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Qobad Shafiee

PhD Student
Department of Energy Technology
Aalborg University
qsh@et.aau.dk
INTELLIGENT MICROGRID LABS IN AALBORG UNIVERSITY
Aalborg University: A One-Stop Shop to the Research on Smart-Grid
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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1. MicroGrid Concept and Examples


2. MicroGrid Research in Aalborg University


3. MicroGrid Labs and Activities

Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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1. MicroGrid Concept and Examples


2. MicroGrid Research in Aalborg University


3. MicroGrid Labs and Activities
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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General aspects of a MicroGrid: Definition and Operation
What is a Microgrid?
Renewable Energy Resources
Energy Storage
Systems
Loads
Power Distribution
Network
Main Grid
UPS
Power
Electronics
Intelligent
Bypass Switch
(IBS)
Batteries
Programmable
Loads
Thermal and Compressed
Air System
Communication
System
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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General aspects of a MicroGrid: Definition and Operation
What is a Microgrid?

Renewable Energy Resources
Energy Storage
Systems
Loads
Power Distribution
Network
Main Grid
UPS
Power
Electronics
Intelligent
Bypass Switch
(IBS)
Batteries
Programmable
Loads
Thermal and Compressed
Air System
Communication
System
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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General aspects of a MicroGrid: Definition and Operation
What is a Microgrid?

Renewable Energy Resources
Energy Storage
Systems
Loads
Power Distribution
Network
Main Grid
UPS
Power
Electronics
Intelligent
Bypass Switch
(IBS)
Batteries
Programmable
Loads
Thermal and Compressed
Air System
Communication
System
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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04-10-2012
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General aspects of a MicroGrid: Definition and Operation
MicroGrids are helpful to

Increase integration of Distributed Generation resources.
Increase security and tolerance to faults.
Power quality and system reliability.
Decentralized Power Management: how to generate an amount of
power in a lot of places, rather than a lot of power in one place.
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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Hachinohe Project
Tecnnology demo
GT+Biomass+PV+WT+BAT
Load 610 kW (Sewage Plant+Schools)

Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Sendai Project
1 MW Microgrid with sensitive loads!
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Sendai Project
1 MW Microgrid with sensitive loads!
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Jeju Island Pilot Project
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Kynthos Island
Remote location

PV resource + storage
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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- 4,000 people
- 22 villages
- 11 x 1MW-WT
- 10 x 2MW offshore WT
The turbines supply more power than the residents need.

Exports 80 million kWh wind-produced electricity annually.
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Main power system components of
Bornholm Island:

132/60 kV substation in Sweden
connection between Sweden and Bornholm
60 kV network
10 kV network
0.4 kV network
loads
customers
generation units
control room
communication system
biogas plant Biokraft
district heating systems
04-10-2012
Bornholm Island
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012 16
~
Battery bank
Inverters 250 kW
Gear
Squirrel
cage
induction
generator
IG
Wind World
220kW 50Hz
690V three phase
9kW
Water
-tank
2 m 3
Load control
Water
-tank
2 m 3
Water
-tank
2 m 3
S
w
i
t
c
h

S
w
i
t
c
h

S
w
i
t
c
h

Water
-tank
2 m 3 S
w
i
t
c
h

T
9kW
T
9kW
T
9kW
T
Temperature
Available energy
On/Off
Turbine
control
Fixed
capacitors
86kVAr
Water
-tank
2 m 3 S
w
i
t
c
h

9kW
T
~
=
=
Average wind speed ~ 9.4 m/s

220 kW Wind Turbines

Generation 950 MWh per year
Faroe Island
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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1. MicroGrid Concept and Examples


2. MicroGrid Research in Aalborg University


3. MicroGrid Labs and Activities

Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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Aalborg University was created through a merger of a number of well-established
institutions, combined with the establishment of a number of new faculties in 1974.
Aalborg University was characterised by its well-reputed education form of problem
based project work also known as the Aalborg model, and by extensive
collaboration with the surrounding society. The number of students is around 15,000.
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Approximately 40 faculty members
Approximately 70 PhD students
More than 20 guest researchers
Approximately 20 TAPs (technical administrative employees)
Approximately 250 students
More than 50 on-going collaboration projects
Approximately 50% of the turnover comes from external projects
Organisation Department of Energy Techonolgy
Electric
Power
Systems
Wind Turbine Systems
Fluid Power in Wind and Wave Energy
Biomass
Photovoltaic Systems and Microgrids
Modern Power Transmission Systems
Smart Grids and Active Networks
Fuel Cell and Battery Systems
Automotive and Industrial Drives
Thermal
Energy
Systems
Power
Electronic
Systems
Electrical
Machines
Fluid Power
Mechatronic
Systems
Mechanics
and
Combustion
Multi-disciplinary Research Programmes
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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John K. Pedersen, Head of the Institute of Energy Technology,
Aalborg University.
Research Fields

Wind Power Systems, Prof. Zhe Chen
Fluid Power in Wind and Wave Energy, Ass. Prof. Henrik C. Pedersen
Biomass, Prof. Lasse Rosendahl
Photovoltaic Systems, Prof. Remus Teodorescu
Modern Power Transmission Systems, Prof. Claus Leth Bak
Smart Grids and Active Networks, Ass. Prof. Birgitte Bak-Jensen
Fuel Cell and Battery Systems, Prof. Sren Knudsen Kr
Automotive and Industrial Drives, Ass. Prof. Kaiyuan Lu
Efficient and Reliable Power Electronics Prof. Frede Blaabjerg
Thermoelectrics, Research Ass. Paw Mortensen
Green Buildings, Ass. Prof. Carsten Bojesen
Microgrids, Prof. Josep M. Guerrero
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Staff members:

Josep Guerrero, Professor
Juan Vasquez, Assistant Professor
Post Doc 1
Tomislav
DC MicroGrids
Energy storage
PhD 1
Qobad Shafiee
Secondary Control
Networked Control
PhD 3
Wu Dan
Primary Control
Virtual impedance
PhD 4
Chendan Li
Communications
Agents
PhD 6
Solangi
Energy Policy for
MicroGrids
PhD 5
Erum
Protections
SCADA system
Post Doc 2
Fen Tang
Wind-Powered
MicroGrids
Post Doc 3
Quino Eloy
Power Quality in
MicroGrids
PhD 7
Nelson Diaz
Energy storage for
MicroGrids
PhD 2
Lexuan Meng
Tertiary Control
EMS Optimization
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Hierarchical Control for MicroGrids
Primary Control
Tertiary
Control
Secondary Control
Primary Control: Modeling + Inner loops + droop Control (P/Q Sharing).
Secondary Control:
- f/V Restoration (Island) : Set-points assignation from MGCC to the DGs .
- Synchronization (Island to grid Connected mode)
Tertiary Control: Power Import/export from/to the grid.
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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HIERARCHICAL CONTROL
Primary
control
DG units
+
_
Grid
Measurements
PLL
Secondary
control
Supervisory control
DG units
Primary
control
References
Energy
Management
System (EMS)
Tertiary
control
Low Bandwidth
Communications
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Issues in a Microgrid
Problem: Harmonics in Microgrids

Possible solutions:

- Microgrids needs to supply nonlinear currents
(Ancillary Services)

- One DG unit could give more harmonics than another.
(harmonic current sharing)

- Voltage Harmonic Reduction (Control strategies for HC)

DG DG PCC
1 2
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Issues in a Microgrid
Problem: Unbalances in Microgrids

Possible solutions:

- By means of sec. control, PCC voltage unbalances can
be compensated by control signals to the primary level.

- PCC voltage data and the control signal are transmitted
to/from secondary level through low bandwidth
communication links.

- Voltage Unbalance Compensation (Control strategies)
PCC After UC
PCC Before UC
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Grid Simulator for Power Quality Assessment of MicroGrids
Harmonic Distortion
10% 5
th
harmonic
Unbalanced Voltages
70% remaining voltage
Voltage Sags
20% depth in 550 ms
Flicker
Sinusoidal 10V 8 Hz
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Networked Control Systems
Centralized Control Distributed control
Issues in a Microgrid
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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To MicroGrid
Virtual Impedance
Loop
P
o
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e
r

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C
o
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1,
i
N
DG
i i k
f
= =

MG
f
-
MG
E
-
1
N
+
+
+

1,
i
N
DG
i i k
E
= =

1,
i
N
DG
i i k
Q
= =

i
P
k E
k E
s
| |
+
|
\ .
i
P
k Q
k Q
s
| |
+
|
\ .
V
o
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Communication Link
i
P
k f
k f
s
| |
+
|
\ .
k
D
G
E
k
D
G
Q
k DG
f o
k DG
E o
k
DG
Q o
k
D
G
f
1 2
, ,...,
n
DG DG DG
f f f
1 2
, ,...,
n
DG DG DG
E E E
1 2
, ,...,
n
DG DG DG
Q Q Q
Voltage
Reference
sin( ) E t e
Voltage loop Current loop
+

E
f
Q
P
PWM
Inner loops

+
+
1
N
+
+
+

1
N
+
+
+

Droop Control
ref
V
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
DG1
DG2
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Frequency Restoration
Only with Primary Control (Freq. Deviations
caused by multiple load connection)
Distributed Secondary Control for Islanded MicroGrids
Amplitude Restoration
Only with Primary Control (Amp. Deviations
caused by multiple load connection)
DG
1
DG
2
Performance of DSC when Active and Reactive Powers are shared between DGs
DSC Enabled
DG
1
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Centralized Vs Distributed Secondary Control
Time Delay Central Secondary Control Distributed Secondary Control
200 ms
2 sec.
Frequency
Restoration
Reactive
power
DG
1,2
Frequency
Restoration
Reactive
power
DG
1,2
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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4 sec.
Time Delay Central Secondary Control
Distributed Secondary Control
Frequency
Restoration
Reactiv
e power
DG
1,2
Centralized Vs Distributed Secondary Control
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
Timbus et Al. Management of DER Using Standarized Communications and modern Technologies
04-10-2012
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Issues in a Microgrid
Communications
IEEE 37-bus model
The gateway computer contains: communication
model provided by IEC 61850 & IEC 61400-25 to
describe the physical devices in the network
model.
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Issues in a Microgrid
New communication algorithm
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Protections
Architecture of the MicroGrid with four different zones of protection where all the breakers in a
given bus is involved in bus protection.
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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DC MicroGrid
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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DC MicroGrid
Complete control over the
common voltage
Batteries operated to provide
voltage-support at moderate
states of charge (SoCs)
Renewables (PV, WTG) provide
voltage-support during
regulated charging of batteries,
othervise with MPPT
algorithms
With coordination of charging,
batteries are charged in a
round-robin manner



Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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04-10-2012
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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1. MicroGrid Concept and Examples


2. MicroGrid Research in Aalborg University


3. MicroGrid Labs and Activities

Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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Green Power Lab (GPL)
AC MG setup
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Green Power Lab (GPL)
dSPACE control desk
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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DC MG setup
Platform for emulating low voltage
DC MGs has been created:
Telecommunication and data-center
facilities, EHVs, rural areas
Voltage ranges: 48V 380V
dSPACE 1103 has multiple
functionalities:
Real-time converter level control
Advanced algorithms development using
Matlab/Stateflow
Real-time simulation of distributed
energy resources (DERs)
Up to 6 DC/DC converters operating
in parallel
Grid connection of DC MGs
Green Power Lab (GPL)
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Flexible MicroGrid
DC power line
AC power line
4x Danfoss
4x2kW
dSPACE
DC-AC bidirection
power converter
TRAF
.
dSPACE
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
WiFi
Fiber optics
dSPACE
+
Ethernet Interface
DC power line
AC power line
PLC
Communication Module
Ethernet
Ethernet
Distributed
Generation
Units
SmartMeter
Kamstrup
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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Gas Turbine
2x30kW
Solar PV
30kW
AC Microgrid
DC Microgrid (400V-600V)
FlowBattery
10kW
Flywheel
60kW
Zigbee
Protections Thermal Communication
Programmable
Loads
Heat Pumps
380V -
400Vdc
AC Microgrid DC Microgrid
FC 50kW
600
Vdc
End-Use
Appliances 3-Blade 30kW Gas
Supply
Thermal
Storage
Unit
Compressed Air
Batteries Ni-Salt
SmartMeters
x6
150kW
MGDK
Central
Controller
Utility Main
Grid
Internet
(Remote
Access)
HAN
SMES
Generation 150kW
Storage 320kW
Total 470kW
200kW
R = 40kW
L = 50kVAr
C = 10kVAr
Qbeak Electric Vehicle
21kW
3kW
Electric Boiler
42kW
Cooling/Heat dump
Heat
Recovery
Vertical -
75kW
RTDS
Technologies
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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Juan Carlos Vasquez - Assistant Professor in Microgrids
45
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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- Distributed Control of an Intelligent Microgrid Plant ( Vasque country
Spain)

The MicroGrid to be implemented will have an installed generation power of
300 kW and will be composed of a generators and loads system that will be
able to operate connected to the electric distribution network or in isolated
way. Integration of Power line communication, distributed generators,
electrical vehicle integration, Wi-Fi (MESH network).




- Increasing wind energy penetration level using pumped hydro storage
in an islanded microgrid (Faroe Island)
Collaborations with Companies
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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MicroGrid Courses
Nov. 5 Nov. 6
Nov. 26 Nov. 27
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
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MicroGrid Courses
Nov. 7 Nov. 8
Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk
04-10-2012
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Thank you for your attention!







For cooperation or further information, please contact us:

joz@et.aau.dk