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Tutorial 14 Example of figurative language.

Metaphor a figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them (as indrowning in money); broadly : figurative language The definition of a metaphor is a word or phrase used to compare two unlike objects, ideas, thoughts or feelings to provide a clearer description. When you use a metaphor, you make a statement that doesnt make sense literally, like time is a thief. It only makes sense when the similarities between the two things become apparent or someone understands the connection. Examples include:

That woman is the cancer of my dreams and aspirations. Kisses are the flowers of love in bloom.

His cotton candy words did not appeal to her taste. the world is my oyster

you are a couch potato time is money he has a heart of stone America is a melting pot you are my sunshine

Simile A simile compares two things using the words like and as. It can be found just about anywhere; from the printed word to oral conversation; in language, literature, and music. A simile is an analogy that compares two things that are alike in one way. To help you identify a simile, know that the words like or as are always used. Examples include:
cute as a kitten, comparing the way someone looks to the way a kitten looks as busy as a bee comparing someones level of energy to a fast-flying bee "as snug as a bug in a rug" comparing someone who is very cozy to how comfortable

a bug can be in a rug

"as happy as a clam" comparing someone's happiness to the contentment of a clam "Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you're going to get." comparing

the uncertainty of life to the uncertainty of choosing a chocolate from a box

"as agile as a monkey" implying someone can move as well as a monkey does "as black as coal" comparing the color of something dark to the very-dark coal color "as blind as a bat" indicating that the person cannot see any better than a bat can Last night, I slept like a log. This dress is perfect because it fits like a glove. They wore jeans, which made me stand out like a sore thumb. My love for you is a deep as the ocean. I am so thirsty, that my throat is as dry as a bone. As bold as brass As shiny as a new pin As cold as ice As cool as a cucumber As hard as nails As hot as hell

Hyperbole The definition of hyperbole is a description that is exaggerated for emphasis. Hyperbole is an outrageous exaggeration that emphasizes a point, and can be ridiculous or funny. Hyperboles can be added to fiction to add color and depth to a character. Examples are:
You snore louder than a freight train. It's a slow burg. I spent a couple of weeks there one day. She is so dumb, she thinks Taco Bell is a Mexican phone company. I had to walk 15 miles to school in the snow, uphill. You could have knocked me over with a feather. I had a ton of homework. If I cant buy that new game, I will die. He is as skinny as a toothpick. This car goes faster than the speed of light. That new car costs a bazillion dollars. We are so poor; we dont have two cents to rub together. That joke is so old, the last time I heard it I was riding on a dinosa

Synecdoche A Synecdoche is a word that refers to a part of something to mean the whole. A synecdoche is a type of trope, which is a figure of speech. When used in literature, a synecdoche will add to the visual imagery of the passage and enhance the readers experience.

The word bread can be used to represent food in general or money (e.g. he is the breadwinner; music is my bread and butter). The word sails is often used to refer to a whole ship. The phrase "hired hands" can be used to refer to workmen. The word "head" refers to cattle. The word "wheels" refers to a vehicle.

White hair. (elderly people)

'All hands on deck' is an example in which 'hands' is used to mean 'people'. Synecdoche is a figure of speech which expresses either more, or less, than it literally denotes. When a whole is used as the part or a part of a thing is put for the whole Examples: * "The world treated him badly." The whole world did not treat him badly only a part. - The whole is used as the part * "Twenty sails came into the harbor." Meaning twenty ships came into the harbor. - A part is used for the whole

More examples: A part referring to the whole * Referring to people according to a single characteristic: "the gray beard" for an older man or "the long hair" for a hippie. This leads to bahuvrihi compounds. * Referring to animals onomatopoetically * Describing a complete vehicle as "wheels" * Calling a worker "a pair of hands" * Before and during the Cold War, the Soviet Union was commonly referred to by its largest and most well-known member, Russia. A whole thing referring to a part of it * "The city posted a sign," which means that an employee of the local government (but not the geographic location or all of its residents) posted a sign * "Capitol Hill," when referring to the US Legislature A general class name used to denote a specific member of that or an associated class * "truck" for any four-wheel drive vehicle (as well as long-haul trailers, etc.) * "He"s good people."

* "plastic" for credit cards * "lead" for bullets * "silver" for flatware or other dishes that were once made of silver metal * "rubber" for a condom * "threads" for clothing A container is used to refer to its contents * "barrel" for a barrel of oil * "keg" for a keg of beer Puns A joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word or the fact that there are words that sound alike but have different meanings. the humorous use of a word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings orapplications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in mea ning; aplay on words.

Two silk worms had a race. They ended up in a tie. Personification Giving human characteristics to non-living things or ideas. Personification gives human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, or ideas. This can really affect the way the reader imagines things. This is used in childrens books, poetry, and fictional literature. Examples include:

opportunity knocked on the door the sun greeted me this morning the sky was full of dancing stars the vines wove their fingers together to form a braid the radio stopped singing and stared at me the sun played hide and seek with the clouds

Idioms Idioms exist in every language. An idiom is a word or phrase that is not takenliterally, like bought the farm has nothing to do with purchasing real estate, but refers to dying. Idiom also refers to a dialect or jargon of a group of people, either in a certain region or a group with common interests, like inscience, music, art, or business. Idioms are words, phrases, or expressions that cannot be taken literally. In other words, when used in everyday language, they have a meaning other than the basic one you would find in the dictionary. Every language has its own idioms. Learning them makes understanding and using a language a lot easier and more fun!

Common idioms that refer to people include:

A chip on your shoulder - means you think you know a lot High as a kite - means you are drunk or on drugs Sick as a dog - means you are very ill Idioms that refer to your actions would be:

Rub someone the wrong way - meaning to annoy or bother Jump the gun - would mean to be doing something early Pay the piper - means you need to face the consequences of your actions as easy as pie: very easy. at the eleventh hour: at the last minute; almost too late. be on the road: be traveling. burn the midnight oil: study/work all night or until very, very late at night. by the skin of one's teeth: barely succeed in doing something. catch one's eye: attract one's attention/interest. couch potato: someone who spends too much time watching TV. Don't count your chickens until (before) they hatch (they've hatched).: Don't assume that something will happen until it has happened. down in the dumps: depressed; "blue." n eager beaver: a person who is always willing to volunteer or do extra work. feel blue: feel sad and depressed. get on one's nerves: irritate someone; make someone upset. give someone a hand (1): help someone. hit the sack: go to bed. keep one's chin up: remain brave and confident in a difficult situation; don't despair or worry too much. keep one's fingers crossed: hope for the best.

live from hand to mouth: survive on very little money; have only enough money to pay for basic needs. a low blow: a big disappointment. make a mountain out of a molehill: make something seem much more important than it really is. make up one's mind: decide what to do. over one's head: too difficult or complicated for someone to understand. pull someone's leg: tease someone by trying to make her/him believe something that's exaggerated or untrue. rain or shine: (describing something scheduled) no matter what the weather is. "We're leaving tomorrow, rain or shine." rain cats and dogs: rain very hard. shoot the breeze: make relaxed, casual conversation. tell a white lie: say something that isn't true in order not to hurt or offend someone. under the weather: ill; sick; unwell. wet behind the ears: inexperienced and naive. You've got to be kidding!: You can't be serious! (What you said can't be true. What you said is very surprising/hard to believe.) " Zip your lip!: keep something secret; promise not to tell what has just been said.