizaciji ukupne
biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti BiH kao i njihova heterogenost, operativnost i
pouzdanost sa naučnog i stručnog aspekta;
lnizak stepen implementacije postojećih zakonskih propisa i međunarodnih
konvencija iz oblasti upravljanja biološkom raznolikošću (kao i okolišem u cjelini);
lnedostatak mehanizama i metodologija za zaštitu biološke raznolikosti;
lnedostatak infrastrukture i institucionalne podrške (centri, instituti, agencije te
organi državne uprave) za adekvatnu zaštitu i održivo upravljanje biološkom
raznolikošću;
Problemi u upravljanju biološkom raznolikošću Bosne i Hercegovine:
lNefunkcionalan institucionalni okvir efikasne zaštite i upravljanja biološkom
raznolikošću, prirodnim resursima i integralnim prirodnim vrijednostima;
lVisok stupanj razuđenosti postojeće zakonske regulative;
lHorizontalna i vertikalna nepovezanost, nedostatak saradnje i protoka informacija
između društveno-političkih i svih drugih organizacionih sistema Bosne i
Hercegovine;
lNedovoljna implementacija raspoloživog zakonskog okvira;
lNedostatak strategije održivog iskorištavanja prostornih resursa na nacionalnom,
entitetskim i lokalnom nivou;
lNeusklađenost i nepovezanost strateških i pripadajućih razvojnih dokumenata (u
sektoru šumarstva, popljoprivrede, vodoprivrede) sa oblašću upravljanja
biodiverzitetom;
lNedostatak strategije i pripadajućih razvojnih dokumenata u oblasti herbalnog
sektora ( privredno važne vrste biljaka i životinja);
lNepostojanje jasnog zakonskog okvira i mehanizama monitoringa u prometu GMO,
te biotehnološkom i genetičko-inžinjerskom prometu;
lNedostatak finansijskih sredstava i fondova za naučno istraživački i stručni rad u
oblasti biološke raznolikosti;
lNedostatak definiranih društveno ciljnih istraživanja s ciljem rješavanja aktuelnih
problema u oblasti biodiverziteta i implementacije relevantnih međunarodnih
konvencija i direktiva;
lNedovoljni i nearanžirani podaci o biološkoj i pejzažnoj raznolikosti Bosne i
Hercegovine, te njihova dostupnost istraživačima, planerima i javnosti;
lNedovoljni naučni i stručni kapaciteti,
lniska javna svijest o značaju biološke raznolikosti za očuvanje temeljnih vrijednosti
okoliša, posebno s ciljem regulacije klimatskih promjena, te važnosti u sticanju dobiti
i smanjenju opšteg siromaštva;
lNedostatak raspoloživih i funkcionalnih podataka o stanju i potencijalima
bioraznolikosti kao resursa, u Millenium Development Goals kontekstu;
lNeefikasna provedba ciljeva u oblasti biodiverziteta i zaštite prirodnog i kulturnog
nasljeđa identifikovanih kroz Nacionalni akcioni plan za okoliš (NEAP, 2003);
153
S
T
A
T
E

O
F

T
H
E

B
I
O
L
O
G
I
C
A
L

A
N
D

L
A
N
D
S
C
A
P
E

S

D
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y

I
N

B
O
S
N
I
A

A
N
D

H
E
R
Z
E
G
O
V
I
N
A
Characteristics and evaluation of the process of biodiversity management in Bosnia and Her-
zegovina are summarized as follows:
t Unsufcient data on spatial and temporal organisation of entire biological and landscapes
diversity in B&H, including its heterogeneity, operativity and reliability from scientifc and
expert standpoint;
t Low implementation level of current legislative and international conventions considering
biodiversity management (as well as environmental management);
t Lack of mechanisms and methodology for biodiversity protection;
t Lack of infrastructure and institutional support (from diverse centres, institutes, agencies and
state administration) for appropriate protection and sustainable biodiversity management;
t Lack of intersectoral connections in the process of decision making regarding biological
and landscapes diversity.
Problems in the process of biodiversity management in Bosnia and Herzegovina:
t Unefective institutional framework for protection and management of biodiversity, natu-
ral resources and integral natural values;
t Highly stretched current legal rules;
t Lack of horizontal and vertical connectivity, lack of co-operation and information fow
between social, political and the rest of organisation systems in Bosnia and Herzegovina,
of which the most serious consequences come from the level of decision maker;
t Unsufcient implementation of available legal framework;
t Lack of strategy considering use of spatial capacities at national, entity and local level;
t Mismatching and lack of connectivity between strategic, including all associated, docu-
ments (in the sectors of forestry, agriculture and water management) and biodiversity
management;
t Lack of strategy and associated development documents in the feld of herbal sector ( for
economically important plants and animals);
t Lack of clearly defnied legislative framework and mechanisms for GMO’s monitoring and
biotechnological and genetic-engineering trade;
t Lack of fnancial means and funds for science and expert research in the biodiversity
feld;
t Lack of defnied association oriented topic research with intention to solve actuel problems
in the feld of biodiveristy and implementation of relevant international conventions and
directives;
t Unsufcient and unarranged data on biological and landscapes diversity of Bosnia and
Herzegovina, as well as their unavailability to the researchers, planneres and public;
t Unsufcient scientifc and expert capacities;
t Low public awarness on biodiversity signifcance in term of environmental values, espe-
cially when it comes to climate changes regulation and biodiversity importance in achiev-
ing an income and poverty reduction;
t Lack of available and functional data on biodiversity state and its potentials as a resource,
in MEA’s context;
t Inefcient implementation of targets in the feld of biodiversity and protection of natural
and cultural heritage which were identifed through the National Environmental Action
Plan (NEAP, 2003);
t Inadequate understanding of ecological and environmental issues, as well as involvement
EVALUATION OF BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT
IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
lNeadekvatno poimanje ekoloških i okolinskih pitanja, te involviranje nereferentnih
institucija i pojedinaca u upravljanje, rješavanje i istraživanje problema okoliša, a
posebno biodiverziteta BiH;
lNepovezanost i slaba koordinacija između vladinog, nevladinog sektora i
akademske i opće demokratske javnosti u Bosni i Hercegovini;
lMinoran uticaj i angažman resornih ministarstava na svim nivoima organizovanja
i neadekvatno pozicioniranje biološke raznolikosti u sistemu opšteg društveno-
političkog uređenja u BiH.
BIOLOŠKA I PEJZAŽNA RAZNOLIKOST BOSNE I
HERCEGOVINE U DODIRNIM SEKTORIMA
U Bosni i Hercegovini više od polovine
površine zauzimaju šume i šumska
zemljišta, a najveći dio u tome čine niske
šume i šikare (UNECE, 2004). Druga
istaknuta karakteristika su široki prostori
pod nedirnutim šumama sa skoro
potpuno očuvanim prirodnim stanjem,
što predstavlja rijetkost na našem kontin-
entu. Eksploatacija šuma u Bosni i
Hercegovini je generalno niska, ali je
„mjestimično neumjerena“. Sa 8 km
šumskih puteva/1000 ha teritorije, Bosna i
Hercegovina je ispod evropskog prosjeka.
Lovne aktivnosti su regulisane entite-
tskim zakonima, a bazirane na inventu-
rama, koje su načinila lovačka udruženja i
stručnjaci.
Šumarstvo
Prema podacima za 2001. (UNECE, 2004)
12% GDP čini prihod od poljoprivredne
proizvodnj e. Domaći prehrambeni
proizvodi pokrivaju tek 35-40% potreba,
što je mnogo manje u odnosu na predratni
period (60%). Izuzev krompira, Bosna i
Hercegovina ne proizvodi u dovoljnim
količinama niti jedan od važnijih
poljoprivrednih proizvoda. Starosna
struktura zaposlenih u poljoprivredi je
Poljoprivreda
narušena, jer mladi ljudi odlaze u gradove
i inozemstvo, u potrazi za boljim životnim
uslovima. Prema podacima za istu
godinu, 33-50% (RS-FBiH) obradivog
zemljišta je ostalo neiskorišteno. I pored
izvršenog agro-ekološkog zoniranja u
2003. godini, ne postoj i registar
poljoprivrednih preduzeća, a takođe ni
monitoring korištenja zemljišta.
Energetski sektor je u Bosni i Hercegovini
tradicionalno veoma važan segment
privrede (UNECE, 2004). Proizvo