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People speak various languages like Magar, Gurung, Sherpa, Rai etc while Nepali is a common language for all Nepalese people. Since English is an international language, almost all our activities that necessarily require the use of language are not beyond its influence. We come across the case of shifting from one language to another in almost all discourses in our life. So code, a cover term, which may denote a dialect or a language, generally refers to language. Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between two or more languages or language registers in a single conversation, stretch of discourse, or utterances between people who have more than one languages in common. Speakers of more than one language are known for their ability to code switch or mix their language during communication. This phenomenon occurs when bilinguals substitute a word or phrase from one language to a phrase or word from another language. Richard (1985) defines it as: A change by a speaker (writer) from one language variety to another. Code-switching can take place in a conversation when one speaker uses one language and another speaker answers in different languages. A person may start speaking one language and then change to another one in the middle of their speech or sometimes even in the middle of the sentences. (43)
The language development process is a creative process. The latest accounts on language development across cultures underscore the notion of an orderly and systematic linguistic process, which are half imitation and half invention. Poplack(1980:581) defines code-switching as,"the alternation of two languages within a single discourse, sentence or constituent." Gumperz (1982:59) coined the term conversational code-switching and refers to it as, the juxtaposition of passages speech belonging to two grammatical system or subsystems within the exchange. Most frequently the alternation takes the forms of subsequent sentences, as when a speaker uses a second language either to reiterate his massage or to reply someone else's statement. Hudson (1983:56) calls code-switching as, "use of different varieties at different times by single speaker." Code-switching has been viewed as a strategy to compensate for diminished language proficiency. The premise behind this theory is that bilinguals code switch because they don't know either language completely. This argument is also known as semi-lingualism, which underscores the notion that bilinguals almost speak both languages correctly. However, one concern with this account is that the notion of language proficiency is not clearly defined. It is not clear whether reading and writing language skill should take precedence over spoken language. This reliance on reading and writing is problematic because most bilinguals receive their formal education in one
language, whereas a majority of their social interaction takes place in the other language. Code-switching is used to achieve two things: a) fill a linguistics /conceptual gap or b) for other multiple communicative purposes. The extent of code-switching and the occasions when such code-switching occurs depends to a great extent on the individuals involved, including gender and the interpersonal relationship between the participants. Viewing and constructing the world from one cultural point of view may appear to be more normative and refined and therefore more conventionally accepted. The same constructs can be viewed, however, from two or more worldviews in a rich bilingual/multicultural environment. In this case one language might help the other, and sometimes both together may create a new idea, image, thought, behavior, outlook, organization, and adaptation, and thus move culture to new adaptive places in the dynamics of cross-cultural life. Privately run English medium schools of Kathmandu claim to use 'English Only' as the medium of instruction in classroom and school premises. But the teachers fail to persuade learners towards the absolutely English medium mode. In subjects like Social Studies, some words are directly borrowed from Sanskrit, Nepali or other languages. Trying to translate such words into English will be almost like waste of the time. To teach English grammar and literature also, teachers often switch code. Code-switching in conversation and public discourse has attracted a great deal of attention over the years, most likely because it supports a strong expectation that the communication is made intelligible whatever the language.
To summarize, code-switching has become a global feature. Command of only one language has become a rare phenomenon these days. Bilingualism or multilingualism is the norm for many people throughout the world rather than unilingualism. Code-switching in the Secondary Level Classroom Teaching in selected English medium Schools is an important area of research .It has helped the researcher to find out various forms of assimilated, nonassimilated and switched sentences that are used by speakers. So far as codeswitching is concerned, no researcher has carried out the status of English/ Nepali code-switching in Secondary Level English medium classroom teachings of the selected private schools of Kathmnandu valley. This reality has also added meaning to the present study. 1.2. Types of Code-switching Poplack (1980) has identified the following three types of Codeswitching: i) Tag Switching ii) Intersentential Switching iii) Intrasentential Switching In Tag Switching a tag in one language is inserted into an utterance which is otherwise entirely in the other language, for example-'You know', 'I mean' (English tags) 'a' ‘ho’,'hoina '(Nepali tags). It is the most common type of code-switching. In Intersentential code-switching a switch takes place outside the sentence or clause level, where each clause or sentence is in one language or another. It requires greater fluency in both languages than tag switching since
major position of the language must confirm to the rules of both languages. An example for Nepali/English discourse is:- 'Mainle book ta payen but I am yet to get registered'. (I have got the book but I'm yet to get it registered) In Intrasentential code-switching, switching of different types occur within the clause or sentence boundary. For example, 'Exam ko lagi they have prepared.' Intrasentential switches take place within sentence / clause/ word boundaries with no apparent change in topic, setting etc. Now the linguists have added one more type. That is Intra-word switching, switching within a word itself, such as at morpheme boundary. Most of the linguists describe three kinds of Code-switching: situational, metaphorical and conversational. Situational code-switching occurs when a language is changed according to the situation. The speaker speaks one language in one situation and another in a different one. When a change of topic requires a change in the language, it causes metaphorical code-switching. Nepali speakers use English word while talking about computer. In conversational code-switching, the speaker essentially chooses one code but elements of another code are mixed up in the course of one single utterance. 1.2.Reasons for Code-switching Code-switching can be more convenient than waiting for one's mind to think of an appropriate words or sentences. Likewise, code-switching can help an ethnic minority community retain a sense of cultural identity, in much the same way that slang is used to give a group of people a sense of identity and belonging, and to differentiate them from society. Apart from these reasons, people code switch for a number of reasons:
-Lack of registrar competence -Mood of the speaker -Semantic significance -To show identity in a group -Pragmatic reasons In this study, the use of Nepali language in English language classroom has been defined as code-switching. The reasons behind the use of Nepali language while taking English medium classes and its effect on the development of communicative competence in the target language, is the major area of concern of this study. 1.4. Methodology Empirical method is the most trustworthy way for sake of carrying out observation among the schools in this issue. So, the researcher hasn't taken any pain to garner as many data as possible by dint of regular visit at the selected schools. I have selected eight prominent English medium schools in Kathmandu valley to focus upon my research. The schools are: 1. Deepika English School, Chabahil 2. Lalitpur Secondary School, Lagankhel 3. Bipul Shiksha Niketan, Jorpati 4. Siddhartha Vidyapeeth Secondary School, Thimi 5. Children Model School, Baluwatar
6. Kumari English Boarding Shool, Boudha 7. Tri-jyoti English School, Kapan 8. World Youth International School, Gokarna The researcher has visited these schools for two days, solely for obtaining the data that may enhance the results. Teachers and students are the main sources for my study as they are the main vehicles to switch the codes and to deliver the consequences of code-switching for the support of my study. As a rule, I have spent two regular days in a school for drawing the paper information and data. These two days were divided in such a way that for the first day in each school, I visited to observe the classes of Science, Mathematics, English and Social Studies as a student. No doubt, the verbal questionings are raised on the behalf of teachers in every class so that my attempt to find the particular cases of code-switching will be fruitful. On the second day of school observation, all I planned was to handover the slips of questionnaire among the teachers and students. Three teachers from Science, Math, Social Studies or English, and 15 students from secondary level were chosen for study from each school. They were given two types of questions: subjective and objective both of which were different for teachers and students. There are different books, journals and periodicals regarding the issues of code-switching. Certainly, they have also been the important resources for my study. Extensive library research, Internet exploration and the articles related to code-switching have also been indispensable source of my research.
Chapter II Cases of code-switching in English Medium Classrooms 2.1. Introduction In this chapter I present some of the cases of code-switching as encountered during the field study field study of English medium classrooms. These cases and examples have been collected from eight privately run secondary schools through two days visit and observation in English medium classes of Social Studies, English, Mathematics and Science. 2.2. Categorization of the Cases of Code-Switching Studying the nature of the various kinds of code-switching, the researcher has divided them into three categories and three subcategories. They are presented below along with examples. 2.2.1. Grammatical Code-switching If Nepali language in English medium classrooms is used not only for the clarification of the meaning of the items in questions but primarily for the explanation of the grammatical concept, these cases have been put under this category. The cases of this nature that the researcher found during his field study are as follows: While teaching tenses along with the use of time adverbials, a teacher began to explain with Nepali. His approach to teach the Simple past was like this: Teacher: Do you say,'ma hijo ghar janechhu?' (Do you say, I will go home yesterday?) Student: No sir, Hijo ta past time ho.
(No sir, 'yesterday' is past time.) Then the teacher tried to show the relationship of the time adverbial 'yesterday' and verb application. Using the time adverbial like 'hijo','pohor','gatamahina' etc in Nepali term, he explained with the use of past form to them. Since the students were familiar with Nepali term, they caught the point very easily. In another case, the teacher explained about the use of present perfect tense in English. He could not distinguish between simple past and present perfect properly in English medium. Then he asked to a student. Teacher: - 'Timile malai kahiledekhi chineko chhau? (How long have you known me?) Student: - Maile Panch Barsa dekhi chineko chhu. (I have known you since five years.) Then teacher translated the above-mentioned conversation into English and his students were convinced. Similarly, the nature of cases: - 'Timile Kahile Dekhi Churot Khana Thalyou? (When did you start taking cigarettes?). In addition, when did he start going 'bhanna kahile ramro hunchha?' (It is better to say 'when did he start going) is exactly the same because the teacher used their Nepali expressions as stimuli to elicit the structures of simple past tense in English language. The researcher encountered examples like'Yedi car vaidekobhaye(I wish I had a car.)','Yedi Pokharama building bhaidiako bhaye.(I wish I had a
building in Pokhara.)'etc. Here the sole purpose of the use of Nepali language was to elicit the ways of expressing wishes or desires in English language by means of Nepali expression. The action verbs in Nepali language are 'janu'(go),'hernu'(look),'Khanu'(eat)etc. and the state verbs in Nepali language are'huncha'(is), 'hunchhu'(am), 'hunchhaun/hun'(are), etc. Here the teacher used these Nepali words to compare the action verbs and state verbs in Nepali and English language though the main purpose was to teach the action verbs and state verbs in English. 2.2.2. Semantic Code-switching If the sole purpose of the use of Nepali language in English medium classroom is to ensure mutual understanding between the teachers and the students, these cases have been put under this category. The teachers use the Nepali language to get the meaning of the items in question across to the students and students use Nepali language to ask the questions and to explain their problems. Almost all the cases of code-switching that the researcher found in English medium classrooms come under this category. So, the case of code-switching under this category has been divided into three categories. They are: 1. Code - switching at sentence and clause level 2. Code – switching at phrase level 3. Code –switching at word level
188.8.131.52. Code-switching in Clause and Sentence Level All these cases of code-switching have been put under this category if the sentence and clause structures of the language used in classroom are of Nepali language. Or Nepali language is used to clarify the meaning of English sentences and clauses. Almost all the cases the use of Nepali language created by the students and teachers fall in this category. Some examples of the cases of code-switching in this category are as follows: The case 'bujhiyana' (I couldn't understand)', 'maile bujhina (I couldn't understand)', 'sir,’ merry' ko meaning ke ho? (Sir, what is the meaning of 'merry'?)' And 'madam, 'bring up' ko Nepalima ke hunchha? (Madam, what does 'bring up' mean?)' are of the same nature because they all demand semantic clarification. In the first two cases, the students used Nepali to express their own problems and in the last two cases, they used Nepali language to ask questions so that they could understand the meaning of particular English words and phrases. Such cases frequently occurred in the classes in the same form for the same purpose. Some of the cases in which teachers frequently use Nepali language in English medium classrooms are as follows: 'Bujhiyena hogi Englishm? (Didn’t you understand in English medium?)', ' Nepalima nabhani hundaihundaina’ (It is impossible without stating it in Nepali). Teachers make such code-switching when students seem uncomfortable to understand.
'Aru exercise garna sakinchha hoina? (can you solve the remaining exercises?)', 'Timiharu aphu pani garnegarana (you have to try yourself as well).' Generally, the Mathematics and Science teacher asked to the students after solving some problems from their sides. Such things are told at the end of a class. 'Do you know fortuneteller means euta jyotishi jastai hunchha bhanera? (Pretending to be a prophet)'. Might be because of the cultural background, the teacher used Nepali term unknowingly. 'Shahidharu aba pharkine chhainan, uniharu gaye gaye(by saying 'martyrs passed away, they won't come back to life again). A teacher used this Nepali sentence to express the pain and lamentation.' Chhito wa dhilo harek manishle yo dharti chhodnunai parchha (sooner or later everyone should leave this world)'. The teacher consoled himself and tried to convince the students in didactic way. When the subject of lamentation, consolation, solace, death or birth come, many teacher may feel it comfortable to interact in Nepali whether it is the English medium classes or Nepali medium. To be frank, while such topics would come, even this researcher would be dilemma – whether the teachers were teaching in Nepali medium by means of English or they were teaching in English medium with the help of Nepali. 184.108.40.206. Code-switching in Phrase Level If Nepali language is used to clarify the meaning of English phrase, such case of code –switching have been put under this category. Some examples, the researchers faced during school visiting are as follows:
A teacher entered classroom. All the children were sad because the result of First Term published two days before but most of them were failed in Mathematics. Then teacher began the class with a phrase: 'don't cry over spilt milk; try to secure better marks in the Second Term exam. Students responded his suggestion indifferently. Then he added- 'Don't cry over spilt milk means 'Biteko kurama chinta garnu hundaina.' In another class of Social Studies: Teacher: Student: Teacher: 'In the light 'means what? Not to be in dark. But it is a phrase. It doesn't give direct meaning. It
means sworgama hunu(to be in heaven). Likewise, Those who stay in Katmandu, they are in heaven because 'cycle of violence' has been stopped. Cycle of violence means Himsa ko charka in Nepali. During the class visit, the researcher found many phrasal code-switching both in spoken and written form. Some of them directly copied from blackboard are as follows: fond of get off in spite of make know move into worry about : : : : : : (soukhin) (orlunu) (ta pani) ( parichit garaunu) (prabesh garnu) (chinta mannu)
better half high time
(patni) (uchit samaya) etc
220.127.116.11. Code-switching in Word Level If Nepali language is used just for teaching word meaning of the English words in questions,these types of cases have been put into this category. The researcher came across with many codes- switching at word level while observing Science and Mathematics classes. Some examples of the cases of code –switching which are included in this category are as follows: 'One must be optimistic to get the success in life. Do you know what does it mean? aashabadi –Positive attitude'. 'Our principal is an iconoclast –Do you know the meaning of' iconoclast'? Je kura pani criticize garne ke. (One who Criticizes everythings.)' In other case, the researcher found a teacher explaining his students about his experience of visiting the Gurukul theatre. He included some difficult words in his sentences. Then he wrote the Nepali meaning on the black board. The words were: Colleague – sahakarmi (who works together) Refugee Spinster - Saranarthi (who takes shelter in another country) - budikanya (a woman who has not married till late age)
Playwright - natakkar( a person who writes drama) The researcher found such cases in almost all the classes.
2.2.3. Code-switching for Merriment If Nepali language in English medium classrooms is used not for grammatical explanation and semantic clarification but for creating fun, breaking monotony, joking etc; such cases of code-switching have been put in this category. A teacher said that students wouldn't laugh if the joke is told in English. Some of the cases that the researcher encountered in this category are as follows: 'Bagpiper is a very expensive wine. I have never tasted it. I have only taken ‘Tharra’. Here the teacher used the Nepali word 'tharra', (locally made crude liquor) not for teaching objectives but for creating fun among students because some of the students were yawning in the classroom. In one of the classes, the teacher asked a student, 'timiharu sabailai bore lageko jasto chha, euta ramailo ghatana batau na ta shyam? (It seems you are all feeling bored, can you tell an interesting incident, Shyam?). Shyam stood up and answered, 'Sir, euta budho manchhe bachchaima marechha (an old man died in his childhood)'. Here the teacher used Nepali expression to break monotony and the students also switched code to create a fun in the classroom. A teacher introduced a sentence, ' I saw some teddy boys teasing a girl on the way to school.' A student asked to the teacher –' what does 'tease' mean sir? 'The researcher could clearly guess that the students knew the meaning of the word 'tease', though he asked. The teacher smiled and answered,
'jiskaunu'. All the students laughed for a long time. Here, the students intentionally asked the Nepali meaning of ‘tease’ to create a sense of fun.
Teachers shared their exciting and comic encounter in Nepali language though the medium of language is English. In this category, the use of Nepali language in English medium classroom has not any didactic significance or relevance. The researcher found out that on the basis of the purpose, most of the cases of code –switching took place for semantic clarification, some cases for grammatical explanation and only few cases for creating fun and entertainment.
Chapter III Analysis and Interpretation 3.1. Introduction This chapter presents the various reasons behind the use of Nepali language by the teachers and students in English medium classrooms at privately run secondary schools in Kathmandu Valley. It also shows the effect of code -switching upon the development of communicative competence in target language on the part of learners. It shows the data of mostly code switched subjects in various schools. Additionally, it discloses some of the ways to avoid code-switching and improve the situation. In this study, improvement of the situation refers to the creation of favourable environment for the use of English language in the classrooms. To find all the above-mentioned ideas, the researcher has dug up by the means of the opinions of the students and the teachers, background study of the teachers and the suggestions given by the teachers. All these things are presented with description one by one:
3.2. Opinions of the Students Children's Model School Baluwatar, Kathmandu Table No.1
Question No a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0 0 13 1 15 11 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 9 13 1 14 0 1 0 0 4 1 1 10 13 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 4 1 0 Number of Respondents c d Total 0 1 14 1 0 1 0 14 0 0 0 0 2 11 12 0 2 1 1 1 0 15 0 14 0 14 14 0 11 2 13 2 1 13 0 15 13 0 1 14 14 0 11 2 2 0 0 1 3 11 Remarks b=14 c=14 a=13 d=14 a=15 a=11 d=11 c=12 b=10 b=13 d=15 d=14 d=14 c=14 c=11 c=13 d=13 d=15 c=13 d=14 c=14 c=11 a=9 a=13 d=11
15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
(Appendix A) Table No 1 is the result of survey done at Children's Model High School, Baluwatar , Kathmandu. It shows that the teachers sometimes use Nepali in English medium classes for the understanding of the students. The lexical words dealing with technical field demand the use of Nepali. Preposition, conjunction and article all need to be explained in Nepali for their better understanding. So far as the reading comprehension is concerned,
Nepali language is necessary to describe specialized field though some students want to describe the passage of difficult words and having complex story as well. Most of them opine that Nepali language in English medium classroom is necessary to explain new structure, which helps learning and makes the learners familiar with meanings in two languages. The use of Nepali language in English medium classroom has no effect at all. The students use Nepali language to explain their own problem, where as the teachers use as situations demand. In this school, students feel that code-switching is neither the need of students nor of the teachers. It is used to facilitate the learning. They assess that it is the need of student to some extent because of the influence of their mother tongue. It can be the need of the teacher if he wants to teach comparing two languages. Social Studies is the subject which demands code-switching the most. They aim to learn foreign culture and knowledge along with English language should enable the learners to speak the language appropriately. They blame that the Social Studies teacher switches the code a lot but not because of his incompetence. He wants to teach faster with its help. The students accept that they are compelled to speak Nepali in English medium classroom because of their poor language knowledge. English medium classes in all subject helps for improving of English. Regarding the improvement of the situation, they say that the use of target language in classrooms should be encouraged allowing code-switching as well.
World Youth International School Gokarna, Kathmandu Table No. 2
Question No a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0 0 6 3 5 2 3 2 7 0 5 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 6 0 5 6 11 12 11 b 8 5 1 5 0 3 3 11 1 1 3 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 2 3 2 4 0 1 0 Number of Respondents c d Total 0 7 10 0 5 3 6 1 9 1 10 0 2 7 0 2 3 4 14 0 4 3 2 12 1 14 12 1 2 10 11 4 8 5 2 10 7 0 11 1 7 1 2 3 3 1 2 0 4 0 Remarks b=8 c=10 a=6 c=6 c=9 c=9 d=7 b=11 a=7 c=14 a=5 d=12 d=14 c=12 d=10 c=11 c=11 d=10 c=7 c=11 c=7 a=6 a=11 a=12 a=11
15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
(Appendix A) The data collected from World Youth International School, Gokarna, Katmandu, shows, the majority of the students admit that the teachers sometimes use Nepali language for the understanding of the students. Some of them think that the teachers use the Nepali language because it is easier for them to explain. Lexical and specialized words need to be explained in Nepali. Literary and abstract lexical words demand the use of Nepali while codeswitching is necessary also for clarifying the religious and geographical
concept. Students often expect teachers to explain preposition, conjunction and articles in Nepali along with the names of commodities. The passage describing specialized field often makes the use of Nepali language imperative. The students are of the opinion that if the teachers always use Nepali language in English medium classes, it hinders learning in English. It is necessary to encourage the students to speak the target language. The use of Nepali language in English medium classrooms has situational effects. Most of the students use Nepali language in English medium classes to explain their own problems and they feel that teachers should use Nepali when the situation demands. They accept that it is the need of students to speak in Nepali because of the influence of mother tongue, learning environment and cultural background. It can be the need of the teachers when they want to teach by comparing two languages. They think Mathematics demands the use of heavy Nepali words. Learning better English, they aim to make better communication and to know foreign culture and knowledge. The aim of language should enable the learners to understand the language and to speak it appropriately. Science teacher speaks Nepali the most in their school because he is incompetent to explain in English on the first hand, and they think it helps learning faster on the other hand. The students feel it interesting to take all classes in English medium because it helps for improving English. The students put forward two ways to improve the existing situation; by encouraging the use of target language in the classrooms and by using both the languages.
Kumari English Boarding School Boudha, Tusal, Kathmandu Table No. 3
Question No a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2 1 4 0 8 11 2 4 3 3 3 2 0 3 0 0 4 2 2 0 5 5 13 12 3 b Number of Respondents c d Total 10 0 3 15 2 4 1 0 1 2 2 5 1 0 0 0 02 3 0 7 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 11 4 10 5 2 1 2 3 10 8 0 2 8 3 13 1 0 10 13 3 10 1 2 11 1 3 4 2 1 10 7 4 1 5 13 12 2 9 1 4 13 12 1 0 0 0 1 1 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Remarks b=10 c= 11 a=b=c=4 c=10 a=8 a=11 d=10 d=7 d=5 c=10 c=8 d=13 d=12 c=8 d=9 c=13 b=7 d=13 c=10 c=13 b=6 c=10 a=13 a=12 c=11
(Appendix A) The table 3 shows that the teachers sometimes use Nepali language while teaching in English medium classes and the purpose is only the understanding of the students. They expect the use of Nepali in all kinds of words equally – lexical, grammatical and specialized. Literary words in lexical, religious concept in abstract and names of institution in concrete words are their priority to explain in Nepali. The grammatical words,
especially preposition, conjunction and articles need to be explained in Nepali. Though, the passage having difficult words and describing specialized field also demand Nepali, unrelated to Nepali culture demands the maximum use. The students think that to explain new structure is necessary to use Nepali in English medium classrooms. If the teachers always use Nepali language in English medium classes, it hinders in learning English. Code-switching often has situational effect. Students used Nepali in English medium classes to explain their own problem but they think that teachers should switch code when the situation demands. Code-switching is the need of both students and teachers because of cultural background, learning environment and influence of the mother tongue. If the teachers want to teach by comparing two languages it can also be the need of teachers. They opine that Science & Environment demands the use of Nepali a lot but to give a clear concept of Social Studies & English Literature, teachers should speak in Nepali. They aim better communication, knowing foreign culture and knowledge with better English. The aim of learning a language should enable the learners to speak the language appropriately. Science teacher speaks Nepali the most in their school because students demand Nepali words. Some of them think that he is incompetent to explain in English. They agree with their poor English language knowledge to lead them to speak Nepali but they feel interesting to learn all subjects in English medium. To improve the situation both languages in the classrooms should be allowed to use according to them.
Bipul Shikshya Niketan Jorpati, Kathmandu Table No. 4
Question No a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0 1 0 3 8 3 3 2 6 1 2 7 0 0 1 1 1 4 4 0 1 7 6 14 9 b 11 0 0 4 0 2 1 6 3 3 7 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 3 4 2 4 2 0 0 Number of Respondents c d Total 4 1 14 0 10 5 7 1 5 1 10 0 4 7 6 1 3 4 11 0 5 1 0 8 1 13 15 0 2 11 11 3 2 8 0 7 8 0 2 9 11 1 4 0 7 0 1 0 4 2 Remarks b=11 c=14 c=10 c=7 a=8 c=10 d=7 b=c=6 a=6 c=11 b=7 d=8 d=13 c-15 d=11 c=11 d=8 d=7 c=8 d=9 c=11 a=7 c=7 a=14 a=9
15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
(Appendix A) The data in Bipul Shikshya Niketan, Jorpati , Kathmandu shows that for the understanding of the students , Nepali is sometimes used by the teachers in the English medium classes. The specialized lexical and grammatical words require the use of Nepali language. For the clarification of religious concept and geographical concept, Nepali language should be used. Names of commodities necessitate the use of Nepali out of concrete words while, as preposition, conjunction and articles should explain in Nepali
medium. According to them, a passage with complex story and describing specialized field need the use of Nepali language to give proper meaning and explain the new structure. If the teachers frequently use Nepali language in English medium, they think, it hinders in learning English language but the proper use facilitates learning that gives situational effect. Students use Nepali language in English medium classes to ask questions and to explain their own problems. They think both teachers and students need to speak in Nepali when the situation demands because of cultural background, learning environment and the influence of mother tongue. If the teachers want to teach by comparing two languages it often needs. They think that mathematics is the subject that demands the use of Nepali the most to get the concept. The aim of learning better English is to enhance better communicative skill along with understanding of foreign culture and knowledge. The aim of learning a language should enable the learners to speak and write in the target language. They think Social Studies' teacher switches code the most for teaching faster. School environment, teachers' flexibility and their poor language knowledge inspires them to speak Nepali in English medium classes but they feel interesting to learn all subjects in English. It is the compulsion as well for some students. They think compulsory English medium classes in all subjects help for improving English. The situation can only be improved by encouraging the use of English language in the classroom, they suggest.
Siddhartha Vidyapeeth Secondary Boarding School Thimi Table No.5
Question No a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0 0 0 0 8 0 1 10 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 12 14 b 3 0 4 0 4 1 2 0 10 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 3 4 2 0 Number of Respondents c d Total 0 12 13 2 1 10 0 15 3 0 14 0 12 0 5 0 0 3 14 0 13 2 2 13 0 12 14 0 9 5 10 4 0 11 0 13 13 2 1 14 14 0 8 4 9 1 0 1 0 1 Remarks d=12 c=13 d=10 d=15 a=8 c=14 c=12 a=10 b=10 c=14 c=13 d=13 d=12 c=14 c=9 c=10 d=11 d=13 c=13 d=14 c=14 c=8 c=9 a=12 a=14
15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
(Appendix A) Table No. 5 shows that for the understanding of the students, teachers use Nepali occasionally while teaching in English medium. They think that lexical, Grammatical and specialized words require the use of Nepali. Technical words, geographical concept and the names of commodities need frequent use of Nepali. For the understanding of 'articles', code-switching is the most. They think, a passage with complex story needs the use of Nepali language to explain new structure. If the teachers always use Nepali language
in the English medium classes it hinders in learning English language, but occasional code-switching facilitates learning. The students use Nepali in English medium classes to deny to speak in English but they think teachers should use Nepali as per the need of both the teachers and students because of the influence of the mother tongue. When teachers want to teach by comparing two languages they need to speak in Nepali. Social Studies demand the use of Nepali language more than other subjects do. The aim of learning better English is to be efficient in English, for better communication and to know foreign culture and knowledge. The aim of learning a language should enable the learners to speak the language appropriately. Their Social Studies' teacher speaks Nepali, the most which helps learning faster. They accept their poor language knowledge that is responsible to inspire them to speak Nepali. Some of them feel interesting and others feel compulsion to take all classes in English medium. To improve the situation, the use of English language in classrooms should be encouraged.
Deepika English School Chabahil, Kathmandu Table No 6
Question No a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 0 4 0 3 3 1 1 2 3 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 2 2 7 1 5 7 10 9 b 12 1 4 6 4 10 1 4 3 9 4 2 2 5 3 2 9 4 0 3 2 0 2 0 1 Number of Respondents c d Total 2 0 13 1 7 0 4 5 3 5 2 0 2 11 0 10 1 9 3 0 8 2 3 10 2 9 7 3 2 10 11 1 2 2 3 6 11 2 3 1 11 1 5 5 1 6 1 4 1 4 Remarks b=12 c=13 c=7 b=6 d=5 b=10 d=11 d=10 d=9 b=9 c=8 d=10 d=9 c=7 d=10 c=11 b=9 d=6 c=11 a=7 c=11 a=c=d=5 a=7 a=10 a=9
15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
(Appendix A) The table of Deepika English School (table No. 6) shows that the teachers rarely use Nepali language while teaching in English medium, however, the use of Nepali language surges the understanding of the students to some extend. Lexical, specialized and grammatical terms, in accordance with the students, need to be switched into Nepali. Mostly, the lexical words having abstract, literary and technical sense demand the use of Nepali. To be specific with abstract words, names of quality, concept of time, geographical
concept and religious concepts etc are to be explained in Nepali language. In grammar, the conjunction needs to be explained in Nepali and in concrete words names of Vehicles demand the Nepali terms. To talk about passage, the idea unrelated to Nepali culture needs the use of Nepali Language. If the teachers want to encourage the students to speak , they have to use Nepali language in the class-room because it makes familiar with two languages. However, the frequent use of Nepali language in English medium has situational effect. Most of the students use Nepali language in English medium class to explain their own problem but some of them do it for giving answers and to deny speaking as well. They feel that when the situation demands the teachers should use Nepali language. Thus, the code-switching is the demand of both the teachers and the student as of cultural background, learning environment and the influence of the mother tongue. When the teachers want to teach by comparing two languages they need to speak in Nepali and subjectively, Science and Environment demands the frequent use of Nepali language. The aim of learning better English is to efficient in English for better communication and to know foreign culture and knowledge. The aim of learning the language should enable the learners to speak the language appropriately. Their English teacher speaks Nepali the most because it helps them learning faster. They confess that the school environment and their poor language knowledge and family environment inspire them to speak Nepali in English medium classes. Due to family pressure and their interests, they are taking the classes in English medium except Nepali. Some even take it as boring and compulsion. However, they feel that compulsory English medium in all subjects have helped a great deal for improving English so, to rule out
the code-switching in English medium classes encouragement of the use of English language is the most.
Tri-Jyoti English School Kapan, Kathmandu Table No. 7
Question No a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0 0 0 1 7 5 6 6 5 5 4 2 0 2 4 0 9 0 0 2 0 0 6 0 0 b 12 1 8 4 1 2 5 5 5 0 6 0 1 8 4 1 6 9 6 2 3 3 6 6 4 Number of Respondents c d Total 0 3 14 1 6 1 8 2 5 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 1 4 10 0 1 4 1 12 1 13 4 0 7 1 11 2 2 0 0 4 9 0 5 6 12 0 11 0 3 0 4 5 11 0 Remarks b=12 c=14 b=8 c=8 a=7 c=6 a=6 a=6 a=b=5 c=10 a=d=4 d=12 d=13 b=8 c=7 c=11 a=9 b=9 c=9 d=6 c=12 c=11 a=b=6 b=6 c=11
15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
(Appendix A) The table of Tri Jyoti English School displays that the teachers rarely use Nepali language in the class but if it is used, no doubt, the use is for the better understanding of the students. While using Nepali language, the specialized and grammatical terms mostly occur. In addition, literary and abstract lexical words demand the use of Nepali. The religious concept and geographical concept in abstract category, and sometimes, the names of institution and plants and animals in concrete category as well need the use of
Nepali. To talk about grammar, preposition and conjunction mostly need to be explained in Nepali. For passages, those having difficult words and with complex story need it. The use of Nepali language in English medium classroom is necessary, for students, to give meaning, to explain new structure and to encourage them to speak. Nevertheless, if the teachers always use Nepali terms, it hinders in learning English language. Some find that the use of Nepali language in English medium class hinders learning. Some take it as beneficial and it has no effect at all to some students. Students also use Nepali language in the class for explaining their problems. Therefore, when the situation demands the teacher also should use Nepali language in English medium classes. It is both of the teachers' and the students' need. Due to influence of mother tongue, cultural background and learning environment the students need to speak in Nepali. When the teachers want to teach by comparing two languages they need to speak in Nepali. To them, English literature and grammar and Mathematics demand the use of Nepali language most frequently. The aim of learning better English is to be efficient in English to have better communication and to know foreign cultural and knowledge as it should enable the learners to speak the language appropriately. In this school, they experience the Science and Social Studies teachers mostly using Nepali terms in their classes. They think to make them learn fast the teachers have done so. The students' family environment has mainly influenced them to speak Nepali in their class. It has a fifty-fifty effect of interesting and boring to take all the classes in English medium classes but most of the students feel bored and imitation to compulsory English medium classes. The situation can be improved by using both English and Nepali language in the classrooms.
Lalitpur Secondary School Lagankhel, Kathmandu Table No. 8
Question No a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 4 0 3 3 2 3 2 2 5 4 1 2 1 2 0 1 3 4 1 1 1 3 7 0 1 b 8 4 3 3 6 4 3 3 1 5 5 4 3 5 7 8 8 10 5 6 8 4 5 6 9 Number of Respondents c d Total 1 2 11 0 9 0 8 1 5 2 5 3 3 7 4 6 6 3 6 0 3 6 3 6 4 7 7 1 8 0 4 2 1 3 0 1 5 4 3 5 5 1 5 3 3 0 4 5 5 0 Remarks b=8 c=11 c=9 c=8 b=6 c=5 d=7 d=6 c=6 c=6 d=6 d=6 d=7 c=7 c=8 b=8 b=8 b=10 b=c=5 b=6 b=8 c=5 a=7 b=6 b=9
15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
(Appendix A) The data collected from Lalitpur Secondary School shows that the teachers rarely use Nepali language while teaching in English medium. If they occasionally use it, it is for the understanding of the students. Most of the specialized terms of vocabulary require the use of Nepali language. Also, the literary, concrete and abstract lexical words demand it. In abstract lexical words, most of the concept of time and geography need to explain in Nepali. But in concrete words, names of commodities, plants and animals, institution
and vehicles, more or less, demand to be addressed in Nepali. The articles, prepositions and conjunction are to be expressed in Nepali to make easy for understanding. Passages unrelated to Nepali culture and describing specialized field also attracts Nepali code-switching. The necessity behind the use of Nepali language in English medium classes is to give meaning and to have discussion. There is a mixed reaction while the teacher the teacher always uses Nepali language in English medium classes. Some students have no effect at all where as some take it as facilitator for the use of Nepali language in English medium classes. The students use Nepali language to explain their own problems, ask questions and to give answers. When the situation demands, the teacher should use Nepali. It is the need of both the teachers and students. Because of the influence of the mothers' tongue and the learning environment the students need to speak in Nepali. But for the teachers, when they are not familiar with Nepali culture and want to teach by comparing two languages, they need to speak in Nepali. In the students' opinion, Science & Environment demands the use of Nepali language the most. To them, the aim of learning English is to be efficient in English and the aim of learning language should enable the learners to speak the language appropriately. Mathematics' teacher speaks Nepali the most in their schools, as most of the students demand Nepali words. Their poor language knowledge makes them speak Nepali language in the classrooms. Taking all classes in English is interesting and equally boring for some students. Compulsory English in all subjects is a burden for them. So to improve the situation, they are to be encouraged to use Nepali language in the classes.
Summary (Table No .1-8) Table No 9
Question No a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 7 2 30 11 51 38 19 29 32 17 16 14 5 8 11 3 19 17 16 12 15 26 60 73 48 b 78 13 25 23 15 27 18 32 38 32 25 7 9 24 19 14 41 29 20 18 23 20 24 16 14 Number of Respondents c d Total 7 28 120 100 5 120 42 23 120 43 43 120 36 18 120 39 6 120 28 55 120 31 28 120 18 32 120 69 2 120 42 27 120 15 94 120 12 94 120 81 7 120 42 48 120 84 19 120 14 46 120 5 69 120 74 10 120 39 51 120 77 5 120 56 18 120 28 8 120 14 17 120 39 19 120 Remarks b=78 c=100 c=42 c=d=43 a=51 c=39 d=55 b=32 b=38 c=69 c=42 d=94 d=94 c=81 d=48 c=84 d=46 d=69 c=74 d=51 c=77 c=56 a=60 a=73 a=48
(Appendix A) Table No. 9 presents the collective opinions of the total number of respondents (i.e. students) in questions regarding the use of Nepali in English medium classes along with its causes and effects in the development of communicative competence in target language on the part of the students. Although there are various opinions regarding the frequency and purpose of the use of Nepali language while teaching in English medium, majority of them are of the opinion that the teachers sometime use Nepali for the understanding of the students. SO far as the vocabulary is concerned, the
specialized words require the use of Nepali while literary out of lexical. Among the abstract words, the religious concept and among the concrete words the name of commodities needs the use of Nepali. The grammatical words like preposition, conjunction and articles need to explain in Nepali. The passage with complex story and describing specialized field needs the use of Nepali language to explain new structure. Regarding the effect of code-switching, if the teachers always use Nepali language in English medium classes it hinders in learning English but proper use has situational effect. They think teachers should speak in Nepali when the situation demands but hey speak to explain own problems. Both teachers and students need code-switching because of cultural background, learning environment and the influence of the mother tongue. They think when the teachers want to teach by comparing two languages, they need to speak in Nepali. Social Studies demand the use of more Nepali than other subjects. They aim better communication, efficiency and cultural knowledge through learning better English. The Social Studies' teacher uses Nepali the most because it helps learning faster. They feel interesting to take all classes in English medium but they switch codes because of teachers' flexibility. They think compulsory English medium classes in all subjects help improving English but to improve the situation, the use of English language in classrooms should be encouraged.
3.3. Opinions of the Teachers Table No 10
Question No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
a 11 3 17 2 0 11 5 2 12 4 1 0 4 10 12
b 10 8 2 15 8 4 7 3 4 7 13 13 14 4 2
Number of Respondents c d Total 2 1 24 6 7 24 0 5 24 4 3 24 3 13 24 5 4 24 8 4 24 16 3 24 0 8 24 4 9 24 5 5 24 5 6 24 4 2 24 10 0 24 3 7 24
Remarks a=11 b=8 a=17 b=15 a=13 a=11 c=8 c=16 a=12 d=9 b=13 b=13 b=14 a=c=10 a=12
(Appendix B) Table No. 10 shows the opinion of the teachers with regard to codeswitching. It shows the causes, effects and ways to avoid code-switching in general. The teachers opine that code-switching is necessary to find the concept of items in questions and to get the meaning across to the students. Most of the teachers believe that concrete lexical words demand codeswitching though many of them think jargons demand code-switching. The abstract lexical words and the concrete words, which are concerned with names of commodities, demand code-switching. So far as the abstract lexical words are concerned, the words dealing with religious reference require codeswitching. The functional words like conjunction, articles and preposition need to be explained in Nepali language. In terms of the situation leading to
code-switching, the background of the learners and the existence of the multiplicity of languages seem equally responsible. The reading comprehension passages that have technical description, necessitates code-switching sometimes. Code-switching has positive impacts on target languages learning by facilitating understandings. As the aim of teaching a target language is to develop communicative competence in the target language, it should be controlled as far as possible. Though code-switching hinders in the development of communicative competence in the target language, it takes place because of students' weaknesses and the existence of multiplicity of languages. The only way to avoid code-switching, then, is to emphasis the use of the target language in the classrooms while teaching in English medium. 3.4. Suggestions from the Teachers The researcher asked the teachers for some suggestions regarding the need for improvement in the situation of English medium classes at secondary schools in Kathmandu valley. All the teachers are of one opinion regarding the importance and necessity of proper teacher training and orientation programmes on target language. They say that private schools should organize teachers' training and orientation classes frequently. Teaching profession should be made prestigious by increasing the facilities for the teachers and the future of the teachers should be guaranteed. The school administration should provide audio, visual and audio-visual aids to facilitate teaching. They also emphasize on the necessity of active and impartial administration, which could monitor, help and provide suggestion for avoiding code-switching.
Chapter IV Conclusion and Suggestions This part consists of the reasons that compel the teachers and the students to use Nepali language in the English medium classrooms in Katmandu Valley. It also consists of the factors, which are responsible for creating the situation of code-switching. It comprises the influence of codeswitching upon the development of communicative competence on the part of the learners. Besides them, it contains the ways to follow and steps to be taken to improve the situation of English medium classes at the secondary level. The analysis and interpretation of the data show that the teachers basically use Nepali language in English medium classes to give clear concept of the items or subjects in question. The teachers use Nepali in English medium classes to get the meaning across to the students. Similarly, some teachers use Nepali because they are not competent enough in English language or due to the background or poor learning environment. Influence of the mother tongue of both teachers and students is also one factor for this. Some teachers use Nepali because it is easier for them to explain things whereas some use Nepali words for merriments and enjoyment. But almost all the teachers use Nepali in English medium classes to facilitate understanding for the students. The research shows that it is the need of the teachers if only they teach comparing two languages in the classrooms. Likewise, the students largely use Nepali in English medium classes to explain their own problems but some use to ask question and give answers. Sometimes, they resort to code-switching only to create fun in classrooms. However, during the
researcher's visits, almost all the students remained well behaved and mostly silent in the classrooms. The factors, which are responsible for creating the situation of codeswitching, are as follows: The most responsible factor is the background of teachers and students. The existence of multiplicity of languages compels them to speak Nepali knowingly or unknowingly. Similarly, the abstract lexical words dealing with religions, geographical concepts, the reading comprehension passages that are unrelated to Nepali culture and with difficult words, specialized vocabulary and the literary words demand the use of Nepali. Social Studies are the subjects, which seem to necessitate the maximum use of code-switching, that is, the use of Nepali in English medium classes. This research shows that code-switching has mixed and situational effect. It facilitates understanding of learners and teachers feel easier to convey the message by its support. Since the goal of learning all subjects in English medium is not just the understanding of a language. If the teachers use Nepali language In English medium classrooms it hinders in learning English languages because the learners are deprived of the contextual use of the target language due to the interference of Nepali language. Thus code-switching in effect, is counterproductive. According to the use of Nepali language in English medium classes is only the best alternative to improve the situation. It is very tough job to control code-switching but can be minimized gradually. Discouraging the students to speak Nepali in the classrooms can control it. The most reasonable way to control, and finally avoid, code-switching is to emphasize the use of the target languages in the classrooms by encouraging
the students to speak in English be creating favorable environment for the contextual use of the items to be taught. Teachers expect reward and punishment system from the administration of school will help to control it. This study provides a reliable basic framework for further research in this particular area since it is the first authentic research in this particular field and of this specific nature to the best of the researcher's knowledge and belief. Yet, it might have many shortcomings and lapses that could be addressed through further exploration in the future. Therefore, the writer of this dissertation, on the basis of his experience, attempts to present some suggestions for the betterment of future research of this nature in this field. 1. The study area and population should be extended. 2. Comparative studies between private and public schools should be carried out to find out the situational differences between those schools. 3. The difference between trained and untrained teachers should be compared in terms of code-switching to find out the type of trainings or orientation the teachers may need. 4. The effect of code-switching and translation should be compared. 5. The classroom teaching should be observed without informing the teachers and the students. 6. Suggestions regarding the improvement of the situation of codeswitching should be collected from students and teachers. Then, there suggestions should be implemented practically.
Appendix A Questionnaire for the students of the selected school Name of School: -……………………… Name of Student (optional):-……………. Tick the best answers: 1. How often does your teacher use Nepali language while teaching in English medium? a) very often c) rarely d) b) sometimes occasionally Class: -…………… Time: - 30 Mins
2. Why do you think he/ she uses Nepali language? a) He / She is not competent in English language. b) It is easy for him/her to explain in Nepali language c) It is used for the understanding of the students. d) He / She enjoys using Nepali language in the classroom. 3. What type of vocabulary requires the use of Nepali language? a) lexical c) specialized b) grammatical d) all
4. What kind of lexical words demand the use of Nepali? a) concrete c) literary b) abstract d) technical
5. What kind of abstract words need Nepali? a) religious concept c) geographical concept b) Concept of time d) names of quality
6. What kind of concrete words need the use of Nepali? a) names of institution c) names of commodities b) names of plants and animals d) names of vehicle
7. What sort of grammatical words need to be explained in Nepali Language? a) Preposition c) articles b) Conjunction d) all
8. What kind of passage needs the use of Nepali language? a) having difficult words c) describing specialized field b) giving complex story d) unrelated to Nepali culture
9 Why is the use of Nepali language in English medium classroom necessary? a) to give meaning c) to have discussion b) to explain new structure d) to encourage the students to speak
10. What happens if the teacher always uses Nepali language in English medium classes? two languages c) It hinders in learning English languaged) It hinders in learning Nepali language 11. Does the use of Nepali language in English medium classroom facilitate learning? a) It helps learning b) It makes familiar with
a) No, it hinders c) it has situational effect
b) Yes, it facilitates d) it has no effect at all
12. For what purpose do you use Nepali language in English medium class? a) to ask question c) to deny to speak b) to give answers d) to explain own problem
13. How often do you feel the teacher should have used Nepali language ? a) very often c) rarely b) occasionally d) when the situation demands
14. Is this the students' or the teachers' need? a) teachers c) both b) students d) none
15. Why do the students' need to speak in Nepali? a) because of cultural background environment c) because of the influence of the mother tongue b) all of the above 16. In which cases the teachers need to speak in Nepali ? a) when the teacher is not familiar with English culture. b) when the teacher is not familiar with Nepali culture c) when the teacher wants to teach by comparing two languages d) when the teacher is not competent in the target language. b) because of learning
17. In your opinion, which subjects demand the use of Nepali language? a) English literature and grammar c) Mathematics 18. What is aim of learning better English? a) for better communication b) to be efficient in English d) all of the above b) Science and environment d) Social studies
c) to know foreign culture and knowledge 19. What should be the aim of learning a language?
a) it should enable the learners to understand the language b) it should enable the learners to speak the language c) it should enable the learners to speak the language appropriately d) it should enable the learners to write in the language 20. Which subject teacher speaks Nepali the most? a) English c) Science b) Math d) Social studies
21. Why do you think he/she speaks more Nepali language? a) He/she is incompetent to explain in English b) students demand Nepali words c) It helps learning faster d) all
22. What inspires you to speak Nepali language in English medium classes? a) school environment c) your poor language knowledge b) teachers flexibility d) family environment
23. How do you feel taking all classes in English medium except Nepali? a) interesting c) compulsion b) boring d) family pressure
24. What do you feel about compulsory English medium classes in all subjects? a) it helps for improving English c) it's imitation only b) I feel burdened
d) it shows less regard to mother tongue
25. How can we improve the situation? a) by encouraging the use of English language in classrooms. b) by encouraging the use Nepali language c) by using both languages in the classrooms d) all
Appendix B Questionnaire for the teachers of the selected schools School: -……………………………………………… Name of Teacher (optional): -………………………………… Subjects: -…………………………………………… Group A Tick (√) the best answers: 1. Why do you think of the need of code-switching? a) to get the meaning across to the students b) to give the concept of the items in questions c) to give instruction d) to accelerate the speed of teaching/ learning 2.What sort of lexical words demand code-switching? a) abstract c) jargons b) concrete d) rhetorical
3. What sort of concrete lexical words demand code-switching? a) names of commodities c) names of institutions b) names of vehicles d) names of plants and animals
4. What kind of abstract lexical word requires code-switching? a) names of quality c) temporal references b) religious references d) spatial references
5. What type of functional words requires code-switching? a) articles c) prepositions b) conjunctions d) all
6. What situation demands code-switching? a) technical fields c) convention b) rhetorical speech d) background of the Learners
7. What sort of comprehension passage necessitates code-switching? a) having complex story b) having difficult words
c) having technical description d) unrelated to Nepali culture 8. How often should code-switching be used? a) always c) sometimes b) never d) rarely
9. What impacts does code-switching have on target language learning? a) positive c) zero b) negative d) mixed
10. What is the most responsible factor to lead to code-switching? a) learners' background b) learners' weaknesses c) teachers' interest d) the existence of multiplicity of languages
11. If code-switching does have the positive impacts, in what way does it help? a) by developing communicative competence in the target language b) by facilitating understanding c) by enhancing interaction in the classrooms d) by increasing the speed of teaching /learning languages 12. What should be the aim of English medium classes? a) facilitating understanding in the mother tongue as well b) developing communicative competence in the target language c) enhancing understanding of the facts d) increasing the speed of teaching / learning 13. If the purpose of teaching a language is to develop communicative competence in the target, code-switching should be a) continued as it is b) controlled as far as possible c) avoided while teaching the target language
e) avoided completely if possible 14. If code-switching hinders in the development of communicative competence in the target language, why does it take place? a) because of students' weaknesses b) because of students' background
c) because of the existence of multiplicity of languages d) because of the interest of the teachers 15. How can we avoid code-switching , then? a) by emphasizing the use of the target language in the classrooms b) by conducting one way teaching c) by discouraging the students d) by using translation to a great extend Group B Answer the following questions 1. Have you taken teachers' training? how long? ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………........ 2. Did you study in private or public school? ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………........ 3. How long have you been in this profession? ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………........ 4. How many periods do take in a day? Is it appropriate? ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………........
5. Do you communicate in English outside the school premises? ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………........ 6. How often do use dictionary? How do use it? ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………........ 7. Who do you feel responsible for code-switching at school premises? Why? ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………........ 8. People blame that teachers' incompetence is the main cause of codeswitching? Do you agree? Why or why not? ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………........ 9. What should administration do for controlling code-switching? ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………........ 10. What suggestion would you like to give for improving the situation of English medium classes at secondary school in Nepal ? .......................................................................................……………................... .......................................................................................……………...................
Works Cited Dhungana, Devi Pd. "Code Mixing in English Language Classroom: A Discourse Analysis." Diss. Central Department of English, TU, Kathmandu, 2000. Gumperz, Robert. Language in Contact. The Hague: Mouton, 1987. Hudson, R.A. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: CUP, 1983. Labov, William. Examples of Code-switching. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971. Rai, Vishnu C. Psycholinguistics and Sociolinguistics, Bhundipuran Prakashan, Bagbazar, Kathmandu, 2005. Ray, R.B. "English Used in live Cricket Commentaries." Diss. Central Department of Education, TU, Kathmandu, 2005. Richards, Jack, John Platt and Heidi Weber. Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. Essex: Longman, 1985.
Subedi , Dinesh." English Code Mixing in the Gorkhapatra ."Diss. Central Department of Education, TU, Kathmandu, 2001. Poplack, William. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: CUP, 1980. Poudel, Ishwori Pd." Code-switching in TU Premises." Diss. Central Department of Education, TU, Kathmandu, 2005. Wardhaugh, Ronald. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. England: Basil Blackwell Limited, 1986.
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