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PROF. DR. IR. H.

HARDINSYAH, MS

Lahir di Pekanbaru Riau 7 Agustus, gelar S1 &S2 di IPB, Gelar PhD in Nutrition & Food di University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Ketua Komisi Penghargaan&Tanda Kehormatan, Dewan Guru Besar IPB Ketua Umum PERGIZI PANGAN Indonesia. Ketua Umum AP-CSR-Indonesia Nara sumber dan konsultan paruh waktu pada lembaga swasta dan pemerintah. Penulis dan nara sumber di berbagai media. Penghargaan: Pelajar Teladan Pekanbaru, 1977, Peserta terbaik Pelatihan Kepemimpinan Pemuda, 1990. Dosen Teladan Faperta dan Dosen Teladan IPB 1997.The Best participant on International Training on Community Development 2005. Penulis artikel terbaik (inovasi) Jurnal Kedokteran 2009. Pernah : Ketua Departemen GMSK Faperta IPB, Direktur Pusat Studi Kebijakan Pangan dan Gizi IPB, Direktur Kerjasama IPB, Dekan Fakultas Ekologi Manusi a (FEMA) IPB, visiting Scholar di Cornell University-USA. Ketua PERSAGI, Sekjen PERGIZI PANGAN Indonesia Alamat : Wijaya Kesuman Raya no 45 Taman Yasmin Sektor I Bogor Hp 08129192259, Email hardinsyah2010@gmail.com

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Physiological and Nutritional Aspects of Glutamate
Malang, June 4th 2010

Prof. Dr. Ir. Hardinsyah, MS Community Nutrition Department Faculty of Human Ecology (FEMA) Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) 2010

Physiological and Nutritional Aspects of Glutamates
   Umami & Glutamate Intake & Physiological Aspect of Glutamate Nutritional Aspects of MSG

1. Umami and Glutamate
Umami taste has been established as one of the five basic tastes, distinct from the other basic tastes such as saltiness, bitterness, sourness and sweetness. The discovery of umami taste of glutamate : by Prof. Dr. Kikunae Ikeda (1908) of Tokyo Imperial University He wanted to commercialize the component of kombu (a type of seaweed) that produces umami taste of glutamate as seasoning.

Dried kombu

Dashi is a traditional Japanese food known since a thousand years ago Made from stock of: 1) dried kombu (a seaweed/kelp), or 2) katsuobushi (bonito – dried tuna, or 3) dried shiitake.

Bonito

An attentive taster will find out something common in the complicated taste of asparagus, tomatoes, cheese and meat, which is quite peculiar and cannot be classed under any of the well defined four taste qualities, sweet, sour, salty and bitter (Prof. Kikunae. Ikeda’s , 1912)

Components of Umami Taste: Glutamate. IMP and GMP in low concentration of the amino acid 1908 1913 1957 Kikunae Ikeda Shintaro Kodama Akira Kuninaka Glutamate Dari Dashi Inosinate Dari Bonito (tuna kering) Guanylate Dari Shiitake 6 . IMP (disodium 5’inosine monophosphate) and GMP (disodium 5’-guanosine monophosphate).

• Japanese food: kombu (glutamate) + bonito (IMP) + shiitake (GMP) • Chinese food : cabbage and leeks (glutamate) + chicken bones (IMP) • Westerrn food : onions. IMP. called taste-mGluR4. and GMP. carrots.• Akira Kuninaka (1990) found a umami synergism among glutamate. . • Major world cuisines traditionally relied on umami synergy for deliciousness of foods. celery (glutamate) + meat or fish (IMP) • Chaudhari et al. (2000) found taste recseptor for glutamate.

Umami Taste Found Every Where .

and added glutamate Scientific evidence for the physiological significance of FG foods has accumulated over a century since its first discovery.2. . Intake & Physiological Aspect of Glutamate Glutamate: • Bound glutamate: protein • Free glutamate: naturally occurring.

. Glutamic acid.N.18.20 % BW is protein 20 % protein is glutamate Glutamate is a non-essential AA (made in the body as well from food intake) STABLE ISOTOPE TRACER STUDY ON A 60KG MALE: 1400g Glutamate (free and bound) is stored 41g free glutamate has to be produced everyday Munro H. 1979 10 .

Umami Taste of Glutamate in Breast Milk Davis et al. 1994 Intake of FG from Breastmilk: 36 mg/kg BW/d Intake of BG (bound glutamate) : 357 mg/kg BW/d 11 . Nutr. J.

asp .net/bluediamond/content.directfood.FREE GLUTAMATE CONTENT OF FOODS (MG/100G) COW'S MILK HUMAN MILK EGGS BEEF FISH (MACKEREL) CHICKEN POTATOES CORN OYSTERS TOMATOES 2 22 23 33 36 44 102 130 137 140 BROCCOLI MUSHROOMS PEAS GRAPE JUICE FRESH TOMATO JUICE WALNUTS SOY SAUCE PARMESAN CHEESE ROQUEFORT CHEESE 176 180 200 258 260 658 1090 1200 1280 http://www.

Bound glutamate Milk/Milk products Cow Human Parmesan Cheese Poultry products Eggs Chicken Duck 819 229 9.309 3.583 3.636 23 44 69 .847 Free glutamate 2 22 1200 1.

Konsumsi total glutamat .

0 3.MSG Intake (g/cap/d) No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Country Jepang Taiwan Philippine Indonesia (Jkt) USA UK Canada Dunia Intake of MSG (g/cap/day) 2.0 0.75 .6 0.5 0.1 (Kota) 1.0 0.7 (Desa) -1.6 0.

41 63.76 0.67 0.29 1.77 46.88 .74 9.63 544.96 1.02 1.90 0.71 12.76 10. Indonesia No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Seasoning / condiment items Premix seasoning Ready to use seasoning Oyster & fish sauce Seasoned flour Fermented fish/shrimp paste Salty soybean sauce Teriyaki & others Tomato sauce Chili sauce Sweet soy sauce FG (mg/g) Rural Urban 70. 2007) 804.31 MSG (SEAFAST IPB.87 2.66 15.33 11.78 4.FG Intake from Seasoning.

(%) 100 Glutamate Cotent in Tomato Depends on Its Ripening level (Color) Glutamate 80 & 60 Guanylate 40 20 0 Glutamate 5'-GMP Green Pink Red Full ripe 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Asp Ser Glu Gly Ala Val Met Ile Leu TyrPhe Lys His Arg .

Glutamate Content Increases during Processing Weak Free Glu in raw fish 140mg/100g Autolysis Free Glu in fresh milk 1mg/100g Enzymatic & Fermentation+ 2 year storage Umami Free Glumate in fish sauce 1370mg/100g Strong Free Glu in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese 1680mg/100g 18 .

tomato. Onion&palm oil Stir fry crushed Sambal Terasi 0 Raw material SEAFAST IPB (2007) After frying Final product 19 .F r e e g lu t a m a t e ( m g /1 0 0 g ) Changes in Free Glutamate content in sambal terasi 400 317 272 247 200 Ingredients: terasi. red chilli. palm sugar.

arginine and proline by small intestinal mucosa.specific precursor for the biosynthesis of glutathione. . accounting for half of the energy consumed during digestion. J.about 95% of dietary glutamate presented to the mucosa was metabolized in first pass (P.Glutamate functions: 1) neurotransmission and 2) cell metabolism (IGO. Reeds et al. J. .initiate energy source for the intestines. Nutr 2000) 20 . 2000) .Roles of glutamate .

The brain and the muscles are most hungry for glutame .

Glutamate (Glu) release (+) or uptake (-) Extracellular and intracellular glutamine (Gln) or glutathione (GSH) hydrolytic sites are represented as PIG and PDG gene expression. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 277: 477-480 . Glutamine and alanine synthesis sites are represented by glutamine synthetase (GS) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT). Hediger &Welbourne (1999).

There is no evidence for brain damage in humans resulting from dietary glutamate. By Brian S.130:1007S-1015S. Three families of ionotropic receptors with intrinsic cation permeable channels: 1) N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA).Journal of Nutrition.) Glutamate as a Neurotransmitter in the Brain: Review of Physiology and Pathology. Meldrum (UK) Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in brain. Three groups of metabotropic: 1) G protein–coupled glutamate receptors (mGluR) that modify neuronal and glial excitability through G protein subunits acting on membrane ion channels and second messengers such as diacylglycerol and cAMP. . 2) Amino-3hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA). 2000. and 3) kainate. Glutamate is the most abundant amino acid in the diet.

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Studies from College of Medical. Kanazawa University (2009): Glutamate is one of the most often-utilized amino acids for the orchestration of the network among the cells in the brain. Glutamate is one of the most essential factors/elements for the plasticity of the brain architecture. such as memory and learning. .

3. Nutritional Aspects of MSG O HO C C H2 H2 H C O C O Glutamat Glutam atate ate BM 147 NH3 O HO C C H2 H2 O H C C O Na NH2 MSG BM 188 (glutamate= 147. Water=18) . Na=23.

Sodium Content in MSG MSG C5H8O4NNa.H2O Sodium 12% Glutamate (Free-L) 78% Water 10% Sodium Content in Salt Salt (NaCl) Sodium 40% Chloride 60 % 27 .

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6. 3. 2. MPS SENDI HIPERTENSI JANTUNG ASMA DIABETES STROKE : 30.3% : 29.8% : 7. 5.0% : 1.HYPERTENTION is the Second Major Chronic Degenertive Deseases in Indonesia (Riskesdas. 4. 2007) Sodium is one of the risk factors 1. Marudut.1% : 0.2% : 4.8% 29 .

25 g) MSG provide 150 mg sodium 30 1/ 4 .Recommended daily sodium intake by WHO/FAO (2000) is < 2000 mg (equal to 1 tsp .5 g salt) LOWER SODIUM & MORE PLEASANT FOOD 1/4 tsp 1 tsp Table salt 1 tsp (5 g) salt provide 2000 mg sodium MSG tsp (1.

Optimum Pleasantness of Food : Using Little Amount MSG Reduce 50% Salt 31 .

2000) .6% MSG in clear soup and 0.The International Glutamate Organization presented studies in which about 0.37% MSG in fried rice yielded optimum umami flavor (IGO.

8% depending on type of cuisines 33 .Recommended MSG level for optimum umami effect: 0.2-0.

intake of FG simulates salivation which is essential for mastication and swallowing. Hisayuki et al (2008) . emptying and intestinal absorption. In healthy and elderly volunteers. such as an induction of pancreatic juice secretion.2006) Gastric glutamate-sensing mechanism helps with the digestion of foods by modulating gastric secretion. Hodson N & Linden R. 1999.Oral stimulation by FG evokes cephalic phase of food digestion. (Schiffman S and Miletic I.

Effects of FG on stomach digestive functions. 1992). (Vasilevskaia L et al 1993) B: Effect of diet fortified with 23g/d FG on basal acid output (BAO) and maximal acid output (MAO) capacities in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (Kochetkov AM et al.8 g FG+IMP on gastric secretion of dogs. A: Effect of 100g meat fortified with 2. .

consumers acquire a preference for them more rapidly. the addition of MSG to nutritionally valuable foods (soups. the patients ingested more healthy MSG-containing foods and less of other foods. The same observations were repeated in hospitalized diabetic patients. starches) did induce an increase of intake of foods. . In elderly persons. vegetables. their content in sodium can be decreased without altering palatability. Again. A study showed that when such novel foods are added with some appropriate amount of MSG.By adding MSG to such foods as soups.

and the fortification effects on their nutritional status.A Possible Application of Monosodium Glutamate to Nutritional Care for Elderly People. and quality of life (QOL) were investigated. . monosodium glutamate (MSG) was supplemented to meals for 11 elderly inpatients during 2 months. 31(10) 1852—1854 (2008) Recently. Bull. In the present study. general condition. Kenji Toyama et (2008) Biol. it has been clarified that glutamate (Glu) can stimulate the umami taste as well as the visceral sensation to help the gastric protein digestion. Based on these results. Our survey suggests the possibility that the amount of free Glu in hospital foods is lower than that in ordinary foods. Pharm. we concluded that appropriate utilization of Glu for nutritional care of elderly people would be useful for improving QOL.

.89:431–5. Am J Clin Nutr 2009.Monosodium L-glutamate added to a high-energy. Hiroaki Zai et al. high-protein liquid diet promotes gastric emptying.

and baking powder .4. vinegar. USFDA cathegorized MSG as GRAS (Generally Recognize As Safe). like salt. POSITION OF AUTHORIZED BODIES ON MSG SAFETY USFDA: 1958.

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"There is no evidence in the available information on L-glutamic acid. monosodium L-glutamate. monoammonium Lglutamate. and monopotassium L-glutamate that demonstrates." . a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced. L-glutamic acid hydrochloride. or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect.FASEB – Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (1980).

the total dietary intake of glutamates arising from their use at the levels necessary to achieve the desired technological effect and from their acceptable background in food do not." . "On the basis of available data (chemical. toxicological. and other). Scientific Monograph. in the opinion of the Committee.JECFA – Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. 1988. biochemical. represent a hazard to health.

and concluded MSG Safe as food .AMA – American Medical Association : Council of Scientific Affairs stated in 1992 that glutamate in any form has not been shown to be a significant health hazard USFDA: 1995. Again USFDA Reviewed the scientific data.

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monosodium and potassium salts were evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1988. The Committee noted that intestinal and hepatic metabolism results in elevation of levels in systemic circulation only after extremely high doses given by gavage (>30mg/kg BW). calcium. 2000) L-Glutamic acid and its ammonium. Ingestion of MSG was not associated with elevated levels in maternal milk. Human infants metabolized glutamate similarly to adults. and glutamate did not readily pass the placental barrier. Lupien (J Nutr 130: 1049S–1052S.The Safety Evaluation of Monosodium Glutamate Ronald Walker and John R. Conventional toxicity studies using dietary administration of MSG in several species did not reveal any specific toxic or carcinogenic effects .

the JECFA allocated an “acceptable daily intake (ADI) not specified” to glutamic acid and its salts. The Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) of the European Commission reached a similar evaluation in 1991. The conclusions of a subsequent review by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) and the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) did not discount the existence of a sensitive subpopulation but otherwise concurred with the safety evaluation of JECFA and the SCF .Because human studies failed to confirm an involvement of MSG in “Chinese Restaurant Syndrome” or other idiosyncratic intolerance. No additional risk to infants was indicated.

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this reason. consumers frequently perceive the term MSG to mean all free glutamate. such as hydrolyzed protein. USFDA considers foods whose labels say "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamates.“NO MSG” NOT ALLOWED TO BE STATED IN THE LABELS …  “While technically MSG is only one of several forms of free glutamate used in foods.”  For .

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