You are on page 1of 49

AN ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION

FOR A PROPOSED NEW CEMETERY AT STORMS RIVER

PREPARED BY:

PREPARED FOR: SETPLAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING SERVICES CONSULTING TOWN PLANNERS P.O. BOX 2446 NORTH END 6056

JANUARY 2008

Tel: 041 373 8871 Fax: 041373 6549 Cell: 082 499 3140 PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057

Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................1 1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................1 1.2 LOCATION ......................................................................................................................................2 2 SITE DESCRIPTION.....................................................................................................................3 2.1 TOPOGRAPHY, DRAINAGE AND GEOMORPHOLOGY ........................................................................3 2.2 CLIMATE ........................................................................................................................................4 2.3 VEGETATION ..................................................................................................................................5 3 INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE................................................................................................6 3.1 DESK STUDY INVESTIGATION ........................................................................................................6 3.2 FIELD INVESTIGATION ....................................................................................................................6 3.3 LABORATORY AND SOIL TESTING ..................................................................................................6 Soil Testing Laboratory Data ...........................................................................................................7 4 GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT ...............................................................................................9 4.1 GEOLOGICAL FORMATION..........................................................................................................9 Kouga Formation..............................................................................................................................9 Baviaanskloof Formation..................................................................................................................9 4.2 GROUNDWATER ...........................................................................................................................10 5 ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL EVALUATION...................................................................11 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6 EXPANSIVE SOIL ..........................................................................................................................11 DISPERSIVE SOIL ..........................................................................................................................11 POTENTIALLY COLLAPSIBLE SOIL ................................................................................................12 COMPRESSIBLE HORIZONS ...........................................................................................................12

CEMETERY SITE SELECTION PROCEDURES ..................................................................13 6.1 BACKGROUND ..............................................................................................................................13 6.2 SITE SELECTION CRITERIA ...........................................................................................................13

EVALUATION OF THE STUDY AREA USING THE SELECTION CRITERIA ..............15 7.1 SOIL EXCAVATABILITY ................................................................................................................15 7.2 SOIL PERMEABILITY .....................................................................................................................15 7.3 POSITION IN RESPECT OF DOMESTIC WATER SOURCES ...............................................................16 7.4 POSITION IN RESPECT OF DRAINAGE FEATURES ..........................................................................16 7.5 SITE DRAINAGE............................................................................................................................17 7.6 SITE TOPOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................................17 7.7 BASAL BUFFER ZONE ...................................................................................................................17 7.8 GRAVE STABILITY........................................................................................................................18 8.9 SOIL WORKABILITY .....................................................................................................................18 7.10 CEMETERY SIZE .......................................................................................................................18

8 9 10

PROJECT OVERVIEW ..............................................................................................................19 REPORT PROVISIONS ..............................................................................................................20 REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................21

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

ii

Appendices
Appendix 1: Figures

Appendix 2:

Trial Pit Profiles

Appendix 3:

Laboratory Soil Results

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

1
1.1

Introduction
Background

A new cemetery site is required for the Storms River community in the south-western part of the Eastern Cape Province. The existing cemeteries in the area are unsuitable for cemetery purposes due to shallow bedrock conditions and perched water tables / flooding after wet periods. The remaining functional cemetery sites are also too small, located long distances away from the town and rapidly reaching full capacity. Six proposed cemetery candidate sites were selected by Setplan Settlement Planning Services in conjunction with the local Storms River community. Open pieces of land that appeared suitable from both an accessibility and vegetation area point of view were selected as potentially suitable sites and subjected to a more detailed engineering geological investigation. These candidate sites were also ranked by the Storms River community according to certain social criteria. The ranking of the candidate sites during this initial social and town planning site selection process is as follows: Candidate Site 1: Candidate Site 2: Candidate Site 3: Candidate Site 4: Candidate Site 5: Candidate site 6: Rugby Field (most preferred) Adjacent Rugby Field Keurboom Forest National Road Site Plantation Site Existing Goena cemetery (least preferred)

The engineering geological investigation was commissioned to determine which of the above candidate sites is the most suitable for cemetery site establishment based on the prevailing geological conditions. Cognisance was also taken of the recommended cemetery site selection criteria, public pedestrian and vehicular accessibility, and various Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) constraints (perched water table activity and proximity to drainage channels.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

The findings of the engineering geological investigation form the basis of the environmental investigation, which has been completed. Environmental authorisation is required from the Department of Economic Affairs Environment and Tourism (DEAET) in terms of current environmental legislation to rezone the candidate site for cemetery usage. Verbal instruction to undertake the engineering geological investigation was received from Mr Brendan Hindes of Setplan on Tuesday 1 November 2005. The field investigation was carried out on Wednesday 16 November 2005.

1.2

Location

The Storms River village is located about 5 km west of the Paul Sauer Bridge (Storms River Bridge / Tsitsikamma Total village tourist stop). The existing small cemetery at Goena (candidate site 6) visited during the field investigation is located adjacent to an electricity sub-station about 10 km south of the Storms River village. The remaining five candidate sites investigated during the field work are located in close proximity to the village town centre, with the two rugby field sites (candidate sites 1 and 2) located on the eastern outskirts, the Keurboom forest site on the north-eastern outskirts (between the town infrastructure and the N2 highway), the national road site to the north of the N2 highway and the plantation site to the west of Storms River, west of the perennial Witteklip River (Appendix 1, Figure 1). Each of the five candidate sites represents greenfield properties that have been deemed large enough from a town planning perspective. The candidate sites under investigation were selected by the planners and local authorities with input from the local community. The local community have ranked the candidate sites based on social criteria as outlined previously.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

2
2.1

Site Description
Topography, Drainage and Geomorphology

The study area is situated on a regional, flattened marine terrace which slopes very gently towards the south (seawards). Fluvial incision into the terrace (due to an ancient drop in sea-level), has resulted in a series of steep-sided river valleys in this area. The Witteklip River to the west of the Storms River village is located in one of these steep-sided gorges. A less prominent ephemeral drainage channel also occurs to the west of the preferred cemetery site and flows southwards through the central parts of the Storms River village. None of the candidate sites assessed during this investigation occur within drainage channel or obvious wetland environments. Candidate Site 1 (rugby field) This candidate site is located to the east of the Storms River village on flat ground with no significant fall. Surface run-off at this site would be problematic and drainage infrastructure would be required to prevent pounding of surface water in depressions after wet periods. This site occurs at a height of about 240 metres above mean sea-level. Candidate Site 2 (adjacent rugby field) This candidate site is located to the east of the Storms River village on flat ground with a very gentle southerly-sloping gradient. An ephemeral drainage channel flows towards the south-east about 150 metres south of the area investigated. This site occurs at a height of about 220 metres above mean sealevel. Candidate Site 3 (keurboom forest) This is the preferred candidate site according to the local community and is located to the north-east of the Storms River village on flat ground with a very gentle southerly-sloping gradient. An ephemeral drainage channel flows towards the south about 100 metres west of the area investigated. This site occurs at a height of about 250 metres above mean sea-level.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation Candidate Site 4 (national road)

This candidate site is located to the north-west of the Storms River village, north of the N2 highway. It is situated on gentle to moderately sloping ground with gradients to the north and north-west. The site is bound by the N2 highway to the south and the R102 roadway to the north. An ephemeral, northerly sloping drainage channel occurs to the north and north-west of this candidate site. This site occurs at a height of about 250 metres above mean sea-level. Candidate Site 5 (plantation) This candidate site is located to the west of the Storms River village on gently sloping ground with a north-easterly-sloping gradient. An ephemeral drainage channel flows towards the south-east about 100 metres east of the area investigated. This site occurs at a height of about 215 metres above mean sealevel. Candidate Site 6 (existing Goena cemetery) This candidate site is located to south of the Storms River village on gently sloping ground with a southerly-sloping gradient. An ephemeral drainage channel flows towards the east about 50 metres south of the area investigated. This site occurs at a height of about 245 metres above mean sea-level.

2.2

Climate

According to the South African Weather Bureau (WB40, 1988) moderate coastal climatic conditions prevail in the Storms River area. Rainfall varies between 950 mm and 1200 mm per annum falling throughout the year. Summer (January) temperatures vary from an average maximum of about 24 C to an average minimum of about 15 C, whilst winter (July) maximums and minimums are about 18 C and 8 C respectively. Winter months are generally dominated by south-westerly and westerly winds associated with passing low pressure (cold front) systems. During the summer months, high pressure systems result in easterly and south-easterly dominated wind storms. These high pressure systems also frequently bring mid-afternoon thunderstorms to the interior region.
Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

Weinerts climatic N number is approximately 1 implying that chemical weathering dominates over mechanical weathering. This has an influence on weathering rates down to competent bedrock in the Tsitsikamma region.

2.3

Vegetation

The candidate sites under investigation all occur on land where some sort of transformation has taken place and where pristine natural vegetation conditions no longer occur. The candidate sites near the rugby field complex are underlain by short grass, whilst the preferred site is dominated by mature Keurboom trees where an original pine plantation used to occur. Candidate site 4 is blanketed by tall Fynbos and thicket species (including alien vegetation infestation) and the plantation site occurs in cleared plantation lands. The existing candidate site occurs in a clearing adjacent to an existing plantation.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

3 Investigation Procedure
3.1 Desk Study Investigation

The investigation commenced with a desk study of all available information sources, including previous engineering geological investigations conducted in the Storms River area. This study gave an indication of the general environmental conditions, geology and soil profile to be expected. Potential engineering geological problems and cemetery constraints could also be identified.

3.2

Field Investigation

Field work took place on Wednesday 16 November 2005 when fifteen (15) trial pits were excavated within some of the proposed candidate sites. Four (4) trial pits were opened at candidate site 1 (rugby field), three (3) at candidate site 2 (adjacent rugby field), four (4) at the preferred site, candidate site 3 (Keurboom forest) and four (4) trial pits at the national road site (candidate site 4). All of the trial pits were opened using a JCB 3CX backactor made available by SANParks. Trial pits were not opened at candidate site 5 (plantation) and candidate site 6 (existing cemetery) as these sites were deemed unsuitable for the establishment of a new cemetery by the local community, based on planning and social reasons. The trial pit profiles are included in Appendix 2 of this engineering geological report, whilst the trial pit positions at the various candidate sites are indicated on the plans included in Appendix 1.

3.3

Laboratory and Soil Testing

Three (3) disturbed soil samples were taken from the trial pits for laboratory testing and subjected to Foundation Indicator testing as per TMH1 test methods A1 to A5. One sample was collected from candidate site 1 (rugby field), one from the preferred candidate site 3 (Keurboom forest) and one from the fourth candidate site (national road). Only sites that appeared to be potentially suitable for cemetery establishment were tested during field work, hence no disturbed samples were taken from trial pits opened in candidate site 2 (adjacent rugby field) during the field investigation.
Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

The disturbed samples are considered representative of the soil horizons occurring within the candidate sites under investigation. The laboratory soil testing was conducted by Ultralab Civil Engineering Services CC of Port Elizabeth. Soil sample depths are indicated in Table 1 and on the trial pit profiles in Appendix 2 of this report, whilst the laboratory soil test results are included in Appendix 3.

Soil Testing Laboratory Data


The disturbed samples tested during this investigation are considered representative of the natural soil horizons occurring within the candidate sites assessed. The laboratory soil testing was conducted by Ultralab Civil Engineering Services CC of Port Elizabeth. Details regarding the sampling position (trial pit number), sampling depth and laboratory testing procedures are indicated in Table 1 below. Table 1: Disturbed soil sample testing details.
Trial Pit No RF3 KF4 NR1 Sample No RF3A KF4A NR1A Sampling Depth (below surface) 0,3 to 0,8 metres 0,5 to 1,0 metres 1,0 to 1,5 metres Laboratory Testing Foundation Indicator Foundation Indicator Foundation Indicator

The following abbreviations apply to Table 1: RF: KF: NR: Rugby Field candidate site (site 1) Keurboom Forest candidate site (site 3) National Road candidate site (site 4)

Foundation Indicator laboratory results are summarised in Table 2 overleaf. These laboratory results were used to substantiate conditions described in Chapter 5 of this report.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation Table 2: Summarised Foundation Indicator laboratory results.
Sample No. Clay Content (%) Liquid Limit (%) Plasticity Index (fines) Linear Shrinkage (%) Heave Permeability (cm/s) Horizon

NR1A KF4A RF3A

12 4 6

34 21 22

17 7 6

8.0 3.0 2.5

Medium (8 mm) low low

9,0 x 10-6 1,6 x 10-5 < 1 x 10-6

Sandy Clay Colluvium Weathered bedrock Weathered bedrock

The following abbreviations and definitions apply to Table 2: LL: Liquid Limit. PI: Plasticity Index (fines less than 0.002 mm) LS: Linear Shrinkage. Heave: According to Van der Merwes method. Permeability: Using Hazens formula (k = 100D102). Horizon: As per Chapter 4.2 of this report.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

Geological Environment

According to the 1:250 000 Geological Map (3322 OUDTSHOORN) published by the Geological Survey of South Africa, the study area may be underlain by either the Kouga Formation or the Baviaanskloof Formation (or both - Kouga Formation to the north and Baviaanskloof Formation to the south). Both of these formations represent quartzitic sandstone bedrock and are both overturned in the Storms River area.

4.1

Geological Formation

Kouga Formation
The Kouga Formation is an Eastern Cape equivalent of the Skurweberg Formation in the Western Cape. The Kouga Formation also forms part of the Nardouw Subgroup, Table Mountain Group of the Cape Supergroup. This formation generally comprises thickly-bedded, medium to coarse grained, whiteweathering quartzitic sandstone, which is usually about 200 to 400 metres thick. Data collected during the field investigation suggests that quartzitic sandstone occurs at shallow to moderate depth throughout all of the candidate sites assessed.

Baviaanskloof Formation
The Baviaanskloof Formation (also of the Nardouw Subgroup, Table Mountain Group of the Cape Supergroup) generally comprises fine-grained structureless sandstone and sub-ordinate black shale. This formation attains thicknesses of between about 180 and 200 metres and conformably overlays the abovementioned Kouga Formation. Data collected during the field investigation suggests that quartzitic sandstone occurs at shallow to moderate depth throughout all of the candidate sites assessed.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

10

4.2

Groundwater

Perched water tables were encountered in trial pits opened at candidate site 1 (rugby field), candidate site 2 (adjacent rugby field) and candidate site 4 (national road) during the field investigation. Considering the geological conditions (weathered clay over shallow bedrock) in the Storms River area, the gentle topography and very high rainfall the presence of perched water tables is virtually guaranteed throughout the region and would probably occur in all six candidate sites assessed during this investigation. From a hydrological perspective, therefore, the candidate site that is best placed would be the preferred site as perfect hydrological conditions for cemetery establishment in the Storms River area is unlikely to occur. Hydrological constraints to be aware of when planning a cemetery in the region include distances from surface drainage channels and adequate depths down to competent bedrock (associated perched water tables).

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

11

4 Engineering Geological Evaluation


The engineering geological evaluation is based on the results of the desk study, observations and interpretations made on site, the laboratory results (see Appendix 3) and previous investigations conducted in the region. A broad overview of the geotechnical constraints that are predicted to occur within the study area based on the findings during this investigation are as follows:

5.1

Expansive Soil

The clayey colluviums encountered at candidate site 4 (sample NR1A) proved medium expansive with a heave value of about 8 mm. The laboratory results suggest that expansive clay may be a factor in the area. No evidence of expansive clayey conditions were noted in the preferred candidate site 3 (keurboom forest) but the occurrence of such expansive clayey material cannot be ignored. Field evidence such as thick clayey material, slickensiding and dessication cracks frequently suggest expansive conditions. If such heave indicators are noted during site clearing and construction then cemetery infrastructure should be designed with expansive clay in mind.

5.2

Dispersive Soil

Clay is an assemblage of microscopic platelets, which are held together by various forces. A high percentage of sodium cations in the clay cause the platelets to be loosely bound. Should water with a low concentration of dissolved salts (such as rainwater) find an initial micro-channel in such a soil mass, the loosely held platelets will disperse and be carried away resulting in soil erosion and piping. No significant erosion problems are predicted at the preferred cemetery site, however, as the prevailing grades are too low to encourage significant surface water flow or seepage, required to facilitate erosion scour. Disturbed footprints should, nevertheless, be covered with natural vegetation as soon as possible to limit exposure of the sub-soil environment to the atmosphere.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

12

5.3

Potentially Collapsible Soil

A soil with a collapsible fabric is defined as a soil that can withstand relatively large imposed stresses with small settlements at low in situ soil moisture content, but which will exhibit a decrease in volume and associated settlement with no increase in the applied stress if wetting up occurs. The change in volume is associated with a change in the soil fabric (collapse of grain structure) and is applied to an additional settlement, which occurs due to the wetting up of partially saturated subsoil, which has a collapsible fabric. According to the laboratory results none of the samples tested proved collapsible. This was confirmed by comparing the sample grading curves with Knight (1961) and Erreras (1977) grading envelopes for collapse potential. This is not, therefore, considered a significant constraint and precautions to counter heave will reduce any effect of collapse potential across the site.

5.4

Compressible Horizons

In a dry state the topsoil is slightly compressible, whereas the colluvium and weathered bedrock would become compressible under saturated conditions. Soil saturation and compressibility would also be exacerbated by the flat grades across the site.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

13

6
6.1

Cemetery Site Selection Procedures


Background

Cemeteries have a fairly severe pollution potential, especially if sited incorrectly. Leachate produced in a cemetery is of a pathogenic nature and can pollute surface water features and ground water if located too close. The bacteriological, virological and parasitic organisms in this leachate have been shown to travel far greater distances within the soil and ground water than previously thought and that the lifespan of some organisms (especially viruses) within the ground water is sufficiently long to pose contamination problems hundreds of metres away under certain conditions. Ground water is a vital resource in the Eastern Cape Province and adequate measures should, therefore, be taken to prevent such additional pollution. To counter the pollution potential of a cemetery site, which is of at least equal magnitude as that posed by a conventional waste disposal site a set of ten criteria has been applied to this site to establish its suitability for cemetery purposes. These criteria, if adhered to should ensure the correct siting of any cemetery. The selected site at Storms River should also comply with the recommended criteria as set out below. Performance of this site in relation to the criteria is discussed in Chapter 7 of this engineering geological report.

6.2

Site Selection Criteria

The cemetery site selection criteria are not only designed to counter pollution problems but also take cognisance of other constraints such as slope, shallow bedrock and soil stability. The ten criteria are mentioned below with a brief description of each. Soil Excavatibility: A minimum excavatable depth of 1,8 metres is preferred for cemetery purposes, although depths exceeding 2 metres would be more desirable. Soil Permeability: Soil permeabilities should preferably fall between the following limits: 1 X 107 cm per second and 1 X 10-4 cm per second. Too high permeabilities would allow rapid leachate spread and too low permeabilities would inhibit the decomposition process.
Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

14

Position in Respect of Domestic Water Sources: Minimum safe distances between a cemetery and domestic water source such as a borehole or storage dam would be between 100 and 450 metres in the Storms River area depending on the prevailing soil permeabilities. Position in Respect of Drainage Features: Minimum safe distances between a cemetery and drainage feature, would be between 50 and 150 metres, once again depending on the prevailing soil permeabilities. Site Drainage: Good site drainage is required to firstly prevent soil erosion and secondly to prevent ponding, marshy conditions, unnecessary water ingress and cemetery degradation. Site Topography: A gradient of between 2 and 6 is considered ideal for cemetery purposes. This slope range will ensure adequate drainage, minimise erosion and promote human and mechanical mobility on site. Basal Buffer Zone: A basal buffer zone refers to the soil succession between the base of the deepest grave and the water table. The buffer zone is essentially a barrier between the source of pollution and the valuable water resource. A buffer zone of at least 2,5 metres is preferred. Grave Stability: Competence of the grave verge is important for a number of reasons, the most prominent being that a few days usually elapses between excavation and use, hence the need for a few days of stand up time. Soil Workability: This refers to the ease at which the soil can be manipulated in and out of the graves. Cemetery Size: A minimum sized cemetery to justify the costs of investigation and implementation is recommended. The 2,9 hectare site should be suitable for the Storms River community for at least 15 years (assume burial rates of about 10 burials per month).

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

15

Evaluation Of The Study Area Using The Selection Criteria

Evaluation of the study area in terms of the ten cemetery site selection criteria reveals that candidate site 3 (keurboom forest) to the north/ north-east of the Storms River village is generally the most suitable for cemetery purposes. A few minor constraints do, however, occur at this site that is common to the region.

7.1

Soil Excavatability

Trial pit depths revealed during the field investigation proved highly variable in all candidate sites subjected to trial pit excavation. Trial pit depths ranged from 1,1 to 1,5 at candidate site 1 (rugby field), 0,7 to 0,8 metres at candidate site 2 (adjacent rugby field), 0,8 and 1,8 metres at candidate site 3 (keurboom forest) and 0,9 and 2,2 metres below surface at candidate site 4 (national road). Minimum excavatable depths of 1,8 metres are preferred for cemetery purposes, which was only attained at candidate site 3 (preferred site) and candidate site 4. The other sites are deemed unsuitable for cemetery site establishment based on soil excavatability requirements.

7.2

Soil Permeability

Soil permeabilities are marginal with regards the recommended limits. The permeability tests revealed permeability rates (determined using Hazens formula) of between < 1,0 X 10-6 (impervious) and 1,6 X 10-5 (semi-pervious to impervious) cm per second (see Table 2). On site permeabilities generally appear to fall outside the upper permeability limit (10-4 cm per second) and the site is, therefore, considered marginally acceptable in terms of the recommended soil permeability range. The preferred site reveals permeability values closest to the preferred values of the candidate sites assessed during this investigation.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

16

7.3

Position In Respect Of Domestic Water Sources

The minimum safe distance between this cemetery and a domestic water source would be about 100 to 150 metres (based on a number of factors, including soil permeability, climate and soil moisture conditions). As far as could be ascertained the nearest domestic water source is well outside this distance. The underlying quartzitic sandstone is a good aquifer, but is isolated from the surface by impervious clayey material (colluviums and completely weathered bedrock). A row of indigenous trees should, nevertheless, be planted around the cemetery. Apart from the aesthetic qualities, trees also tend to absorb large quantities of polluted water from the soil. Exotic tree species should be avoided as far as possible in this regard.

7.4

Position In Respect Of Drainage Features

The minimum safe distance between the cemetery boundary (preferred candidate site) and the surrounding drainage feature to the west, should be about 50 metres. This safe distance is derived from available literature and based on the prevailing conditions in the area. This minimum safe distance implies that the entire study area may not be suitable for cemetery purposes. The cemeteries western boundary would have to move to ensure a minimum distance of 50 metres from the neighbouring drainage channel is attained. This area may, however, be suitable for alternative land uses such as parking facilities or other cemetery related infrastructure that does not involve burial.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

17

7.5

Site Drainage

Site drainage appears to be moderately problematic for the establishment of a cemetery at the site. This is one of the inevitable flaws with cemetery sites in Storms River area as the region is characterised by flat and gentle grades in response to the marine terrace origins of the land surface. An effective on site drainage system should, therefore, be constructed across the study area. This system could include a soil berm around the upper northern and north-eastern section of the preferred cemetery site, which would prevent excess sheet-wash from entering the site. In addition, artificially sloping drainage ditches should be located along access roads and paths, thus collecting run-off from the high-lying areas and rapidly channelling it away from the site towards the south and south-west. Grass cover and trees would also improve site drainage.

7.6

Site Topography

Site topography ties in with site drainage. Gentle slopes with a southerly to south-westerly sloping gradient of less than 1 occur across the preferred site. These gradients not are regarded as ideal for the establishment of cemetery sites, but there are very few alternative sites in the Storms River area. The marginal slopes in the study area are regarded as an acceptable trade-off for the establishment of a cemetery site, as this criteria is not considered a fatal flaw. Surface drainage conditions can also be improved by using certain engineering options. As far as possible, burial should always commence in the lower lying areas and proceed towards the higher lying land. This is done so that grave diggers are not exposed to polluted soil and seepage from higher lying graves. Graves should also be orientated parallel to the contours as far as possible. T his will reduce leachate seepage velocities. The issue of grave orientation is, however, not always flexible as certain communities insist on a specific grave orientation from a religious and cultural point of view.

7.7

Basal Buffer Zone

A marginal adequate basal buffer zone occurs in parts of the study area. The basal buffer zone generally consists of sandy clay colluviums and weathered bedrock. Ground water is generally not associated with this transported horizon, which forms an impervious buffer between the grave site and the residual mudstone and sandstone aquifer at depth. The impervious nature of these clayey material renders a thinner basal buffer zone acceptable for a cemetery site in this region. Basal buffer zones are also not considered a fatal flaw and should adequate burial depth be achieved at a cemetery site the depth to competent bedrock is not an overly significant constraint.
Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

18

7.8

Grave Stability

Soil consistencies are generally in the soft to firm and occasionally stiff range for the colluvium and weathered bedrock. This facilitates ideal grave stability conditions, although hand excavation may prove slightly difficult during dry periods.

8.9

Soil Workability

Soil workability is generally satisfactory although the more clayey material may be less workable after prolonged dry periods. This is, however, only a minor constraint and should not detract from overall site suitability for cemetery purposes.

7.10 Cemetery Size


The preferred cemetery site covers a surface area of about 2,92 ha (29 200 m2). It has been assumed that a 20 metre buffer will be established along the western boundary due to the proximity of the ephemeral drainage channel and a further 25% of the property is lost to accommodate vegetation clumps in the layout plan. This suggests that about 18 000 m2 will be available for burial purposes at the cemetery once established. Planning records suggest that the Storms River community buries about 4 to 5 persons per month (data obtained from SA Police Services records). For planning purposes it has been assumed that a maximum of 10 burials will take place at Storms River per month. This implies about 1 200 graves over a 10-year period, which will cover a surface area of about 9 290 m2 under a conventional cemetery layout. Increased burials of between about 1 500 and 2 000 graves over a 15 year period will occupy a footprint of about 15 400 m2. The preferred site, therefore, has sufficient surface area to conservatively meet the requirements of the Storms River community for 15 years, which is deemed adequate for planning purposes.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

19

Project Overview

The Storms River village does not have access to a suitable cemetery that meets the standard cemetery selection criteria and the existing cemetery at Goena is deemed unacceptable by the community for social reasons. Numerous candidate cemetery sites were selected by the local authorities, planners and the local community for assessment as potentially suitable cemetery sites. These candidate sites have been subjected to an environmental investigation and engineering geological assessment to confirm suitability for cemetery purposes. The engineering geological investigation showed that the regional marine terrace in the Tsitsikamma region is characterised by flat grades, shallow bedrock, a surficial weathered clayey horizon and perched water tables. These ground conditions are problematic for the establishment of a cemetery, which implies that not all of the cemetery selection criteria can be strictly applied to sites under investigation in this region. Cemetery site selction constraints common to the region include shallow depth of soil to bedrock, impervious soil permeabilities, proximity to drainage channels, site drainage and basal buffer zones. constraints identified at this site include dispersive soil, collapse potential, compressible soil with These constraints are surmountable but may result in additional costs to manage the constraints such as poor surface drainage and create buffer zoned from drainage features. Based on the findings of this engineering geological report, the candidate site that proved to be the most suitable as it complied with more of the cemetery site selection criteria then any of the other sites assessed. This site also proved ot be the preferred site by the local community. Candidate sites 5 (plantation) and 6 (existing cemetery) were not assessed during the geological investigation as they were eliminated from the process by the local community based on social constraints (distance from Storms River, cemetery size and suitability for burials).

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

20

9 Report Provisions
This investigation is aimed at providing the project engineers with an indication of the suitability of the candidate site for cemetery establishment purposes. The preferred candidate site should also be assessed based on the compliance with the preferred cemetery site selection criteria. Fortunately the engineering geological investigation found that the site that is preferred by the local community also proves to be the most suitable in terms of the standard cemetery site selection criteria. This preferred cemetery site is also deemed acceptable by the local authorities, including the SANParks and DWAF (landowners). It is, therefore, recommended that should a cemetery be established in the Storms River area that candidate site 3 (Keurboom forest) be used and that the other candidate sites assessed during this investigation be ignored.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

Storms River Cemetery: Engineering Geological Investigation

21

10 References
Brink A. B. A. (1981). Engineering Geology of Southern Africa, Vol. 2. Building Publications, Pretoria. Brink A. B. A. (1983). Engineering Geology of Southern Africa, Vol. 3. Building Publications, Pretoria. Brink A. B. A. (1985). Engineering Geology of Southern Africa, Vol. 4. Building Publications, Pretoria. Brink A. B. A., Partridge T. C. & Williams A. A. B. (1980). Soil Survey for Engineering, Caledon Press - Oxford. Frankipile South Africa (Pty) Ltd. (1995). A guide to practical Geotechnical Engineering in South Africa. Jennings J. E., Brink A. B. A., Williams A. A. B. (1973). Revised Guide to Soil Profiling for Civil Engineering Purposes in South Africa. Trans. SAICE. Vol. 15, No.1, Jan. 1973. Johnson, M. R. and le Roux, F. G. 1994. The Geology of the Grahamstown Area. Explanation booklet for Council for Geoscience sheet 3326 (1:250 000 scale). Government Printer, Pretoria. Knight, K. (1961). The collapse structure of sand sub-soils on wetting. PhD thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Lewis, C. A. 1996. The Geomorphology of the Eastern Cape. Grocott & Sherry Publishers. Rahn, P. H. (1996). Engineering Geology, an Environmental Approach. Prentice Hall P T R, pp 657. Van Der Merwe, D. H. (1964). The prediction of heave from the plasticity index and percentage clay fraction of soils. Transactions of the South African Institute of Civil Engineers, Volume 6, No 6, pp103 to 107. Weather Bureau (1998). Climate of South Africa - Climate statistics: 1961 to 1990 (WB42). Government Printer, Pretoria. Weinert H. H. (1980). The Natural Road Construction Materials of Southern Africa. Academica, Cape Town.

Geological and Environmental Services PO Box 27996 GREENACRES 6057 Tel: 041 373 8871 Cell: 082 499 3140

APPENDIX 1 STORMS RIVER CEMETERY GEOTECH INVESTIGATION Figures

Locality

H Site 4:National Road ! H Site 5:Plantation !


Forestry Station

PLAATBOS NATURE RESERVE

STORMS RIVER VILLAGE

1:150,000

H Site 3:Keurboom Forest !

Legend

H !

CANDIDATE SITE

H Site 2:Adjacent Rugby Field !

H Site 1:Rugby Field !

ROAD N2 National Route Other

Notes and Amendments:

Akkerlaan Forestry Housing

Scale:

1:15,000

STORMS RIVER CEMETERY Geotechnical Investigation


FIGURE 1 Locality plan of candidate cemetery sites Client: KouKamma Municipality

H Site 6:Existing Cemetery !


Date: February 2006 Plan No: KK/Storms/01a

LIMITS OF LIABILITY and DISCLAIMER of WARRANTY Setplan PE makes no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to the data and shall not be held liable in any event for any incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of this data. The data remains the sole property of the C LIENT and may only be used with the prior written approval of the CLIENT.

Locality

PLAATBOS NATURE RESERVE

STORMS RIVER VILLAGE

1:150,000

H !
RF4 (23.89008E -33.97402S)

Forestry Station

395

Legend

! H H !
ROAD

CANDIDATE SITE TRAIL PIT LOCATION

N2 National Route

! H H !

Site 1:Rugby Field

Other Access CONTOUR (20m) PROPERTY BOUNDARY

RF1 (23.89152E -33.97525S)

RF2 (23.8915E -33.97548S) 578

H !
Notes and Amendments:

RF3 (23.892E -33.97562S)

H !

Site 2:Adjacent Rugby Field

ARF1 (23.89052E -33.97585S)


Akkerlaan Forestry Housing

Scale:

1:1,500

H !
ARF2 (23.89168E -33.97638S)

STORMS RIVER CEMETERY Geotechnical Investigation

H !
ARF3 (23.89235E -33.97663S)

FIGURES 2 & 3 trail pit locations at Sites 1 and 2 as alternative cemetery sites Client: KouKamma Municipality

Date: February 2006

Plan No: KK/Storms/01b

395

LIMITS OF LIABILITY and DISCLAIMER of WARRANTY Setplan PE makes no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to the data and shall not be held liable in any event for any incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of this data. The data remains the sole property of the C LIENT and may only be used with the prior written approval of the CLIENT.

Locality 118

STORMS RIVER VILLAGE

1:150,000

Legend

! H H !
ROAD

CANDIDATE SITE TRAIL PIT LOCATION

N2 National Route

Site 3:Keurboom Forest

Other Access

! H

KF1 (23.89078E -33.96802S)

CONTOUR (20m) PROPERTY BOUNDARY

H !
395

KF2 (23.89098E -33.96808S)

578

H !
KF3 (23.89072E -33.96853S)

Notes and Amendments:

H !
KF4 (23.89068E -33.96875S) Scale: 1:1,500

STORMS RIVER CEMETERY Geotechnical Investigation


FIGURE 4 trail pit locations at Site 3 as alternative cemetery sites Client: KouKamma Municipality

Date: February 2006

Plan No: KK/Storms/01c

LIMITS OF LIABILITY and DISCLAIMER of WARRANTY Setplan PE makes no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to the data and shall not be held liable in any event for any incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of this data. The data remains the sole property of the C LIENT and may only be used with the prior written approval of the CLIENT.

Locality

STORMS RIVER VILLAGE

1:150,000

118

H !
NR4 (23.87517E -33.96492S)

! H

Site 4:National Road

Legend

NR1 (23.87623E -33.96512S)

H !
NR2 (23.87683E -33.9652S)

! H H !
ROAD

CANDIDATE SITE TRAIL PIT LOCATION

N2 National Route

H !
NR3 (23.87825E -33.9655S)

Other Access CONTOUR (20m) PROPERTY BOUNDARY

259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 176 269 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 256 255 254 253 252 251 250 216 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 177 178 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 286 287 296 295 294 293 292 291 290 311 343 288 289 312 122

Notes and Amendments:

172 215 214 213 212

173 174

175

STORMSRIVIER WEST

Scale:

1:1,500

STORMS RIVER CEMETERY Geotechnical Investigation


FIGURE 5 trail pit locations at Site 4 as alternative cemetery sites Client: KouKamma Municipality

279 280 281 282 283 284 285

297 310 309 308 307 306 305 622 298 299 300 301 302 Date: February 2006 Plan No: KK/Storms/01d

LIMITS OF LIABILITY and DISCLAIMER of WARRANTY Setplan PE makes no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to the data and shall not be held liable in any event for any incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of this data. The data remains the sole property of the C LIENT and may only be used with the prior written approval of the CLIENT.

APPENDIX 2 STORMS RIVER CEMETERY GEOTECH INVESTIGATION Trial Pit Profiles