TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method

COVER SHEET

Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method

Prepared By
Santanu Gain (103566) Saswata Mandal (103487)

Assisted By Arun Kumar Maiti (102608)

Guided By Sugata Bandyopadhyay (102611) Amitava Sengupta (104138)

Date: 18-01-2011 TCE Office Code: DK

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method
SECTION TITLE 1.0 2.0 3.0 Preface Objective 1.0 Explosive Atmosphere
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NUMBER OF PAGES 2 2 3 3 4 5 5

4.0 2.0 Ignition Triangle 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0

3.0 Explosive Mixture Characteristics 4.0 Ignition Temperature
5.0 Flash-point Temperature 1.0 Electrical Safety Standards, Certifying Agencies Organizations, Testing and

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9.0 10.0 1.0 2.0 10.1 3.0 4.0 10.2 5.0 6.0 1.03 7.0 11.0

Hazardous Locations Classification The Classification of Hazardous Locations as per US / Canadian Standard: (NEC) Area Classification Material Classification Temperature Classification The Classification of Hazardous Locations as per European Standard: (IEC) Area Classification Material Classification Temperature Classification ATEX Summary Equipment Labelling Method Difference between NEC and IEC Practices Key Installation Points Conclusion References

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11.1 11.2 11.3 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0

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TCE FORM 329 R4

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED

it also require interfacing signals coming from hazardous location to be unable to create the necessary conditions to ignite and propagate an explosion. This risk of explosions or fire has been the limiting factor when using electrical instrumentation because energy levels were such that the energy limitation to the hazardous location was difficult. safe area is a location where an ignitable concentration of any combustible material doesn„t exist under any condition. An area which contains explosive concentration of combustible materials. design. carbon dust. To protect both plant and personnel precaution must be taken to ensure that this explosive atmosphere can not be ignited. vapours. 3.0 OBJECTIVE The purpose of this document is to explain the concepts of area classification. are handled/ processed. integrated circuits). located in a hazardous location. those parts of the process that were considered risky were controlled with pneumatic instrumentation. dusts.0 PREFACE After World War II. 2. gases. subsequently. fibres etc.0 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE In some process industries. to obtain. In such plants combustible gases. O2) in correct proportion. natural gas. and installation of electrical equipments in hazardous location. This combustible material. refining. produces an explosive medium and hence poses an explosion hazard. and transformation of the chemical substances needed for technological and industrial development. if not impossible. where there exists the risk of explosion or fire that can be caused by an electrical spark or hot surface.e. Thus. On other hand. In order to ascertain whether an electrical SHEET : 2 OF 19 TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . metal dust. flammable materials such as crude oil and its derivatives. vapours. dusts may be released into atmosphere either during normal operation of the process or owing to any leakage. The introduction of semiconductor devices (transistors first and. fibres etc either during normal operation of the process or owing to any leakage faults is called “hazardous area”. spillage or fault. called intrinsic safety. national and International standards related to hazardous location and its application to anyone who faces the problems relative to selection. requires specifically defined instrumentation. Temperature classification. synthetic. the increased use of oil and its derivatives brought the construction of a great number of plants for extraction. This is often referred to as “explosive atmosphere”. For this reason. gases. material classification. The treatment of dangerous substances. easier to apply when using electronic instrumentation in hazardous locations.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method 1. alcohols and other hydrocarbons. when mixed with the air (i. along with the capability to reduce the working voltages and energy levels. made the energy – limitation protection technique. a more economical and more efficient solution to the problem was created.

 Ignition Energy: electrical or thermal. This is referred to as “Material Classification”. Figure-1. or combustible dust or fibres in an ignitable concentration  Oxidizer : generally air or oxygen. An electrical apparatus installed in a hazardous area must be so designed that its maximum surface temperature never exceeds the ignition temperature of the combustible mixture present in the hazardous area. By eliminating those conditions an explosion is impossible.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method SHEET : 3 OF 19 apparatus is suitable for installation in a hazardous location (i. Material classification involves the grouping of gases and dusts based on their ignition energy requirements.1 : Ignition Triangle TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . These three ingredients necessary for an explosion to occur in the correct proportion. These three components are identified in the ignition triangle displayed in Figure 1.1.0 IGNITION TRIANGLE From a chemical point of view. (iii) An explosive mixture can be ignited by contact with hot surface. it is essential that the following three components be present simultaneously in suitable proportions. and explosion are all exothermic reactions with different reaction speeds. liquids or gases. oxidation. (i) Degree of hazard associated with a location. combustion. Area classification indicates the probability of a mixture of a combustible gas/ vapour/ dust and air being present in a particular area. (ii) The nature of the combustible material present in the hazardous area and its ignition energy requirements. Hence all electrical apparatus used in a hazardous area should be classified according to their maximum surface temperature.e. This is referred to as area classification.  Fuel: flammable vapours. For such reactions to take place. 4. it does not act as a source of ignition) the following aspects have to be considered. This is referred to as “Temperature Classification”.

The characteristic curves of hydrogen and propane are illustrated in figure-1. flame wave. All protection methods used today are based on eliminating one or more of the triangle components in order to reduce the risk of explosion to an acceptable level. depending on how the exothermic energy is released.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method SHEET : 4 OF 19 Once that reaction is ignited. arc. 5. liquids or gases. it is generally acceptable that two or more independent faults must occur.0 EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE CHARACTERISTICS The risk of an ignition of an air/gas mixture depends on the probability of the simultaneous presence of the following two conditions: 1. Figure-1.2: Ignition energy in relation to hydrogen and propane air/gas concentration TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . In a properly designed safety system.2. before a potential explosion can occur. Presence of an energy source – electrical spark. or explosion. 2. or combustible dusts or fibres with atmosphere or accumulation of explosive or flammable material. or surface temperature – that is capable of igniting the explosive atmosphere present. the results can be a controlled combustion. Formation of flammable or explosive vapours. each one of low probability. It is possible to draw an ignition characteristic for each type of fuel.

With this technique. LEL . This parameter is important because it establishes the maximum surface temperature allowed for devices located in a hazardous location. and a concentration value is identified above which ignition cannot occur due to the low quantity of an oxidizer. This value is called the lower explosive limit (LEL). the mixture is most easily ignited. the minimum quantity of gas needed to create an explosive mixture. For example. even under fault conditions. the following table lists the explosive characteristics of hydrogen and propane. and it is defined as the lowest temperature at which the liquid releases sufficient vapors that can be ignited by an energy source. Since a liquid above its flash point constitutes a source of danger.A minimum ignition energy (MIE) exists for every fuel that represents the ideal ratio of fuel to air.0 FLASH-POINT TEMPERATURE The flash-point temperature is a characteristic of a volatile liquid. this parameter must be considered when classifying locations. is limited to a value lower than the MIE.For a concentration lower than the one corresponding to the MIE. 7. This data is important when classifying hazardous locations.1 LEL 4% 2% UEL 75% 9. under both normal and fault conditions.5% SHEET : 5 OF 19 Hydrogen Propane For a practical point of view. the quantity of energy required to ignite the mixture increases until a concentration value is reached below which the mixture cannot be ignited due to the lower quantity of fuel. This value is called the upper explosive limit (UEL). TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . percentage-wise. Below the MIE. the energy released by an electrical circuit. LEL is more important and significant than UEL because it establishes. This must always be lower than the ignition temperature of the gas present. when increasing the concentration the energy requirement increases. LEL & UEL MIE . MIE 20 micro-Joules 180 micro-Joules Table 1. ignition is impossible for any concentration.0 IGNITION TEMPERATURE The minimum ignition temperature of an air/gas mixture is the temperature at which the explosive atmosphere ignites without electrical energy being supplied. 6. The MIE (minimum energy required to ignite an air/gas mixture in the most favourable concentration) is the factor upon which the intrinsic safety technique is based.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method CONCEPT OF MIE. At this ratio.In the same way. UEL.

NFPA. The Canadian Standard Association (CSA) is also recognized by OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) as a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory. NEMA. including BASEEFA. the increased use of electrical instrumentation in chemical plants and Refineries throughout North America & Europe has brought about an increase in the magnitude of safety problems and the need for safety standards relating to the requirements of equipments in hazardous locations. rules and regulations were created by individuals (designers. a movement began toward the standardization of safety requirements. SHEET : 6 OF 19 TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . there were no industry-accepted safety standards.) trying to be safe. the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) is similar to the National Electrical Code and is the standard for electrical equipment installations. TESTING AND CERTIFYING AGENCIES Over the past several decades. The importance of this section is based on the fact that it included the so called zone method for classifying hazardous locations. CSA. perform different function in ensuring the safety of industrial plants and refineries. CENELEC. UNITED STATES PRACTICE NEC (National Electrical Code) Electrical installation practices in the United States are based on the National Electrical Code (NEC). They formulate their own standards which covers a wide variety of subjects including the topic of explosion prevention in hazardous locations. Up until that time.0 ELECTRICAL SAFETY STANDARDS. IEC. During the 1950s. government agencies etc. The International Society of Automation (ISA) has been very active in the development of hazardous location standards including safety.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method 8. engineers. PTB. The 1993 edition of the NEC recognized the importance of the use of intrinsic safety as a protection method by the significant expansion of Article 504. and UL. FM (Factory Mutual) and UL (Underwriters Laboratories) Both of them are famous organization and they are the two major standardization and approval authorities in the USA. A further expansion of the NEC occurred in 1991 when Article 505 was added.e. CANADIAN PRACTICE In Canada. ISA. ORGANIZATIONS. FM. However. they test equipment submitted by manufacturers to determine whether they meet the requirements laid down in the standard and if approved. They also acts as a testing and certification authority i. NEC. The NFPA has given the authority for maintaining and revising the NEC to the National Electrical Committee. Many organizations. with the increase in demand for more and more complex electronic equipment for use in hazardous locations. they issue certificate of conformity to the relevant FM/UL Standard. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has acted as a sponsor of the NEC since 1911. intrinsically safe systems.

the form translates to “European Committee for Electro technical Standardization”) Most European countries are members of CENELEC and the CENELEC standards are given the status of national standard by its member countries. Country USA Canada Germany France UK Table 1. the CENELEC Standards would be accepted as British Standard). 5. BASEEFA (British approval service for Electrical Equipment in flammable areas). ATEX The two European Community (EC) regulations that fundamentally changed the hazardous location landscape in Europe are Directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95) and Directive 1999/92/EC (ATEX 137). and also gives guidance on safe installation procedures. It has developed standards that relate to the various aspects of the subject of explosion prevention in hazardous locations. 1. in UK which is a member of CENELEC. Canada.This is an agency which develops the British Standards that related to explosion prevention in hazardous locations and is the British national testing. (For example.2 Finally it is to be noted that countries which do not have their own national standards and a national testing and certifying agency. Most other countries in Europe as well as many other countries such as the USA. approval and certifying authority for electrical equipment used in hazardous locations. accept the IEC or the American standards and accept equipments/ systems certified by European / American approval agencies. some of which have been listed below: Serial No. CENELEC (In English. 3. Japan. 4. Agency FM & UL CSA PTB LCIE BASEEFA SHEET : 7 OF 19 TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . This standards provides guidelines as to how equipments are to be designed so that they are safe for installation in hazardous areas. ATEX 95 is focused mainly at manufacturers of electrical equipment for hazardous areas while ATEX 137 is centred primarily on operators of systems within hazardous locations.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method EUROPEAN PRACTICE IEC (International Electro technical Commission) It is an international organisation responsible for electro technical standardization. Australia etc have similar agencies in their countries. 2.

a combustible or conductive dust or an ignitable fibre or flying. dyes. such as the nature and quantity of the gas. The area surrounding the location identified as hazardous is extended to a distance where the flammable substance becomes so diluted with air that ignition is no longer possible. Divisions define the probability of the presence of the hazard being present during normal or abnormal conditions. flour.0 THE CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS AS PER US / CANADIAN STANDARD: (NEC) In the United States.g.1. Similar to the United States.. In Canada. Depending on the type of leakage – continuous or intermittent (if intermittent. such as process or chemical engineers. coal. aluminium. in what condition and for how long. 10. The possibility of presence of the hazardous atmosphere. Dust or aerosol (Mist). feed). NFPA 70. pesticides. The most common dangerous areas are located where the possibility of a leakage of flammable gas is present. Part I of the Canadian Electrical Code applies. pharmaceuticals. A combustible dust explosion hazard can exist in a variety of industries. wood. or due to the deterioration of the components operating in the process. Flammable atmospheres are generally mixtures of air with flammable gas. Classes define the type of hazard in terms of whether it is a gas or vapour. and zinc). This distance is related to a number of factors.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method 9. Groups classify the exact type and nature of the hazardous substance. C22. magnesium. including food (e. hazardous areas are defined by divisions. This Area classification also provides SHEET : 8 OF 19 TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . textiles. Although many areas are classified as hazardous due to the presence of gas. classes. and groups to classify the level of safety required for equipment installed in these locations. and fossil fuel power generation. etc.1 AREA CLASSIFICATION FOR NEC Hazardous Area Classification identifies those areas in the premises where flammable atmospheres can be found. iron. must be established. rubber. the classification of hazardous locations is based on the National Electrical Code.g. degree of ventilation. chromium. metals (e. The leakage can occur during a normal or fault condition. 10. combustible dust hazards are equally important due to the potential for explosion. Vapour. starch. Articles 500 through 505. furniture.0 HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS CLASSIFICATION The identification of hazardous (classified) locations in a plant is normally carried out by experts or highly qualified personnel. In North American installations. Plastics. candy. with what frequency) – the classification of the hazardous location is determined.

2 MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION FOR NEC A hazardous area may contain flammable gases or vapour. Hazardous due to the presence of flammable substances such as dusts or powders. combustible dusts or ignitable fibres or flying (material classification involves the grouping of combustible materials on the basic of their ignition energy requirement. the divisions are as follows: Danger can be present during normal functioning. Atmosphere such as ethyl ether. is normally vented or is in an area adjacent to a Division 1 location Table 1. ethanol. or gases or vapours of equivalent hazard. depending on the type of flammable gases or vapours present: Group A Group B Atmospheres containing acetylene Atmospheres containing hydrogen. methane. or gases or vapours of equivalent hazard. propelling oxide and. Table 1.5 Group C Group D TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . In general.4 Class I (Gas or Vapours) Class I hazardous locations are subdivided into the following four groups. hexane. ethylene oxide. Hazardous due to the presence of flammable substances in a fibre or flying state. ethylene. butane. Combustible material is present but confined to a closed container or system. methanol. ammonia. propane. gasoline. cyclopropane. naphtha. during repair or maintenance. Atmospheres such as acetone. or where a fault may cause the simultaneous failure of electrical equipment. fuel and combustible process gases containing more than 30 percent by volume.3 Division 1 Division 2 10. benzene. hazardous locations are categorized into the following three classes. The hazardous area is divided according to the level of risk present. acrolein. natural gas. or gases or vapours of equivalent hazard such as butadiene. Table 1. depending on the type of flammable substances present: Class I Class II Class III Hazardous due to the presence of flammable substances such as gases or vapours.) In both countries (United States and Canada).TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method SHEET : 9 OF 19 an estimate as to how often these flammable atmospheres may be found depending on the type of leakage – continuous or intermittent (if intermittent with what frequency).

manufactured. 10. The maximum surface temperature must be lower than the minimum ignition temperature of the gas present. including carbon black. etc. hemp. and chemicals.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method Class II (Combustible Dusts or Powders) Class II hazardous locations are subdivided into the following three groups. Table 1. excelsior. clothing manufacturing plants. sisal. Easily ignitable fibres and flying include rayon. plastic. Atmospheres containing combustible carbonaceous dusts. TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . including flour. kapok. either during normal functioning or under a fault condition. cocoa fibre. Spanish moss. Division 1 locations are those in which easily ignitable fibres materials producing combustible flyings are handled. or used. coke dust that have more than 8 percent total entrapped volatiles. grain wood. charcoal. abrasiveness and conductivity present similar in the use of electrical equipment. but in which such fibres or flyings are not likely to be in suspension in the air in quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixtures. or other combustible dusts whose particle size. including aluminium. Class III.3 SURFACE TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION FOR NEC An apparatus directly located in a hazardous location must also be classified for the maximum surface temperature that can be generated by the instrument.6 SHEET : 10 OF 19 Group E Group F Group G Class III (Easily Ignitable Fibres or Flyings) Class III hazardous locations are those that are hazardous because of the presence of easily ignitable fibres or flyings. Class III. cotton gins. etc. magnesium and their commercial alloys. depending on the type of combustible dusts or powders present: Atmospheres containing combustible metal dusts. Class III locations are not further subdivided. or dusts that have been sensitized by other materials so that they present an explosion hazard. flaxprocessing plants. cotton. Locations belonging in this class usually include parts of textile mills. Atmospheres containing combustible carbonaceous dusts not included in Group E or Group F. Division 2 locations are those in which easily ignitable fibres are stored or handled. woodworking plants.

The difference between the ambient temperature at which the test was conducted and 40°C shall then be added to the temperature measured. For example. Maximum surface temperature. For example. must not have a temperature rise greater than the safety margin specified by the applicable standards. calculated or measured under the worst conditions. Tests to be based on an ambient temperature within the range of 20-40°C. while acetaldehyde has ignition energy greater than 180 µJ and an ignition temperature of 140°C.T1 through T6. as shown in the following table. even under the worst conditions of the expected temperature range. for any specific mixture. It is important to note that there is no correlation. Maximum Temperature Degree C 450 300 280 260 230 215 200 180 165 160 135 120 100 85 North American Temperature Classification T1 T2 T2 A T2 B T2 C T2 D T3 T3 A T3 B T3 C T4 T4 A T5 T6 Table 1. Classes T2. For example. hydrogen has minimum ignition energy of 20 µJ and an ignition temperature of 560°C. An apparatus classified for a specific temperature class can be used in the presence of all gases with an ignition temperature higher than the temperature class of the specific instrument. an electrical apparatus designed to work with a maximum temperature of 70°C. an apparatus classified as T5 can be used with the all gases having an ignition temperature greater than 100°C.7 Surface temperature classifications in North America Each gas is associated with a temperature class based on its ignition temperature. temperature classifications are divided into six classes. between ignition energy and ignition temperature. is not to be confused with the maximum working temperature of the apparatus. all temperature data shall be referred to a base ambient temperature of 40°C. According to FM 3610 and UL 913. T3 and T4 are further subdivided. TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 .TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method SHEET : 11 OF 19 In the United States and Canada.

over long periods of time or frequently An area in which a combustible dust cloud in air is likely to occur in normal operation An area in which a combustible dust cloud in air may occur briefly or during abnormal operation Table 1. In Europe as well as major portion of the rest of the world.0 THE CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS AS PER EUROPEAN STANDARD: (IEC) 11. 1 or 2. only for short periods of time Table 1. Zone 21 and Zone 22 Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 An area in which a combustible dust cloud is part of the air permanently. if it does. Finally it is to be noted that the IEC/ NEC definitions merely provide guidelines for classifying a specific hazardous location but do not specify any concise rules or a quantitative method for deciding whether a location is Zone 0. we follow both. if the combustible material is in the form of a dust. European countries follow the CENELEC standards wherein hazardous areas containing dusts are classified into Zone 20. possibly with a greater tilt towards the IEC standards. the tendency is to follow the recommendation of IEC 60079-10. USA and Canada follow a different standard for area classification as define by NEC (National Electrical Code) in the USA.9 Any other plant location that is not classified as a hazardous location is to be considered a nonhazardous location. In such cases. Interpretation of area classification varies and trying to categorize a specific location into one of the three Zones (or two Divisions) is a difficult job and a wide variety of factors needs to be considered such as: TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 .1 AREA CLASSIFICATION FOR IEC Area classification involves the subdivision of hazardous areas on the basis of the probability of flammable mixture being present and the length of time for which it is likely to exist. no IEC standard exists for area classification.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method SHEET : 12 OF 19 11. based on which any place where the probability of the presence of a flammable gas exists must be classified according to the subdivision in one of the following zones: Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 An area in which an explosive air/gas mixture is continuously present for long periods An area in which an explosive air/gas mixture is likely to occur in normal operation An area in which an explosive air/gas mixture is unlikely to occur. In India.8 However. the present practises is to categorize hazardous areas according to the relevant IEC standard (IEC-International Electrical Commission). but. In Europe. However.

These subdivisions are based on the maximum experimental safe gap (MESG) for an explosion proof enclosure or the minimum ignition current (MIC) for intrinsically safe electrical apparatus. then any combustible gas/ vapour released tends to be flushed out (swept away) by air resulting in relatively lower degree of hazard. Propane. assuming a reference ambient temperature of 40°C. 11. Hence all electrical apparatus installed in the hazardous area must be classified according to its maximum surface temperature classification indicates the maximum surface temperature of an electrical apparatus (both under normal operating condition as well as fault conditions).2 MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION FOR IEC European standard EN60079-0:2006 requires that apparatus be subdivided into two groups: Group I Apparatus to be used in mines where the danger is represented by methane gas and coal dust Apparatus to be used in surface industries where the danger is represented by gas and vapor that has been subdivided into three groups: A.10 The groups indicate the types of danger for which the apparatus has been designed. Carbon di Sulphide Ethylene Acetylene. European standard EN60079-0:2006 requires that the maximum surface temperature be subdivided into six classes from T1 to T6. The apparatus in Group II can be used in an area where gases or vapours are present (Class I hazardous location).TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method SHEET : 13 OF 19 i) The probability of the presence of a combustible material in the atmosphere ii) The quantity of combustible material present iii) The degree of ventilation iv) The nature of the combustible gas (whether heavier or lighter than air) v) The topography of the site (for example – if in a particular location the wind velocity is larger. Hydrogen Table 1. 11.B and C. Since Group I is intended for mines.3 SURFACE TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION FOR IEC An explosive mixture may be ignited by contact with hot surfaces (whose temperature is greater than or equal to the ignition temperature of the mixture). Group II Group II A Group II B Group II C TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 .

greater is the temperature rise of the device. a temperature rise of 45°C= (85°C .e. Hence it is important to specify the ambient temperature.e. Large the amount of power dissipated.e.11 Better Apparatus Surface temperature classification in Europe Note that the maximum temperature of an electrical apparatus produced as a consequence of power dissipation within the device. The CE conformity mark on the product is an indication that all relevant directives (i. Thus if an apparatus has a temperature classification of T6 (i. Hence a device which has a temperature classification of T6 (40°C ambient) would have a temperature classification T5 and T6 at ambient temperature of 55°C and 80°C. For hazardous area products. ATEX.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method SHEET : 14 OF 19 Maximum Surface Temperature (Deg C) 450 300 200 135 100 85 European Temperature Classification (IEC) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Table 1. The intent of the marking requirements is based on uniformity.40°C) over ambient). the surface temperature produce depends on the ambient temperature. When electrical power is dissipated within an apparatus heat is generated which caused the temperature of the device to rise relative to its surrounding [Heat generated (owing to power dissipated in the device) = Mass X Specific heat X (Tdevice – Tambient)].. depends on the ambient temperature. a new marking program took affect on all products for use within the EC. while indicating the temperature classification of an electrical apparatus. For higher ambient temperature (>40°C) the temperature classification given above should be regarded as a “temperature rise” assessment. Low Voltage-2006/95/EC. Machinery-2006/42/EC) have been satisfied and that the product is suitable for use according to the manufactures instructions. Tdevice = [Heat / (Mass X Specific Heat)] + Tambient. the following chart applies: TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . then for ambient temperature of 55°C and 80°C the maximum surface temperature may be assume to be (55°C ambient + 45°C temperature rise) = 100°C and (80°C+ 45°C) = 135°C respectively. 12.0 ATEX SUMMARY With the introduction of the ATEX requirements. maximum surface temperature = 85°C) corresponding to an ambient temperature of 40°C (i. For a given dissipation.

12 Zone 2 Zone 22 13.0 EQUIPMENT LABELLING METHOD All equipment certified for use in hazardous areas must be labelled to show the type and level of protection applied. mist) Very High Zone 0 Zone 20 II (all areas except mining) 2 High Zone 1 Zone 21 3 D (dust) Normal Table 1. for long periods or frequently Likely to occur in normal operation and for short periods of time Not likely to occur in normal operation or infrequently M1 I (mining) M2 ----- Very High - High - 1 G (gas.Can be used in Zone 0 and/or Zone 20-(…) indicates only part of the device meets the requirements of the category Atmosphere Type – Can be used in/for areas with flammable gas Atmosphere Type – Can be used in/for areas with flammable dust Ex II Ex 1 ATEX Portion G D TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . vapour. The following example identifies the key elements of the equipment marking: II (1) G D [Ex ia] IIC PTB 00 ATEX 2080 Symbol identifies the product for hazardous locations Device Group – Non-mining application Device Category.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method Device Group Device Category Type of Atmosphere SHEET : 15 OF 19 Protection to Hazardous Area Zone be Ensured Characteristics Comparison Present continuously – equipment cannot be deenergized Present continuously – equipment can be deenergized Present continuously.

Product Type – Explosion protection Protection Type – Intrinsic safety Equipment Group – IIC is most hazardous area Certifying Test Agency Test Year Compliance with Directive 94/9/EC Running Number Table 1.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method SHEET : 16 OF 19 […] CENELEC/IEC Portion Ex ia IIC PTB Certificate Details 00 ATEX 2080 Associated apparatus that supplies safety into the hazardous area.3: Typical example of equipment labelling TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 .13 The following badge represents a typical example of equipment labelling Figure-1.

no quantification of the expressions “long period time” for Zone 0/20.0 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEC AND IEC PRACTICES The following table shows the differences between the North American (NEC) and Europe (IEC) practices. the apparatus are certified on the basis of design and construction characteristics. “can be present” for Zone 1/21 and Division 1. The main difference between the North American and the European classification of hazardous locations is that there is currently no direct equivalent to the European Zone 0 in the North American system. Abnormalcondition Hazard Division 2 Zone 2/22 SHEET : 17 OF 19 Organisation NEC IEC Method Division Zone Continuous Hazard Intermittent Hazard Division 1 Zone 0/20 Table 1. and “not normally present” for Zone 2/22. An instrument designed for Zone 1/21 cannot necessarily be directly used in Division 1. Group A Class I. as shown in the following table: Hazard Categories Apparatus Classification Europe (IEC) Methane Acetylene Hydrogen Ethylene Propane Group I (mines) Group IIC Group IIC Group IIB Group IIA North America (NEC) Class I. Group B Class I. Group D > 20 µJoules > 20 µJoules > 60 µJoules >180 µJoules Ignition Energy TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . the most dangerous. while Division 1 includes the corresponding Zone 0/20 and Zone 1/21. In the stated definition from the cited standard. Group C Class I.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method 14. From a practical point of view. is given. An instrument designed for Zone 0 must be incapable of generating or accumulating sufficient energy to ignite the fuel mixture. therefore.14 Zone 1/21 It is evident from the above table that Zone 2/22 (IEC/EUROPE) and Division 2 (North America) are most equivalent. In Europe. the two systems are equivalent even if there are minor differences. Zone 0 is. Group D Class I. regarding the classification of hazardous locations.

) (Based on Gas / Liquid / Dust TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 . IIIB. Group G Combustible Flying Table 1.0 CONCLUSION In order to avoid hazard in a chemical process plant it is important to know the nature of chemical being handled and depending upon the nature of chemical. fertiliser etc. Finally to make the matter more clear. The nature of the hazardous atmosphere: Classification(Material Classification)) 2. Ignition Temperature (Material Classification) 3. Petrochemical. Group A and B are the most dangerous because they require the lowest level of ignition energy.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method SHEET : 18 OF 19 Conductive (Metal) Group IIIC Dust Nonconductive (Coal) Dust Grain Dust Group IIIB Class II. various sections of process plant and storage are classified depending upon the severity of hazard in taking decision regarding type of electrical items to be provided. by electrical means. Group IIC and Class I. Group E ↑ More easily ignited Class II. The probability that the hazardous atmosphere will be present(based on Area Classification) 4.15 Class III Apparatus classification in North America and Europe Each subgroup of Group II and of Class I is associated with a certain number of gases having an ignition energy included in the value reported and is represented by the gas reference in the above table that is used in certification tests. 15. An apparatus designed for these groups must be incapable of igniting. The current IEC 60079-0 standard now contains dust protection requirements and defines dust atmospheres as Group IIIC.0 KEY INSTALLATION POINTS: 1. The maximum spark energy it can produce (Apparatus Group) 16. and IIIA. Group F Group IIIA Class II. the type of electrical items to be used in that area of plant is determined. This document is helpful in general for hazardous classification and selection of electrical items suitable for use in process industries (Chemical. any potentially explosive air/gas mixture.

M10-PCS-01): Guide for Hazardous Area Classification for Chemical and Industrial Plants.wikipedia.TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Basic Concepts on Hazardous Area Classification and Equipment Labelling Method 17.0 REFERENCES  (TCE. SHEET : 19 OF 19  Interface Technology Engineer‟s Guide (PEPPERL&FUCHS)  www.org TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED TCE FORM 329 R4 .

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