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PROFILE ON PRODUCTION SUGAR FROM BEET
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION & APPLICATION
MARKET STUDY AND PLANT CAPACITY A. MARKET STUDY B. PLANT CAPACITY & PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
142-4 142-4 142-6
RAW MATERIALS AND INPUTS A. RAW & AUXILIARY MATERIALS B. UTILITIES
142-7 142-7 142-8
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING A. TECHNOLOGY B. ENGINEERING
142-9 142-9 142-12
MANPOWER & TRAINING REQUIREMENT A. MANPOWER REQUIREMENT B. TRAINING REQUIREMENT
142-13 142-13 142-15
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS A. TOTAL INITIAL INVESTMENT COST B. PRODUCTION COST C. FINANCIAL EVALUATION D. ECONOMIC BENEFITS
142-15 142-15 142-16 142-17 142-18
This profile envisages the establishment of a plant for the production of suger from beet with a capacity of 8,000 tonnes per annum.
The present demand for the proposed product is estimated at 10,818 tonnes per annum. The demand is expected to reach at 21,280 tonnes by the year 2017.
The plant will create employment opportunities for 337 persons.
The total investment requirement is estimated at about Birr which Birr 90 million is required for plant and machinery.
million, out of
The project is financially viable with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 15 % and a net present value (NPV) of Birr 60.18 million discounted at 8.5%.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION
Sugar, or sucrose, is a carbohydrate that occurs naturally in every fruit and vegetable in the plant kingdom. It is the major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform the sugar energy into food. Sugar occurs in greatest quantities in sugar cane and sugar beets from which it is separated for commercial use.
There is no difference in the sugar produced from either cane or beet. The sugar beet grows best in a temperate climate and stores its sugar in its white root. Sugar from both sources is produced by nature in the same fashion as all green plants produce sugar-as a means of storing the sun's energy.
MARKET STUDY AND PLANT CAPACITY
Past supply and Present Demand
Sugar production is the country is made from sugar cane in all factories namely, Metehara, Wonji-Shoa and Fincha. As a result sugar from sweet potato and beet root to the county is supplied only from import. Import of sugar by type for the past three years is shown below.
Table 3.1 IMPORT OF SUGAR BY TYPE (TON)
Cane or beet Sugar
2004 2005 2006 Total
17,495 31,083 49,002 97,580
36,282 6,525 3,405 46,212
53,777 37,759 52,407 143,943
Source:- Customs Authority.
As could be seen from Table 3.1 the total amount of sugar imported to the country in the past three years was around 144 thousand tons. Of the total amount 97,580 tons or 68% is cane sugar while the remaining 46,363 tons or 32% is registered as cone or beet sugar. The annual average of cane or beet sugar is about 15,454 tons. Assuming 70% of the imported sugar under the title cane or beet sugar belongs to pure beet sugar the quantity amounts to 10,818 tons. This amount is assumed to reflect the current unsatisfied
effective demand for beet sugar in the country.
142-5 2. Demand Projection
The main factors that influence the demand for sugar are population, income, consumption habit and the growth of the service and the manufacturing sector mainly catering institutions like hotels, restaurants and bars as well as the food and beverage industries. Urban population growth rate in Ethiopia is 4% per annum. A substantial amount of the rural population is also expected to consume sugar as a result of higher income and change in the consumption habit. The agricultural sector has been growing more than 10% in the past recent years and will have a positive impact on income and increased purchasing power of the rural population. The industrial sector has been also growing by about 7%. The combined effect of the above factors is assumed to increase demand for beet sugar by about 7% per annum. The demand projected on the basis of the above argument is shown in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 PROJECTED DEMAND FOR BEET SUGAR (TON)
Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Quantity 11,575 12,385 13,252 14,180 15,173 16,234 17,371 18,587 19,888 21,280
Demand for beet sugar will increase from 11,575 tons in the year 2008 to 15,173 tons and 21,280 tons by the year 2012 and 2017 respectively
142-6 3. Pricing and Distribution
Based on the average producers price Birr 4700 per ton is taken for sales revenue projection.
The product can be distributed by selecting competent distributors in various parts of the country.
PLANT CAPACITY AND PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
The market study reveals that there is high demand for sugar both in local and international market. So, the factors for determining capacity are availability of raw
material and minimum economies of scale for the sugar plant.
The minimum economic of scale for plantation white sugar production from sugar beet is 8,000 tones per annum.
The sugar plant will be set into operation for 270 days per year, working in three shifts (8 hours each) per day. Production will start at 75% of full capacity during the first year and then rise to 85% and full capacity (100%) in the second and third year of operation, respectively.
142-7 IV. MATERIALS AND INPUTS
RAW AND AUXILIARY MATERIALS
The main raw material is sugar beet, which is a temperate climate biennial root crop. It produces sugar during the first year of growth in order to see it over the winter and then flowers and seeds in the second year. It is therefore sown in spring and harvested in the first autumn/early winter. As for sugar cane, there are many cultivars available to the beet farmer. The beet stores the sucrose in the bulbous root, which bears a strong resemblance to a fat parsnip.
SNNPRS is believed to have suitable soil and weather conditions for growing sugar beet. Establishment of sugar industry needs to be integrated with the development of sugar beet farming. In this profile it is assumed that out-growers handle sugar beet supply.
Table 4.1 indicates the annual raw material requirement at full capacity operation of the plant and the cost estimates.
Table 4.1 ANNUAL RAW MATERIALS REQUIREMENT AT FULL CAPACITY PRODUCTION
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 Sugar beet Industrial & laboratory Chemicals Materials and Supplies Packing Materials (pp bags 50 kg) TOTAL Description Qty. 20,000 MT 65,000 FC 300
Cost ('000 Birr) LC 9,000 100 250 144.95 9,495 TC 9,000 400 1500 145 11,045
142-8 B. UTILITIES
Electrical Power: One of the big differences between a beet sugar factory and its cane sugar counterpart is with respect to energy. Both factories need steam and electricity to run and both have co-generation stations where high pressure steam is used to drive turbines which produce the electrical power and create the low pressure steam needed by the process. However the beet factory does not have a suitable by-product to use as fuel for the boilers, it has to burn a fossil fuel such as coal, oil or gas. This is partly because the pulp will not burn properly and partly because the animal feed business has been built from the availability of the pulp.
The annual expenditure on utilities is estimated at Birr 16,048,310.The total amount of utilities required and their cost is shown in Table 4.2
Table 4.2 ANNUAL REQUIREMENTS OF UTILITIES
Item No. Utilities UOM
Estimated Cost (Birr ‘OOO) F.C L.C T.C
1 2 4
Electricity Water Furnace oil Grand Total
Kwh M3 M3
350,000 300,000 2000
0.4736 2 5.41
165.76 165.76 600 10.82 600 10.82
142-9 V. TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING
White beet sugar is made from the beets in a single process, rather than the two steps involved with cane sugar.
A typical sugar content for mature beets is 17% by weight but the value depends on the variety and it does vary from year to year and location to location.
The main process description of the envisaged plant is as follows:
Harvesting The beets are harvested in the autumn and early winter by digging them out of the ground. They are usually transported to the factory by large trucks because the transport distances involved are greater than in the cane industry. This is a direct result of sugar beet being a rotational crop which requires nearly 4 times the land area of the equivalent cane crop which is grown in mono-culture. Because the beets have come from the ground they are much dirtier than sugar cane and have to be thoroughly washed and separated from any remaining beet leaves, stones and other trash material before processing.
Extraction The processing starts by slicing the beets into thin chips. This process increases the surface area of the beet to make it easier to extract the sugar. The extraction takes place in a diffuser where the beet is kept in contact with hot water for about an hour. Diffusion is the process by which the colour and flavour of tea comes out of the tea leaves in a teapot but a typical diffuser weighs several hundred tons when full of beet and extraction water. The diffuser is a large horizontal or vertical agitated tank in which the beets slices slowly work their way from one end to the other and the water is moved in the opposite
142-10 direction. This is called counter-current flow and as the water goes it becomes a stronger and stronger sugar solution usually called juice. Of course it also collects a lot of other chemicals from the flesh of the sugar beet.
Pressing The exhausted beet slices from the diffuser are still very wet and the water in them still holds some useful sugar. They are therefore pressed in screw presses to squeeze as much juice as possible out of them. This juice is used as part of the water in the diffuser and the pressed beet, by now a pulp, is sent to drying plant where it is turned into pellets which form an important constituent of some animal feeds.
Carbonatation The juice must now be cleaned up before it can be used for sugar production. This is done by a process known as carbonatation where small clumps of chalk are grown in the juice. The clumps, as they form, collect a lot of the non-sugars so that by filtering out the chalk one also takes out the non-sugars. Once this is done the sugar liquor is ready for sugar production except that it is very dilute.
The next stage of the process is therefore to evaporate the juice in a multi-stage evaporator. This technique is used because it is an efficient way of using steam and it also creates another, lower grade steam which can be used to drive the crystallization process.
Boiling For this last stage, the syrup is placed into a very large pan, typically holding 60 tons or more of sugar syrup. In the pan even more water is boiled off until conditions are right for sugar crystals to grow. In the factory the workers usually have to add some sugar dust to initiate crystal formation. Once the crystals have grown the resulting mixture of crystals and mother liquor is spun in centrifuges to separate the two, rather like washing is spin-dried. The crystals are then given a final dry with hot air before being packed and/or stored ready for dispatch.
142-11 Product The final sugar is white and ready for use, whether in the kitchen or by an industrial user such as a soft drink manufacturer. As for raw sugar production, because one cannot get all the sugar out of the juice, there is a sweet by-product made: beet molasses. This is usually turned into a cattle food or is sent to a fermentation plant such as a distillery where alcohol is made. It does not have the same quality smell and taste as cane molasses so cannot be used for rum production.
Effluent treatment The Effluent (waste water) from sugar factory contains organic materials, which will have to be contained and treated prior to disposal to the environment. The objective of treatment of such effluent is to reduce the biological and chemical oxygen demands to allowable levels. This can be achieved by carrying out primary clarification, aeration, fuel clarification and sludge drying. The sludge so obtained can be used as organic fertilizer.
Source of Technology
The address of machinery supplier is given below:-
National Heavy Engineering Pvt . ltd Pune Bombay Road
Phone 91-2114-222261 Fax: 91-2114-222762 E-mail: Sales firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
142-12 B. 1. ENGINEERING Machinery And Equipment
Machinery and equipment required for the production of sugar are presented in Table 5.1. The total cost of plant machinery and equipment is estimated at about Birr 90 million, out of which Birr 80 million is required in foreign currency. Due to the nature of the technology the machinery and equipment are supplied as a package and turnkey project. Table 5.1 LIST OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Plant/Station Description Beet weighment Beet unloading Beet preparation (Sets of sharp knives) Juice extraction plant (Diffuser and screw press) Pressed beet dryer Juice treatment section Clarification and filtration Multi stage evaporators Vacuum Pans Centrifugal machines Sugar handling and bagging Vapor Condensing plant Steam Generation and distribution plant Power Generation and distribution plant Power evacuation system Bagasse handling system Automation Fabrication workshop Laboratory Plant water system Fire fighting system Piping, insulation and cladding, Chutes, gutters and structures Sugar Store Beet Molasses Store Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning Auxiliary Equipment and Various tanks Effluent treatment plant
Land, Building and Civil Works
The total land requirement is 50,000 square meters. This includes space required by plant, administration building, auxiliary facilities, etc, and open space for waste treatment plant, open storage for can sugar, molasses storage area, and other utilities. The space requirement by the plant is estimated at 24,000 square meters the cost of land at a lease rate of Birr 1 per m2 for 95 years is about Birr 50,000. The total cost estimate of building and civil works at unit cost of Birr 2800 per m2 is about Birr 84.0 million. Therefore, the total cost estimate of land, building and civil works is about Birr 84,050,000.
According to the resource potential study of the region, the raw material is identified in Woredas like Ofa and Essera. Based on the availability of raw material infrastructure, utility and market out let Gessuba town of Ofa woreda is selected and recommended to be the location of the envisaged plant.
MANPOWER AND TRAINING REQUIREMENT
The envisaged sugar plant requires production manpower specialized in the areas of chemical (process) engineering, mechanical and electrical engineering, chemists, production operators, mechanics and electricians. The details of manpower required for accomplishing plant production and administrative functions are presented in Table 6.1.
142-14 Table 6.1 MANPOWER REQUIREMENT AND ANNUAL LABOUR COST Sr. Monthly No. Description Qty. Salary (Birr) 1 Plant Manager 1 4,500 2 Executive Secretary 1 1,200 3600 3 Legal service head 1 3600 4 Planning and programming service hear 1 5 Quality Control Service Head 1 3,600 6 Audit service head 1 3600 7 Telephone operator 1 850 8 Administration Department 1 3,500 9 Finance Department 1 3,500 10 Technical Department 1 3900 11 Production Department 1 3900 12 Workshop head 1 3900 13 Secretary 4 3,200 14 Chemical Engineer 3 6,000 15 Mechanical Engineer 3 6,000 16 Electrical Engineer 2 6,000 17 Chemists 3 5700 18 Administrative Personnel 1 1800 19 Sales Head 1 1500 20 Purchase Head 1 1500 21 Market Research and Promotion Division Head 1 2500 22 Medical director 1 2800 23 Nurse 3 4500 24 Pharmacy keeper 2 1900 25 Cleaners 6 1800 26 Clerks 5 4500 27 Production Operators 30 30,000 28 Technologist 2 2000 29 Lab Technician 10 9000 30 Mechanics fitters 10 8500 31 Welders 9 8100 32 Helper to welder 9 4950 33 Grease man 4 2400 34 Power plant operators 27 6300 35 Semi-Skilled Laborers 70 35000 36 Unskilled Laborers 90 27000 37 Messengers 4 1200 38 Drivers 4 2000 39 Guards 20 7000 Sub Total BENEFITS (25% OF SUB-TOTAL BENEFITS (25% OF SUB-TOTAL) TOTAL 337 0
Annual Salary (Birr) 54000 14400 43200 43200 43200 43200 10200 42000 42000 46800 46800 46800 38400 7200 7200 7200 68400 21600 18000 18000 30000 33600 54000 22800 21600 54000 360000 24000 108000 102000 97200 59400 28800 75600 420000 324000 14400 24000 84000 2,599,200 519840 3,119,040
142-15 B. TRAINING REQUIREMENT
Trainings is required for production operators, engineers, chemists and technicians. Three months training needs to be planned and executed overseas in the country of technology supplier. The total cost of training is estimated at about Birr 500,000 out of which Birr 500,000 is required in foreign currency.
The financial analysis of the
project is based on the data presented in the
previous chapters and the following assumptions:-
Construction period Source of finance
1 year 30 % equity 70 % loan
Tax holidays Bank interest Discount cash flow Accounts receivable Raw material local Work in progress Finished products Cash in hand Accounts payable
years 8% 8.5% 30 days 30 days 2 days 30 days 5 days 30 days
TOTAL INITIAL INVESTMENT COST
The total investment cost of the project including working capital is estimated at Birr 187.99 million, of which 57 per cent will be required in foreign currency.
The major breakdown of the total initial investment cost is shown in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1 INITIAL INVESTMENT COST
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cost Items Land lease value Building and Civil Work Plant Machinery and Equipment Office Furniture and Equipment Vehicle Pre-production Expenditure* Working Capital Total Investment cost Foreign Share
Total Cost (‘000 Birr) 50.0 84,000.0 90,000.0 200.0 500.0 11,139.8 2,109.5 187,999.3 57
* N.B Pre-production expenditure includes interest during construction ( Birr 10.63 million ) training (Birr 400 thousand ) and Birr 100 thousand costs of registration, licensing and formation of the company including legal fees, commissioning expenses, etc.
The annual production cost at full operation capacity is estimated at Birr 32.57 million (see Table 7.2). The material and utility cost accounts for 36.29 per cent, while repair and maintenance take 1.54 per cent of the production cost.
Table 7.2 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COST AT FULL CAPACITY ('000 BIRR)
Items Raw Material and Inputs Utilities Maintenance and repair Labour direct Factory overheads Administration Costs Total Operating Costs Depreciation Cost of Finance Total Production Cost
Cost 11,045.00 776.58 500 1271.42 523.81 1047.62 15,164.43 8920 8488.33 32,572.76
% 33.91 2.38 1.54 3.90 1.61 3.22 46.56 27.38 26.06 100
According to the projected income statement, the project will start generating profit in the first year of operation. Important ratios such as profit to total sales, net profit to equity
(Return on equity) and net profit plus interest on total investment (return on total investment) show an increasing trend during the life-time of the project.
The income statement and the other indicators of profitability show that the project is viable.
The break-even point of the project including cost of finance when it starts to operate at full capacity ( year 3) is estimated by using income statement projection.
Fixed Cost Sales – Variable Cost
Pay Back Period
The investment cost and income statement projection are used to project the pay-back period. The project’s initial investment will be fully recovered within 6 years.
Internal Rate of Return and Net Present Value
Based on the cash flow statement, the calculated IRR of the project is 15 % and the net present value at 8.5% discount rate is Birr 60.18 million.
The project can create employment for 337 persons.
In addition to supply of the
domestic needs, the project will generate Birr 45.80 million in terms of tax revenue.