U n it e d S t at e s S o m m e l ie r as s o c iat io n wine s c h ool L e c or d on b l e u C o l l e g e o f c u l in ar y ar t s , m iam i


Sommelier Certificate Wine Course


Table of Contents
Introduction History Tasting Techniques Viticulture Vinification The Influence of Oak White Varietals Red Varietals Correct Wine Service Wines of France Champagne America The Wines of Italy Spain Germany Fortified Wines Appendix – Glossary

A Short History of Wine and Overview
To make wine, grapes, which belong to the genus Vitis are used. One of the species, V. vinifera (often erroneously called the European grape), is predominantly used. Beverages produced from V. labrusca , the native American grape, and from other grape species are also considered wines. When other fruits are fermented to produce a kind of wine, the name of the fruit is included, as in the terms peach wine and blackberry wine. History and spread of viticulture Vitis vinifera was being cultivated in the Middle East by 4000 BC, and probably earlier. Egyptian records dating from 2500 BC refer to the use of grapes for wine making, and numerous Old Testament references to wine indicate the early origin and significance of the industry in the Middle East. The Greeks carried out an active wine trade and planted grapes in their colonies from the Black Sea to Spain. The Romans carried the practice of grape growing into the valleys of the Rhine and Mosel (which became the great regions of Germany and Alsace), the Danube (in modern-day Romania, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Austria), and the Rhône, Saône, Garonne, Loire, and Marne (which define the great French regions of Rhône, Burgundy, Bordeaux, Loire, and Champagne, respectively). The role of wine in the Christian mass helped maintain the industry after the fall of the Roman Empire, and monastic orders preserved and developed many of the highly regarded wine-producing areas in Europe. (Source) Following the voyages of Columbus, grape culture and wine making were transported from the Old World to the New. Spanish missionaries took viticulture to Chile and Argentina in the mid-16th century and to lower California in the 18th century. With the flood of European immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, modern industries, based on imported V. vinifera grapes, were developed. The prime wine-growing regions of South America were established in the foothills of the Andes Mountains. In California, the center of viticulture shifted from the southern missions to the Central Valley and the northern counties of Sonoma, Napa, and Mendocino. British settlers planted European vines in Australia and New Zealand in the early 19th century, and Dutch settlers took grapes from the Rhine region to South Africa as early as 1654. (Source) The introduction of the eastern American root louse, phylloxera, seriously threatened wine industries around the world between 1870 and 1900, destroying vineyards almost everywhere that V. vinifera was planted, especially in Europe and parts of Australia and California. To combat this parasite, V. vinifera scions (detached shoots including buds) were grafted to species native to the eastern United States, which proved almost completely resistant to phylloxera. After the vineyards recovered, European governments protected the reputations of the great regions by enacting laws that allotted regional names and quality rankings only to those wines produced in specific regions under strictly regulated procedures. In recent times, present-day wineproducing countries have passed similar regulations. (Source)

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE MAJOR WINE PRODUCING COUNTRIES Map of the ancient Near East and Egypt. one north and one south of the equator. extending from 30 degrees S.S. The best-known wine countries located above (or north) of the equator are France. Argentina and Brazil.. Germany. Two broad belts. The one located south of the equator is narrower. More than three fourths of the world’s wine is made in Europe. Hungary. Morocco. are indicated by the jar symbol. Australia. . showing the distribution of the modern wild grapevine in purple shading. This brief introduction to these countries will assist you in understanding the evolving styles of growing grapes that are both of European origin and also of local indigenous cultivation. South Africa). Greece as well as Russia. to 30 degrees N. Grape remains (primarily pips) recovered from Neolithic and Late Uruk sites are indicated by the grape cluster symbol. Austria. and Algeria. which have been chemically identified as such. Below the equator are the southern wine making areas that include Africa (Algeria. have such a climate. all grape growing countries fall between 30-50 degrees longitude or latitude. Yugoslavia. Bulgaria. Czechoslovakia. Whether old or new world. Chile. The occurrence of wine jars. The belt located north of the equator extends from 50 degrees N. Italy. the U. Before we go into our Viticulture and Vinification modules we would like to provide you with a short overview on the major wine growing regions of the world. to 40 degrees S. The lesser-known but also good producers are Switzerland. That is the climate that supports the cultivation and production of the best wines. The grape vine grows best where the climate is temperate. Romania. China and Japan.

the English Channel and Western Germany – and thus has been the setting of many dramatic events in the history of the French nation. The bubbles in the wine are a natural process arising from Champagne's cold climate and short growing season. soils are varied. Pinot Meunier. the fermentation is again underway. Alsace lies on the western flank of the Vosges Mountains. The region is about 110 kilometers long. He spent a great deal of time trying to prevent the bubbles. he began to use the stronger bottles developed by the English and closing them with Spanish cork instead of the wood and oil-soaked hemp stoppers then in use. Dom Pérignon died in 1715. but this time in the bottle.Major New World Wine Growing Countries Northern Hemisphere Europe France To say that France is the standard which all other wine measures countries would not be an overstatement. We owe a lot to Dom Pérignon as any inventor owes those who have come before him. the city of Reims has seen destruction seven times and Epernay no less than twenty-five times. thereby creating the sparkle. By the 17th century. Included in Dom Pérignon's duties was the management of the cellars and wine making. rich enological history dating back to Roman times. Of necessity. This doesn't leave enough time for the yeasts present on the grape skins to convert the sugar in the pressed grape juice into alcohol before the cold winter temperatures put a temporary stop to the fermentation process. but he did develop the art of blending. the unstableness of this "mad wine. he laid down the basic principles still used in making Champagne today. but in his 47 years as the cellar master at the Abby of Hautvillers. he improved clarification techniques to produce a brighter wine than any that had been produced before. Before the mid-1600's there was no Champagne as we think of it. The Abby is located near Epernay. He not only blended different grapes (Pinot Noir. one to five kilometers wide." and the creation of a decidedly white wine the court would prefer to red burgundy. He was not able to prevent the bubbles. France is a leader because of ideal geography and climate for growing good grapes. Chardonnay). There are two Alsace appellations. in 1688. just across the Rhine River from Germany. But the cool climate of the region and its effect on the wine making process was to play an important part in changing all of that. As a convenient access point. the climate is dry and temperate with long days. It was a sign of poor wine making. He is not however the inventor of champagne as is often thought. The Hundred Years' War and the Thirty Years' War brought repeated destruction to the region as armies marched back and forth across its landscape. To help prevent the exploding bottle problem. the chosen path of many invaders including Attila the Hun. With the coming of Spring's warmer temperatures. The refermentation creates carbon dioxide. passion for food and sheer diversity of wineproducing regions and wine styles. The major regions of France: Champagne was a region long before it was a sparkling wine. was appointed treasurer at the Abby of Hautvillers. The region lies at a crossroads of northern Europe – the river valleys leading south to the Mediterranean and north to Paris. Alsace AC and Alsace Grand Cru AC. granite and limestone. including chalk/marl. For centuries the wines were still wines and were held in high regard by the nobility of Europe. Not only did he develop a method to press the black grapes to yield a white juice. which now becomes trapped in the bottle. Pierre Pérignon was a Benedictine monk who. it has been for hundreds of years. sparkling wine was not the desired end product. but the juice from the same grape grown in different vineyards. . For Dom Pérignon and his contemporaries. Alsace is located in the northeastern part of France. the grapes are picked late in the year.

If at least 85 % of a wine is made from one kind of grape. Côte d'Or (divided into the Côte de Nuits in the south and Côtes de Beaune in the north).000 acres of vineyards. The term Domaine is commonly used in Burgundy to refer to a vine-growing and winemaking estate. Grape vines first arrived in France at the Greek city. from continental in the east to maritime in the west. Rheinhessen. Germany Germany has 13 separate wine growing regions. Burgundy is known for many expressions of two great varietals: Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. each of which produces its own style of wine. and started cultivating grapes soon thereafter. Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle. viticulture spread north into the Rhône Valley and east until it reached Bordeaux in the 3rd century BC. The red wines of Bordeaux. the archetypal sweet white wine is made from a blend of Semillon. the worldwide ratio of white to red wine cultivation is almost exactly the opposite. In addition. Rheingau. . who left behind the ruins of aqueducts and amphitheaters. planted in lesser vineyard sites. lightest. Massalia (later Marseilles) in 600 BC. to the Alps of the Savoie. Touraine and the Central Vineyards. Sauternes. In the Middle Ages the monastic orders established many of Germany's finest vineyards and. No special classification exists. most delicate white wines in the world. taste. from the Atlantic coast along the Mediterranean to the borders of Italy and Switzerland. By contrast. surrounded by a total of 20. The Côte d'Or has 28 different wine-producing villages or communes. even the smallest areas with a distinctive style have their own appellations. to the hot. From there. Saale-Unstrut. are arguably the world's most famous reds. all made of a blend from three and sometimes five permitted red grape varieties. Hessische Bergstrasse. Wine production is thought to have begun with the ancient Romans who conquered the region about 100 B. to the fields of Provence. often from the same varietals.000 acres) of vineyards. there is fruity. Burgundy has five distinct regions: from north to south they are: Chablis. dry white and sweet white. Low in alcohol and exquisitely balanced. aroma and acidity of the wine. About 87 % of this area is planted in white grape varieties. from high in the Pyrénées Orientales and hard against the Spanish border. at the mouth of the river and home of Muscadet. A great variety of wines are made here: red. Wurttemberg and Baden. Generally.000 hectares (240. Bordeaux is one of France's largest and most diverse wine regions. the lightest and most elegant German wines are produced in the MoselSaar-Ruwer and Ahr regions. dry plains of Languedoc-Roussillon. lively Gamay from Beaujolais and lemony-tart Aligoté. Vineyard sites run the gamut.Loire Valley has a variety of soils and climate. the name of the variety may be indicated on the label. with their meticulous care of the vines and wines. Southern France encompasses an enormous region. Maconnais and Beaujolais. Slightly fuller wines are made in the Mittelrhein. This tells you what to expect with regard to the color. and can produce any number of wines. Germany has nearly 100. Germany produces the loveliest. The region is roughly divided into four areas: Pays Nantais. Sachsen. Rhône Valley wines have been made in the Rhône Valley since the time of the Romans. Côte Chalonaise. while the fullest German wines tend to come from the regions of Pfalz.C. only 13 % in red grape varieties. they are wines of charm and subtle nuances. Anjou. as are other dry white wines. The Rhône Valley stretches for 140 miles from Lyon to Avignon and is divided into two regions: north and south. set the standard for the high quality of German viticulture. Nahe.

The scope of Italian wines is staggering. Italy produces wine in every part of the country from north near the borders of France.Quality wines with special attributes. These are among Germany's greatest wines. grape ripeness at harvest is a crucial quality factor. TBAs are extremely rich and intense in flavor. Much of the best wines come from the northern regions: Piedmont (northwest). and maximum and minimum alcohol strengths these categories are.Auslese means "selected picking. These are fuller. Looking at Italian wine on a region-by-region basis gives you an idea of why so much effort has been put into devising some system of organization and classification.Because Germany has such a cool climate. Basic laws regulate yields. Italy Italy is a world wine leader. area restrictions for growing.Literally. resulting in extremely fresh.Wines produced from hand-selected. more finely flavored wines. These same categories are identified on the label. Because these are chaptalized (legally regulated amounts of sugar are added to the grape must to add body). grapes used for specific wines. yet richly flavored sweet wines with remarkable briskness and racy acidity. Kabinet and Spatlese are the most commonly produced. (Less ripe grapes yield lighter wines of modest character. o Spatlese .) As a result. fully ripe or overripe grapes produce fuller. These modern wine laws were established in 1963 to give structure to an unregulated wine industry. but can be a useful point of reference for those attempting to understand the immense Italian wine industry. The largest category of German wines. the German government has established separate categories for German wines according to grape ripeness. o Beerenauslese (BA) . • Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebeite (Q.b.2 million Italian growers. o Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) . o Kabinett . dried.A. overripe grapes. providing a useful indication of wine style in purchasing German wines and pairing them with food. which look virtually like raisins. Interest in the world of Italian wines is growing.) .P." these are wines made from selected ripe and overripe grape clusters. and often have residual sweetness. listed here in ascending order of ripeness. producing and consuming more wine than any other country in the world. It's a huge and complex picture. Austria and Slovenia to the tip of the boot and Sicily. more flavorful wines. There are 1. crisp.Light. The grapes are harvested and pressed while frozen. and although it can tend to be confusing.s are often fuller than Kabinett wines from the same vineyards. • Qualitatswein mit Pradikat (Q. to say the least. the Italians have a system of wine laws to regulate the industry.Wine produced from naturally frozen grapes. elegant wines made from fully ripened grapes. The wines are full and ripe to the taste. and per capita consumption is 26 gallons per person.b.m. both from the sheer quantity of grape types and different styles of wines.Wines produced from selectively harvested. quality wines from specific regions. Barbera and Pinot Grigio. sweet and honey-like to the taste. . over ripened grapes.) .Wines made from grapes picked at least one week after normal ripeness. Tuscany (North-Central) and three regions (Tre Venezie) in the northeast. Q. Like the French.A. The consequent wines are concentrated in character and flavor. o Eiswein . The system does have some quirks. sweet but well balanced. o Auslese . the rewards are there for those who persevere! Consumers looking for new wine adventures and for wines that pair well with food are turning to traditional Italian varieties such as Sangiovese.

but with some exceptions. a translation of the French Appellation d'Origine Côntrolée. Chianti. fortified wine production and Vinho Verde . The 24 DOCG wines indicate the highest quality (wines not only "controlled" but "guaranteed"). Barbaresco. Today. While the country is famous for its namesake. Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. Twenty DOCs account for close to 45% of the country's total DOC production.• • • • Vino da Tavola. or table wine. EU .Controlled Appellation Wines produced in a Geographical Limited Region IPR . so the existing group of 24 will continue to grow. Madeira . light white wines and full-bodied reds should not be overlooked. and add a broad new category.Regional Wines – Wines that are not DOC or IPR and are produced in a specific region from at least 85% of locally grown grapes DOC . Vinho Verde refers to the youth of the wine. first classified in 1980 with the intention of adding a quality classification to the top of the wine pyramid. especially good for serving with oily food. the Goria laws were passed to bring greater flexibility to production.Sparkling Wine produced in a Denominated Region VQPRD . and records show exports dating back to 1367.see below.ports. DOCG wines include such famous names as Barola. only a small percentage of these have any commercial viability. not the color it can be red or white. However. The best known regions are Dão making big full bodied red wines. DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) wines.All wines that do not qualify under the above classifications . IGT (Indicazione Geografica Tipica).Regulations CVR .Setubal . Portugal Despite its small area.Liquor Wine produced in a Denominated Region Table Wines . Port and Douro . replacing vini tipici as the base of the quality pyramid. In 1992. and approximately 2000 Italian wines bearing this classification (source Italian Trade Commission). There are currently 309 appellations with DOC recognition zones. everyday wines-simple and inexpensive. After the adhesion of Portugal to the EU. the fresh.Regulated Origin of Wines with specific characteristics during a minimum of five years VEQPRD . among many changes made. DOC wines (initials stand for Denominazione di Origine Controllata ). typically. Bairrada tannin highly acidic red wine. Portugal rates sixth in the world as a wine-producing country.sweet. became a new classification under law. wine production has been encouraged since the early kings. Oporto and Maderia. Additional wines are petitioning for DOCG classification. the following designations were applied to wine in order to control the "Appellation".in the northwestern part of the country. this industry employs 25% of the working agricultural population.

describes the different classes of wines according to the degree of monitoring and exigency applied to the production process. The world's most widely planted white grape. hot or a conjunction of all. This means that they have been classified into two major groups: Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (QWPSR) and Table Wine (TW). approximately 95% of them come from around Barcelona with Frexinet and Cordoníu being the largest. Spanish sparkling wines when made in the champagne method are called Cava. still QWPSR may use the following: Vino de crianza (crianza wine) This indication applies to red wines aged for a minimum of 24 months. and to white and rosé wines aged for at least 18 months. In addition to the indications detailed above. The wide diversity of soils and climates in Spain has long produced an extensive range of wines. Cabernet and Merlot are the red grapes grown. Vino viejo (old wine) Old wines are those that are subjected to a minimum ageing period of 36 months when the ageing process is of a strong oxidative nature due to the action of light. the Navarra . This legislation. united with the painstaking and increasingly sophisticated techniques used by Spanish vintners in making their wines. Penedès . Classification of wines by ageing characteristics Country Wines and QWPSR can use the following common indications regarding ageing categories: Vino noble (quality wine) This expression can be used to describe wines subjected to a minimum ageing period totaling 18 months. either in oak containers having a maximum capacity of 600 liters. to include at least 18 months in oak. has won international recognition. or in the bottle. and to white and rosé wines aged for 48 months. Rioja .sherries. These documents. . Airén. the “Gran Reserva” indication may be used by those sparkling wines that have been given the Cava designation and which have undergone ageing for at least 30 months from tirage to disgorging. blended red wine aged in American oak and young fresh white wines.the home of soft. The careful cultivation of vineyards. There are a number of regions including. or in the bottle.Spain Wine has been made in Spain for centuries and the size of the Spanish wine acreage is huge. Vino añejo (aged wine) Aged wines are those subjected to a minimum ageing period totaling 24 months in oak containers with minimum capacity of 600 liters. Quality sparkling wines may use the “Premium” and “Reserva” indications. in turn. where Garnacha Tinta (Grenache). of which 6 months are spent in oak containers with a capacity of 330 liters maximum.north of Rioja. together with the subsequent regulations governing Wines of the Country completed in September of the same year. have allowed clearer definition of origin and quality protection system to be defined.the leading wine region in Catalonia. Spain passed law 24/2003 of July 10—the Vineyard and Wine Act. Gran reserva This distinction is given to red wines aged for a minimum of 60 months. to include at least 12 months in oak and the rest in the bottle. Jerez . to include 6 months on wood. Spanish wines have been adapted to European standards. is grown in Spain. each showing pronounced characteristics. to include 6 months on wood. oxygen. The Vineyard and Wine Act also establishes minimum standards for crianza—the process of aging wine in wood and in the bottle—which unify the requirements to be met according to the indications relative to aging categories. Reserva Reserva is applied to red wines that are aged for a minimum of 36 months. and to white and rosé wines aged for 18 months. Since Spain joined the European Union. More recently.

Central Coast area includes the Santa Cruz Mountains.7 miles and produces some excellent wines of high quality. the name of a county or counties within a state. Napa Valley is perhaps the best-known wine region in the whole of America. o Sonoma County is a very important wine-growing region. situated to the north of Napa Valley and east of Mendocino. o . it uses a tag on its label called an Appellation of Origin. American Viticultural Areas When a US winery wants to tell you the geographic pedigree of its wine. o Lake County. o Mendocino is the most northerly wine-producing region in California. o Sonoma Valley. California and New York State. Zinfandel and Cabernet are perhaps the best. this region dates back to the late 1880s. Cabernet and Pinot Noir. Monterey and Paso Robles in the middle and San Luis Obispo. they range from extremely small to extremely large (larger than a few states). Viticultural areas are a hybrid appellation. o Anderson Valley is known for good sparkling wines and cool climate varieties such as Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. Here are the major regions in California. continues to produce wines across the board from good basic quality bulk wine to very exclusive varieties. The valley itself runs from the city of Napa northwest to Calistoga. While many varieties of grape are successful here. Carmel. In terms of quality. with many different climates. Twenty miles in length. north of San Francisco. and McDowell the production of Rhone style wines. Santa Barbara . The major regions within the USA are the Pacific Northwest.Santa Maria and Santa Ynezto the south. Viticultural areas are to appellations like grapes are to fruit. but that's not the case.Northern Hemisphere North America United States of America The United States now has wineries in 50 of the 50 states in the union. a viticultural area may be filled with vineyards or could be almost sparse. Viticultural areas are one kind of appellation. approximately 80 miles (130km) north of San Francisco. Fetzer winery has spearheaded organic farming in this region. This tag must meet federal and state legal requirements. A lot of people believe that the term appellation of origin is synonymous with viticultural area. is home to some of the best-known wineries in California. as are Clear Lake and Benmore. The Guenoc Valley is part of Lake County. the name of a state or states. An appellation of origin can be the name of a country. In size. The influence of the ocean is significant. Not all appellations are viticultural areas. Alexander Valley varies in width from 2 . situated between the Mayacamas Mountains to the east and the Sonoma Mountains to the west. In terms of plantings. o Alexander Valley is situated along the Russian River in northeastern Sonoma County. Wine production California in the United States. producing fogs and cooling winds which encourages quality wines to be produced from Chardonnay. Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon are widely planted throughout the region. this able to successfully produce a wide array of wines. San Benito and Santa Clara Valley to the north. there is no guarantee that a wine labeled with a viticultural area is any better or worse than wines that don't bear such information. Chardonnay.New World . A number of premium varietal wines are grown including Chardonnay and Cabernet.. California. Gewurztraminer.

Now. the wines have not yet achieved the high quality of Chile's. Chile Wine making in Chile dates back to the settlement of the Spanish. dating back to the 16th century. and some of the estate wines can compete on a worldwide basis. The country which was called the "sleeping giant" of the global wine industry by Wine Spectator magazine (Sept. 1996) is now poised to have its excellent wines available on an international scale. . Argentinean wineries have embarked on a program of modernization of their winemaking infrastructure as the country continues to look more and more to the export market. In has increased its exports to many countries around the world. consumers can easily identify the style of wine and match it to their own tastes. Since this is how American wineries and other new world countries market their wines. with most of it consumed within the country. The majority of the vineyards are situated in the foothills of the Andes mountains where they have access to water for irrigation from the melting snow. which designate the grape varietal. but in the beginning of the 1990's the Argentines have sought to make higher quality wines such as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon to meet the growing world wide demand for quality wines. Consumers can easily identify with Chilean wine labels. Argentina has for years concentrated on quantity rather than quality wines. With full upfront fruit the style of wines produced here are exactly what we are looking for from 'New' world producers and as the country continues to invest in its wines they can only improve. although great improvements are made on an annual basis and now some producers are definitely getting there. The Cabernet Sauvignons and Merlots that are produced are excellent quality considering their inexpensive price. rather that the geographic origin of the wines. Recent developments in vineyard management and wine making have produced excellent results in this country. Chile has a perfect climate for wine making but for years it hasn't had the political climate to match. Don't be surprised to see a significant increase in the amount of excellent quality Argentine wines available in the near future. Notably is the United Kingdom where it is the fastest growing section of the wine market. As more and more consumers are looking for value in their wines Chile has gained many new consumers buying their wines which are generally less expensive than there American and European counterparts. In America its popularity has soared because of rising prices to domestic and European wines.Southern Hemisphere South America Argentina Argentina is the world's fifth largest wine producing nation. While wine production has been extremely important. it’s the MALBEC variety that has drawn much international attention for its distinctive taste and high quality produced in mostly the MENDOZA region. Although many vitis vinifera grape varieties are planted that were brought from Europe.

60% of the production is concentrated. the first Uruguayan institute of higher education dedicated to viticulture was founded in Montevideo.3% have in excess of 50ha. 86% have up to 5ha.000 hL. the provision of technical support and the organizational development of the industry. issued by the controlling organization. The climate in Uruguay‘s key wine producing regions is often compared with that of Bordeaux (France). The average temperature in the wine producing regions is ca. The country lies between the 30th and the 35th southern Parallel. set up in 1987 and financed by the country’s viticulturalists – bodegueros. The existence of a commercial wine industry dates back to 1870. Documentary evidence of their existence in Uruguay exists from 1776. Uruguay’s vineyards amount to around 10. After Surinam. with a minor detail being that the Rio de la Plata replaces the Gironde! The soil conditions of the wine producing areas is ideal. The industry in Uruguay also differentiates between ‚Table wines‘. The seal must include a bottle number. the alcohol content. Uruguay is the second smallest country in South America. 90. information relating to the year of production and the grape variety must be provided. vinos de mesa. white. and quality wines. Of vineyard. The majority of the wine producing Bodegas are owned and managed as family businesses and have been for several generations. This is a real positive factor for consumers.Uruguay The first grape vines arrived in Uruguay from Spain in the middle of the 17th century. The sun shines on more than 220 days of the year. In 1948. The controlling bodies are the Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura (INAVI). where chemical and sensory tests are applied to the wines. This strategy has served the industry very well in recent years. and is half the size of Germany. INAVI. 270 wine producers. The deliberate and consistent strategy of the Uruguayan wine producers is to concentrate on the production of high quality wines in relatively small vineyards. Of the wine producers. The main responsibilities of INAVI are to establish guidelines. with a predominance of well-drained sandy clay soil. the Escuela de Vitivincultura. the quality category. the identified grape(s) must make up at least 85% of the total. with the latter being consistent with international practice. The latter are identified by their „VCP“ certification (vinos de calidad preferente). and has resulted in increasing recognition internationally. Labeling requirements are clearly defined. or vinos finos.000 to 100. etc.80g/L and a maximum of 200 mg/L of sodium. The technologies employed are comparable with those common in Europe. 18 degrees centigrade.The most significant wine producing region is to the north of Montevideo in the Department of Canelones. the official privately operated body of the wine industry in Uruguay. Uruguay’s land area is a little smaller than the United Kingdom.). The moderation of the climate that results from the sea breezes ensures that despite the moist climate. undertake quality control. The quality controls in place in Uruguay are probably the most stringent in the whole of South America. Quality wines may only be sold in bottles. the vines remain well ventilated. . by which time the Tannat was already established as the country’s most important grape.5%. The total wine production amounts to approx. The name of the producer and the INAVI registration number must also be identified. The 9 member supervisory body of INAVI is made up of 6 representatives of the wine industry and 3 representatives of state bodies.000ha. maximum acidity level of 0. The excesses in production volume and resulting „wine lakes“ common in Argentina and Chile have not been seen in Uruguay. Exports do not leave the country without having been tested by the Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay (LATU). since the original immigrants from Spain and Italy established themselves in Uruguay. only 0. They are cultivated by ca. With respect to the grape variety. There are objective and facultative regulations. Mandatory information includes information of the type of wine (red. The climate in Uruguay is sub-tropical. the volume and the origin of the wine. Quality wines must have a minimum alcohol content of 10. The equipment employed by the larger exporting Bodegas is comparable with modern international standards. which must in turn be 0. Uruguay’s vineyards amount to about a fifth of the area of Austria’s or the same as Germany’s Baden-Wuertenberg region. From a facultative perspective. The production volumes compare similarly.75L or less in terms of size.

With wine growing regions spanning the latitudes of 36 to 45 degrees and covering the length of 1000 miles (1. 2002 New Food Standards apply to both Australia and New Zealand. The main wine producing regions are Hawke's Bay. e. Standards include Produce of Australia or Australian Wine manufacturing and food labeling provisions for wine. ADDRESS (Mandatory) (name and street address of responsible entity – must be postal address only 1980 AWB becomes the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation. 1993 Wine Agreement with European Union signed. Auckland and Gisborne. with responsibility to control and promote the export of wine and grape products. ALCOHOL CONTENT (Mandatory) (wording is not prescribed) . 1929 Federal Government creates Australian Wine Board.3mm high) 750ML administer legislation under their own COUNTRY OF ORIGIN (Mandatory) Food Acts. Mutual acceptance of winemaking practices and mutual protection of geographical indications. each displaying a great diversity in climate and terrain. it also produces world class Chardonnays and is achieving success with Pinot Noir. AWBC Act amended to reflect our obligations. Wine Style Name—i. Dry Red/White – (a Name is Mandatory. New Zealand wine industry dates back to 1819 but has evolved dramatically during the past fifteen years. but VARIETY is optional*) Shiraz New Zealand New Zealand has ten main wine growing regions.600km). the world's most southerly Chardonnay grapes may first be picked in mid to late April a difference of 6-7 weeks. 1989 Wine industry requests the Government to legislate the Label Integrity Program under the AWBC Act. snowcapped mountains and spectacular coastline. Now considered by many to be one of the world's finest producer of Sauvignon Blanc. but two-year transition period of old and new. created under the present AWBC Act 1980. Region of Grape Origin) Barossa Valley Single vineyard or Estate Grown designation Australian Wine Law History WINERY NAME VINTAGE—(Optional*) (i. Australian States retain responsibility for Food legislation. native forest. Year Grapes Harvested) 1999 Brief Outline of History of Australian Wine Law 1901 At Federation. Differences in climate may be illustrated by the variation in the harvesting date of Chardonnay. Gisborne. producing a diverse array of styles. The northern hemisphere equivalent would run from Bordeaux (between the latitudes of 44 and 46 degrees) down to southern Spain.e. 2000 Food standards revised. Waikato and Bay of Plenty .Oceania Australia Typical Australian Wine Label GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION—(Optional*) – (i. but ‘old’ standards retained for wine produced in Australia. grapes are grown in a vast range of climates and soil types.(Min. Auckland and Waikato on the North Island and Marlborough. In the warmer and more humid northern regions of Northland. VOLUME—(Mandatory 1991 States agree to uniform Food on Front label) . Blending regulations now under the AWBC Act.e. It is a country of contrasts with dense. but States/Territories still 3.14% ALC/VOL NAME. Chardonnay might begin to be harvested in late February or early March while in Central Otago. Standards. Nelson and Canterbury on the South Island.

70 cooperatives and 97 independent wine producers. Cabernet Sauvignon. Principles such as honesty in business. The wine region is around Cape Town. expect to see more wines and improved quality and wine making. mostly by Chenin Blanc . The South African Wine industry in the 1800’s began to really improve. which accounts for about 30% of the white wine production. with Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc production increasing annually. when legislation in this regard was formulated. Pinot Noir and Merlot are gaining popularity. This coordinated activity allowed the sharing of machinery and technical knowledge. however. adaptability. . In an attempt to counter this problem the Ko-operatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid Afrika Beperkt (KWV) was formed in 1918 to oversee the wine industry. Other Fermented Beverages and Spirits Act of 1957 White wines are grown in much greater number than reds. With the opening of trade between the rest of the world and South Africa. Since the end of apartheid the entire industry has undergone a rapid revolution. The result was that the KWV could control the size of the crop and the location of the grapes. In 1956 a quota system was introduced which effectively limited the number of vines a farmer could grow.Africa South Africa South Africa is the world' s eighth largest producer of wines and the industry here is more than three hundred years old. Due to the Napoleonic wars the French wine trade ceased and wine lovers looked to the Cape for a variety of South African Wines. South Africa's Wine of Origin certification scheme was officially instituted in 1973. It is claimed that variety. for example. taste and overall quality of South African Wines makes them very unique. titles. In the early 1900’s the South African Wine industry had considerable over-production due to wars and the general hardship of the economy. It was. South African Wines are now widely exported throughout the world. Certain basic principles were taken into consideration when the system was formulated. in accordance with the Wine. While this system had many advantages it did not deal satisfactorily with the problem of over production. Accordingly a co-operative was formed to stop farmers competing amongst themselves. Almost all South Africa's wines are produced in the Western Cape region where there are approximately 78 estates. Historically Cinsault and Pinotage have been the most popular red grapes. There has been a steady increasing investment into the South African wine market that has enabled the betterment of wine growing and production. factual terms. local marketing truths and free participation were addressed. An official Wine of Origin scheme was only established in 1972. Riesling is also grown in small quantities. This new scheme would not only protect wines of origin but also wines made from a specific cultivars or vintage. necessary to comply with EU regulations because a great deal of South African wine was exported to Europe. The first vineyard planting for South African Wines was in 1655. Vine cuttings were taken from parts of Europe but mainly from France. It was as early as 1652 when South Africa was deemed a suitable place to grow grapes for wine making.

especially during set and harvest 3. Chemicals are still widely used where necessary to reduce mold and retarding disease. which means vine. EX. – California has a general climate EX.” It is defined in Webster’s dictionary as “noun. The home – Where the vines are planted Vineyard site is the most important factor. France and Germany have harsher more unpredictable climates 2. Important notes: o o Grape growing + winemaking = winegrowing The grape = most important part of equation/art of wine Other factors – winemaker skill. Temperature increases from west to east – ocean influence A. production per plant decreases Grafting – changing the type of grape growing on a vine 1. D. Can vary widely in even a small area 2. – Napa Valley 1. Frost. – Napa Valley has a microclimate 2. Microclimate 1.Section 2: From Vine to Wine Viticulture What is viticulture? Viticulture also referred to as viniculture.Northern has a Macroclimate 3. Wrong weather at the wrong time can bring dramatic results 1. Cool weather at flowering – pollination problems 5. Temperature increases from south to north – 10º – 20º Rainfall increases from south to north 20” – 35” average 2. B. . The practices wine makers and viticulturists employ range from night picking to leaf pulling to cutting back buds at flowering to other needed experimental practices that come from years of experience and with dealing with the elements of that seasons climate during the growing season. most advances have been made in vineyard. Soil can vary greatly within a single vineyard Rootstock selection Propagating new vines Spacing – with closer spacing. D. when. Broad specific areas: 1. Ex. Too little sun – underdeveloped fruit 6. Climate 1. 3. Rain. In many instances local wine growing laws dictate to the wine makers whether they can irrigate their crops or use any additives. how much per hectare and other determining factors. especially at bud break 4.” The word is derived from the Latin word vitis. The new type is grafted onto the established rootstock Takes 2-4 years of vineyard to produce again F. C. California and coastal Mediterranean are milder and more predictable C. Test the soil before planting for composition “Listen to the land” after grapes are being harvested 2. B. Laws can tell you where you can plant a varietal. 2. Viticulture practices can range from the practice of Biodynamic farming techniques eschewed by Rudolf Steiner to Organic Farming or variations of this such as the commonly referred to practice in California of Sustained Farming. E. Drought 2. Too much sun – cooked fruit Soil 1. Ex. Both are defined as “the growing of grapes for the purpose of making wine. – Winery Lake Vineyard has a microclimate microclimate Ex. The Foundation – Rootstock A. . luck Of all advances in wine industry since prohibition. 3. (vit’· kul’ · cher) cultivation of grapevines.

2. • Cane trained systems o No permanent branch all but one of the strongest canes kept for next season’s main branch. you will know that it has been cane trained. dark and gnarled it has been spur trained. effects of frosts.The Umbrella – Vines. thick. Spur trained systems o No annual replacement allowing for a solid framework. A basic way to identify the differences is: 1. B. C.Techniques to enhance sun exposure a) Divide the canopy into separate rows b) More vertical aspect to trellis 1. canes and leaves A. Determines shade and light to vine ratio EX. o The system gives good spread of fruit over a large area and allows easier regulation of annual production. o The number of fruiting buds can be increased or decreased. o Apart from the trunk. 2. . main branch is thin or smooth. the oldest wood on a cane-trained vine is the main branch and this only one year old. Canopy management to BALANCE fruit to leaf growth Trellising – The way the canes/leaves are held up/arranged 1. Pruning – reduce quantity of growth to increase quality Trellising Systems There are two basic systems of vine training Cane and Spur. o Easy to know which basic training system has been applied to a vine simply by looking at the main branch. Cutting back canes in winter (when sap is least vulnerable to loss) to keep growth manageable Fruit and or leaf pruning during development to control quality by limiting the quantity. 2. • BASIC TRELLISING SYSTEMS EMPLOYED AROUND THE WORLD . Strongest cane is pruned back each year to provide a vine consisting of almost entirely new growth.

Bush vines are traditional in Beaujolais. or molds.Cane-trained trellising shown from beginning to height of growth to post harvest. Easiest means of restraining yields. Some growers have successfully adapted Lyre to cane training. As with all split-canopy systems Lyre is of no use whatsoever for low vigor vineyards. The only shoots that are pruned are the year-old ones. . Basically the Chablis spur-training system is little more than a slanting bush vine unsupported by a central post. Double and Simple forms represent the most conservative style of can training. X marks the spare cane that will be tied vertically in the winter and become next years main producing shoot. This results in treeyear-old vine (the minimum age for AOC Champagne) having three branches. Lyre – Spur-training system: Also known as the “U” system. it is removed and a new one cultivated from a bud on the main trunk. The term “bush vine” originated in Australia. Spur-trained version of Guyot Simple system. while another shoot closer to the truck will be allowed to grow and be the new seasons spare shoot where producing canes will grow from. GUYOT DOUB LE GUYOT SIMPLE Chablis – Spur-Training System: Originally developed in Chablis region of France. Bush Vine – Spur-training: This is an unsupported version of the Gobelet System. when it encroaches upon the next vine. its primary reason for existence being to replace a missing vine on its blind side. Main canes on a spur-trained vine are all permanent. Guyot – Cane Training System: Developed by Jules Guyot in 1860. Although this system was developed in Bordeaux. mosses.X Guyot Trellising . Used in Bordeaux where AOC rules restrict canes and buds you can grow. Also widely used for quality wines throughout the New and Old World. although rarely cultivated strictly for its own ends. fungi. They will only be replaced if they are damaged. bent almost double. In the winter. Champagne is the most important winemaking region to use the Chablis system where about ninety percent (90%) of all Chardonnay grown there uses this system. Least complicated to learn and the number of fruiting canes and the number of buds on them are unrestricted. Cru Classé Beaujolais only has 3-5 shoots where lower quality grapes may have up to 10 shoots. The distance between each vine in the same row determines the eventual life of the oldest branch because. a four-year-old vine having four branches. Also common throughout the dry areas of the Mediterranean. There is a double variant. Gobelet Trellising – Spur-trained trellising from beginning to height of growth to post harvest. France. is still used. Cordon de Royat – Spur-training system: Used in Champagne for production of Pinot Noir. Only suitable for low vigor vines as the weight of the leaves and fruit is unsupported. CDR vines are all face forward. The canopy is divided allowing a better penetration of lighting which improves ripeness levels and air which reduces the incidence of cryptogamic disorders or disorders borne in the vine such as in algae. It is used widely in South American countries such as Uruguay. and so forth. Now they use Guyot Double. where a few old vineyards usually planted with Grenache. the Lyre system is more common in New World where vine vigor is a problem although not a major one.

which variety you'll be planting and what style of wine you want to make. A larger root system can support a bigger vine and is less sensitive to short-term changes in soil moisture. vs. Deeper soils are much more preferable. phylloxera began to decimate Napa vineyards planted on AXR rootstock. One aspect of soil fertility that is important is soil pH . vs. It became apparent that higher Standard Close yields were demanded from our limited acreage. resulting in smaller vines and greater sensitivity to changes in soil moisture levels. limestone. Nutrient availability to roots is influenced by soil pH and in highly alkaline soils as soil pH nears 8. vs. Nonetheless. In the late 1980s a revolution occurred and USA vineyards began to look French. the number of vines per acre was increased. vs. Although grapevines can be grown in a wide variety of soil types. Irrigation must be managed with extreme care on shallow soils. common spacing formulas populate as many as 1000 to 1800 vines per acre depending on the variety and the site. grape roots will penetrate very deeply if the soil is permeable. The spacing of vineyards became closer. the most important characteristics are good internal drainage and adequate depth. Sh allo w M ed ium D eep (M edium T e xture) D eep (C o urs e T e xture) SPACING Vineyard Design 1 Meter planting = standard before – higher quality 2 / 3 Meter planting = now used = increased quality The most frequently asked question is "What is the cost to develop a vineyard?" The answer is. 1987 and '88 were short crop years followed by a period of increased consumption. Alluvial. Vineyard Density The number of vines per acre is the single most important factor that dictates the cost and yields per Standard Close acre.Soil Types importance for different varietals Examples of soil types would be: Clay vs. the mineral nutrients iron and zinc become less available. In addition. 6 feet or as close as 3 feet between the rows. Typically 8 feet. So as to not sacrifice quality. Volcanic. Calcareous. That's a population of 566 vines per acre. now in the late 1990s. Traditional vineyards in Napa Valley (before 1985) were spaced 11 feet between rows and seven feet between the vines (7'x11'). Shallow soils limit development of the root system. sandy loam.an indicator of the soil's relative acidity. The amount of increase varied enormously by vineyard and variety. . "That depends on what kind of soil you have. Soil characteristics are a critical factor in determining the potential success of a vineyard. Growers began to think of bottles per vine instead of tons per acre. The outcome was that the closer spaced vineyards could and did increase yields per acre.0. Soil depth for vineyards is commonly recommended to be a minimum of 30 to 40 inches before reaching an impermeable layer.

poor balance. It proves better in warmer climate areas where the warmth can “burn off” the green flavors in lieu of complex melon.) d) Natural rainfall. questionable aging potential. Most important with merlot is the “right weather” at the “right time” (i. it requires the perfect conditions: too cool and it’s stemmy. which are characterized by especially dense foliage. Irrigation 1. varied) b) Composition of soil (clay. hillsides. Highly vigorous grapevines. The Fine-Tuning – Helping Mother Nature A. . rocks) c) Location (valley floor. Moisture level in soil. Grapes from vines that are too vigorous tend to be dominated by “fruitiness. the grapes will not ripen at all. late and uneven ripening. Merlot: A mid-season ripening grape that does well in a diversity of climates. however as it gets cooler. The opposite holds true for vines that are stressed. too warm and it’s pruny. especially climate and soil. poor color. Right amount of water TO ADD varies with soil conditions a) Texture of soil (fine. On the other hand. 3. Unlike most staple crops. bitterness. Sauvignon Blanc: Does well in a myriad of temperatures. HIGH VIGOR Vineyard managers carefully control the growth of vines to bring out the qualities in the grapes that they want to emphasize in their wine. vigor in grapevines is not necessarily a good thing. raisin qualities. "In instance where a vine is vigorous. therefore that available to plant is important a) Too LITTLE = sunburn dehydration. Chardonnay: Thrives in cooler climates. citrus fruit and floral types. the varietal proves to taste vegetal and grassy. loam. mountaintop. bloom and set). sand. If a relatively small crop is grown on a leafy vine. warm climate chardonnay almost always proves to be lacking in the delicate flavors defining its varietal character. "Vigor" is agricultural speak for the health of a plant and is the result of the type and depth of soil a plant is in. Pinot Noir: Another cool climate grape. you want to grow more grapeproducing shoots to expend the vine’s energy. the water it receives. Cabernet Sauvignon: Prefers warmer conditions to excel. including drought problems 2. 4. It can grow cooler conditions but suffers the same stemmy qualities of pinot noir. then the grapes will be big and watery. The Fruit A. If too many grapes are grown off of such a vine. the most fickle to grow. overripe flavors. b) Too MUCH = diluted flavors.VIGOR LOW VIGOR MEDIUM VIGOR Factors associated with Vigor One of the keys to controlling the quality of the berries is to carefully balance the vigor of the vine with the number of grapes the vine produces. low acid. coarse. etc.” and they lose the complex flavors imparted by the soil.e. and the sunlight it gets. 5. 1. 2. poor color. thin tannin and overall structure. A dry soil is better in a cooler district. a stressed vine with less foliage does not have the energy to produce a big crop. have more energy to grow fruit. Varietal type selection – winemakers need to choose the right grape for all of the above factors.

C.3. 4. D. which comes from plant. B. B. Fertilization lime usage? Other fertilizers? Pest control organic farming. C. as opposed to water in the soil. biodynamic farming Pierces disease Odium molds Every Rot Phylloxera HARVEST AND GROWTH YEAR CYCLE ACTION TIME OF YEAR Mold Control: A. 5. Weeding February Bud-break March to April Foliage and shoots April to May _____________________________________ Average 100 days Flowering May to June Fruit set June to July Grape ripening August Harvest August to October _______________________________________ Botrytis harvest Eiswein January November to December November to December . Types of irrigation Drip a) b) Overhead Illegal to irrigate in France Research – Measuring water.

Red and White Wine Vinification .

A. • Best treatment of the grapes – NO breakage • Permits rejection of poorer clusters • Can select for level of maturity . Vinification (science of making wine from that fruit) 1. Table wine – 14% alcohol and less (1. o Not many people needed. 2. Chemicals are still widely used where necessary to reduce mold and retarding disease. Standards of the winery Skill of the winemaker Intangibles .Vinification Basics of Vinification: White Wine Introduction A. 1 machine can do the work of 20 to 30 pickers.Hand picking • Used in smaller vineyards and for more thin-skinned cultivars. Final product only as good as beginning ingredients (GRAPES) Wine: The resultant product of naturally fermented juice of grapes or other fruits. • Advantages o Harvesters can operate 24 hours a day but usually work at night and / or early morning. acidity @ 0.5% leeway) Sparkling wine – 14% alcohol and less (average 12. o Maximizes breaking of the berries so better for reds because skin contact is desirable. The soil and location of the vineyard 2. B.4.8 to 1 % and varietal aroma of concern 1. pruning methods o and canopy types. B. C. Mechanical harvesting – machine harvesting • Used on large vineyards • A force is applied to one or more parts of the vine in order to remove the fruit from the clusters. D. o Enzymatic oxidation of flavors & colors o Berry Breakage o Increase fungal growth o Premature fermentation by wild yeast Manual Harvesting . C. o Lateral Strike Harvesters that shake the vine canopy so that the berries will fall off. D. A. PICKING – Decision to Harvest • Made by vineyard manager & winemaker together • Whites best picked at 20 to 23 degrees Brix. B. pH = 3.luck The concept of “Wine Growing” Process of making white wine (This also applies to the base wine.5%) Fortified wine – over 14% but less than 24% alcohol Aromatized wine – 15. or “cuvee” for sparkling wine) A. Climatic conditions Types of Wines Factors contributing to quality of wines Viticulture practices can range from the practice of Biodynamic farming techniques eschewed by Rudolf Steiner to Organic Farming or variations of this such as the commonly referred to practice in California of Sustained Farming. 2. • Disadvantages are (focus on whites): o Might limit vineyard design reference.5 to 20% alcohol (vermouth) The grapes 1.

3. TRANSPORT TO WINERY 1. seeds. Bladder press (most often used) – airbag. C. Takes place at a low temperature to prevent fermentation from starting (settling process lasts generally from 2-24 hours) Fermentation temperature range = (32 – 78) The juice is now separated from its solids and is somewhat clarified. which results in evaporative cooling. 2. juice. a) Screw press – old fashioned b) Basket press – Champagne various parts of the world and smaller wineries Done gently and quickly. Should be covered. 2. Done as quickly as possible so as to minimize the time at elevated temperatures. 4. to limit oxygen contact. . pulp. 3.• • Very labor intensive and expensive Not done 24 hours per day B. CRUSHING Stemmer-crusher (usually) – separates the stems and breaks the berries. and usually to minimize skin contact Unfermented must (skins. D. 2. 1. SETTLING 1. Tanks are called unimatic. Sometimes dry ice added to reduce presence of oxygen Moving will cause a loss of water. etc) is put in large temperature controlled tanks to allow the juice to settle and the solids separate out.

together with various acids. the new wine is transferred from one container to another. 3. Fermentation will occur as the must is kept at a temperature essential for the enzymes reactions needed to cause fermentation. so a strain of controlled live yeast is now added to the unfermented must. leaving the solids behind If the fermentation occurs in the barrel as a vessel. protein. tannin (varying in degree with varietal and amount of skin contact initially). F. RACKING This process which is regulated by the winemaker can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. cream of tartar. Wild yeast is usually killed in the initial phases. Sugar + yeast = CO2 + ethyl alcohol (+ heat) Must is put into a fermentation vessel a) 1) Either a wood barrel (large or small). b) 3.E. or 2) jacketed stainless steel tank (with temperature control) or in older style methods 3) epoxy lined cement tanks Often. Longer fermentations (at lower temperatures) are generally favored by winemakers as more flavors are extracted and fruit flavors retained. 2 = warmer effects Yeast needs specific conditions for wine production (1) Proper temperature (2) Sugar to “burn” (3) Sufficient oxygen Unfermented must contains approximately 24% natural grape sugar. 24 brix = 12% alcohol 1. Range: 1 = cooler effects vs. 2. for complexity – battonage G. 6. FERMENTATION 1. the wine will be fermented in a tank and then subsequently be transferred into barrels. sometimes the wine is left to rest on the resultant dead yeast cells (lees) to pick up flavor and complexity. 5. Different winemaker styles include stirring the wine on for years. INOCULATION a) b) c) d) 4. AGEING . After fermentations’ completion. Alcohol present in the new wine at the end of the fermentation is approximately 50% of the natural sugar.

In white wines.1. 2. The new wine needs to develop and mature before it is “finished” and subsequently bottled. Dessert Wines (higher sugar) A. This is often done twice a week for the first two months and then every other week for a few more months. I. it can be confusing to the consumer. although it will occasionally occur spontaneously. ML softens the wine and adds both a rich mouth-filling texture and buttery flavor compounds. case aged and ultimately distributed to the market. and need to be filled with the same wine. H. the wine is then blended to maximize the potential of the final wine. MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION (ML) 1. 2. K. 3. TOPPING OFF 1. . Once the wine is blended and finished. Grapes picked at higher natural sugar levels Yeast can not metabolize all sugar = residual sugar Fermentation sometimes stopped with low temperatures. FINISHING In temperature-controlled tanks. The amount of time and in what type of a container will vary from varietal and by style. COLD STABILIZATION 1. which is in the barrels. This is a secondary. non-alcoholic fermentation of wines during which the harder sharper malic acids (think of green apples) are transformed into softer lactic acids (the acid in dairy products). Although this is strictly a cosmetic problem. the winemaker usually makes a conscious decision whether or not to induce ML. B. 2. and potential problem in the restaurant. The wine will now continue to develop in an ageing container for from three to eighteen months (or longer for red wine). it can be filtered for one final time and then is bottled. a) Small or large wood barrels b) Neutral stainless steel tanks. L. the temperature is dropped to below freezing where the cream of tartar forms crystals and falls out. White wines which are not cold stabilized risk formation of tartaric crystals in the bottle and on cork. BLENDING After the ageing is finished in various batches or “lots” of wine. C. Barrels often lose wine due to evaporation. 2. J.

ROSĖ a) Made by leaving the juice “on the skins” just long enough to extract a little color. which often adds bitter components As a rule “ageing” reds will be racked into fresh barrels three times during the first year. tight-grain wood French oak vs. 5. acidity @ 0. Usually lasts 5-15 days. B. AGEING 1. red wine is racked off of solids and put into ageing container: most often wood barrels. into stainless steel vats. 2. for fermentation. Carbonic Maceration (alternative styles of fermentation) – Certain styles of red wines. D. Table wine – 14% alcohol and less (1. Fermentation temperatures generally higher than white wines give range? a) Purpose is to extract color and tannins b) Low temperature isn’t needed to retain fruit flavors. usually stainless steel. a) b) Weight of the grape matter crushes the fruit and allows for the needed liquid for fermentation to begin. pH = 3. Takes place BEFORE skins are separated Unfermented must is moved into a tank. Climatic conditions 3. C. or in the case of certain light reds like Gamay. C.4.Vinification of Red Wines Types of wines A. 3. A. D. FERMENTATION 1. C. b) “Blush” wines often left just a few hours c) Rosé wines left for a day or two After fermentation. 3. B. CRUSHING 1. Steps different from white wine process • PICKING – Decision to Harvest o Reds best picked at 22 to 24 degrees Brix. Red wines do not benefit from lees contact. The soil and location of the vineyard.5% leeway) Sparkling wine – 14% alcohol and less Fortified wine – over 14% but less than 24% alcohol. whole clusters thrown into a tank without crushing. Viticulture practices Vinification (science of making wine from that fruit) 1. . 2. BARRELS a) b) Open-grain wood vs. Allowing the grapes to ferment slowly in the presence of carbon dioxide and some oxygen results in a deep color as the grapes ferment inside their skins and strong fruit flavors are extracted.6% and color of concern. American oak effects 4. 4.5 to 20% alcohol (vermouth) The grapes 1. Skill of the winemaker Intangibles – luck The concept of “Wine Growing” Review of factors contributing to quality of wines B. and then transferred into a final ageing barrel. A. 2. Aromatized wine – 15. Standards of the winery 2.

If ML happens spontaneously later in the bottle. which might later cloud the wine appearance or result in excessive sediment. FINING CLARIFICATION a) b) c) A substance is stirred into the wine. 3. There may be a red color between the two innermost hoops. it can result in a “stinky” nose. depending on the traditions of the cooper or tonnelier. Prior to bottling a final filtering is often done to remove any microscopic particle. American (1) Split staves vs. They provide controlled oxidation during storage. clarifying the wine. The Benefits of Oak on Wine Composition Oregon Minnesota Wisconsin Pennsylvania Ohio Kentucky Oak Barrels — The staves of a barrel are held together by metal hoops. sawed (2) Air-dried vs. E. FILTRATION a) d) The advisability and even the necessity of filtering is a matter of debate between winemakers.c) d) D. producing the barrel. which are sometime positioned at slightly different distances. This does have a uniform and impressive look to it. Steam-bent Amount of char or “toast” MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION Most red wines are inoculated to “go through” ML. Missouri Mississippi Oak barrels contribute to wine composition in three ways: They improve the maturation process – flavor from the oak are extracted which enhance the aroma and flavor complexity and intensity.tannins are softened. but this is added by winemakers whom wish to conceal their spillage marks around the bung by dyeing the entire middle area with red wine (usually red wine barrels). 1. Wines are softened and generally made more drinkable. a) French barrel-making methods vs. 2. Materials used: egg whites. bentonite. Kiln-dried (3) Fire-bent vs. color and wine . and an interaction with suspended solids causes them to settle out.

guaiacol (smoky and medicinal). hemicelluloses. “but to examine the differences in varying American Oak. which. coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde in the wine are increased. and guaiacol (smoky). One such cooper. and thus less extraction) and previous use of the barrel (new oak provides the greatest extractive yield). The results were strikingly good. in many ways. with the last three actually influencing the wine during contact. of course—to be the most elegant oak. Primarily.6 grams for a 500 liter barrel. syringaldehyde. long favored by many Spanish and Australian winemakers. The extractable constituents of oak fall largely into the broad class of volatile phenolics. French oak is considered by many winemakers—particularly the French.” Poisson offered attending winemakers samples of Chardonnay and Merlot aged in oak grown in Pennsylvania. The most important compounds derived from oak lignin are vanillin (vanilla). they have become a popular method of increasing the oak extract levels in previously used barrels. Fermenting Position Calculations based on the barrel surface area per liter of wine shows that for each millimeter that wine penetrates into the barrel. cream. The hemicelluloses do so indirectly – they are not odorous by themselves but are transformed chemically through toasting. Now he has discovered that higher toast levels—the amount of time a barrel is exposed to an open flame—seem to temper a . furanic derivatives from toasting. and spice and vanilla characteristics to a fine Chardonnay or Cabernet Sauvignon. aldehydes (particularly vanillin). and a range of other compounds.” said Tonnelerie Française cooper Alain Poisson. Tonnellerie Française Nadalie USA. The important compounds entering the wine by simple diffusion are oak lactones which have a coconutlike aroma. When the oak is toasted the amounts of vanillin (vanilla). Oak is essentially composed of cellulose. A fifth wine was aged in a barrel made from French oak.” Poisson recalled. The Missourian and French oak seemed to be least significant one way or the other. The diffusion of oak components into wine will change somewhat as the surface becomes exhausted. The Oregonian oak was also distinctive. He found that certain French cooperage techniques left his American barrels with flavors that remained too aggressive. are similar to barrel. which derive mainly from the oak lignin comprising between 25 and 35 percent of the dry weight of the wood. Because large oak chips have been found to provide many of the same benefits to wine as oak barrels. Among Tonnellerie Française’s sample wines. Virginia and Oregon. we didn’t know how to work with American oak.stability is increased and various aroma compounds are produced by the oxidative process. 4-methyl guaiacol (smoky and clove-like). it extracts about 7. mainly due to its strong smoke and bacon like edge. Missouri. caramel. Napa Tasting Shows Off American Oak What’s in an oak barrel? Aside from young wine. eugenol (spicy and clove-like). and thus serve as a base for other odorous compounds. tannins and lignin’s. volatile phenols such as eugenol which have clove and carnation aromas. oak chips are used during Maturation Position the fermentation and bulk storage of wines as an economical means of obtaining characteristics. particularly with merlot. It is ironic that American oak. Our intent was not to compare French and American oak “which belong to separate species. as larger molecules will take longer to diffuse. The tasting was blind.6 grams of oak extract for a 200 liter barrel and 5. phenolic ketones which augment the vanillin aroma. recently set up a tasting in Napa Valley to demonstrate the evolving quality of its American oak casks. a number of French coopers have set up branches in the United States to produce American oak barrels. “When we first came here (to the United States). Barrel fermentation provides additional benefits during fermentation – strong reducing actions further enhance wine aromas and flavors. each oak type remained unidentified until after analysis. is only now beginning to find broader acceptance in the United States. both the Pennsylvanian and Virginian oak seemed (at last to this palate) most refined and well integrated. an oak barrel can also harbor flavors of its own. adding smoke. These become a small but important part of the overall phenolic composition of wine. The amounts of oak extracted from the wood into the wine depend upon: the aging time (the longer the time the greater the extraction) the type of oak (American oak provides a stronger intensity than French) the method of drying the wood (prolonged air drying is necessary for wine) the size (the larger the barrel the less surface of oak to volume of wine. Because of this new interest.

you may feel. Argentines are carving vineyards and irrigation systems out of the Andean foothills in cooler regions such as Tupungato. since the market continues to vote with its dollars overwhelmingly in favor of barrel-fermented Chardonnay. the Douro. I was shown two almost identical BFCs—one made by American Saw n Californian Paul Hobbs and labeled by his employer Dr. And so. which seems to thrive in well-established areas such as Luján de Cuyo. have to struggle for recognition and. Australia and New Zealand have also been producing BFC for quite a while. All over the frantically developing wineries of the former Soviet-bloc countries. In eastern Switzerland recently. Long Island. such as Harslevelu and Tamiioasa. Perhaps Poisson’s newly acquired expertise explains why only one out of same 60 California winemakers could identify which wine was aged in French oak. has produced oceans of technically correct BFC for years. the Rhône Valley proper. California. Italy. but in the warmer regions. make any barrel-fermented Chardonnay. And producing A BFC is a common goal among those striving to establish new viticulture areas. In their efforts to prove that they too belong to the international wine club. but places such as Mudgee. red Malbec. But Daniel Gantenbein couldn’t resist the temptation to plant Chardonnay and make tiny quantities of BFC from relatively young vines—and quite remarkably un-Swiss it tastes too. and Charlene. Washington. of course. But read on. as indigenous varieties. it seems are the even less likely wine regions. What a waste of space. Within a few hours of arriving in Argentina for the first time earlier this year. each of them with a long history in the area. I European Split . with increasing sophistication of technique. oak and winemaking technique with remarkably little local variation. Languedoc. Spain. Loire. Coonawarra. Chile. It seems as though whenever an emerging wine region needs to prove that it has joined the truly international wine market. I was amazed by one producer’s Pinot Blanc. almost as a rite of passage. South Africa. Austria are just some of those places that have been busy producing new lines of BFC. for example. What they all share is that none of these places. the central Asian republics and outer space. Oregon. The trouble with Chardonnay. in some cases. which some would say is distinctively not to their taste. Pinot Noir and even MüllerThurgau. survival. on the other hand. Idaho. and BFC in particular. Cabernets vary in flavor and texture and can produce wines that develop into an expressive blend of grape and place. they all but ignore their deliciously succulent. Texas. In many parts of the world. is that all they tend to express is grape. it must produce a Cabernet Sauvignon and a barrel-fermented Chardonnay. expressly for the American market. Portugal. I am afraid it’s another of those Chardonnay-knocking pieces. and Ontario: most of North America has now been colonized by BFC. Catena. Barrel-Fermented Chardonnay Band Wagon Hooray for Bordeaux. and another experimental batch made by a young Frenchman at Moët & Chandon’s Argentine outpost. Now every other place with pretensions of producing wine for the international consumer is desperately importing expensive French oak barrels just to prove that they too can produce BFC. please. Cabernet provides a good medium for communicating some of the distinguishing features of the land.perceived rawness in American oak. and cheap. I understand why emerging wine regions need to produce BFC. hard-earned Western currency is being exchanged for French oak barrels destined to yield yet more BFC. Yet how many of these have developed a really distinctive identity? Some bottling of Au Bon Climate and Kittler perhaps. to my knowledge. Yes. Gisborne and parts of the far southwest of Australia are some of the very few identifiable individual fruit sources. it is impossible for Cabernet Sauvignon to ripen at all reliably. Meanwhile.

000-square foot cooperage will include a visitor’s center and elevated observation walkway. Fouquet will oversee the launching of a long-held dream—building a totally American barrel-making operation using native-grown oak from the Midwest plus French cooperage techniques. about half the cost of their French versions. To realize his American goals. The all-American barrels will sell for $265 to $280. but not Pinot Noir. Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel. Fouquet hopes to build 4. Fouquet will rely on one veteran French cooper and 10 American coopers.000 barrels Seguin-Moreau builds annually in France. it is still small in comparison to the 35. While a sizable number. He recommends American oak for Chardonnay and reds such as Shiraz.000 barrels a year in Napa. In April. who are now in France learning the craft. French Oak Chips Medium-toast American Oak Dust Light-toast Fouquet says that French oak will still be preferred in the production of super premium wines. It’s usually a much better value. American Oak Chips High-toast . His 25. More News On Oak Overwhelming French dominance in the esoteric but important realm of wine-barrel-making will soon be challenged in Napa Valley by Alain Fouquet.just hope they manage to hang on to what constitutes their own distinctive viticultural identity. but that the availability of American barrels will narrow the gap for producers of less expensive wines. By the year 2000. President of the American arm of the prestigious French barrel-builder Seguin-Moreau.

C. artichoke. Piedmont. Mendocino. “Bay Area. Spain. B. stemmy. Italy (Friuli and Alto Adige) INFLUENCES Sweet vs. GROWN 1. smoke. no wood. straw. Sonoma. Sonoma. A. Idaho New York: Long Island. type. B. Riesling A. lemon. grass (cut). yeast. Monterey. lime melon. hay. nectarine. lemon. sparkling . Washington. pear. apple. “Bay Area” Pacific Northwest: Oregon. green olive. Finger Lakes Texas. wood ageing (minimal). asparagus. no wood. mint. 4. 4.White Wine Varietals Primary white wine varietals are: A. Central Coast (North and South). vanilla. honey. 3. Idaho France: Alsace Germany: Rhine and Mosel river areas. apricot (in sweet styles. G. France: Loire (Sancerre. America a) California: Napa. B. dry style. honey. Monterey. pineapple. gooseberry. Sonoma. menthol. chalk. America a) b) California: Napa. “Bay Area”. North Western (Friuli Alto Adige) Australia. New Zealand. 3. blended or 100%. bell pepper. Sauternes) New Zealand. D. toast. butterscotch. Central Coast (North and South) Mendocino. C. Sauvignon Blanc A. California: Napa. barrel fermentation. GROWN 1. peach. C. Monterey. alfalfa. Champagne. malolactic fermentation FLAVORS Tropical fruit. France: Burgundy. Bordeaux (Graves. America a) b) c) d) 2. guava. Washington. E. B. 2. sweet or dry FLAVORS Grapefruit. Chardonnay Sauvignon Blanc Riesling Semillon Muscat Gewürztraminer Chenin Blanc GROWN Chardonnay 1. Chile INFLUENCES Wood vs. cream. Pouilly Fume).” Mendocino b) Washington. “other areas” Australia. Central Coast (North and South). also pear and peach). steel. smoke. melon. F. Australia. Chile INFLUENCES Wood vs. herbs. Amador Oregon. mint. Loire Valley (Touraine) Italy: Tuscany. etc. banana. 3. 2. Oregon.

licorice. Cyprus INFLUENCES Dry vs. B. guava. FLAVORS Green Apple. off dry vs. geranium. “Bay Area” France: Alsace 2. Portugal. Sonoma. France: Bordeaux (sauternes). Central Coast (North and South). Saumur. Mendocino. Madeira. C. lemon. pepper. earth Semillon A. Germany. Central Coast (North and South). clove. no wood. honeysuckle. Amador 2. no wood. GROWN 1. honey. . lemon. cream. cinnamon. pine. apple blossom. Gewurztraminer A. C. blended vs. C. honeysuckle. tangerine. anise. Central Coast (North and South). C. fig. Chenin Blanc A. GROWN 1. apricot. still FLAVORS Apple. Monterey. B. South Africa. raisin. wood or no wood FLAVORS Very aromatic. sparkling vs. peach. dry vs. cream. GROWN 1. peach. peach. INFLUENCES Dry vs. apple. Italy: (Piedmont-Asti) 4. pineapple. Australia INFLUENCES Wood vs. “Bay Area”. Central Coast (North and South). America California: Napa. sweet. sweeter vs.C. vanilla. France: Loire Valley (Vouvray. nectarine. rubber. California: Napa. Australia INFLUENCES Wood vs. France: Midi. USA (Oregon) 3. Sonoma. Monterey. pepper (light) toffee. Provence. melon. cinnamon. South Africa. B. Mendocino. petrol. earth. pear. Alsace 3. orange. Muscat A. Italy. Spain. sauerkraut. almond. asphalt. cream. sparkling FLAVORS Very aromatic. Sonoma. Mendocino Washington State 2. pear. lychee. Austria. Sonoma. off dry. Rhone. Southwest 3. sweet. etc…) 3. smoke. earth. drier style. apricot (in sweeter styles) GROWN 1. apricot. 100% FLAVORS Peach. Napa. America a) California. “Bay Area” b) Texas 2. California: Napa. Mendocino. chalk. smoke. chamomile B. vanilla. geranium. lychee nuts. rose.

New Zealand INFLUENCES Still vs. Mendocino. new wood. East) 2. FLAVORS Black currant (cassis). B. black cherry raspberry. America a) California: Napa. Emilion) S. earth.Basic Red Wine Varietals and Styles of Wines Primary red wine varietals are: A. molasses. jasmine. sausage GROWN 1. Sonoma. Texas France: Bordeaux (Pomerol. Central Coast (North and South). Champagne. Anjou). E. Monterey. Piedmont Australia. coriander. Australia. Merlot A. Central Coast (North and South). Idaho c) New York. “Bay Area” Sierra Foothills. Europe. America a) California: Napa. cedar wood. wood vs. GROWN 1. coffee. strawberry. Washington. tobacco. earth. lavender. . eucalyptus. B. Europe. St. black olive. green olive. smoke. violets. Bay Area b) Pacific Northwest: Oregon. Monterey. Central Coast (North and South). blended or not. D. sparkling. Italy (Lombardy). ginger. 4. 3.” caramel. S. “Bay Area” b) Oregon France: Burgundy. B. no wood. (esp. C. GROWN 1. blackberry. Loire Valley (Touraine. Pinot Noir A. Sonoma. bell pepper. cinnamon. 3. America a) California: Napa. 2. mushrooms. plum pomegranate. Spain. licorice. char treatment of oak) FLAVORS Cherry. smoke. prune. Alsace Germany. black plum. mint. no wood. New Zealand. F. Italy (N. G. West Australia. 2. Finger Lakes. “farm yard. Sonoma. West Italy: Tuscany. 3. raspberry. C. cocoa. chocolate. Long island d) Texas & other states France: Bordeaux. type. size and age of wood. Chile INFLUENCES Wood vs. allspice. clove. mushroom. Monterey. D. Mendocino. Old vs. E. Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot Noir Merlot Zinfandel Syrah Gamay Granache Cabernet Sauvignon A. b) Washington State c) New York. spice. E.

age of wood. Monterey. GROWN 1. soy. GROWN 1. strawberry. Midi. Syrah A. New Zealand INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood. blend or not FLAVORS Blackberry. anise. size and type of wood. smoke. and flavors similar to cabernet sauvignon but “softer. N. Amador. no wood.B. Mendocino. Spain. soy. Monterey. blend or not. focus on herbal and “green” flavors C. 2. type of wood. Central Valley b) Texas 2. tea. Grenache A. size and age of wood. C. jasmine. age. Gamay A. wood vs. rose petal. B. Midi Australia. plum. cinnamon. pepper (white and black). France: Provence. Central Valley b) Oregon France: Beaujolais 2. Sonoma. cranberry C. chocolate (cocoa).” rounder when very ripe. 3. Sierra Foothills. oak. berries. “Bay Area”. INFLUENCES Wood vs. FLAVORS Blueberry. Amador. violet. California. and size of wood. Central Coast (North and South). Central Coast (North and South). age. type and size of wood. FLAVORS Grape. prune. America. rose petal . sausage (meat) toast/char. bell peppers. vinification style (carbonic maceration) FLAVORS Raspberry. vinified like Cabernet Sauvignon? FLAVORS Black Plum. port. 3. cassis (black currant). Central Coast (North and South). type and size of wood barrels. Africa. Australia INFLUENCES Wood vs. olives. America a) California: Napa. pepper. cloves. Mendocino. B. C. B. age. jam. Sonoma. Napa. black raspberry. raspberry. violet. “Bay Area”. B. clove. “Bay Area”. black plum. INFLUENCES Type. America a) California: Napa. Monterey. no wood. blend or not. cinnamon. GROWN 1. pepper. Sonoma. black pepper. 2. and Southern Rhone 3. chocolate. Zinfandel A. Sonoma. Central Valley Italy / primitivo Australia (Western) INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood. C. “Bay Area” Amador. Monterey France: Rhone. blackberry. blend or not. GROWN 1. prune. violet. jam. cinnamon. no wood. cherries. California: Napa.

white or rosé. B. But if you want to get the most from your wines. choose to highlight wines but not with sommelier B. Otherwise the general rule of thumb is 45Fº or 7 Cº storage for whites and 55Fº or 12Cº storage for long-term storage of reds (older vintages) and 58Fº to 60ºF or 15Cº for reds expected to be served sooner. White wines: chilled but not cold 1. a standard 750 ml bottle (25. it’s all the same! 2. the fuller bodied the style the warmer and the lighter bodied the style cooler within the parameters given for both red and white. For a large party. it means at about 65Fº or 17Cº. Restaurant is large. 1. 1. Dessert wines: 6. always use a flute—a saucer-shaped glass will make all those delightful bubbles disappear. Do you like it? That’s all that counts. and remove the cork with a corkscrew. rules are made to be broken. “Perfect wine service” will vary depending on the restaurant. Often served TOO warm . Roses and med-light whites 45-50ºF 41-46ºF 5. 2. when it’s suggested that a wine be served that way. I recommend the investment in a set of glasses made especially for the different varietals such as Riedel Crystal from Austria. If you take away the theatre. So swirl a glass. found in most any grocery or house wares store. formal and employs sommeliers 4. What to drink it from? Lots of different glasses aren’t necessary. Wipe the rim clean. For champagne. How to open it? Take a sharp blade and cut around the top foil about a quarter-inch below the bottle’s rim. And you’ll find your very own “match made in heaven”! How much to serve? For simple gatherings or intimate dinners. and taste determine a wine’s quality: Whether red. Restaurant is small and informal 3. Does one need a sommelier? 2. especially Chardonnay 4. cellar temperature. Restaurant is semi formal. and it’s easy to get confused. sour. Correct Wine Service Introduction A. and take a big sniff! A wine should be tasted first and foremost with enjoyment in mind. the color must be clear and brilliant The aroma gives a good idea of the wine’s taste (your nose can pick up over 2000 distinct aromas that translate into only four tastes—sweet. bitter. Warmer temperatures for more complex delicate dry whites.Here are a few tips for serving and enjoying wines: What to look for? Color. The all-purpose tulip or the classic “balloon” shape work fine. Often Served TOO cold.4 ounces) will give you 5 glasses of wine of approximately 5 ounces each (standard). What’s most important is enjoyment. 1. It’s a chance to “show your stuff” Correct serving temperature A. Also. and salty). How cold? How warm? “Room temperature” comes from the days before central heating. Feel free to put even red wine in the fridge to cool it down—but always avoid putting wine in the freezer. aroma. “Perfect” wine service is different than “very good” and proficient service. While many good combinations exist. Sparkling wines 50ºF Red wines: cool. figure on 60 glasses of wine per case. Ideal range 45-55/57ºF 3. You’ll see ideas all through this course that will make it easy to discover delicious wine and food pairings. What to serve it with? Much has been made lately of wine and food pairing. NOT room temperature.

1. P. From this point on the bottle should be kept in an upright position. WIPING LIP – Make sure you wipe the lip thoroughly both before and after you remove the cork. WIPING BOTTLE – White wines being removed from an ice bucket should be wiped so as to not drip on the table. NEVER open an older bottle of red wine in the air on any occasion. Cut the foil below the lower lip. the “other” person should be served first. Never touch the mouth of the bottle or lip with your fingers. If you have difficulty gauging from a close up position. SIDE STAND – You may use a side stand or adjacent table if it is convenient. 3. or move it slowly to a vertical position and allow the sediment (if any) to tumble slowly down the side of the bottle. Make sure that the pouring level is consistent from one glass to the next. short pour. style of restaurant etc. Wait for the taster’s approval. then the men. Stand back to the host’s right and make certain the label is clearly in view. back up a step from the table after each pour to get a sense and your bearings. he or she is poured first regardless of seating proximity to the host. F. FOIL REMOVAL . 3. APPROVAL – Present the bottle from the right of the person who ordered it. N. The cut should be neat and complete! Pocket the foil. CELLAR temperature Will vary with weight and structure of wine. O. but not necessary. Sparkling wines are permitted in a bucket. and always with C. especially if you have concern that the bottle would not otherwise make it around the table. 1. If a couple. but make certain that you are in full view of the guest. 5. “Room temperature” – You should think of it as the room the WINE likes to live in. IN-HAND opening is not acceptable for a white or red wine. E. should he or she choose to pour for them. K. place the bottle back on the table to the right of the host and within range. TRANSPORTING – Remove bottle from the bin GENTLY. D. regardless of gender. Always make certain that when you put it back on your forearm that any soiled spots are folded back. J. If a group situation. When in doubt. 6. although space. TASTING – Pour an ounce or two for tasting. B. The host is always served last. It is appropriate to place the cork on some sort of holder/plate. 4. not visible to the guests. or in an ice bucket. i. I. BOTTLE PLACEMENT – In the case of a red wine. H. then one should move clockwise around the table serving women first. FILL LEVEL – Glasses should be filled no more than half to two-thirds full (particularly with red wines as glasses are often larger). . Ideal range 55-65ºF 50-57ºF Light reds (fruity and low tannin) Fuller bodied reds 55-62ºF Opening and serving a bottle of wine A. G.2. L. If there is a guest of honor. WHITE WINES .. Screw it down until all the turns have disappeared (without penetrating the cork) and lever the cork out of the bottle. 4. Either place in a cradle/basket. NAPKIN USE – If you must remove a stray piece of cork or tartar deposits. M. Upon approval. then the host/person who ordered. PULLING CORK – insert the point of the corkscrew off center in the cork to ensure the auger goes down the center of the cork. use the corner of a napkin.e. STORAGE – All bottles of red wine should be stored label up so that one knows on which side the sediment would settle.should be opened either on the table on a coaster or plate where room permits. logistics.Do not turn the bottle and do not pick the bottle up off the table if you have started it there. 2. may all dictate variances. POURING – The following are general guidelines. Rule of thumb: the larger the glass the less you pour. 2. place the bottle down gently on the corner of the table on a coaster or plate with the label facing the guests. THE CORK – The cork should be placed without fanfare to the right of the taster.

2. After cork removal. Napkin placement on a wine bucket 1. b) TOOLS – Upon bringing the wine to the table. 2. It may be too cold. It should never come in contact with the table. the bottle should be grasped firmly as one inserts the auger of the corkscrew so as to insure a clean centered entry. it can confuse both you and others who may be working your table. Ask if you can bring another bottle and bring a fresh tasting glass. be careful not to agitate the bottle as you extract the cork. The candle should be lit with matches rather than a lighter. Do NOT assume refills automatically’ always allow the option of refusing. and upon both lighting the match and extinguishing it. Ask about white wine temperature 1. (1) Position the neck of the bottle 4-6 inches above the candle and slightly behind. d) CRADLE – If in a cradle. light your candle. Make sure the wine is on a coaster or small plate. Remove glassware of people not drinking. etc… c) If opening the bottle in an upright manner. WHY? a) To separate the clear wines from any of its’ sediment or residue. so it does not smoke. Decanting 1. b) To allow the wine to breathe more effectively. one should have his or her back at an angle from the guest to help shield the sulfur odors. E. g) DECANTING – Place your palm over the label of the bottle (so you will be holding it in bin position) and grasp the neck of the decanter with your other hand. proceed as above. 3. C. Extinguish the match and place on candleholder. . Service goes beyond opening and pouring A. Perhaps a chiller is more appropriate than a bucket.the label facing the host. When pouring additional amounts: pour host last. Bucket should be placed to host’s right. within reach. small plate for cork if appropriate. the cradle is no longer of use and the bottle should be delicately removed from the cradle for the actual decanting process. decanter. D. f) CANDLE – After presentation of the cork and lip wiping. 2. c) To remove the wine from a cold bottle to a room temperature vessel to bring the wine to a more appropriate temperature. B. Wrapping is inappropriate. d) Theatre HOW? a) TRANSPORTATION – Wine is transported to the table as described earlier. e) In both situations. G. regardless. the tools for decanting should be there already or brought immediately thereafter: candle. A thin rectangle draped across the bucket. opening always on a guerdon or the table. F.

Grasp the napkin cork firmly in one hand. holding the bottle at 45º angles. In-hand opening B. Resist the pressure of the cork as it dislodges itself from the bottle. but if two pours.” 6. The wine should be tasted as usual. The thumb-in-the-punt position is acceptable. Ice bucket mixture: 50/50 crushed ice and water. Hold the bottle to pour as you would any other. Hold the bottle firmly in your hand. so the remaining foil will not be in the way (although it is NOT incorrect to remove the entire foil for a wine that will be decanted). 7. In bucket opening A. 3. If not pre-chilled. 1. There should be no “pop”. 11. 10-15 minutes in ice from cellar temperature should be adequate. unwrinkled napkin. Keep your eyes focused. and when all guests have been poured. 5. the wine bottle can serve as identification of which wine is in which decanter. In the case of several decanted bottles. and allow it to ease out very slowly. Remove the foil and proceed in opening the bottle as above. slowly remove the bottle from the bucket. As the “snake” of heavier dark sediment approaches. 10. Twist the bottle with your other hand to loosen the cork. After the cork is removed from the bottle. . You may let the wispy residue pass. 8. the wine decanter is placed in front of the host with the empty bottle behind the decanter until the wine is consumed or unless the host requests you to do otherwise. pour one glass at a time. 9. A. Both opening in hand and in bucket are ok. After removing the cork for presentation. the wine should flow down the side of the decanter without fanfare or noise. With your hand or thumb firmly over the cork (and napkin over the cork) untwist the wire cage and loosen the wire gently without removing the foil. Do not pull at the cork. It WILL almost always explosively foam over. In flute glasses. steady motion. 2. wiping it clean of any water and moisture that might drip on the table or guests. let the bottle remain at 45º for a few seconds. Pour in one continual. to prevent overflow. Dislodge the cork from the wire cage and present it to the host as you would any other.(2) As you begin to pour the wine from the bottle into the decanter. Do NOT remove the cage. grasping the upper shoulder of bottle. but considered affected by many. You should not rest the neck of the bottle against the decanter. Sparkling Wine Service Preliminaries 1. The bottle in the bucket is already at 45-degree angle. rather a light “hiss” or “sigh. your eyes are focused where the shoulder of the bottle joins the neck. Never open a non-chilled bottle (even if guests are impatient). 2. 3. B. slow. Leave at least an inch from the top. Correct champagne service is performed in one or two pours. 4. Letting the mousse subside in between. 4. The bottle should then be placed in either a bucket or cooler and left with a clean. (3) (4) (5) h) Have the host taste the wine as usual. raise the bottle gracefully to stop the flow.

Cut foil under the lip and place foil in your pocket 3. Make sure the worm has not penetrated the bottom of the cork. 1. 6. NOT IN THE AIR. Slowly rem ove the cork with out popping. Insert worm into the cork after wiping the top of the cork with dam p cloth 4. 5. IF NOT CORNER OF THE GUEST TABLE OR SIDE STAND IN VIEW OF GUEST. Serve one (1) ounce sam ple to host for final approvals . Pour a 1/2 ounce sam ple in a glass and evaluate for soundness 7. W ipe the inside of the bottle neck to rem ove any residue from the cork. Display bottle to host—label first with a folded napkin underneath 2.Procedures for Opening a Bottle of Still Wine ALWAYS TRY TO OPEN WINE ON A GUERIDON.

Section 3 – The Wines of France Overview of the Regions. Wines & Grapes of France .

The wines were appreciated for their taste and finesse. King of the Franks in Reims. heiress of Champagne. to the heir to the French throne. when he converted. At the accompanying festivities. The wines of Champagne were given a unique destiny when the paths of geography and history crossed. A holy wine until medieval times.Champagne Historical Overview Champagne wines have illuminated our lives for centuries with their style and grandeur. who baptized Clovis. It was Saint Rémi. Blessed by history Between 898 and 1825 the kings of France were crowned in Reims. as did Mary Stuart (later Mary Queen of Scots). the marriage of Jeanne de Navarre. He was anointed with wine from the Champagne region one Christmas evening in 496. while Louis XVI was offered several hundred pints for his coronation. the wine was blessed and drunk during mass. Francis I received a few casks. later Philip the Fair. bishop of Rheims. Champagne flowed freely. and were to become the wines offered in homage to any visiting monarchs. . while living in a villa surrounded by vineyards near to the present town of Epérnay. linked the destiny of the Lords of Champagne to the crown of France. Several centuries later. at the heart of the Champagne region.

the general principles of which are still in use today. The wines retained a proportion of their sugar and as soon as the temperature began to rise with the arrival of spring. When bottles replaced barrels. This made them the uncontested Kings of the world's celebrations. However. where the low . the Mountain of Reims. This inspired idea enabled the Champenois to produce a white wine of great purity and shine. the Côtes des Bars and Montgueux. only 3 grape varieties are permitted. Although its surface area has been reduced over time. Champagne wines were the chosen wines for celebrations and major events. the natural fermentation of the wines began in the autumn. the Appellation carries 35 rules to uphold the quality of Champagne wines. Wine Laws in Champagne Vineyards have been planted in Champagne ever since the beginning of our era. This is how Champagne wines found their sparkle. the Marne Valley. as well as prolonging the life of the wine by up to 3 to 4 years. At the beginning. the effervescence escaped. the Côtes des Blancs. As well as the delimitation of the area. First was the pressing of black grapes to produce white wine. Champagne's reputation began to cross borders and their prestige grew continuously. as the wines were kept in large barrels. following its curves as it meanders from Aÿ to beyond Château-Thierry in the Aisne. yields in both the vineyard and during pressing are limited. From Still to Sparkling In the beginning. made two fundamental advances. where the vineyards follow the slopes that run from Epèrnay in the north down to the slopes around the town of Sézanne. slowing with the onset of the winter chill in the cellars. However. where the slopes flank the river on both sides. the pruning of vines. spacing and density. light and crisp. harvesting must be done by hand and minimum aging periods among other things are all controlled. the wines natural sparkle remained imprisoned until they were opened. where the vineyards snake along the slopes between the plateau and the valleys of the Andre and Vesle in the region’s national park. it was only from the end of the 17th century that they became sparkling wines.From the 12th century onwards. A slow but progressive pressing was needed. The second great advancement was capturing the sparkle. the fermentation started again. already dedicated to the unstinting search for excellence. The AOC is administered by the Institut National des Appellations d’Origine. its unique characteristics were recognized very early on and the defense of its Appellations d’Origine (AOC) was the first to be accepted. the wines of Champagne were still. their height. As they grew in notoriety and were appreciated by the greats of this world. The Champenois. Regions & Grapes of Champagne The main regions of Champagne are.

Its slow development makes it ideal for aging. it is grown mainly on the slopes of the Mountain of Reims and in the Côtes des Bar. it develops quickly over time and gives certain roundness to a wine. Black grape variety with white juice. pressing and first fermentation: The grapes are picked with lower sugar and higher acid levels than for a traditional still wine. So. is the only authorized method for sparkling wine production in Champagne. The wines from different areas and from different grape varieties must be vinified and stored separately. the grapes can only be picked by hand in whole clusters in order to avoid tainting of the juice. • • The Methode Champenoise (Champagne Method) The Methode Champenoise. since most wine will end up being white. . This has an effect on the style of the wine. The grapes are then pressed quickly to avoid any oxidation tainting. or Champagne Method. Black grape variety with white juice. Champagne starts out as a still wine. The first fermentation takes place as it would for any other still wine. and provides the wine with floral and sometimes mineral aromas. as well as aromas of red fruits. it is usually called the Traditional Method. This method is also widely recognized as the method that produces the best quality. The primary grapes of Champagne are: • Chardonnay: This grape brings finesse. most complex sparkling wine. Below is a description of all the steps involved. A white grape variety mostly planted in the Côte des Blancs. Pinot Meunier: This variety is supple and fruity. Pinot Noir: This noble variety imparts structure and power to the blend. Its bouquet is intense.hills between the river Seine and the river Aube at the southern tip of the region create the beautiful rolling countryside. but starts with red grapes. Picking. it is grown mainly in the Marne Valley and is characterized by its suppleness. By law. Other methods of sparkling wine production will be discussed in the sections pertaining to the individual wines that employ them. When used outside of Champagne.

both resulting in the settling of the yeast deposit on the crown cap. the people who performed this time and work intensive process. every time leaving them at a more acute angle. As the yeast get to work on the sugar. bottles are gently placed upside down (so as not to disturb the residue which has settled) in a shallow bath containing a sub-freezing liquid which freezes the liquid in the neck of the bottle into an ice plug containing the yeast deposit. These are machines that mimic the actions of riddling.The Cuvée: Approximately five months later. the process by which the clear wine is separated from the yeast residue. the bottles are ready for their riddling (remuage in French). Ageing: The time the wine spends in contact with the dead yeast cells. Second Fermentation in Bottle: Once the cuvée has been tasted and determined. In traditional riddling the bottles are placed in a level position and gradually moved to an almost inverted position in A-frame racks. The bottles are placed in a steel cage and a computer program moves the cage a fraction of a turn at a time. contact with these spent yeast cells results in desirable flavors. Riddling: After sufficient ageing. Eventually all the residue settles in the neck. The ice plug pops out under pressure removing the yeast. resulting in more efficient and large scale riddling. mechanically and on a larger scale. Ageing requirements are minimum 15 months for non-vintage and 3 years for vintage. is very important since it is the backbone of production and the ‘signature’ of the establishment. . Achieving a consistent house style. The wine is bone dry at this point and the dosage level determines the sweetness level of the finished wine. The bottle is then sealed with a crown cap and the secondary fermentation gets underway. There are two processes for doing this. the resultant CO2 has nowhere to go and is trapped in the bottle and integrated into the wine. the lees. the style of the basic Non Vintage wine produced by each individual Champagne house. the wine is placed in bottles along with a small quantity of live yeast and sugar dissolved in wine. This blend is what will be used to produce the sparkling wine. called the dosage. which is called the liqueur de tirage. textures and complexity. which result from the fermentation and settle as a powder on the side of the bottle are one of the key components of the individuality of Champagne. Dosage: The amount of liquid lost in this process is replaced accompanied by a small amount of sweetened wine. an the bottle ends up in an almost vertical position. The bottles are then removed from this bath and the crown opened. Just as in the case of a good white wine. Riddlers. rotate and ‘bang’ the bottles. Disgorgement: After riddling. the wines are chosen and blended together in a very exhaustive (and exhausting!) fashion to form the assemblage or cuvee. The modern alternatives are VLM’s or Gyropalettes. Usually blends consist of some proportion of wine from all three grape varieties.

Vintage can be of any type: in both production method and blend. blending of white and red wines. Blanc de Noirs: This is a white wine made from red grapes only. year in and year out. This style of wine is considered to be the lightest and most subtle. Most commonly associated with wines made almost exclusively from the Pinot Noir grape. Vintage is not an automatic guarantee of quality. Blanc de Blancs: This is a white wine made entirely from Chardonnay grapes. They can be both non-vintage and vintage dated. They can be both non-vintage and vintage dated. Non-vintage is the Champagne style that represents an individual producer’s ‘house style’. They can be both non-vintage and vintage dated. Vintage: A sparkling wine made entirely (at least 95%) from fruit from a single vintage. . There are no rules governing percentages in the blend. one that can be recognized world wide. It is ready to sell.Bottling: The finished wine is now corked. The Styles of Champagne Non-Vintage: The majority of sparkling wine produced falls under this category. caged and foiled. These wines tend show just a touch of pink or beige hues. Rosé: The rosé color comes from red wine in one of two ways. This is generally only done in the best years. The object is to make a consistent albeit evolving wine. but in general vintage Champagnes can be aged longer and are definitely more expensive. or traditional rosé vinification by controlled pigment bleeding into the wine during skin contact. although most houses will let the wine rest (and the cork mold to the bottle) for a minimum of six months.

Accounts for approximately 15% of total champagne sales in the United States. The Levels of ‘Sweetness’ of Champagne: The style. the size and uniformity of the bubbles is an indicator of quality. Roederer’s Cristal. An older sparkling wine will have less bubbles. The residual sugar percentages may vary somewhat from produced to producer. Recognizable names of such wines would include Moët’s Dom Perignon. Flutes or special champagne glasses must be used in order to enhance the bubbles and the taster’s ability to see them. Setup: The glassware must be spotless. more golden/yellow in a dark grape based wine. in the chart below.0% More than 5% Special Considerations for Tasting Sparkling Wines Sparkling wines are the most difficult category to taste and judge. Cremant is the French name for sparkling wines produced by the Method Champenoise but in areas French wine producing areas outside of France. Perception indicates the sweetness perceived when tasting. Any residue or soap scum will ruin the bubbles.3 – 5.5% 3.5 – 1. Also. Cremant is a style of sparkling wine with less pressure than regular Champagne (3-4 vs. The color should be more green/hay-like in a chardonnay-based wine. this is not a fault. Cremant: A somewhat confusing term. just the natural effect of ageing. if not eliminate them altogether.0 – 0. represents the legend that will appear on the label.5% sugar 0. In Champagne. Thse are fully sparkling wines just like Champagne.0% 1. which means fewer. less aggressive bubbles. Popular ones include Cremant d’Alsace.2 – 2. they generally made from the best grapes from the best villages.7 – 3. . and Mumm’s Grand Cordon.5% 1. Approximate Style Brut Nature Brut Extra Dry Sec Demi-Sec Doux (rare) Perception Bone dry No apparent sweetness Off-dry Slight sweetness Sweet Very sweet Residual Sugar % 0. Cremant de Bourgogne and Cremant de la Loire. They should flow in strong streams to the top of the flute and form a visible yet not heavy crown around the rim of the glass. Appearance: When tasting sparkling wines. Although no legal regulations rule their production.Cuvée Prestige or Tête du Cuvée: The top wine produced by each Champagne house. 5-6 atmospheres in the bottle).

Such varied soils bring out the best in each different grape variety. citrus. doughy. fern. The primary aromas include fruity. hazelnut. made up of granite. the label will generally show the name of the grape variety used. Gewurztraminer. biscuit. toasty. It may also show a brand name or the word Edelzwicker if the is a blend Alsace Grand Cru AC status is given only to wines which satisfy particularly strict quality standards. The secondary aromas are alcoholic/ester complexity and earthy. yeasty. Alsace enjoys practically the lowest rainfall in France (400-500mm per year) and is blessed with a semi-continental climate. This climate is ideal for slow. The vineyards extend for one hundred kilometers from north to south along the eastern foothills of the Vosges. grapey notes. floral. Riesling. Specific aromas include: lemon. extended ripening of the grapes. There are two levels: Alsace AC and Alsace Grand Cru AC. Alsace Protected from oceanic influence by the Vosges Mountains. have a certain degree of natural ripeness and must pass a tasting test by a panel of experts. Tertiary aromas include yeasty. biscuity or bready aromas. at 200-400m of altitude. sunny. They must come from specific vineyards. The geology of Alsace is a genuine mosaic. For Alsace AC. complex aromas. mineral notes. creamy. bread. or Vin d’Alsace. giving wines with elegant. The label must show the grape variety and only the ‘noble’ grapes. schist and sandstone.Aromas: The best sparkling wines develop layers of aroma. Pinot Gris and Muscat are permitted. The vintage and the name of one of the fifty defined vineyards. Alsace’s Appellation System The appellation system for Alsace is one of the easiest in France. apple. which are entitled to Grand Cru status must . limestone. gneiss. hot and dry. honey.

Sylvaner is a remarkably fresh and light wine with a delicate flavor. All Alsatian still white wines have to be bottled in Alsatian flutes. Pinot Noir. they are made by the traditional method (as in Champagne). mainly from Pinot Blanc. fullbodied. in other words. but also from Pinot Gris. Crémant d'Alsace is the name given to the sparkling wines of Alsace. harvested in successive pickings. These wines are always sweet. which consists of a blend of 2 or more grape varieties.also appear on the label. which adds grater structure and complexity to its aromas. which are discussed below). Vendages Tardives (VT): The term translates as ‘late harvest’ wines are made from the same varieties as those authorized for Grand Cru's (see below). Rich. the name of the grape variety will appear on the label. which are long and slender. The most important grape varieties used in Alsace and are: Muscat d’Alsace is dry and very different from the sweet Muscats of the South of France. made from a single grape variety. characteristically fruity with hints of cherry. combines freshness and softness. Much like the wines of New World countries. The Styles of Alsatian Wine The vast majority of Alsatian wines are varietal wines. These wines are always sweet. Vinified as a red wine it can be aged in oak casks. Pinot Blanc. wines come exclusively from grapes affected by noble rot. The Alsace Grand Cru System was established in 1975 and only 50 vineyards are entitled to this status. Delicate and lively. and most of the wines will be vinified dry (with the exception of VT and SGN wines. Pinot Noir is the only Alsace variety used to produce red or rosé wines. The exception to varietal wines is Edelzwicker. Pinot Gris develops a characteristic roundness and opulence in Alsace. . Grapes are picked when over-ripe. well rounded yet delicate. It is very aromatic and reveals the true flavor of the fresh grape. Around 90% of the wine produced is white. The character of the grape variety is overshadowed by the concentration yielding powerful wines with great complexity and exceptional length on the palate. Refreshing and easy to enjoy. Riesling or Chardonnay. often several weeks after the official start of the harvest. with a long finish and complex aroma. Sélections de Grains Nobles: This translates to ‘selection of noble grapes’.

sometimes slightly sweet. The grape that made this region famous Sauvignon Blanc. Chinon is known for producing more delicate wines than Bourgueil. Both. The least ripe of the grapes in any vintage will be used to produce a sparkling Vouvray. In some years. but not overly so. or in a more serious. Its quality production is dominated by the Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc grapes. The Touraine The Touraine is the next region following the flow of the river from the Central Vineyards. Further downriver are the appellations of Chinon and Bourgueil. . and PouillyFumé is considered more delicate and displays a flinty aroma. Other Sauvignon Blanc producing regions include Quincy. and is balanced by a healthy dose of acidity.Riesling is made dry. they are vinified into a very sweet version of Vouvray. refined and delicately fruity. Sancerre Rouge. Powerful and seductive. it often ages well. It is an enormous region that flanks the Loire river from Central France until it opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Vouvray is the most famous white wine of the region and is produced in a diversity of styles from the Chenin Blanc grape. The climate of the region goes from classic maritime in the Pays Nantais in the west to classic Continental in the Central Vineyards – and everything else in between! Central Vineyards The two most important appellations of the central vineyards are Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé. both producing dry red wines from the Cabernet Franc grape. During average vintages most of the Vouvray produced is still slightly sweet. however. made from Pinot Noir. Acknowledged as one of the finest white grape varieties in the world. Gewurztraminer is full-bodied and well structured. Reuilly. The Loire Valley The Loire Valley is a region that encompasses a wide variety of wine styles. may be produced in either an early-drinking fruitier style. which sits across the river. age-worthy oak aged style. Sancerre is known for concentration and intensity. Menetou Salon. Its intense bouquet displays rich aromas of fruit. when grapes attain a high level of ripeness. with an elegant bouquet of mineral or floral notes and naturally high acidity. is earthy and light. flowers and spices (gewurz means spice).

The region of Savennieres on the north side of the river produces dry wines from the Chenin Blanc grape with incredible richness and concentration due to the long. which produces wines from Sauvignon Blanc and Gamay grapes. Pays Nantais Here the vineyards lie very close to the Atlantic and the climate is fully maritime. reds and rosés are also a specialty of the region. Muscadet . Wines made from this grape are almost neutral in aroma with subtle grassy. rich dessert wines in the Coteaux du Layon from the same grape. citrusy notes and high acidity. rich whites from Chenin Blanc in Savennieres. On the southern banks of the river. two areas known for producing some of the finest dessert wines in the world from grapes affected by Botrytis. Dry. Anjou-Saumur This region produces a very wide range of wine styles. made mostly from the Chenin Blanc grape in the Traditional Method. The Saumur appellation includes the famous sparkling wines of the region. or noble rot. Cabernet d’Anjou is the highest quality rosé of the region. The star grape of the region is the Muscadet (also know as the Melon de Bourgogne). deep. The Rosé d’Anjou is made from a blend of red grapes. some consider it the French white zinfandel. In good vintages these are great value wines. as are their sparkling wines.Another important appellation is Touraine AC. There are three appellations for the production of Muscadet. made from a blend of Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and is generally off-dry. Muscadet AOC is the most general. They are ideal wines to accompany the fresh seafood of the region. is slightly sweet and generally not too interesting. dry ripening season. along the banks of the Layon (a tributary of the Loire) are the vineyards of the Coteaux du Layon which include Quarts de Chaume and Bonnezeaux. Saumur-Champigny AOC is an appellation producing very popular wines from the Cabernet Franc grape that some consider to be the best reds of the entire region. Another important product of the region is rosé wine in several styles.

with a large array of other grapes added to the blend. Côtes du Rhône-Villages AOC is a wine produced from wines from selected villages which produce wines of higher quality. the most important AOC is Côtes du Rhône AOC. the year following the harvest. The Southern Rhône By volume.000 hectares of AOC vineyards. Côtes du Rhône AOC is the general level appellation for the Rhône valley.de Sevre et Maine AOC is produced in a better subregion. and is composed of a series of granite slopes and hillsides specializing mainly in the production of wines based on the Syrah grape. The Northern Rhône region starts south of the city of Vienne. The Southern Rhône. This type of aging adds a bit more body and complexity and sometimes leaves a very gentle prickle of CO2 in the wine. The best wines of the region come from the Muscadet de Sevre et Maine Sur Lie AOC which are wines bottled directly from the tank where the fermentation took place (hence the sur lie or ‘on the lees’ designation). producing wines based on the Grenache grape. Syrah and an array of other local varieties. The Rhône Valley General The Rhône region is around 125 miles in length and covers an are of 58. is much warmer and flatter. producing mostly red wines based on the Grenache grape with the addition of Mourvedre. 16 of those villages are entitled to include their . around the city of Avignon. which is one of France’s largest.

. and produce wines of inconsistent quality. Around 20% of the wine produced is white. Muscat de Beaumes de Venise is made from the Muscat grape and Rasteau is made with the Grenache grape. These outstanding wines have exceptional structure and complexity and are sometimes dubbed ‘the poor man’s Hermitage’.name on the label. with the balance being Syrah and Mourvedre. Another important red wine producing village is Gigondas. It received AOC status in 1971 and has become famous for great wine at affordable prices. It has been an AOC since 1923. Gigondas produces red wines from Grenache (up to 65%). The Northern Rhône Valley Heading north from the Southern Rhône region. Châteauneuf-du-Pape is the most famous appellation of the region. Both of these are very sweet. The wines are made mostly from Syrah grapes but can have up to 15% white grapes added. mainly from the Syrah grape. Crozes-Hermitage is a large region producing wines around the are of Hermitage from the same blend of grapes. Saint-Joseph produces very attractive wines. the blends tend to consist primarily of Grenache with Syrah. one of the first appellations is Cornas. which produces wine from 100% Syrah grapes. It is important to know the small producers in this region and seek out wines only from the best. Hermitage is the most famous appellation of the region. Thirteen grapes are allowed for the production of this wine! In practice. potent wines fit for aging. the first official AOC in France. It sits on a south-facing hillside and produces some of the fullest bodied and most long-lived wines of the region. The vineyards sit in flatter areas with mixed soils. Mourvedre and Cinsault forming the majority of the blend. These are considered the lightest bodied and fruitiest of the region and have a great reputation for quality. The two most famous dessert wines produced in the region fall under the Vin Doux Naturels category (fortified dessert wines). Chateau Grillet is one of the smallest AOCs in France. White Châteauneuf-du-Pape accounts for a small percentage of the total production. Château Grillet and Condrieu are two AOCs devoted to the production of white wine from the aromatic and rich Viognier grape. but of much more inferior quality. made from the Marsanne and Rousanne grapes. These wines tend to be very expensive because they are quite rare and very high in quality. These wines tend to be of higher quality that basic CdR’s and represent good value.

particularly in Burgundy. The majority of its output is of red wine. The outstanding ones are complex and longlived examples of the Syrah grape at its best. Within its confines are produced some of the most sought after wines in the world. . Aside form being the largest AOC region in France. Bordeaux General Bordeaux sets the standard for Cabernet Sauvignon based wines the world over. and the rankings are not affected by changing of ownership at the chateau or the addition (or loss) of vineyard area. is one of the highest quality regions in the Rhône. In Bordeaux the chateaux themselves are ranked. not the producer. wine producing house.Côte-Rôtie. it is also one of the larges quality vineyard areas in the world. Bordeaux’s appellation and ranking system is centered around the concept of the chateau. In other parts of France. or the self-sufficient. The various rankings of the chateau of Bordeaux are included in the section corresponding to each region. in a sense. The wines from this northernmost area of the appellation have become extremely popular and have prices to match. what is ranked is the land where the grapes are grown. Bordeaux lies on France’s Atlantic coast and is divided in half by the Gironde River estuary. or ‘the roasted slope’. The Chateaux are like brands. producing wines from Syrah with up to 15% white grapes added.

Malbec & Petit Verdot: These grapes are used like seasonings to add the finishing touches to the blends. Merlot: Softer and rounder than Cabernet. divided by three rivers: the Left Bank. among others. In some areas wines may contain higher proportions of Malbec. Its aromas are very distinctive and complex. containing the regions of St. most whites consist of a blend of the two. Muscadelle: This is a very aromatic grape with a floral nose that is used to add more complex aromas to the blends. Cabernet Franc: Lighter than Cabernet Sauvignon. the wines from this bank . Merlot is a great grape in its own right. and they evolve into a beautiful bouquet with time in the bottle. they are often blended together. It produces deeply colored. tannic wines with great acidity levels with great aging potential. it is a mainstay of most blends. Sémillon: This grape yields full-bodied wines that are not very aromatic and may be low in acidity. herbaceous notes. especially when used in dessert wines. particularly in regions where Merlot is the dominant grape. The red grapes: Cabernet Sauvignon: This late-ripening variety is the classic red grape of Bordeaux. since the variable climate forces the producer to rely on a number of different grapes that ripen at different times. producing some of the most famous wines of the region. Sauvignon Blanc adds the acidity and the sharper aromatics. The reason for this is mainly a practical one. Merlot ages faster and softens up Cabernet’s sometimes rough edges. displaying grassy. Regions of Bordeaux The banks of Bordeaux: Bordeaux is divided into two banks that sit across from each other. and as a result. which is ideal for ripening Cabernet Sauvignon. always used in small proportions. and the Right Bank.-Emilion and Pomerol. containing the regions of the Médoc and Graves. which here produces wines meant for early drinking. The Left Bank contains a high proportion of gravel in the soils. It is aromatic.Grape Varieties The wines of Bordeaux are almost always blends of grapes. The white grapes: Sauvignon Blanc: Crisp and high in acidity this grape is used for both dry and sweet wines.

south of Pauillac. Virtually no Cabernet Sauvignon is grown on the Right Bank. The Left Bank The Haut-Médoc: The Haut-Médoc is the southern part of the Médoc. Petit Verdot. Cabernet Franc. Wines from this region are elegant and fragrant. The bes are Château Poujeaux. but no First Growths. Château Chasse-Spleen and Château Clarke. which is not conducive to the production of Cabernet Sauvignon. This commune contains many classed growths and one First Growth. This wines are hearty and full. gravelly terrain. but there are several Classed Growth and Cru Bourgeois properties within its boundaries. as many think drinks like a first growth). • St-Estéphe: This is the northernmost of the communes and sits on hilly. Since this is the left bank. Ch Latour and Ch Mouton. 75% of the classified growths are in this village. St-Julien: Smallest of the important communes. Margaux: Largest top commune of the Haut-Medoc. Moulis and Listrac: These two villages contain few recognizable names. Château Beychevelle. This commune contains no First Growths. along Merlot. Ch Cos d’Estournel (Second Growth). On the Right Bank. These wines are known for being powerful yet elegant. Malbec. Château Maucaillou. Ch Leoville-Las Cases (called a ‘Super Second. The Haut-Médoc is a sort of catch-all appellation that covers the whole region. Ch Calon Segur (Third Growth).contain a high proportion of the grape in the blend. the soils are mostly clay-covered limestone. Ch Margaux. Below is a list of the most important communes of the Haut-Médoc. and within this larger region are smaller individual communes. the wines of the Right Bank are usually blends of Merlot blended with Cabernet Franc. Pauillac: South of St-Estéphe. and is the sub-region where some of the most important communes and chateaux of Bordeaux are located. Ch Montrose (Second Growth). this town contains three of the five First Growths of Bordeaux: Ch Lafite. but is very well suited for Merlot. • • • • . the soils are gravelly and the main grape in the blends is the Cabernet Sauvignon. These wines are intense but supremely well balanced.

The classification is divided into the following rankings: • Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnel • Cru Bourgeois Superieur • Cru Bourgeois The last ranking of the region is the Cru Artisan. A little over forty chateau are included in this classification. Some sued. Ch d’Yquem. which applies to very small chateau. This classification has remained unchanged. It goes as follows: For the Haut-Médoc: • Premier Cru (First Growth): 5 chateau (Ch Mouton-Rotschild was promoted to First Growth in 1973. and Ch Haut-Brion is the only chateau from outside the Haut-Médoc that was included in the classification). • Quatrième Cru (Fourth Growth): 10 chateaus. The style of the wines in this region is less ‘glossy’ than in the Médoc. • Deuxième Cru (Second Growth): 14 chateaus are in this class. The ranking was made by the local chamber of commerce and was base on the prices currently fetched by the wines. The city of Bordeaux itself sits right north of the Pessac-Leognan. except for one exception. Over 400 chateau were originally ranked. was created in 1932. saying that the ranking was unfair and biased. . but earthier and lighter. • Cinquième Cru (Fifth Growth): 18 chateaus. • Troisième Cru (Third Growth): 14 chateaus here also.The Classfication of 1855: A classification of the chateaus of Bordeaux was commissioned by Napoleon for Exposition Universelle that would take place in Paris that year. For Sauterenes-Barsac: • Premier Grand Cru Classe: Only one chateau here. a second ranking system. Since the 1855 classification included so few chateaus. and the classification has been suspended and is currently in limbo. Cru Bourgeois. • Deuxième Cru: 14 chateaus. Graves: This is the next region south of the Médoc and includes the famous commune of Sauternes and the sub-region of Pessac-Leognan. Sauternes-Barsac (dessert wines only) and one wine from Graves. This classification includes wine from the whole Médoc region (not just the Haut-Médoc). but when the classification was revised for the third time in 2003 only 247 properties made the cut. since that time. The classification ranked the wines of the Haut-Médoc (red wine only). • Premier Cru: 11 chateaus.

but the appellation extends to the other four nearby communes of Bommes. Barsac and Preignac. Dry White Wines: The best of these wines are made from Sauvignon Blanc and Sémillon in the region of Graves. The mold breaks the skin of the grape. the wines are often aged in oak and sometimes even fermented in oak. which is a type of mold that attacks grapes under very specific conditions: misty mornings and dry afternoons. which makes the wine balanced and refreshing although it is very sweet. with Sauvignon Blanc for acidity and small amounts of Muscadelle for aroma. The wine is made to retain a high percentage of sugar. The sweet wines of Sauternes were included in the 1855 classification. (Entre-deux-Mers. white wine or both red and white wines. allowing water to evaporate and concentrate the sugar content and flavor of the berries. Sauternes: Sauternes is the name of a commune. Here. Below are some of the sub regions of Graves. • Pessac-Leognan: This relatively recently created sub region contains many of the best properties in the region. but at the same time a high level of acidity. and the best examples can age for decades. located between the Garonne and Dordogne rivers is another source of good white wines. The wines of Sauternes are made with grapes affected by Botrytis Cinerea. • • The Graves Classification: The list was created in 1959 and all the chateaus included in the list are classified as Cru Classe with no subdivisions or levels. so the white wines of Bordeaux will be discussed here as well. White Bordeaux is one of the great white wines of the world. Fargues. The list includes chateau classified for their red wine. Below are listed the two main regions of the Right Bank: . or Noble Rot. although not of the same quality as those of the Graves). which grow better in the clay and limestone soils of the region. Sémillon is the main grape used. The Right Bank The right bank of Bordeaux has a different soil composition that dictates which types of grapes will grow best there.Most of the best dry white wines of Bordeaux are produced in the Graves region. The right bank is dominate by the Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes. The most famous of all. and the only wine from outside the Médoc that was included in the 1855 classification is in this region: Ch Haut-Brion. Some of these white wines are classified as part of the Graves Classification. one of the most famous wines in the world and one of the First Growths of Bordeaux.

e.• St-Emilion: This town has a much longer viticultural history than the Médoc as vines were planted here in Roman times. This area has no official classification. . • Pomerol: This is a tiny appellation that produces outstanding wines from the Merlot grape. the most famous wine of the region. which is unique for Bordeaux (i. as does quality. the classification of St-Emilion was started in 1955 and is set to be revised every ten years (although lately there has been some contention as to the classification and it is currently suspended…). or hillsides below the town itself. The wines from this region are fleshy. and the the Graves. however. Ch Cheval Blanc is made almost entirely from the latter.. a gravelly plateau that sits closer to the Pomerol region. St-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classe (B): This one includes a slightly larger number of chateaus. Its wines display a great variety of styles depending on where the grapes are grown. St-Emilion Grand Cru AOC). St-Emilion Grand Cru: This is the lowest tier before the regular appellation and contains an even larger number of chateau. The classification is as follows: • • • • St-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classe (A): This is the top ranking and only two chateaus are in it. with Cabernet Franc added. but is still a very prestigious classification. The two main geographical areas are the Côtes. plump and full of fruit and the best examples will age in bottle for decades. Styles vary widely. St-Emilion Grand Cru Classe: This includes a larger number of chateau. The wines are made predominantly from Merlot. Also. Unlike the unchanging classification of the Haut-Médoc. This region remained somewhat cut off from the rest of the world because of relative remoteness. this classification is built into the name of the appellation.

h a r d lim e s t o n e S a n d y lim e s t o n e B oundary of t h e v in e g r o w in g a r e a . Burgundy is a region organized around the concept of terroir. R E L A T IV E P O S IT IO N S O F T H E D IF F E R E N T A P P E L L A T IO N S W O OD LAN D OR SCRU B B o u n d a ry o f th e v i n e g r o w in g area GRANDS CRUS COMM UNAL A P P E L L A T IO N S P R E M IE R S C R U S R E G IO N A L A P P E L L A T IO N S H a r d l im e s t o n e M arl L im e s t o n e a n d f o s s ils F r ia b le lim e s t o n e . and the major risks are spring frosts. Also. in contrast with the rankings of Bordeaux. not so much who grows them or makes them into wine. The region of Burgundy straddles across a number of departments and includes a great variety of climates and soils. which focus on the producers.Burgundy General Burgundy is a region with centuries of tradition. hail and rot at the time of harvest due to rain. in Burgundy’s rankings what is most important is where the grapes grow. the soils of the different regions vary widely and will be discussed in each individual section. from cold Chablis in the north. c la y o r s c h is t . The climate is continental. in Burgundy the highest ranking goes to the vineyards themselves. Some of the plots of land that make the most famous wines of the region today were plotted out by monks many centuries ago. As is discussed below. to sunny Beaujolais in the south.

appears on the label. and fruity wines in the Maconnais. Premier Cru: This classification ranks an individual vineyard. Makes crisp wine in Chablis. Although some more serious wines exist. Some variations are possible. Grand Cru: This classification ranks only the very best vineyards of the region. but these are the most common occurrences. it is nowhere near the quality of Pinot Noir. The words Grand Cru will usually appear as well. round and soft wine in the Cote d’Or. • . but there are exceptions. Gamay: This grape is only used in the district of Beaujolais where for the most part it makes fruity. Aligoté: Used in very specific regions only. not blends like in Bordeaux. Wines have to be made from Pinot Noir if red. Chardonnay if white and can come from anywhere in the region. • The label will indicate this status by showing both the name of the village and the name of the vineyard on the label. Appellation System Burgundy’s system of appellations applies to the whole region: • • • • General (Bourgogne AOC): Most general appellation. Regional: Includes a large district. or Macon. The white grapes are: Chardonnay: The quality white wine grape of the region. If the wine is a blend of several Premier Crus from one village. or Volnay. • These vineyards are so famous that only the name of the vineyard.The Grapes of Burgundy The wines of Burgundy are made with single grape varieties. Premier cru vineyards are the second best vineyards of the region and can be found in several appellations across the Burgundy. like Gevrey-Chambertin. the village name will appear with the word Premier Cru. The red grapes are: Pinot Noir: The great red grape of Burgundy produces light and fruity wines at the village level and majestic and age-worthy wines in the more favored sites. easy to drink wines. like Chablis. Village: Includes a single village. not the village.

C. Another variable is the negociant. Regions of Burgundy Chablis: Located about 130 kilometers northwest of Dijon. The appellation contains 7 Grand Cru and 40 Premier Cru vineyards aside from the more general appellation. . More growers are starting to bottle their own wines.O.The Burgundian classification CATEGORY AND % SHARE OF TOTAL PRODUCTION of A. and each producer makes their wines somewhat differently. The wines it produces in this region are known for their very high acidity.C.s 65 % 21 REGIONAL APPELLATIONS Part of the confusion regarding Burgundy’s appellations is that most vineyards are divided up among a number of producers.s with name of PREMIER CRU vineyard 11 % 562 PREMIER CRU VINEYARDS COMMUNAL A. The limestone sub soils of the region are covered by a layer of Kimmeridgian clay contains a high amount of marine fossils.s 1% CÔTE D’OR : 32 CHABLIS : 1 (with 7 climats) COMMUNE COMMUNAL A. mineral nose and ability to age.C.s 23 % 44 VILLAGE APPELLATIONS REGION OR SUBSUB-REGION REGIONAL A.O.C. The only grape variety permitted under the Chablis appellation is the Chardonnay grape.C wines NUMBERS GRAND CRU A. So quality not only varies between regions but between producers as well.O. Negociants are people or companies that buy someone else’s grapes or finished wines and sell them under their own label. often called ‘domaine bottled wines’. Chablis is Burgundy’s northernmost and coldest region.O.O.

Beaune for reds and whites. The soil is a patchwork of limestone and marl. which share the Montrachet Grand Cru. Other important villages in the Côte de Beaune include Pommard and Volnay for reds. Pinot Noir grows best where there is a highest concentration of Marl. • Côte de Beaune: This region is also planted with Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. Some of the most famous communes along with their most famous red Grand Cru vineyard are Gevrey-Chambertin with the Chambertin Grand Cru. these wines are much rounder and creamier. Compared to the wines of the Chablis. Vougeot with the Clos de Vougeout Grand Cru. • Côte de Nuits: This region grows both Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. with the Romanne-Conti and La Tache vineyards. and Mesault for whites. The Pinot Noir produced in this region is the world standard for this grape variety and the stuff of legends. the communes of ChassagneMontrachet and Puligny-Montrachet. All the Grand Cru vineyards in this sub-region are red. . with the Corton-Charlemagne Grand Crus. often aged or even fermented in new oak and having undergone malolactic fermentation as well as sur lie aging. among others. but here the most famous wines are white. Some of the most famous communes along with their most famous white Grand Cru vineyards are Aloxe-Corton. Chambolle-Musigny with Le Musigny. and probably the most famous village of all.The Côte d’Or: The Côte d’Or region produces the most famous wines of Burgundy. The best soils for Chardonnay are predominantly limestone. VosneRomanee. however the best wines of the region are the reds. This small strip of east facing slopes is divided into two main regions: The Côte de Nuits in the north and the Côte de Beaune in the south. except for one.

that it comes from the named village. or if a name appears. Parties all over the world announce the arrival of the Beaujolais Noveau each year.The Côte Chalonnaise: This small area sits between the Côte de Beaune and the Maconnais. The main areas are: • • • • • Rully makes both red and white wines from Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. There are five communes in this region. Mercurey is considered to be the best quality commune of the region. These are some of the best value whites of Burgundy. Montagny is a white wine appellation making wines exclusively form Chardonnay. Givry is also known for reds and whites. • Beaujolais-Villages is an appellation for wines made from a blend of wines from a group of selected superior villages. These are usually good value Chardonnays. The main appellations for the region are: • Beaujolais is the most basic red wine appellation of the region. Other wines with similar names are made around Puilly. such as Pouilly-Vinzelles and Pouilly-Loche and can be quite good also. are light. Drink chilled! • Cru Beaujolais: Ten villages sitting on a granite outcrop in the north of the region are considered to be the best in Beaujolais and are . Main appellations for Chardonnay within the region are: • Mâcon is the most basic and general of the appellations. and is also important for its sparkling wines. Mâcon-Lugny) indicates either that the wine is a blend from one of the better villages. Beaujolais: South of the Mâconnais. known mainly for reds. fruity and low in tannin. These wines are seen as more affordable (albeit lighter) versions of the wines of the Côte d’Or. • Beaujolais Noveau is a wine that is release the third Thursday of November following the harvest. Enology). These wines made by Carbonic Maceration (see section 1. • St-Véran from the south of the region that stylistically sits somewhere between Pouilly-Fuissé and Mâcon-Villages. or Mâcon followed the name of a specific village (for example. Bouzeron is an appellation for the only appellation for the Aligoté grape. The Mâconnais: This is a larger area south of the Côte Chalonnaise producing mainly white wine from the Chardonnay grape. • Mâcon-Villages. this region is famous for its easy-drinking fruity red wines made from the Gamay grape. • Pouilly-Fuissé is the most famous and expensive wine of the Mâconnais region. but it also produces whites.

Julienas. . Moulin-a-Vent. The villages are Saint Amour. Chenas. Fleurie. juicy wines only show the name of the village on the label. Morgon. Brouilly. Cote de Brouilly and Chiroubles. These light.called the Cru Beaujolais. Regnie.

Section 4 – The Wines of Italy Overview of the Regions. Wines & Grapes of Italy .

Most of the better known wines of Italy fall under this category. starting from the lowest catgory: • Vino da Tavola (VdT): These wines are generic. the DOC. among other improvements. IGTs allow more flexibility when it comes to grape varieties. yet it has suffered an ongoing image problem. Additionally. Wine has been made in the region for over four thousand years. Italy has been a victim of over production. requiring specific vineyard and winery practices. a grape variety and a vintage on the label.General Italy is one of the largest wine producers and consumers in the world. Italian Wine Law The first serious attempt at establishing a coherent system of laws came in 1963. and although these laws were fraught with problems. The purpose of this law was to elevate the best of the regional VdTs to a better category without having to include them in the next higher category. Below is a list and description of each category. but has an additional ‘highest’ tier. This category is the equivalent of the Vin de Pays of France. they paved the way for the currents laws. The diversity of its wines is incredible and the quality potential nearly limitless. and has been famous since the time of the Greeks. making it difficult for the average consumer to find recognizable names on the shelves. Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT): This appellation was introduced with the 1992 legislation. simple wines that are not allowed to carry a vintage. This set of laws attempted to tie loose ends and created the now very popular IGT category. known as the Goria Laws (named after the minister who passed them) of 1992. which can also be detrimental. Another issue is the great diversity of wines. Italian wine law is modeled on the AOC system of France. This is roughly the equivalent of the French AOC. giving producers the opportunity to grow foreign varieties without having to be dropped into the generic VdT category. grape variety or specific region’s name on the label. as well as limiting or mandating the types of grape varieties that may be used. allowing the producer to name a region. many people coming to know Italian Wine through less than stellar examples. Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC): Wines in this category state their region of origin of origin on the label and must follow certain standards in order to be able to use the appellation. • • .

and its surrounding areas. • Riserva: This term denotes ageing (or additional ageing) in cask. often called the ‘king of Italian’. and Tuscany in the central part of Italy. The wine is named after a village but wine can also be made in some of the surrounding areas. Piedmont’s wine producing region sits. • Frizzante: Lightly sparkling. not as bubbly as a regular sparkling wine. • Spumante: Fully sparkling wine. powerful and complex. and is generally a sign of higher quality. With the passage of the 1992 law. Barbaresco DOCG: Also made from Nebbiolo and named for after the town of the same name. five years for Riserva Speciale. Four years of wood ageing required for Riserva designation. historical region of production for that particular wine. and its name means ‘at the foot of the mountains’.• Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG): The highest and strictest of the Italian categories. Gattinara DOCG: Also made from Nebbiolo (called Spanna in this region). DOCG wines display a special paper seal on the neck of the bottle. It is very tannic in youth. A more ‘softer’ version of Barolo. and the best take many years to develop. in the northwest. These are usually the best examples of a particular type of wine. This category was designed to embrace only the best of Italian wines. and can be rich. before subsequent expansions of the appellation. It is made exclusively from the Nebbiolo grape. for the most part. the Veneto in the Northeast. A few other terms often seen on labels are: • Classico: This designation is applied to wines made in the original. at the foothills of the Italian Alps. in many cases it can be extremely powerful and ageworthy. The majority of the wines awarded this distinction truly represent the greatest examples of Italian wine at its best. although some contentious promotions have been made. • Barolo DOCG: Considered by some to be the best of all Italian wines. this area sits north of both Barolo and Barbaresco and • • . A little more approachable at a younger age. Regions of Italy Three regions will be discussed in this section: Piedmont. significant individual sub-regions and single vineyards may be specified on the label. Piedmont This region has an outstanding reputation for red wine production.

is called recioto. Bardolino DOC: Made from the same grapes as Valpolicella DOC. and is therefore dry. This particular wine is made by stopping the fermentation before all the sugar is consumed to make for a slightly sweet wine. Rondinella and other grapes. Dolcetto: Also the name of the grape. • Barbera: Barbera is the name of grape. this is a simple. where the must is put into a sealed tank to ferment. It is a sparkling wine that is allowed to retain some of its natural sugar by interruption of the fermentation in the tank. Amarone della Valpolicella DOC: Amarone is made using the recioto procedure mentioned above. • • Valpolicella DOC: This wine is made from Corvina. • • . specially in less favorable vintages. named after the areas where it is produced. Most popular are Barbera d’Asti and Barbera d’Alba. Rondinella and other grapes. This process. often made as a rosé or chiaretto. This wine is made using grapes that were allowed to shrivel up by air-drying or by laying them out on straw mats. Amarone means ‘bitter one’.produces sturdy wines that age well. particularly in terms of volume. A light and fruity red wine that can often be uninteresting. Small proportions of Bonarda and Vespolina grapes may be added to the Nebbiolo to soften it. not a place. but the fermentation is stopped before it is completed in order to retain some of the grapes natural sugars. light wine. It is produced by using a modified version of the Charmat Method. Asti DOCG: This wine is made from the aromatic Muscat grape. The best come from Dogliani. This is an earlier ripening grape that produces approachable fruity wines with well integrated high acidity. which increases the sugar to water ratio of each grape. Recioto della Valpolicella DOC: Made with Corvina. except the wine is allowed to ferment all the sugar. it is made into an easy drinking wine similar to a Beaujolais-Villages from Burgundy. The Bardolino Superiore area has been promoted to DOCG status. • • Veneto This beautiful wine area sits on Italy’s northeastern corner and is a very important region. a reference to its dry finish.

this wine is made from a blend very similar to that of Chianti. The two most important are Chianti Rufina and Chianti Colli Fiorentini. but using slightly inferior grapes. The use of white grape is for the most part a thing of the past. It is not as fashionable as the other wines of the area but can be excellent. • Chianti Classico DOCG: This region produces the best wines of the Chianti region. It is also the place where the now legendary Super Tuscans originated. Cabernet Sauvignon. It is a wine designed for long ageing. which may produce wines as good as the ones from the Classico region. Barolo. Rosso di Montalcino: Made in the same region and from the same grape variety as Brunello. Recioto di Soave. The wine must be made exclusively with the Sangiovese grape. • • • • . and the balance compose of varying amounts of Canaiolo. no other grapes may be blended in. or grapes from younger vines. Soave’s Superiore region and a sweet wine. and the white grapes. Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG: From the town of Montepulciano. Trebbiano and Malvasia. comprising the original are production in the hills between Florence and Siena. • Chianti DOCG: Italy’s most famous red wine. The best wines of this region are among the greatest wines in the world. Other Chianti DOCG Areas: Six other areas around the Classico region also were also awarded DOCG status. Brunello is the local name for the clone of Sangiovese used to make the wine. made primarily with the Sangiovese grape (75 to 90%). it has recently undergone a revival in quality. This wine may be made from Sangiovese in its entirety. and is the second best selling DOC wine within Italy. and up to 15% Cabernet Sauvignon. Tuscany This hilly region in central Italy produces Italy’s most recognizable wines. or may be blended with other red grapes (no white grapes).• Soave DOC: This white wine is made using the Garganega grape among others. Although often uninteresting. standing shoulder to shoulder with the other great wine. This is one of the best wines of Italy. have been given DOCG status. These wines serve as a Brunello producer’s second wine. Brunello di Montalcino DOCG: Made in the town of the same name.

The barrels are never topped up. and they are then pressed and placed in barrels in hot sheds or attics. These wines are concentrated and complex. • . so oxidation takes place as part of the wine evaporates over time. these wines range from very sweet to bone dry.• Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG: The most distinctive white wine made from grape the Vernaccia grape around the town of the same name. displaying beautiful amber color. This was the first wine to be awarded DOC status in Italy. Vin Santo: Produced from the white Malvasia and Trebbiano grapes. The wines are produced by allowing grapes to shrivel up (recioto) in a well ventilated area in order to concentrate the sugar content.

Spain has joined the rest of the world and is quickly regaining its place among the best wine-producers in the world.Section 5 – The Wines of Spain Overview of the Regions. . Wines & Grapes of Spain Introduction Spain has made a staggeringly quick about-face in recent times. rapidly modernizing its wine industry and finding a niche with wines that are sometimes unabashedly forward and rich – and often cheap! Spain’s wines have also scored big with American critics. Spain was known for oxidized whites and dried-out over-aged reds – but no more. For many years of its long history dating back to Roman times.

the equivalent of the Vin de Table. Denominación de Origen (DO): This category includes all of the most important wines of Spain and is equivalent to the AOC of France or DOC of Italy. The usual rules apply as far as region of origin. and a large variety of excellent terroirs. The producer is given more freedom as to where grapes may be grown. Rioja and Priorat. The advent of new winemaking technology. methods of viticulture and vinification. The categories of Spanish wine are as follows: Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa): This is the highest category a Spanish wine can achieve. Only two wines have made it into this category. of which 6 months are spent in oak containers with a capacity of 330 liters maximum. It seems that Ribera del Duero be awarded this status in 2008. although some of the better aspects of the tradition continue to be very important. These laws are similar to Italy’s laws in that they include a ‘highest’ category. The word Calificada. although not a direct translation. The categories and terms used to indicate the length of aging: Crianza: This indication applies to red wines aged for a minimum of 24 months. . DOCa. The DO laws (Denominación de Origen. wines are made under stricter rules than the regular DO’s and the regions have to have a track record for excellence. Spanish Wine Laws Spain adopted a system of laws similar to those of France. which grapes may be used and also allows for varietal labeling. It is an exciting time for this great wine nation. is equivalent to the Garantita used by the Italians – an added guarantee of quality. grapes used. Vino de la Tierra: This is the equivalent of the Vin de Pays category of France or the IGT of Italy. and to white and rosé wines aged for at least 18 months.Spain has more land under vine than any other country in the world. To be in this category. that carries more prestige than just the basic DO. Vino de Mesa: The lowest of Spains wine categories. have breathed new life into the Spanish wine industry. Spanish wine is known for long periods of ageing in barrel and the current wine law allows for the length of aging to be included on the label by using one of several standard terms. etc. and the promise of expanding export markets (particularly the US). or Appellation of Origin) were established in the 1930’s. The traditions of very long aging in oak has been curbed. and the once tired and yellowing Spanish whites were given a new lease on life thanks to refrigeration.

Rioja Baja: Warmest and driest. Gran Reserva: This distinction is given to red wines aged for a minimum of 60 months. Richer alluvial soils perfect for garnacha tinta. . The most important red grape of Rioja is the Tempranillo grape. to include at least 18 months in oak. It is located in the province of Logroño and sits on the Ebro River. Rioja is composed of three distinct growing regions: • Rioja Alta: Cool climate-high rainfall region.Reserva: Reserva is applied to red wines that are aged for a minimum of 36 months. Spain’s Wine Regions Rioja This is Spain’s most prestigious appellation besides Sherry. Rioja wines are still commonly aged in American oak. Another new development is that aging times are shorter as producers try to emphasize the aromas of the fruit over those of the wood. The name Rioja comes from Rio Oja (Oja River). and to white and rosé wines aged for 18 months. sits closest to the river. smooth and lush reds. Tempranillo dominates in this region. followed by Garnacha (Grenache). and to white and rosé wines aged for 48 months. to include at least 12 months in oak and the rest in the bottle. Very fragrant. one of the Ebro’s tributaries. to include 6 months on wood. Catalonia and Penedés This region enjoys an excellent climate for wine production and is essentially an extension of France’s Rousillon. Rioja Alavesa: Southern exposure slopes with chalky soils. as they have been for a very long time. Single region and single vineyard wines are a very new development but are becoming quite popular. Because of this proximity there is a good deal of French influence in the wine styles of the region. The wines made here have the most finesse and are ageworthy. to include 6 months on wood. The proportion of wine from each region determines the aging potential and to some extent the quality of the blends. • • Most wines are blends of all three regions and most producers own vineyards in all three. This indication may also be used by those sparkling wines that have been given the Cava designation and which have undergone ageing for at least 30 months from tirage to disgorging. French oak aging is a new development.

the local name for Tempranillo. which are often blended here. which was created in 1982. Priorat DOCa: The other important and popular star of the region is Spain’s second DOCa. This wine has now been incorporated into the Ribera del Duero DO. Rueda and Ribera del Duero. xarel-lo and macabeo. . Wines are made mostly from garnacha and cariñena.Another powerful influence is the Torres family. Spain’s Traditional Method sparkling wine. Cava DO: This region is very important for the Production of Cava. Castilla-La Mancha and Valdepeñas Castilla-La Mancha: This region of south central Spain contains several DOs. Ribera del Duero DO: Spain’s most famous wine and its one shining star when all other wines seemed drab and backward is Vega Sicilia. The whites of Rueda and the reds from Ribera del Duero are among Spain’s best wines. Produced in the same manner as Champagne. all known for producing run of the mill wines in large quantities. Some chardonnay may be added. Alcohol levels in this hot region routinely hit the 16%+ mark. Toro. contains a string of important appellations. it differs in ageing time requirements and the grapes used. Valdepeñas DO: This subregion attained independent DO status because its wines are considered to be of higher quality. a blend of Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon. The Duero River Region The Duero River. the same as Portugal’s famous Douro. The main quality grape of the region is cencibel. a winemaking powerhouse that brought experimentation and innovation to the region both in technology as well as in the use of foreign grape varieties. but producer are trying to keep those levels down. which in the very poor llicorella soils of the region produce very low yields of extremely concentrated grapes. Priorat. Rueda DO: This up-and-coming DO is known for its crisp whites from the Verdejo and Sauvignon Blanc grapes. which in this case are parellada. These wines are still very concentrated and full bodied. Merlot and Malbec.

refreshing wines made from the Albariño grape.Rias Baixas This region in the cold and rainy northwestern corner of the country is known for its crisp. . These popular wines make a great match for fresh seafood dishes.

Wines & Grapes of Germany .Section 6 – The Wines of Germany Overview of the Regions.

The categories of German wines will be listed from lowest to highest. These wine can be made from non-traditional varieties and using nontraditional methods. The climate is harsh. Germany produces some of the greatest white wine in the world. In this course book. Unlike in Italy. The bottle must indicate the place of origin. There are 13 demarcated wine regions where the wine may be made from approved grape varieties. At this quality category wines may be Chaptalized (sugar added to increase • • . Appellation System German wine labels are notoriously difficult for the novice to decipher. this is why Germany’s highest quality wine category is based on the degree of ripeness of the grapes at harvest time. and the label gives no indication as to which is which. Another complicating factor is that place names and vineyard names often overlap or repeat. town and group of vineyards may have very similar names. Germany’s vineyards are ‘on the edge’ as far as where grapes can be grown and ripened with any degree of success.Introduction Arguably the most under appreciated wine region in Western Europe. QbA means ‘quality wines from specified regions’. the ripeness level of the grapes at harvest and the degree of dryness of the wine. Because of the marginal nature of viticulture here. Spain or France. producers avail themselves of every trick in the book: grapes are planted on slopes steeply angled towards the sun and close to rivers and the vineyards are planted with grapes adapted to the cool conditions. and ripening the grapes fully is no easy task. Germany is also home of the Riesling grape. or table wine in the French appellation and represents a fairly insignificant proportion of wine in Germany. Qualitaswein Bestimmter Anbaugabiet (QbA): This is the lower of the two top-tier quality designations for German wines. this category is very small in Germany and very little of the wine is exported. the main focus will be the ripeness level of the grapes as an indicator of style and quality. sometimes the town and vineyard. however. which many consider to be the greatest of all white grape varieties. Landwein: This category is the equivalent of the French Vin de Pays. grape variety and vintage on the label. and then controlled by the church until they were handed over to private land owner’s following Napoleonic conquest. the QmP will be discussed below. Vineyards were established in Germany during Roman times. So a great quality vineyard. Information on the label includes the region. This category. Almost none of it is exported. • Tafelwein: This is the equivalent of the Vin de Table. however.

These are generally simple. Until Beerenauslese (BA): This translates roughly to ‘selectively picked berries’ and is made from individually harvested overripe grapes often affected by noble rot. although they may be vinified dry. very ripe bunches. These attributes are a label designation that indicates the level of ripeness of the grapes at the time of picking. The sugar content of the grape is determined using a scale called Oeschle. They can be dry. The later harvest allows the grapes to dry and ripen on sunny autumn days. May be matched with richer food or consumed alone. Remarkably rich. QmP means ‘quality wines with attributes’. Great for matching with heavier dishes such as baked ham and other main course dishes. These can be dry. The ripeness levels are: • Kabinett: Usually light wines made from ripe grapes intended to be light quaffing wines or to be matched with light food. Auslese: Harvest of selected. Great wines with intense in bouquets and flavors. These wines may not be Chaptalized.alcohol content). sweet dessert wines to be enjoyed as dessert by themselves or with dessert. Auslese. increasing the intensity of the flavors. ice wine. • • • • . When pressed. Beerenauslese (BA). Spatlese: This term means ‘late harvest’. • Qualitatswein mit Pradikat (QmP): This represents the highest quality category of German wines. Eiswein: Literally. also a great match with spicy Asian dishes. Eiswein. medium-dry or sweet and the best can be very flavorful and crisp. which measures the must weight of the grapes. Spatlese are more intense in flavor and concentration than Kabinetts. Spatlese. this wine is made from BA ripeness level grapes that are left to freeze on the vine. These wines are made from grapes harvested after the first pass through the vineyard or from more favorable sites. however they may be sweetened by adding sussreserve. There are six categories listed here from least ripe to ripest: Kabinett. medium-dry or sweet in style. These are usually sweet. or unfermented grape must. inexpensive and slightly sweet wines. and Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA). making them higher in alcohol but still very crisp and aromatic.

is the best quality red grape. the second most important white grape by volume but of much lesser quality than Riesling. Halbtrocken. sweet. Sekt: This term indicates a German quality sparkling wine. but may make dry wines. it is fresh and crisp but sometimes needs a bit of sweetness to tame its steely nature. These wines are usually dry or off-dry and can offer great value. yielding remarkably fresh tasting and concentrated dessert wines. Pinot Noir. luscious. Note: The ripeness level of the grapes is not the same as the sweetness level of the wine. How sweet or dry the wine is. is determined by the winemaker. Germany’s climate is a very difficult one for grape growing. Naturally high in acidity and grown in this cool climate. produces mostly red wine. or halfdry are semi-dry wines with a slight residual sweetness. Wines made in a dry style will have the word trocken on the label. Those that aren’t tend to go into Chaptalized ‘sugar water’ style Liebfraumilch (see Rheinhessen below) blends that are sold for very cheap and are a pale shadow of what Germany can truly produce. Mittelrhein Located just south of Bonn. The king of German grapes is undisputedly the white Riesling grape. this grape is what goes into the more anonymous blends. Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA): These wines made from ‘selectively picked dried berries’ is made from grapes so severely affected by noble rot that they don’t look like grapes anymore! Rich. Below is a list of Germany’s 13 approved wine producing regions: Ahr Northernmost and one of smallest.• the ice separates from the sweet essence of the grapes. Grapes have to be in the right place to ripen into quality wines. Rare and expensive. Auslese grapes have considerable sugar. If neither of these appears on the label the wines is almost certainly fairly sweet. These are generally produced using the tank or transfer methods. Wine Producing Regions As was mentioned before. this region produces mostly white wines of local interest. which finds its most pure and exhilarating expression here. honey-like wines with great acidity for balance. wines in the first three levels may be produced as sweet or dry. . Also. MüllerThurgau. Sekt can be made from wines from anywhere in the EU and Deutscher Sekt must be made from grapes grown in Germany. for example. but nowhere near sweet. here called Spätburgunder.

Mosel-Saar-Ruwer (or Mosel) One of Germany’s greatest wine producing regions. Riesling finds its highest expression in the slate soils that flank the river Mosel. The most noteworthy subregion of the Mosel are Bernkastel and Piesport. Rheingau More centrally located, this region is one long hillside looking south over the Rhine. The Riesling produced here is the other benchmark for the grape; fuller and rounder than in the Mosel. Some very good Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir) produced here too. Noteworthy subregions include: Rudesheim and Johannisberg. Nahe Located west of the Rhinehessen, bordering the Mosel region. Diverse wines produced in diverse terroirs. Whites are dominant in this up-and-coming region. Rheinhessen This region is mainly known for Liebfraumilch, or uninteresting generic blends. Liebfraumilch can be blended only from grapes from the Rheinhessen, Rhinegau, Pfalz, the Nahe. Some great quality wine also produced in a few noteworthy subregions, mainly Nierstein and Oppenheim. Pfalz Important production area mostly known for quality white wines. Franken The easternmost wine growing region in the country. Produces great wines that come in flat bocksbeutels, a wine bottle that is only used in this region. Great food wines. Hessiche Bergstrasse This is the smallest wine region. Its wines are rare and generally not exported. Wurtemberg This region produces mostly red wines that are consumed locally. Baden Southernmost wine region in Germany, basically a continuation of the region of Alsace in France. Produces reds, whites and rosés. Sachsen and Salee-Unstrut These small regions are in Eastern Germany and their wines are mainly of local interest.

Section 7 – The United States of America
Overview of the Regions, Wines & Grapes of the USA
Although the United States now has wineries in 50 of its 50 states – the major regions being the Pacific Northwest, California and New York State – winemaking here has been through numberless ups and downs. For the past two decades, however, the US has been a dominant force in the world wine market, both in terms of influence and production. The US is now the fourth wine-producer by volume, trailing only France, Italy and Spain. But more so than its grapes, it’s the demand created for its style of wines that has made a great impact on wine worldwide; America more than any other country is seen as the champion of the ‘new world’ style. Aside from availing itself from the newest technology, the US has a myriad of terroirs suitable to quality viticulture, and the freedom allowed to producers with essentially no traditions to bind them up, has made the US into the powerhouse that it is in record time. Unlike the laws of Europe, US appellation laws are much less restrictive (see below), and virtually any grape can be grown and vinified in the country. The west coast is dominated by vitis vinifera grapes, while the east coast and the mid-west tend to rely more on local hybrids and other members of the vitis family. Wine laws, the areas of California, the Pacific Northwest and New York State will be discussed below.

Wine Laws
AVAs American wine laws are organized around the concept of the American Viticultural Area or AVA. An AVA is a demarcated growing region that is distinguished or united by specific geographical features (at least in theory – some AVA choices have been very controversial). The AVA is the ‘smallest’ appellation level (Napa Valley, or Walla Walla Valley); wines may also be labeled by county (Monterrey County), state (California Wine) or country (American Wine). Just like in Europe, the smaller the appellation, the more ‘individual’ the wine tends to be, and generally the higher the price, but AVA’s are not intended

as an indication of quality. All they are intended to do is to inform the consumer of where the grapes came from. American Labeling Laws Labeling laws are intended to give the consumer an accurate picture of what’s in the bottle. Compliance with these laws is regulated by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). Below are some of the of label items commonly listed with an explanation of the exact requirements. • Wine Type: A wine may be labeled by a grape name such as Chardonnay or Cabernet Sauvignon, or it may be given a generic name such as "Red Table Wine." Wines listing specific grape names must contain at least 75% of the named grape variety by volume. Provenance: If an AVA appears on the label at least 85% of the wine must be made from grapes from the named AVA. The requirement is 75% for county appellations; requirements for wines bearing a state appellation vary by state. Vintage: The vintage year designates the year in which the grapes were harvested. The law requires that at least 95% of the grapes be from the stated vintage. Vineyard of Origin: If a specific vineyard is mentioned at least 95% of the grapes have to be from the named vineyard. Producer and Bottler: This part of the label gives a great deal of information about the production of the wine. The label must indicate the bottler and its location. The specific language used is a clue as to the involvement of the bottler in the finished wine. Estate Bottled: This term means that 100% of the grapes were grown on land either owned or managed by the winery and that the winery performed the whole vinification process all the way to bottling. Another requirement is that the vineyard and the winery must be within the same AVA. Alcohol Content: This statement on a table wine indicates the alcohol content by volume, with a tolerance of plus or minus 1.5%. However, the tolerance cannot be used to label as a table wine a wine containing more than 14% alcohol. Dessert wines contain more than 14% but no more than 21% alcohol and are permitted a plus or minus margin of 1%.

• •

Declaration of Sulfites Mandatory. Beginning in 1988, wines which have a level of 10 parts per million or greater of sulfur dioxide must be labeled with a sulfite declaration.

The French judges (unknowingly) chose the American wines over the French…and . The pest was brought over to Europe in plant samples sent to England and soon spread. but the resulting vines tasted nothing like the original grapes of Europe. No cure was found for a long time. an American root stock (the root part of an American plant) was grafted with the scion (the top of the plant) of a European vine.California History California’s wine industry. It seemed as though California was on its way to becoming an important member of the wine scene. is considered by some to be the father of the California wine industry. He saw the potential for producing wine just as good as the wine of the old world. Then someone had a stroke of genius. Soon after. but luckily for the US. devastating almost all the vineyards of the old continent. since no cure has been found. The wines were tasted blind and all the judges were French. and this was the solution. Franciscan missionary Junipero Serra. and White Burgundies vs. In 1833 Jean-Louis Vignes planted a vineyard using exclusively European grape varieties. started with the missionaries. one reporter was there to cover it. California Chardonnays. like that of much of the new world. the root was resistant to Phylloxera. The wild vines that inhabited the American continent for millennia had grown resistant to Phylloxera. Phylloxera is a root louse (an insect that feeds on vine roots) that was fairly contained to the east coast of the US. The grape used by the missionaries. But Phylloxera Vastatrix had other plans. the mission grape. In 1976 a tasting between the wines of France and those of California was organized in London. Agoston Haraszthy brought hundreds of vine cuttings from Europe’s premier vineyards and is considered in many ways to be the father of the modern California industry. but it proved deadly to the European vinifera varieties. This was the dominant grape in the region until the early 1800’s. California Cabernets. who established the first full-fledged vineyards in the California coast in mid to late 1700’s. The wine industry continued to improve and strengthen getting an initial boost from the gold rush. After Phylloxera. The wines to be tasted were Bordeaux wines vs. The industry was severely weakened and didn’t really start to recover until the mid 60’s. It wasn’t meant to be a big event. in the mid-1800’s. Prohibition struck the American wine industry from 1919 until 1933. a hardy variety that responds well in almost any climate. Some tried crossing American vines with European vines in an attempt to build resistance. Almost all the vineyards of the world are planted on American rootstock to this day. is believed to be the same as the Criolla Chica of Argentina. while the vine that grew tasted like the European grape variety. a Hungarian.

Sonoma County: This is one of the oldest wine producing regions in California but has only become prominent in consumers’ minds in recent years.the rest is history. Central Valley. although it produces many others with great success. Oregon. • Monterrey County: This coastal area contains several AVAs. The newest and possibly soon to become best of Monterrey’s appellations is the Santa Lucia Highlands AVA. Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. Nevada. The areas involved in quality wine production rely on the influence of the Pacific to cool the vineyards down with winds and fogs. South Coast and Sierra Foothills. The Central Valley is hot and dry and accounts for the more generic wine produced in the State. and is very well regarded for its Chardonnays. The chief influence on its climate is San Francisco bay. This causes the valley to be hottest at the north end and coolest in the south. This narrow valley is surrounded by the Vaca and Mayacama’s mountain ranges. which fills the valley with fog during the day and cools down the vineyards. It’s AVAs are among the most famous in the country and include Oakville. Wine Regions California borders the Pacific Ocean. this region has the right combination of sunshine and cooling influences to produce outstanding cool climate Chardonnay and more recently Pinot Noir. Some of the best cool climate growing regions are in this area. Russian River Valley and the Alexander Valley. Arizona and Mexico. Napa and Sonoma Counties are located in the North Coast. Mendocino. • Napa Valley: This is California’s best known wine producing region. Being closer to the Pacific it is generally cooler than Napa. Central Coast. . • • The Central Coast is comprised of a number of counties that often receive the ocean’s influence more directly than those in the North Coast. It produces a staggering variety of wines. This legitimized American wine quality in the eyes of many and the wine industry has continued to grow briskly ever since. Lake. Cabernet Sauvignon is Napa’s most famous grape. Zinfandels and most recently. It is the largest state in the US and contains five major wine growing regions: North Coast. Below is a list of California’s main wine regions. although there are some very warm areas where the Ocean’s influence is cut off. Famous AVA’s of Sonoma include Sonoma Valley. Lake & Mendocino Counties: These are California’s northernmost and coolest wine regions and produce good wine from a variety of mostly cool climate grapes like Gewurtztraminer. among them the Chalone and Arroyo Seco AVAs. although its total output is very small. its Pinot Noirs. California produces 90% of all the wine in the US and contains the largest number of AVAs. Stag’s Leap and Rutherford and Carneros.

17 years later. Michelle) to start the vinifera ball rolling with the first of several considerable plantings in the early 1960’s. Clore’s enthusiasm for grapes earned him the nickname “Grandpa Grape” and encouraged American Wine Growers (now called Chateau Ste. at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River. the Washington Wine Commission announced in Seattle that Washington State has now reached the 500-winery mark. This solidifies its position as America's No. there are more than 30.000 acres producing almost 7 million cases of wine. wet winters. The earliest winery was established at Walla Walla in the 1860’s and the first vinifera vines were planted at Yakima in 1871. Dr. by traders working for the Hudson’s Bay Company. Eastern Washington. It is generally considered then that Washington's modern wine industry dates to 1962. east of the Cascades. it became the 42nd State. Walter Clore conducted trial studies of vinifera varieties in the late 1950’s at Washington State University. Today. claimed it for the Americas. • Washington In 1775 the Spanish declared the land now known as Washington State. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south. Paso Robles is famous for its Cabernet Sauvignon and Rhonestyle blends. bisecting the state. has a relatively dry climate . Western Washington. Washington’s wine industry grew quickly. Santa Barbara County: Santa Barbara contains a number of cool climate AVAs that are becoming well known for Burgundian varietals and Syrah grown in the Santa Ynez Valley and the Santa Rita Hills AVAs. Wine Regions and Terroir Washington is the north-westernmost state of the contiguous United States. 2 wine state. has a mostly marine west coast climate with relatively mild temperatures. and dry summers. west of the Cascades. Robert Gray. captain of the first US ship to sail the globe. In April 2007. and 42 wineries were in operation by 1937. with the beginning of relatively large-scale plantings of vinifera grapes. In 1889. a warm region within this generally cool county. although the production of wine on a commercial scale was not effected until the post prohibition New Deal era allowed funding of the Columbia River Irrigation project which transformed an arid desert into an agricultural paradise. In contrast. The first planting of vines in Washington was roughly in 1825.• San Luis Obispo County: The most important sub-region of San Luis Obispo County is Paso Robles.

Sales are dominated by one major winery group with high proportion of the grapes coming from independent growers. Changes began in small ways in the 1960’s and 70’s. the vineyards are planted in eastern Washington and flourish thanks to irrigation. but as in Washington. the wine industry in Oregon relied mostly on labrusca grapes of the concord varietal until the 1970’s. Lett’s Pinot Noir came in in second place defeating Drouhin’s fabulous 1961 Clos-de-Beze and many other prestigious Burgundies. These and other vinifera vineyards were still in existence at the time of Prohibition. Sauvignon Blanc. This had a similar effect to the Paris tasting . Approximately 57% of the grapes grown in Washington are red. eastern side of the cascades where it is cooler. when David Lett entered his 1975 Pinot Noir in a blind tasting competition organized by Robert Drouhin. Riesling. and Bill Fuller (Tualatin) are among the pioneers in this region. Oregon History The first vinifera vines were planted in Oregon’s Rogue River Valley as early as 1854. The major growing regions in Washington are the Yakima Valley. Grape Varieties All but 1% of Washington vineyards are located on the hot. the Columbia Valley and Puget Sound all of which are AVAs. desert-dry. Cabernet Sauvignon. Richard Sommer (Hill Crest). Semillon and Viognier. The leading red varieties in Washington are Merlot. David Lett (The Eyrie Vineyards). Wine Production Washington now follows California as the second most important state for grape growing. Cabernet Franc and Sangiovese. Washington State has 9 AVAs. Western Washington is too wet for wine production. For the whites. the Walla Walla Valley. Oregon came into the forefront in 1979. the leading varieties are Chardonnay. when wineries were established by winemakers from California looking for something different. Currently.with large areas of semiarid steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades. specially cooler regions.

Oregon’s climate. Wine Region and Terroir There are three major vineyard areas for the production of wine in New York. Vines have been grown commercially in upper New York State around the Finger Lakes since 1850. but still markedly continental. frequently accented by a pronounced spiciness that suggests cinnamon or mint. and the Columbia Valley. Other key regions on Oregon are Walla Walla. In just 40 years Oregon has evolved into a world-class wine growing state with 15 approved winegrowing regions. In 1973. with its maritime climate is New York’s answer to Bordeaux. Precipitation in the state varies widely. They can be full-bodied and rich but not heavy. In many parts . but periods of extreme hot and cold can affect parts of the state. the Hudson Valley. Oregon. Oregon has 90% varietal law except for Cabernet Sauvignon. Over 5600 acres are now under vine in three primary appellations: Rogue River Valley. The climate is generally mild. is heavily influenced by the Pacific Ocean. and fruitier than Burgundies. Oregon wines are usually handcrafted by small producers and tend to be of great quality. especially in the west. and Willamette Valley. the Finger Lakes. and more than 300 wineries.of 1976 in legitimizing the wines of the region. Chardonnay Merlot and Riesling. and very flavorful. Wine Regions and Terroir Oregon varies from rainforest in the coastal range to barren desert in the southeast. Desert regions get as little as 8 inches annually. Long Island. Umpqua Valley. S. Pinot Noir wines span the full spectrum between red and black fruit. New York History New York is the 3rd most important state for grape growing in the US. Grape Varieties The most successful grape in Oregon is Pinot Noir followed by Pinot Gris. Oregon Pinots are usually fresher than their California counterparts. while some western coast slopes approach 200 inches annually. although much of the production is not used for wine.W. with higher acidity. Alex and Louisa Hargrave planted the first vines in the silty-sandy potato fields on the North Fork of Long Island. which is shared with Washington State. which is only 75%. The Finger Lakes have a moderate climate. and Long Island. New York’s first recorded commercial vineyard was planted in 1829 in the Hudson River Valley.

Chardonnay and Chenin Blanc. sparkling wine and many varietals unique to that specific region. The most popular varietals are Cabernet Franc. Three of which are on Long Island.fewer than 200 days are frost-free and winters are long with extremely low temperatures. Wine Production New York currently is home to 9 AVAs. full-bodied Cabernets. There are 60 vineyards ranging in size from 2 ½ to over 500 acres. The Hamptons AVA and Long Island AVA. Vinifera Vines can be vulnerable in the Hudson Valley area because climate is not moderated by neither ocean nor lake. elegant Chardonnays. like Chardonnay and Cabernet Franc are also finding a niche in some areas. Another four AVAs are around the Finger Lakes. Cayuga Lake. . Niagara Escarpment. cool climate vinifera grapes. Grape Varieties Long Island is home to an enormous amount of grape varieties. Cabernet Sauvignon. Lake Erie. the Hudson River Region has it’s own AVA. Finger Lakes and Seneca Lake. In the Hudson Valley the local industry was built on hybrid varieties like Seyval Blanc and Baco Noir. The Finger Lakes produce world-class Rieslings. Lastly. crisp. the North Fork AVA.

some critics say. There are many very interesting regions with very well defined terroirs.Section 8 – Australia. Australia is a country about the same size as the US. Most of the wine made in the country is dominated by a handful of huge corporations that own many wineries. . Australia has a very clear strategy and is intent on becoming the number one exporter of wines in the world – and it’s well on its way to succeeding. at the expense of character and terroir. that all Australian wine is bland. So if you are a great corporation and you want to sell the local market is not enough. mass-produced stuff. sometimes. New Zealand & South Africa Overview of the Regions. This is why a great part of the focus has been on exports and on consistency. Australians also stretched the boundaries of branding when it comes to wine. Also. Its wineries use the most modern equipment and techniques (many invented or pioneered by the Australians themselves) to produce a lot of wine with mass appeal. but has around the same population as California. Wines & Grapes Australia Introduction Australia has become a very successful model of what a new world winemaking country can be. however. having succeeded to quickly make some Australian wines into a household name. Pound for pound (or gallon for gallon) Australian wine at the lower end of the price spectrum is hard to beat. That is not to say. Australian’s have been very savvy when it comes to marketing and to finding what it is that people want in a new world wine.

Clare & Eden Valleys. Within the states are smaller zones. Most of the wine production occurs on its eastern side. The most important wine producing regions are in the southeastern half of the country and they are South Australia. and inside those might be even smaller regions. Australian labeling law is also very easy to remember: • • • GI: If a GI appears on the label 85% of the grapes must’ve come from the GI named. ripe and supple Shiraz. but there are some cooler wine growing regions that are starting to become very important. The rest of the country is too hot for viticulture. Most wines from Australia are labeled as South Eastern Australia and are blends made from across the country to ensure consistency. Cabernet Sauvignon being one of them. of which we’ll look at: Barossa. Barossa has become almost synonymous with Shiraz. Other grape varieties make great wine here. All these zones fall within a ‘Super Zone’ called South Eastern Australia. Australian wine has also closely identified with one grape variety: Shiraz. They work in much the same way. Shiraz is the same grape as the Syrah of the Rhone Valley in France.Labeling The equivalent of the US’s AVAs in Australia are called GIs or Geographical Indications. such as Riverina and Riverland provide the grapes for the more generic blends. Vintage: 85% of the wine in the bottle must be from the vintage that appears on the label. where it borders other important wine producing regions. most large wineries are based here. some have been more successful than others! Regions Some of Australia’s most important zones and regions are listed below. Most vineyards in Australia are concentrated on the southern coastal areas. • South Australia: The most important zone. many new world countries have attached their name to a single grape – as we’ll see. Following Australia’s lead. • The Barossa Valley: This area is world renowned for its rich. They define a region and appear on the label but don’t require anything else from the producer. The climate in Australia is generally warm. Adelaide Hills and Coonawarra. Grape Variety: 85% of the wine must be made from the grape name that appears on the label. This zone is further subdivided into several regions. The country is divided into zones which correspond with the states. Inland areas around rivers. This is arguably Australia’s most prestigious wine region and many of its most famous wines come from here. . Victoria and New South Wales.

Now the region is coming back to the forefront. • The Yarra Valley: Yarra is one of Australia’s most famous cooler climate regions. • The Hunter Valley: The Hunter Valley is an extremely hot region. Here they are called Rutherglen Muscats. meaning red earth. Once the fermentation gets going and the right amount of residual sugar is left in the wine. Victoria is the only region of Australia to have suffered a widespread Phylloxera outbreak. The sweet wine then is aged in hot sheds. This wine is produced by allowing the grapes to dry up on the vine and then pressing them to extract the syrupy juice. • • • New South Wales: New South Wales is an area whose importance may be in decline. but is already making a great name for itself. This area is world renowned for its fruity Pinot Noirs and excellent Chardonnays. The most famous grape grown here is the Cabernet Sauvignon. spirit is added to arrest the fermentation. in a region called the Limestone Coast. The Rieslings made here are generally dry. . These famous wines are made from the Muscat grape that produces many of the world’s famous dessert wines in France. They also produce some of the better sparkling wines in Australia. It remained a quiet place while Barossa took the lead. long peninsula is also a cool climate region on the south of the zone. Its most famous area is the Hunter Valley. concentrating the juice and adding the aromas and flavors of oxidation to the wine. fairly crisp and elegant. Coonawarra: This region is located in southern South Australia. producing many outstanding wines. Adelaide Hills Region: This region is famous for its Chardonnays. It has a special type of soil called ‘terra rossa’.• • • The Clare Valley and the Eden Valley: Both of these are cooler wine growing regions up in the hills and they both specialize in one grape: Riesling. Rutherglen: This is an extremely hot region in northern Victoria. this area is relatively new. Italy and all over the world. This area has long been famous for its wines made from the Semillon grape and for its Shiraz. Famous for its Pinot Noirs and Chardonnays. with very interesting aromas and good acidity. that consists of a top layer of red earth (high iron content) and a limestone subsoil. These wines are full-bodied but very elegant. It is a cooler region (also at some elevation) and the wines show that in their crispness and elegance. • Victoria: Victoria was the most important zone in Australia for a long time until Phylloxera struck the region. Mornington Peninsula: This thin.

• • Tasmania: Tasmania is Australia’s coolest wine growing region and is famous for its sparkling wines. the wines from this region can’t be included in those South Eastern Australia blends. Also. The cultivation of the vine was one of the first agricultural tasks undertaken by early settlers. Location and Climate Almost a third of the vineyards are located near Auckland where a government run experimental station is situated. Chenin Blanc. which surrounds it. The vines are . James Bushby a pioneer of the Australian wine industry expanded further some of the existing cultivated lands and planted new vines in 1833. • The Margaret River: This area is the most famous internationally. many settlers from Dalmatia came to work the gum fields of North Island and. these Bdx style wines are very ‘old world’ in style. In contrast with the more widely seen wines of Australia. Early on Müller Thurgau was the most widely planted varietal but in the 1970’s this changed and now Chardonnay is the most widely planted varietal in New Zealand. In the second half of the nineteenth century. The country is located within the temperate belt. Later. It is a cooler climate region that is known for its outstanding Cabernet Sauvignon and Bordeaux style blends. Sémillon and Gewürztraminer are also grown. This is a region of small producers crafting very high quality wines. with North being the same latitude as Tasmania. in due course. an Anglican missionary named Samuel Mardsen planted the first vines in the northland region in 1819. At first the progress of viticulture was slow. New Zealand New Zealand comprises of two Islands: North and South. but South vineyard plantings are increasing rapidly especially around Marlborough. The climate is influenced by the ocean. they planted vineyards. Most vineyards are on the North Island. Western Australia: Western Australia sits all the way across the country from all the other important wine regions. Riesling. followed by Sauvignon Blanc and Müller Thurgau. Waikato and Bay of Plenty According to various reports. Pinot Noirs and Chardonnays.

most vineyard areas are on the eastern seaboard. Gisborne has assumed the title of Chardonnay capital of New Zealand. on South Island. Together. Most of these wineries are small. Gisborne is also home to New Zealand's first certified organic producer. The region includes only a small vineyard area. Northland: Although Northland was the 'birthplace' of New Zealand viticulture. The sunniest vineyard region is Marlborough in the north east of the South Island. Millton Vineyards. Merlot and Chardonnay show promise in the warm. Montana. Soils are alluvial loams over sandy or volcanic subsoils. It’s about an hour away from New Zealand’s capital city of Wellington. a title bestowed by its own viticulturists and winemakers. Excessive rainfall is perceived to be the most important climatic problem and for this reason. four on South Island and six on North Island. which is the most southerly vineyard area in the world. these three regions account for more than 80% of New Zealand’s wine production. but they have built an excellent reputation for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. temperate maritime conditions of New Zealand's most northerly region. • • . Soil type ranges from shallow clay over sandy clay subsoil to free draining volcanic. Although home to major 'bag in box' bulk wine production by the big industry players. Major replanting due to the presence of Phylloxera has seen Chardonnay overtake Muller Thurgau to become the dominant variety. Top producer. and it now occupies around half the planted area. As well as Chardonnay.considered the most easterly and southerly in the world. Because it consists of two relatively long narrow islands. who follow biodynamic principles. only recently has viticulture regained some significance in the area. Amor Bendall. Despite its somewhat cool growing climate. on North Island. Top producers: Millton. Gisborne Chardonnay is distinctive with soft tropical and stone fruit flavors. GROWING REGIONS New Zealand has a total of ten growing regions. Gewurztraminer produces high quality wines. the climate is predominantly Maritime. The principal growing regions are Marlborough. With better site selection and modern winegrowing methods. • Gisborne: Situated on the North Island's sunny east coast. Wairarapa: This region is located at the southernmost end of North Island. But more than 12% of the country’s wineries are located here. though in the northern island around Auckland it is subtropical. Cabernet Sauvignon. Okahu. Driest and most continental is Central Otago. where they are protected from the prevailing west wind by the mountainous ranges of the country. the region has also produced some of the country’s best examples of Cabernet Sauvignon. with vine plantings dating back to 1819. there has been an improvement in the mix of varieties planted. and Hawke’s Bay and Gisborne.

Obsidian. Top producers make excellent examples. Seifried. Greenhough. The region is currently second to Marlborough in proportion of national vineyard area. with viticulture mixed with other agricultural and horticultural activities. Shallow clays over hard silty-clay or sandy loam predominate.• Auckland: Auckland is home to New Zealand's biggest wine producers and has significant processing facilities. Cabernet Sauvignon. adding new dimensions and giving • • • • . Marlborough: Marlborough is New Zealand's biggest and most famous wine region. Nelson: Nelson is an area of polyculture. The area benefits from very high sunshine hours. to the Central Hawkes Bay sub-region. A broad range of wine styles reflects the diversity in local terroir. Redmetal. topography and coastal influence . Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc are most popular. Mesoclimates vary with altitude. making wine in a cool climate style at higher altitude. Hawke’s Bay: New Zealand's most important region for red wines based on Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Merlot and Chardonnay are favored. Sileni. and there is considerable variation in soil type. Marlborough redefined a style of Sauvignon Blanc associated with the Loire Valley in France. followed by Riesling. Syrah also shows promise in the warmest sites. Chardonnay is the most widely planted. but with improved viticultural methods it is now resurgent. Sacred Hill. Nelson is situated in a rain-shadow. Goldwater. Sauvignon Blanc is also of significance but makes a softer wine than Marlborough. Top producer: Rongopai. Chardonnay is the most important variety for whites and is the most widely planted variety overall. Trinity Hill. Top producers: Stoneyridge. Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir. Top producers: Neudorf. it has been hailed by British wine commentator Oz Clark as potentially New Zealand's greatest. with its free draining soils. thanks largely to the phenomenal success of its Sauvignon Blanc. It is New Zealand's eighth-largest region. and makes around a quarter of the country's wine. High quality reds produced at Waiheke Island in the Hauraki Gulf and at Matakana to the north have helped raise Auckland's reputation as a high quality wine region. in particular Sancerre. Te Mata. Hawke's Bay already has a century of production to its credit. Soil types are alluvial loam and clay loam over hard clay subsoil. Stonecroft. Clearview. Chardonnay. Top producers: Bilancia. the influence of which combines with the tempering effect of the nearby ocean to create excellent conditions for vine-culture. accounting for around 1% of the national vineyard. Craggy Range. Auckland viticulture declined through the 1970s and 1980s with the rise of Hawkes Bay and Marlborough. Compare the warm Gimblett Road sub-region. Esk Valley. but the Waikato is on the rise. Kumeu River Waikato: It’s relatively new and still very small. the equal of New Zealand's best. Ngatarawa. Heavy loam soils over clay.

Mt Difficulty. Villa Maria. Central Otago: "In certain parts of this district where a good aspect and well sheltered spots are available. and cultivation and pruning methods must be adopted that meet the requirements of the colder vine-growing zones. Isabel. Chardonnay is second to Sauvignon Blanc by area planted. But a Pinot Noir from the 2000 vintage was declared champion Burgundy or Pinot Noir at the 2001 London International Wine Challenge . encouraged by a run of very good to excellent vintages. Seresin. • . Fromm. Top producers: Daniel Schuster. is well established as a firm favorite in the crucial British market. A classic cool climate with warm days and cool evenings ensures flavor retention in grapes. the best soils are stony and free draining. Gewurztraminer and Pinot Gris. St Clair. the plains around the city. but judgment must be exercised in the selection of the varieties to be planted. north of the city of Christchurch. Riesling. given the free-draining soils and dry summers. Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc have all produced top quality wines. The region is expanding extremely fast as investors are lured by the potential to produce great Pinot Noir wines. Olssens. Mountford. All others have a maritime climate. Some said it wasn’t possible. Vavasour." Central Otago is set apart from the rest of New Zealand's vine growing districts in that it has a continental climate. Pinot Noir (the two most widely planted). and Bob Campbell in his 2001 Cuisine Wine Annual proclaims the region as having the most potential in New Zealand. a portion being diverted to production of Methode Traditionelle sparkling wine along with Pinot Noir. Framingham. with its signature zesty. which also exhibits great promise as a single varietal.these wines would sell as fast as you could put them on a shelf. Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc. Sub-regions are the Wairau Valley and the more recently developed Awatere Valley. Irrigation is common. the short but warm growing season and cool nights. Peregine.arguably the world's most prestigious wine competition. Felton Road. and Banks Peninsula to the east. Careful site selection is critical. • Canterbury: Vineyards are distributed among the sub-regions of Waipara. Muddy Water. Beautiful steely Rieslings and excellent botrytis sweet wines are made also. Quartz Reef. herbaceous gooseberry and tropical fruit flavors. The Canterbury region is New Zealand's fourth largest by planting. Hunter's. Around 47% of the national crop comes from Marlborough.New Zealand its own classic wine style. Huia. Kaituna Valley. My own experience working in the English trade confirms this . Valli. Chardonnay. Kawarau Estate. Top producers: Cloudy Bay. Pinot Noir is easily the most planted variety followed by Chardonnay. Wither Hills. Lawson's Dry Hills. wines of great character and quality is being produced in Central Otago. but with silt loams of heavy schist and mica deposits. Gibbston Valley. the cultivation of the vine may be undertaken. Geisen. Situated in an alluvial valley. Pegasus Bay. Top producers: Akarua. Nautilus. Mount Edward.

Europe and the East have met and mingled for over 350 years. the industry reflects the classicism of the Old World but is also influenced by the contemporary fruit-driven styles of the New World. is keen to learn. where two mighty oceans meet in the shadow of landmark Table Mountain. eloquently expressing the unique terroir and people of the Cape. a dynamic new vision has given momentum to changes within an industry which is innovation driven. In the last few years. This rare combination makes for wines which are complex yet accessible. Here the cultures of Africa. that Archbishop Tutu described the new South African nation as 'the rainbow people of God'. A passionate new generation of winemakers. South Africa can now compete with confidence on the world wine stage. the opening of new markets and exposure to international trends. This variety is reflected in our wines. Nelson Mandela took his first historic walk to freedom. This new ethos has seen the local wine industry emerge as a global enterprise with strong cultural roots and a sense of social responsibility. experiment and consolidate. It has truly come of age.South Africa At the southern tip of Africa. With a winemaking history dating back more than 300 years. With the advent of democracy. rich in colorful history and culturally diverse. refined yet powerful. and the rebellion into the interior known as the Groot Trek. Today South Africa is a peaceful democracy. globally competitive and highly profitable. Known locally as the Mother City. many with experience of harvests around the globe. lies the fairest Cape in the world. shaping a city both ancient and modern. And it was here. in 1990. four years later. and the 'rainbow nation' was born. This was where. a vibrant and exciting country of enormous diversity. History The Cape has witnessed many momentous events in South Africa's history: the landing of the Dutch settlers in 1652. the British invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. . Cape Town is the gateway to the South African wine lands and one of the great wine capitals of the world. market directed. There's also been a focused shift from grape farming to wine growing.

Wet winters with cool sea breezes and temperatures of 0-10°C also contribute to the ideal conditions for viticulture at the Cape. sundrenched summers ensure grapes with enough sugar to provide excellent wines year after year. Su Birch. says: "A growing visibility in key markets abroad. The South African wine industry is backed by a state research body. Long. .Wine Trade After Apartheid With new wineries opening up at a steady rate and South African wines attracting increasing acclaim internationally. Their farm workers and cooperative cellar staff." The Cape wine-growing areas. South Africa has the advantage of being able to supply foreign markets with regionally diverse wine styles which highlight the Cape's biodiversity. Positive international media coverage has also played a key role. mainly have a Mediterranean climate and the mountain slopes and valleys form the ideal habitat for the wine grape Vitis vinifera. and the Elsenburg Agricultural College. situated in the narrow viticultural zone of the southern hemisphere. the Nietvoorbij Institute for Viticulture and Oenology. constitute a workforce of some 345 500 people. which offers cellar technology. CEO of WOSA. With this favorable combination of climate and soil. the departments of viniculture and viticulture at the University of Stellenbosch. and the rise in South African wine tourism have all contributed to aggressive growth. the recognition by foreign trade and consumers of the value South African wines offer across price ranges. About 834 million liters of wine are produced annually. employing some 250 staff. more than 4 340 farmers cultivate some 108 000 hectares of land under vines. the products of which have given pleasure to man for many centuries. together with their dependants.

An extensive distribution network of wholesalers and retailers, as well as cooperative cellars, estates and other organizations which market wine directly, ensure that these products reach consumers around the country. In the past, most wine was sold through domestic wholesalers. However, with the opening up of foreign markets, rapidly increasing quantities of South African wines are being sold abroad. South African wine exports in 2002 were 20% up on the previous year and projected figures in export volume look positive. All wines for export must be granted an export license. Samples of each batch of wine destined for foreign climes are sent to the Wine & Spirit Board at Nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch where they undergo detailed tasting tests and chemical analysis in the laboratories before licenses are granted. The Wine & Spirit Board, which verifies that the claims made on the label regarding origin, gives an official seal to each bottle, vintage and grape variety are true. As far as international wine production is concerned, France leads with 20.9% of the total; Italy is second with 18.7%, Spain third with 15,1% and South Africa eighth with 2.5% (2000 figures). Wine Producers Estate wineries, which can make wine only from grapes grown on their own land; Co-operatives, which on a communal basis process the grapes of their farmer member shareholders into wine - these co-operatives alone have invested vast amounts in production equipment and they press about 80% of South Africa's total wine harvest; Independent cellars and a number of wholesalers who buy in both grapes and wine, and make wine for bottling under their brand names, as well as making wine from grapes grown on their own wine farms. Cultivars (Grape Varieties) In keeping with the spirit of renewal in the South African wine industry, in recent years over 40% of the vineyards have been replanted as the industry has realigned its product to compete globally, moving from volume production to noble cultivars and quality wines. South African vineyards have been dominated by white grape varieties but the trend now is towards a more market-driven balance between white and red. Noble varieties, which have been cultivated increasingly in the past few years, include Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay, which produce top-class white wines, and Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz and Pinot Noir. A significant proportion of our red wine vineyards are currently very young - 75% are under 10 years old. Some of our oldest grape varieties (also called cultivars) date back to ancient times and were developed from wild vines. The original wild vine belongs to the genus Vitis and it is generally accepted that it was cultivated for the first time in Asia Minor, south of the Caspian and Black seas. All the wine grape varieties cultivated in South Africa, which were originally imported from Europe, belong to the species Vitis vinifera. Unfortunately the

roots of European vines are susceptible to an insect disease called phylloxera and, in order to avoid it, they are often grafted onto American rootstock, which is largely resistant to the insect. A vine yields its first crop after three years and is fully productive after five. On average, the South African vineyard is replaced after 25 years but this depends on factors such as the area in which it is situated and how heavily it has yielded. Generally, its lifespan may be anything between 15 and 30 years although vines as old as 100 years still in production can be found. The vine is a remarkable plant, which lends itself to selection, propagation and grafting factors, which make possible a continuous improvement in both plant and quality. Although most of the vine varieties cultivated here today were originally imported, up to now six local crossings have been released. The best known of these is a red variety, Pinotage, a cross of Pinot Noir and Hermitage (Cinsaut), which is cultivated locally on a fairly large scale. The Worcester Region has the most vineyard plantings (19% of all vines), followed by Paarl and Stellenbosch (17%), Robertson (14%), Malmesbury (12%), Olifants River (9%), Orange River (9%) and Little Karoo (3%). The Worcester Region also produces the most wine (26%), followed by Olifants River (16%), Robertson (15%), Paarl (13%), Stellenbosch (10%), Orange River (9%), Malmesbury (8%) and Little Karoo (3,9%).

Section 9 – Argentina & Chile & Uruguay
Overview of the Regions, Wines & Grapes
Chile and Argentina are the two most important wine producers in South America. They sit side by side in the southernmost area of the continent, sharing the Andes mountain range. Chile sits west of the Andes, on the Pacific, and Argentina faces east, to the Atlantic. Both of these countries have had traditional wine industries that were mainly of local interest. Nowadays, their industries are focused on the export markets, mainly the US, and their wines have changed very much over the last 10 or 15 years. In looking for a place in the global wine market, both of these countries have set out to produce solid new world style wines: soft fruit, concentration and often lots of new oak.

Chile Introduction
Chile is, to this day, the only important wine producing nation that was never struck by Phylloxera. This caused an early boost for the Chilean wine industry around the turn of the 20th century while other countries were trying to get rid of the scourge. After that, Chile’s wine industry turned inward, and was not significant on the world stage until the last few decades. Winemaking in Chile started with the Spanish missionaries who brought with them the País grape, which is virtually the same as the Mission grape used by the missionaries in North America. It is still grown in some areas. Wealthy landowners in Chile often established wineries, and the model was always France, and of course Bordeaux. So, most plantings in Chile are of Bordeaux varieties. Carmenere is Chile’s flagship grape variety, in the mold of Australia’s Shiraz and New Zealand’s Sauvignon Blanc. This grape originated in Bordeaux, where it was used exclusively as a blending grape. The twist to this story is that until not so long ago, noone really knew it was there! For a long time, Chilean wine producers thought that they were growing Merlot grapes, when in fact they were actually growing Carmenere. A French ampelographer noticed the mistake, and the rest is history. Carmenere all but disappeared in Bordeaux after Phylloxera struck, but Chile got the vines prior to that time. And that was not the only case of mistaken identity. For many years Chile didn’t seem to be able to make a decent Sauvignon Blanc. They tried everything and nothing worked … until they realized that what they had in their vineyards wasn’t Sauvignon Blanc, but rather the lesser Sauvignonasse! Now that the vineyards are being replanted with true Sauvignon Blanc, Chilean Sauvignon Blancs have become some of the best of the New World.

Chile is a long slender country, and most of the wine growing regions are a string of valleys running along its center. Where the coastal range of the Andes has gaps, the influence of the Pacific is stronger and the weather is wetter and colder. Most of the valleys, however, are very dry, and viticulture would be impossible without irrigation. So, let’s look at Chile’s winegrowing regions: • The Casablanca Valley: The Casablanca Valley is located in the northern Aconcagua region. It is a cool climate region heavily influenced by the Pacific, since this area is not sheltered by the

It is divided into several sub-regions. Argentina also has a ‘flagship’ variety. including its Carmeneres. and go all the way to 6000 feet and more. deeply colored and mostly easy drinking wines.coastal range. Malbec makes fruity. • One of Mendoza’s sub-regions is Lujan de Cuyo. • • • The Maipo Valley: This sub-region is known for producing great Cabernet Sauvignonbased wines. Argentina has been very successful with this grape variety. Although they develop a fairly ripe aromatic character. reminiscent of Muscat or Gewurztraminer. Like Chile. Some of the best Malbec’s made in Argentina come from this region. Malbec has a long history of making wines based on its own merits. In its new world incarnation. for it would be too hot to grow the grapes on the valley floor. All sorts of international grape varieties are grown in Mendoza. It is very aromatic. Chardonnay and Pinot Noir are the best varieties produced here. Argentina Introduction Argentina’s wine industry has a long history for volume but not necessarily for quality until recently. and also for Malbec made in a more restrained and structured style. Further south. but is vinified dry. Argentina’s flagship variety is the Malbec grape. . this grape is rising in popularity. Rapel Valley: This valley contains the sub-region of Colchagua. And like Chile it more and more produces wines in the international style. • The Central Valley: The Central Valley is Chile’s largest and most important region. Vineyard plantings start at 1600 feet above sea level. like Carmenere is a blending grape in Bordeaux. It is known for cool climate white varieties. but still within the Central Valley region are the Curico and Maule Valleys. Rio Negro: This region is a cool wine growing region in the south of the country. each with its own characteristics. Most of Argentina’s vineyards are at elevation. Chile’s capital. Regions • Mendoza: This is Argentina’s largest and most important wine region. The traditional region of Cahors in southwestern France has been famous for Malbec-based wines for centuries. It sits right around the city of Santiago. Argentina also has its own white grape variety. is known to produce the best Torrontes. which is gaining a great reputation for its wines made from Bordeaux varieties. these wines retain crisp acidity. Fogs cover the vineyards just like in many areas of California and this creates great conditions for cool climate varieties. However. when made to retain its acidity can be a wonderful wine. Malbec. Although not as well known as Malbec. Numerous red and white international varieties are grown here. Torrontés. • • Cafayate. Vineyards here are at extremely high elevations to avoid the extreme heat. • Salta: This province in the north of the country is another important wine growing region. a cool sub-region of Salta.

and also Nebbiolo and Barbera. During the last twenty or thirty years. the Uruguayan wine industry initiated a new era towards excellency. Cinzano. Semillon. You can find technologies of both domestic and foreign origin in all the wineries of Brazil. However. Uruguayan wines have a long tradition and a growing recognition in the world market. The law stipulates the following identification marks: • The wine producer's and the bottler's name • The region and winery address • Name.000 producers. Pinot Bianco and Moscato. they are already drinking well now. Varieties Brazil grows all fine wine varieties. Currently. The casks and oak chips produced in Rio Grande do Sul are made of imported French or American oak components. Santa Catarina. The history of Uruguayan grapes and wines is as old as the country. and their type and quality allows them to compete with some of the world´s finest wines. Vineyards in URUGUAY have a 250 year of history. followed by the Tannat (Harriague) and Folle Noire (Vidiella) from the Southwest Bordeaux-France. Pinot Noir. Gewurtztraminer.000 hectares of vineyards located in the states of Rio Grande do Sul (about 40. tannic. The wines from Tannat grape are wines that will repay keeping. Cabernet Franc. The new plantations were mainly established with French imported vines of noble varieties.000 hectares). this grape is a deeply colored. Minas Gerais and Pernambuco. as every wine in the world. Parana. . type and origin of the product . called Rio Grande do Sul. classification. for example. Sauvignon. The year of 1870 marks the beginning of commercial winemaking. as early as the first half of the 18th Century. The wines produced from the new plantations are elaborated with modern techniques. there is no compulsory deadline for harvesting. In the 1970’s. astringent and intense. these companies have invested large amounts of money in the restoration of local vineyards and wineries. Brazil Overview 90% of Brazilian wine comes from the mountainous regions of the most southern state of the Brazilian Federation. Made in a number of styles. and Vale dos Vinhedos is well prepared Vineyards There are about 78. Consequently. Brazilian winemaking is one of the best-equipped industries in South America thanks to foreign companies such as Chandon.Uruguay Uruguay is the fourth most important wine producer in South America after Chile. Wine tourism is well organized there. Malvasia. It promotes quality and disseminates knowledge of wine as a means to stimulate its consumption. local winemakers supply the market with wines of outstanding quality. renewing wine-stocks and perfecting the process of wine making and production. Brazilian wines comply with certain compulsory labelling regulations. Sauvignon. Chardonnay. Tannat. fineness. Legislation Wine Laws The regulations for viticulture have not yet been fully defined. Syrah. Cabernet. Martini and others. Argentina and Brazil.The first grapevines were brought directly from Spain. Gamay. In 1988 the Vitivinicultural National Institute (INAVI) was created to coordinate the efforts of the State and of the wine makers. Uruguayan viticulture has changed considerably over the past twenty years. Sao Paulo. although. White wines: Riesling Italico. There are about 16. even though its progressive development began less than a century ago. Almost 95% of all wineries producing fine wines are family businesses. Red wines: Merlot. to develop and modernize the sector and to study and plan its economy.

The most common type of wine. must be indicated "suave" or "doce" (dry or sweet). printed on the label.wine containing 10 to 13 % of alcohol Vinho .wine containing 1 to 10 g/l of sugar Meio doce . 60 % of the grape variety stated on the label Vinho de mesa . Explanatory Notes Comum .wine produced from hybrids and American vine Seco .wine produced from min.wine containing more than 20 g/l of sugar Varietal . 50 % of the biggest word and must be in the same colour as the other information.• • • • • Agricultural area and the registration number of the product The INDUSTRIA BRASILEIRA sign Net volume Actual alcoholic strength by volume All used additives or their code and class It is forbidden to put a false geographical indication on the label. This word must be printed in letters sized min.wine containing 5 to 20 g/l of sugar Doce ou Suave .wine containing less than 5 g/l of sugar Leve . Sparkling wines must be indicated with the method of production (gaseificado aerated). the slightly sweetened "vinho de mesa" (table wine).

the result is a sweet wine with high sugar content. Fortified wines must be distinguished from spirits made from wine. the result is a dry wine. While both have increased alcohol content. • • • • • Basic Types of Fortified Wines: • Those that are fortified by adding spirit or brandy during or before the fermentation and hence arresting it and retaining some of the natural sugar: • Port (during) • • • • Madeira (during) Vin de Liqueur (before) Vin Doux Naturel (during) Those that are fortified by adding spirit or brandy after the fermentation and hence arresting it and retaining some of the natural sugar: • • Sherry Marsala . As mentioned. Madiera [muh-DEH-rah] (named for the island southwest of Portugal on which it is made). Even though other preservation methods exist. On long sea voyages.S. Measures of brandy were added before or during the fermentation process to stabilize the wine. If added before fermentation. The resulting wines typically contain between 15 and 21 per cent alcohol. There are many types of fortified wines: Port. as the higher alcohol level and additional sweetness help to preserve the wine (when supplemental alcohol is added before fermentation finishes. it kills the yeast and leaves residual sugar). spirits are the result of a process of distillation. Marsala (the best-known fortified wine of Italy). but are called vin de liqueur wines in Europe. Fortified wines generally have an alcohol content between that of wines and spirits.Section 10 Fortified Wines . and are more stable than ordinary table wines and less likely to spoil once opened. The most common additive is brandy (a spirit distilled from wine).Port & Sherry The Fortified Wines of Portugal and Spain Introduction What is a fortified wine? • • Generally over 15% but less than 24% alcohol by volume Fortified wines were born of the need to preserve European wines on long trade voyages during the 16th and 17th centuries. fortified wines were able to withstand the wildly fluctuating temperatures and constant motion they were subjected to in the ship's hold. as consumers have developed tastes for wines preserved this way. Virtually the same process is used to make today's fortified wines. its Spanish birthplace). while fortified wines have spirits added to them. Vin Doux Naturel. If Brandy is added after the fermentation process. Sherry (named for Jerez. the fortification process survives. Vin de Liqueur. Fortified wines are legally called dessert wines in the U. the original reason for fortification was to preserve wines.

Mourisco Vineyards 1. non vintage and sold after approximately three to four years 2. Souzao 6. the real thing. bottling and shipping it. least expensive – most prevalent a) Blended from more than one year. Port. G. After approx. Fermentation is arrested (and later removed from macerating) and the wine is left till the spring when it will be shipped down river to Vila Nova. which expedite a quick and vigorous fermentation. 36 hours (well before total fermentation). comes from the region of Oporto in Portugal’s north-eastern area. 2. Vila Nova de Gaia: Within Oporto.Port The Basics A. Two distinctive areas for production of port 1. where the port houses store and age the port before selling. actually there are over 40! 1. D. or into “lagers” where they are foot trodden. Tinta Cao 5. Bastardo 4. 20 years etc… d) Long term ageing has several effects (1) Leaches color from the wine (2) Softens and adds texture (3) Pulls some of the sweetness 2. Tawny port: 2 types-commercial and traditional a) Traditional tawnies are made by blending the ports of several years and maturing them for a long period of time in oak b) Minimal seven or eight year barrel age c) 10. The Duoro valley-up the river from the city of Oporto where the grapes are grown and the wine made. they must is strained off into vats containing brandy (10 pts: 45 pts. C. 15. F. Grapes: many ports not just one or two. Location a) Grapes b) Vine concentration etc… Severe climate: hot and cold Production: 1. . Tinta Francesca 3. Touriga Nacional 2. Vineyard site very important: Graded a) A-F: A is the best! b)Soil type 2. Ruby port: Youngest. classified and blended TYPES OF PORT 1. 4. E. Must) 3. 2. Vintage port: only in exceptional years a) From only one year. Grapes harvested • Either into special auto-vinificators. though can be a blend of several lots B. The port is shortly after further fortified.

heavier. “a late bottled vintage” b) From one year. but that vineyard was of exceptional quality c) Treated as vintage port d) Examples (1) Taylor (Vargellas (2) Graham (Malvedos) (3) Fonseca (Guimaraes) Assessment of vineyards Scoring Method Classification of parcels Class Score >1200 A . but aged in cask 4-6 first Single Quinta port: great wine in off years a) From a single special vineyard b) Made in years NOT declared. and possesses a higher alcohol content than most other wines. 4.3. This is caused by the addition of distilled grape spirits (aquardente similar to brandy) to fortify the wine and halt fermentation before all the sugar is converted to alcohol. b) Matured in oak for two years and then into bottle c) Crust will form. sweeter. .Lowest Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto (IVDP or Port and Douro Wine Institute) Regulates the Port industry in Portugal. Port wine is typically richer. later need to decant d) Aged in black bottle to slow the process Late bottle vintage port: LBV’s a) As it sounds.Highest Between 1001 and 1200 points B Between 801 and 1000 points C Between 601 and 800 points D Between 401 and 600 points E Between 201 and 400 points F .

E. 3. it’s drawn off into oak barrels to about 2/3 full. Taken to ageing bodegas to finish and age 5. Color and sweetness are obtained through the addition of :”sweet” and “color” wines made from PX and moscatel. Grapes are harvested. will be finos The Solera System: The uniqueness of sherry 1. Never a vintage. Gypsum sometimes added to fermenting wine to enhance dryness and acidity. Vinegary lots are sold off for vinegar Oxidized and nutty Those with flor. TYPES OF SHERRY 1. Wines are fortified with spirit and then classified by status a) b) c) F. Fino: dry and delicate 3. like non-vintage champagne or scotch. EX: 1872 5. and the barrels are replenished back from the next oldest 4. Manzanilla: Driest style (slightly salty) 2.Section 11 Fortified Wines . 3. B. Unblended from special soleras . New wines placed in barrels and placed into lowest level of the criadera. The sherry is drawn off the solera in a house formula. After wine has almost completed it fermentation. Pedro Ximenez (PX) and Moscatel (Muscat) Soil is special: Albariza Production of sherry: 1. 2. From the “Jerez” region in the southwest region around Cadiz in Andalucia. Gapes: Palomino. C. Solera year sherries refer to the year that a solera was started.Sherry The Fortified Wines of Spain Introduction to Sherry A. Oloroso: less dry and full bodied a) Cream sherries made by sweetening this b) Almancenista: old original dry sherries 1. G. always a special blend. A sherry’s ideal is to be consistent in flavor. D. 4. Amontillado: dry and older – darker a) Commercial: add color and sweetness b) Traditional: aged fino 4. PX and Muscat left to dry and raisin – extra concentration 2. Palomino directly to the press house.

Avoid combining oily or very salty foods with high-tannin red wines. • There is no single choice of wine that must be drunk with a certain dish. although it is the body of the wine. Match sweet foods with sweet wines. Rich heavyweight foods. need a full-bodied wine. although similar to weight. so neither one overpowers the other. Always remember the contribution of the sauce. The Basic Considerations To achieve the best match it is necessary to analyze the basic components in both the wine and the food. is not the same thing. Pair salty foods with sweet or high-acid wines.US Sommelier Association Wine School Matching Wine with Food Most wines are produced as an accompaniment to food. . but some are definitely a better match than others. light-bodied. Match or contrast flavor characteristics of the food and the wine. Powerful red wines are often the favored choice. The main elements to consider are: • • • • Match the weight/richness of the food and the body of the wine. Other considerations can help us find wine and food combinations where the wine and the food really enhance each other. Pair fatty and oily food with high-acid wines. Weight/Richness of the Food and the Wine The first and most important consideration is to match the weight of the food with that of the wine. For many meat dishes. such as plain white meat or fish. and there are many established guidelines for matching wine with food successfully. so this is often a good starting point for finding a good wine and food combination. These guidelines will help avoid wine and food clashes. roast meats and red meat casseroles. the next most important element to consider is flavor and how intense that flavor is. like game. Lighter food. A rich creamy sauce will need a wine of sufficient body to match the food and flavors that will complement the smooth creamy. Flavor intensity. or one overpowering the other. buttery taste. a rich full-bodied white wine is a better match than a lighter red wine. is complemented by more delicate wine. • • • • Pair ‘chewy’ meat with tannic wines. Although white wines are the normal choice. Match the flavor intensity of the food and the flavor intensity of the wine. Flavor Intensity of the Food and the Wine After weight. Match acidic foods with high-acid wines. Originally wine styles evolved to complement the cuisine of a region. which is the most important consideration rather than its color or flavor. low-tannin red wines such as young Pinot Noir can also be successful. The principle is to try to strike a balance between these.

like lemon. so when making a vinaigrette you blend olive oil and vinegar together. However. Delicate wines and strong-flavored foods do not match. Dishes dominated by tart acidic flavors. apples and vinegar are all high in acidity. say a plate of plain boiled potatoes or plain boiled rice. pineapples. One of the characteristics of Italian red wines is their noticeable acidity. lime or vinegar. these are high in flavor but light in weight. heavyweight wines that can be low in flavor. For this reason. . Sweet food is best with wine. vinegar (balsamic) and wine are often used –hence wines that go with Italian food need high acidity. If a food is cooked by a moist.Think of a food that has a lot of weight but is low in flavor. gentle method such as steaming. which will require a wine that is fuller-bodied and more robust in flavor because the method of cooking adds intensity of flavors to the food. any acidity found in the food should be matched by acidity in the accompanying wines. Salt and Tannins Tannin in combination with oily fish can result in an unpleasant metallic taste. Tomatoes. A slow-cooked dish that has been braised or stewed will be weightier and need intensely flavored wines. it will require a lighter-flavored wine than a food that is roasted. and sweet Muscat-based wines are the ideal choice for puddings. low tannin reds or rosés are fine with meaty fish. Oil. Vinaigrette is an example of acidity being added to a dish. Sweetness in the Food and the Wine Dry wines can seem tart and over-acidic when consumed with any food with a degree of sweetness. the sweeter the food. The oil needs to be cut by the sharpness of acidity. Riesling. At the other end of the scale think of a plate of raw. especially botrytis-affected wines. the sweeter the wine needs to be. Wines with a high tannin content can also taste bitter with salty foods. which has a similar or greater degree of sweetness. Acidity in the Food and the Wine Sour flavors in food make wines taste less acidic. thinly sliced red or green peppers. because the food’s flavors are intensified by the method of cooking. while Chardonnay makes fullbodied. It is also worth considering the way the food has been cooked. makes a lightweight wine that is intensely flavored. can be difficult and require care when matching as they will overpower many wines. Wines can be the same. Acidity is something we rarely think about in food. for example. both are heavy in weight but light in flavor. lemons. so the general recommendation is to avoid red wines with fish. dominate much Italian cuisine and other acidic ingredients such as lemons. This is because two ingredients –tomatoes and olive oil. Late-harvest wines. and therefore less vibrant and refreshing.

• Smoked foods need wines with enough character to cope with the strength of the smoking. Foods with a high protein content. For example. and the acidity in the wine helps it cut through the fattiness of the food. fruity red wines with low levels of tannin. Crisp wines such as Riesling and unoaked Barberas can make a good match with fatty meats such as duck and goose. This is why wines from hightannin grape varieties. Salty foods also benefit from a little acidity. Sauternes works well with foie gras. Salty foods such as olives. Salty Foods and Sweet or High-Acid Wines Salty foods are enhanced by a touch of sweetness. This is also an example of matching a sweet wine to a savory food. smoky barbecued flavors suit powerful oaked wines like Australian Shiraz. so oak-ageing can sometimes impart a ‘smokiness’ or subtle ‘burnt’ character to a wine). Foods that have been cooked by frying will need wines with high acidity. Light. because the method of cooking increases the fat content. Often the dominant flavor of the food is in the sauce. like Beaujolais and Valpolicella. Although neither sweet nor high in acid. lightbodied white wines. Here the weight of both wine and food are similar. Key Flavors in the Food and the Wine The flavor character of a food can sometimes complement or contrast with flavors in the wine. go well with roast meats. such as pâté. The stronger the smoke. Low acid wines would result in a ‘cloying’ combination. Think of classic combinations like prosciutto and figs. . or Port and Stilton are famous matches. dry. (The inside of oak barrels are often ‘charred’ over a naked flame. stews and steaks. particularly rare red meat. such as Cabernet Sauvignon or Syrah/ Shiraz. oily foods. The same works with wine. will soften the effects of the tannin on the palate. oysters and other shellfish go best with crisp. Roquefort cheese and Sauternes. smoked meats like pork can benefit from some slight sweetness in the wine like that found in some German Rieslings.‘Chewy’ Meat and Tannins Tannin in red wine reacts with protein. Lightly smoked salmon is a classic partner for Brut Champagne. Fatty/Oily Foods and High-Acid Wines Wines with a good level of acidity can be superb with rich. which is ‘cut through’ by the acidity. will complement white meats because these are low in proteins and lighter than meats such as lamb and beef. the greater the oak flavor in a wine can be without dominating. Fino Sherry (which can appear to have a light ‘saltiness’ of its own) is a classic accompaniment for olives or salted nuts.

Sufficient structure for serious ageing. in principle. and a knowledge of them both guides you to flavors you enjoy and helps comparisons between regions. at its best in Piedmont. . a Muscat might be paired with a fruit salad. For the present the two notions are in rivalry. Fashionable in California and Australia. But of course they do matter. For example. juicy • Fruity flavors in food can be matched with fruity/floral wines. But for now. fruity.) Hot spices like chili reduce the sweetness in wine and can make dry red wines seem more astringent. at least for wines of quality. Barbera Widely grown in Italy. nutmeg and ginger. In senior wine countries. Grapes for red wine Agiorgitiko (St George) Versatile Greek (Nemea) variety with juicy damson fruit and velvety tannins. Grape varieties In the past two decades a radical change has come about in all except the most longestablished wine countries: the names of a handful of grape varieties have become the ready reference to wine. often sharp wine. such as Gewurztraminer can also complement spicy dishes. Hence the originally Californian term “varietal wine” – meaning. Spicy foods are best matched by wines that are made from really ripe. grape tastes are the easy reference-point – despite the fact that they are often confused by the added taste of oak. Semillon. Tempranillo The following are the best and/or most popular wine grapes. the term ‘spice’ can mean a number of different aromas and flavors such as white pepper. (When describing a wine. • At least seven varieties – o Cabernet Sauvignon. more or less narrowly defined. Perhaps one of the most striking illustrations of this is strawberry steeped in red wine (try un-oaked Shiraz) with freshly ground black pepper. promising in Argentina.• fruit. If grape flavors were really all that mattered these notes would be short. Malbec. from one grape variety. as can ripe Chilean Merlot. either unoaked or very lightly oaked (many spices accentuate the flavors of oak). Sylvaner. black pepper. Chenin Blanc. cloves. Spicy wines. These guidelines and recommendations should avoid disastrous combinations. Wines such as New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc can work well with highly spiced foods. not just the particular fruit-juice that fermented. but individual taste is the final consideration. Sangiovese. Viognier. giving dark. Pinot Noir. for most people. cinnamon. Sauvignon Blanc. Pinots Blanc and Gris. more complex traditions prevail. All wine of old prestige is known by its origin. Eventually the primacy of place over fruit will become obvious. Riesling. Chardonnay. and Muscat – have tastes and smells distinct and memorable enough to form international categories of wine. Dark and tannic. Baga Bairrada (Portugal) grape. Syrah. above all France and Italy (between them producing nearly half the world’s wine). Gewurztraminer. Has great potential. Nebbiolo. Experimentation can yield surprising results. • To these you can add Merlot. but hard to grow.

The Cabernet of the Loire. TEMPRANILLO.Blaufränkisch Mostly Austrian. Usually blended with other varieties (eg in Châteauneuf-du-Pape). South American. and in Switzerland and Savoie. . Lemberger See BLAUFRÄNKISCH. South Africa. potent. Used for blending with CABERNET SAUVIGNON. cheerful. with characteristic blackcurrant aroma. Old-vine versions are prized in South Australia. Cinsault/Cinsaut Usually bulk-producing grape of Southern France. East European reds. Australia. agreeable reds in East Europe. Grenache. Cabernet Sauvignon (Cab Sauv) Grape of great character: spicy. very fragrant wines. Spain. Vies with Shiraz in Australia. and fizzy red. alone. Carmènere An old Bordeaux variety now virtually extinct in France. Merlot Adaptable grape making the great fragrant and plummy wines of Pomerol and (with CABERNET FRANC) St-Emilion. can be light and juicy but at best (in Burgenland) a considerable red. sweet. Cabernet Franc. tannic wine capable of real quality. old vines. similar lightish reds. Malbec. Grassy when not fully ripe. Widely used in Chile where until recently it was often mistaken for MERLOT. Cannonau Useful grape for strong and fruity but pale wine: good rosé and vin doux naturel– especially in the South of France. KEKFRANKOS in Hungary. an important element in Médoc reds. Saumur. Chile. Its wine almost always needs ageing. Württemberg’s red. also makes most of the best California. and a Tuscan town. Cannonau GRENACHE in its Sardinian manifestation: can be very fine. major in Cahors (alias Auxerrois) and especially in Argentina. Gamay The Beaujolais grape: light. best in Corbières. Kékfrankos Hungarian BLAUFRÄNKISCH. Pale wine. Common in North Africa. at their best young. sound. alias Garnacha. etc. and rosé. dense. in central France. Now high fashion. and California – but also the mainstay of beefy Priorato. Needs low yields. Dark. Slovenia. LEMBERGER in Germany. Makes aromatic rosé. and California. Lambrusco Productive grape of the lower Po Valley. Makes even lighter wine in the Loire Valley. but quality potential. usually benefits from blending with eg MERLOT. Lighter but often good in North Italy. in California. alias Bouchet (Cab Fr) The lesser of two sorts of Cabernet grown in Bordeaux but dominant (as “Bouchet”) in St-Emilion. The first grape of the Médoc. Washington. Champigny. New Zealand etc. Australia. soft and strong (and à la mode) in California. Dolcetto Source of soft seductive dry red in Piedmont. alias Côt Minor in Bordeaux. Montepulciano A good central-eastern Italian grape. Brunello Alias for SANGIOVESE. giving quintessentially Italian. Grignolino Makes one of the good everyday table wines of Piedmont. Spain. or increasingly. splendid at Montalcino. tannic. Otherwise dull but harmless. in South Africa crossed with PINOT NOIR to make PINOTAGE. SYRAH. Kadarka. making Chinon. Carignan In decline in France. SANGIOVESE etc. Italian Switzerland. Known as “Napa Gamay” in California. Argentina. CABERNET FRANC. alias Gamza Makes healthy. herby.

Syrah. Sagrantino Italian grape found in Umbria for powerful cherry-flavoured wines. Barbaresco. Blends very well with CAB SAUV (eg in Moldova). rustic wines. and elsewhere. smooth and full-flavored Austrian speciality. Now Australia. Tempranillo Aromatic fine Rioja grape. Aliases include BRUNELLO and MORELLINO. Early ripening. now increasingly planted in Cabernet areas worldwide for extra fragrance. alias Shiraz The great Rhône red grape: tannic. and New Zealand’s South Island. Tinta Roriz in Douro. and under either name in California. Pinotage Singular South African grape (PINOT NOIR x CINSAUT). Now the star of Uruguay. Very important as Shiraz in Australia. and Hungary. Saperavi Makes good. Intense. southern Tuscany. Petit Verdot Excellent but awkward Médoc grape. for example. Yarra Valley. Cencibel in La Mancha. Aragonez in southern Portugal. peppery wine. purple. makes Barolo. Washington State. seldom wildly exciting. Adelaide Hills. Tursan. Carneros. Switzerland. sharp. elegant in cool climates. with scent. Ontario. Gattinara. Nebbiolo. and Valtellina. and Central Coast. Ukraine etc. Quality is variable. South Australia and California. Very fashionable. perfumed wine but very tannic: improves for years. alias Mataro Excellent dark aromatic tannic grape used mainly for blending in Provence (but solo in Bandol) and the Midi. Refosco In northeast Italy possibly a synonym for Mondeuse of Savoie. as well as Oregon. nobly fruity. Also rosé. Also in the Pfalz.Morellino Alias for SANGIOVESE in Scansano. Can be very fruity and can age interestingly. Sangiovese (or Sangioveto) Main red grape of Chianti and much of central Italy. Enjoying new interest in. called Ull de Llebre in Catalonia. Spätburgunder German for PINOT N. Pinot Noir (Pinot N) The glory of Burgundy’s Côte d’Or. Tinto Fino in Ribera del Duero. Makes light wines rarely of much distinction in Germany. St-Laurent Dark. and other firm reds from Southwest France. flavorsome and age-worthy wines. Also makes full-bodied . Primitivo Southern Italian grape making big. very long-lived wine in Georgia. now fashionable because genetically identical to ZINFANDEL. Tasmania. flavor. too. Touriga Nacional Top port grape grown in the Douro Valley. Mourvèdre. especially when grown in warmer climates. Often blended with CABERNET SAUVIGNON and also known as Castelão. but often jammy. But now also splendid results in California’s Sonoma. Austria. and texture that are unmatched anywhere. highly tannic force behind Madiran. Produces deep. Periquita Ubiquitous in Portugal for firm-flavored reds. Chile. Interesting in Australia. beefy in warm. alias Spanna and Chiavennasca One of Italy’s best red grapes. which matures superbly. South Africa. Tannat Raspberry-perfumed.

reds in south Portugal. and the New World. Grapes for white wine Albariño The Spanish name for North Portugal’s Alvarinho. Chasselas Prolific early-ripening grape with little aroma. (The smoke is oak. Garganega The best grape in the Soave blend. mostly aged (or. but with plenty of acidity. Hungary and the Midi are all coming on strong. Widely planted in East Europe. All regions are trying it. Zinfandel (Zin) Fruity adaptable grape of California (though identical to PRIMITIVO) with blackberry-like. fragrant dry whites. Wine can be dry or sweet (or very sweet). AKA Fendant in Switzerland (where it is supreme). fermented) in oak to reproduce the flavors of burgundy. Called Gros Plant in Brittany. Bual Makes top-quality sweet madeira wines. especially sweet . Arinto White central Portuguese grape for crisp. New York State. high-priced grape. California. Can be structured and gloriously lush. Clairette A low-acid grape. In California used for oak-aged Sauvignon and reversed to “Fumé Blanc”. Called Sipon in Slovenia. Bulk wine in California. mainly grown for eating. making excellent fresh and fragrant wine in Galicia. Fiano High quality grape giving peachy. etc). Furmint A grape of great character: the trademark of Hungary both as the principal grape in Tokáj and as vivid. New Zealand. Australia and California make classics (but also much dross). and Southwest France. Folle Blanche High acid/little flavour make this ideal for brandy. Chenin Blanc (Chenin Bl) Great white grape of the middle Loire (Vouvray. Spain. makes everyday wine in South Africa. Top wines. spicy wine in Campania. referring to its smoky smell. part of many southern French blends. Some grown in Austria. Aligoté Burgundy’s second-rank white grape. South Africa. flavour. Piedmont. Perfect for mixing with cassis (blackcurrant liqueur) to make “Kir”. but increasingly serious in South Africa. Crisp (often sharp) wine. better. Chardonnay (Chard) The white grape of burgundy. vigorous table wine with an appley flavour. and sometimes metallic. DOC in Roero. especially Russia. Both fashionable and expensive in Spain.) Bourboulenc This and the rare Rolle make some of the Midi’s best wines. nicely sharp grape. Argentina. but also makes “blush” white wine. Italy. particularly from the Loire (Sancerre and Pouilly). See also STEEN. Arneis Aromatic. Fendant See CHASSELAS. Chile. needs drinking in 1–3 years. Champagne. Called Morillon in Austria. Gutedel in Germany. partly because it is one of the easiest to grow and vinify. Also respectable in California. Colombard Slightly fruity. Picpoul in Armagnac. Layon. Blanc Fumé Occasional (New World) alias of SAUVIGNON BLANC. not quite so rich as malmsey.

and New Zealand. especially Sauternes. In Victoria as Tokay it is used (with MUSCAT. California. etc. Grechetto or Greco Ancient grape of central and south Italy noted for the vitality and stylishness of its wine. but recent studies suggests otherwise. mostly RIESLING x SILVANER. Soft aromatic wines for drinking young. but also good in Germany (Gewürztraminer). Kerner The most successful of recent German varieties. but the best age five years or so. Loureiro The best and most fragrant Vinho Verde variety in Portugal. but in this case Riesling x (red) Trollinger. St-Joseph. flavorful grape giving one of Hungary’s best whites. easily recognized. or pink. Pacific Northwest.) Widely grown. the best is Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains. even when fully dry. widespread in Rioja (alias Viura) and in Catalan cava country. It was thought to be a cross between RIESLING and Chasselas de Courtellier. To be watched. Should have no place in top vineyards. Laski Rizling Grown in northern Italy and Eastern Europe. distinctively spicy with aromas like rose petals and grapefruit. Best in Alsace. Early-ripening. Macabeo The workhorse white grape of north Spain. Marsanne Principal white grape (with ROUSSANNE) of the northern Rhône (eg in Hermitage. Good quality potential. found all over Italy and Iberia. Grüner Veltliner Austria’s favorite. with lower acidity. Moschofilero Good. white. Grauburgunder See PINOT GRIS. Rheinhessen. May be red. Müller-Thurgau (Müller-T) Dominant in Germany’s Rheinhessen and Pfalz and too common on the Mosel. Muscadelle Adds aroma to white Bordeaux. soft wine. Makes white or rosé wine. Hárslevelü Other main grape of Tokáj (with FURMINT). peppery and lively. Muscadet. Excellent young. Makes good sweet wines but usually dull. Has the potential for fieriness and spice. to which it is unrelated) for Rutherglen Muscat. flowery (but often too blatant) wine with good acidity. refreshing. Adds softness and body. Also good in Australia. aromatic pink Greek grape. Gewurztraminer. Australia. mostly made into perfumed sweet . Alias Welschriesling. alias Melon de Bourgogne Makes light. often coarse. best in sweet wines. dry ones. Muscat (Many varieties. very dry wines with a seaside tang round Nantes in Brittany. Much inferior to Rhine RIESLING. alias Traminer (Gewurz) One of the most pungent grapes. East Europe. Wines are often rich and soft. Malvoisie in France is unrelated. Soft full wines that age very well. St-Péray). California. Popular in Pfalz. Kéknyelü Low-yielding. and (as Ermitage Blanc) the Valais.ones. Riesling Italico. Malvasia A family of grapes rather than a single variety. Usually plump. age well. pungent grapes. Around Vienna and in the Wachau and Weinviertel (also in Moravia) it can be delicious: light but dry. Olaszrizling (no longer legally labelled simply “Riesling”).

and South Africa. Can be weedy: must be very ripe to be good. Also grown in Argentina. All serious commentators agree that Riesling stands level with Chardonnay as the world’s best white wine grape. New Zealand. Holding the middle ground. Pedro Ximénez. Rarely (eg Alsace) made dry. Used in blending sweet sherries.. California. Ontario. with forceful but still steely wines. Roussanne Rhône grape of great finesse. Petit (and Gros) Manseng The secret weapon of the French Basque country: vital for Jurançon. Australia. often piercingly refreshing Rieslings have the Mosel as their exclusive playground. May be called BLANC FUMÉ. and East Europe.wines. also good in Rueda. not aromatic. fresh. Pinot Blanc (Pinot Bl) A cousin of PINOT NOIR. Pinot Gris (Pinot Gr) At best makes rather heavy. The third element in Tokáj Aszú. Semillon (Sem) Contributes the lusciousness to Sauternes and increasingly . of all places. Also found in Hungary. Blended with SEMILLON in Bordeaux. though in diametrically opposite style.. and with more ageing potential than Chardonnay. Weissburgunder in Germany. similar to but milder than CHARDONNAY: light. Slovenia. very successful in Pfalz. Yet its popularity is being revived in. Canada. fruity. and South Africa. always positively perfumed. Good for Italian spumante. Savagnin The grape of vin jauneof Savoie: related to TRAMINER? Riesling (Ries) Riesling is making its re-entrance on the world-stage through. While lovers of light and fragrant. Palomino. the Canaries. Grown in Alsace. In Germany can be alias Ruländer (sweet) or GRAUBURGUNDER (dry). Sauvignon Blanc (Sauv Bl) Makes very distinctive aromatic grassy wines. or very pale pink “vin gris”. increasingly blended elsewhere in the Southwest. Pinot Noir (Pinot N) Superlative black grape (See p. north Italy. northern Italy. alias Listán Makes all the best sherry but poor table wine. riper in Australia. Oregon. sparkling. often fortified (as in France’s vins doux naturels). Can be austere or buxom. Pacific Northwest. California. where this cool-climate grape does its best to ape Chardonnay. south Germany. Also grown in Alsace (but nowhere else in France). especially for Auslese. Germany makes the greatest Riesling in all styles. to drink young. and South Africa.12) used in Champagne and elsewhere (eg California. as it were. often mineral in Sancerre. while Riesling offers a range from steely to voluptuous. is Austria. South Australia. Australia) for making white. Superb in Australia. full-bodied whites with a certain spicy style. alias PX Makes very strong wine in Montilla and Málaga. pungent in New Zealand. See also MUSCADET. Austria. now popping up in California and Australia. New Zealand. Scheurebe Spicy-flavoured German RIES x SILVANER (possibly). Can age well. even “thick”. Chardonnay gives full-bodied but aromatically discreet wines. Chile’s Casablanca Valley. the back door. Pinot Grigio in Italy.

but could be Sauvignonasse (see SAUVIGNON BLANC). Welschriesling See LASKI RIZLING. Trebbiano Important but mediocre grape of central Italy (Orvieto. A bottle of white and then one of red is conventional. Viognier Ultra-fashionable Rhône grape. Good examples from California and Australia. needs blending (and more careful growing). Also grown in southern France as Ugni Blanc. Vernaccia di San Gimignano is crisp. potentially fine and long-lived. Rarely fine except in Franken – where it is savoury and ages admirably – and in Rheinhessen and Pfalz. HARSLEVELU and MUSCAT. Torrontes Strongly aromatic. alias Sylvaner Germany’s former workhorse grape. now declining in popularity in Alsace. Very good (and powerful) as Johannisberg in the Valais. regardless of the food. The host calculates. Soave etc).important for Graves and other dry white Bordeaux. Silvaner. Popular and reasonably successful in eastern States and England but dogmatically banned by EU from “quality” wines. Very hardy and attractively fruity. Before the meal – apéritifs . Sercial Makes the driest madeira (where myth used to identify it with RIESLING). Steen South African alias for CHENIN BLANC. where it is enjoying a renaissance. Mostly thin. bland wine. The wine Tokay (Tokáj) is FURMINT. No relation to TOKAY. something to really bring out the flavors of both food and wine. MUSCAT-like Argentine speciality. lively. Ugni Blanc (Ugni Bl) See TREBBIANO. Vernaccia Name given to many unrelated grapes in Italy. Switzerland. usually dry. in Australia. Promising in New Zealand. Good in the Italian Tyrol. Seyval Blanc (Seyval Bl) French-made hybrid of French and American vines. Viura See MACABEO. Tocai Friulano North Italian grape with a flavour best described as “subtle”. Vernaccia di Oristano is sherry-like. Verdicchio Potentially good dry wine in central-eastern Italy. but can make soft dry wine of great ageing potential. Verdejo The grape of Rueda in Castile. The formula works up to a point. can be great wine. Superb in Australia: old Hunter Valley Sem. sprightly with satisfying texture and ageing capacity. and Cognac as St-Emilion. But it can be refined – or replaced with something more original. fresh soft dry wine of great character. though light. Vermentino Italian. Tokay See PINOT GRIS. Also supposedly Hungarian grape in Australia and a table grape in California. not used for better examples. Verdelho Madeira grape making excellent medium-sweet wine. Grassy if not fully ripe. finest in Condrieu. less fine but still aromatic in the Midi. Four people have chosen different dishes. Food and Wine The dilemma is most acute in restaurants.

etc). Hermitage. Sem beats Chard. Pinot Gr. Or south Italian. Grüner Veltliner. Pinot Gr. Vermentino). . prosecco. Auxey-Duresses. or Grüner Veltliner. Aubergine purée (Melitzanosalata) Crisp New World Sauv Bl eg from South Africa or New Zealand. Apples. Rhône. young Chianti). Sancerre. Chinese style: try vintage Champagne. plain crisps or cheese straws instead. Bandol for a real treat. Côtes du Rhône. or a Carneros or Yarra Valley Chard. lateharvest Zin – even Moldovan Negru de Purkar. even dry Muscat is gd. Shiraz. Mustard softens tannic reds. Antipasti Dry white: Italian (Arneis. roast Ideal partner for fine red wine of any kind. they need sherry or a Martini. port in France. fino sherry. pistachios or walnuts. Gevrey-Chambertin. With hollandaise Fullbodied slightly crisp dry white: Pouilly-Fuissé. Chenin Blanc or Riesling rather than Chardonnay. Barbecues The local wine would be Australian. Pinot Grigio. Hermitage. Roussillon. Tempranillo. but needs to be ripe. or Côte-Rôtie. Olives are also too piquant for many wines. Asparagus A difficult flavour for wine. Cahors. Food A–Z Abalone Dry or medium white: Sauv Bl. Baked aubergine dishes can need sturdier reds: Shiraz. Barbera. Napa Cab Sauv. A glass of white or rosé (or in France red) table wine before eating is presently in vogue. Artichoke vinaigrette An incisive dry white: New Zealand Sauv Bl. Sauv Bl echoes the flavour. Ribera del Duero or Douro red. Zin. It calls for something light and stimulating. eg. Verdicchio. Valpolicella Amarone. Côtes de Gascogne or a modern Greek. esp Cab Sauv. Beef stew Sturdy red: Pomerol or St-Emilion. Anchovies A robust white – or fino sherry. with a degree of character. boiled Red: Bordeaux (Bourg or Fronsac). Or Chablis Premier Cru. they destroy wine flavors. Franciacorta. vermouth in Italy.The conventional apéritif wines are either sparkling (epitomized by Champagne) or fortified (epitomized by sherry in Britain. Wachau Ries. and horseradish kills everything – but can be worth the sacrifice. or modern Greek or Sicilian dry white. esp Australian. young red: Bordeaux. Beef Stroganoff Dramatic red: Barolo. Pfalz Spätlese. but Chard works well with melted butter or hollandaise. Côte de Beaune Blanc. Or top-notch beer. or Jurançon Sec. Alsace Pinot Gr. Sonoma or Australian Chard or Sauv Bl. Cox’s Orange Pippins Vintage port (55 60 63 66 70 75 82). light red (Dolcetto. Zin or Argentine Malbec. Provence rosé. Avocado with vinaigrette Manzanilla sherry. Avocado with seafood Dry or slightly sharp white: Rheingau or Pfalz Kabinett. Beef. Cornas. Please note: Avoid peanuts. being slightly bitter. fairly dry but not acidic. Or try Bardolino red or Chiaretto. Soave. Aïoli A thirst-quencher is needed for its garlic heat. as in Chile. sparkling dry white. Medium-ranking white burgundy is gd. or a dry rosé. Eat almonds.

Beurre blanc, fish with A top-notch Muscadet-sur-lie, a Sauv Bl/Sem blend, Chablis Premier Cru, Vouvray or a Rheingau Riesling. Bisques Dry white with plenty of body: Pinot Gr, Chard, Gruner Veltliner. Fino or dry amontillado sherry, or montilla. West Australian Sem. Boudin noir (blood sausage) Local Sauv Bl or Chenin Bl – esp in the Loire. Or Beaujolais Cru, esp Morgon. blanc Loire Chenin Bl, esp when served with apples: dry Vouvray, Saumur or Savennières. Mature red Côtes de Beaune, if without apple. Bouillabaisse Savoury dry white, Marsanne from the Midi or Rhône, Corsican or Spanish rosé, or Cassis, Verdicchio, South African Sauv Bl. Brandade Chablis, Sancerre Rouge or New Zealand Pinot Noir. Bread-and-butter pudding Fine 10-yr-old Barsac, Tokáj Azsú or Australian botrytized Sem. Brill Very delicate: hence a top fish for fine old Puligny and the like. Cajun food Works well with Fleurie, Brouilly or Sauv Bl. With gumbo: amontillado or Mexican beer. Carpaccio, beef Seems to work well with the flavour of most wines. Top Tuscan is appropriate, but fine Chards are gd. So are vintage and pink Champagnes. Cassoulet Red from southwest France (Gaillac, Minervois, Corbières, St-Chinian or Fitou) or Shiraz. But best of all is Beaujolais Cru or young Tempranillo. Cauliflower cheese Crisp aromatic white: Sancerre, Ries Spätlese, Muscat, English Seyval Bl, or Schönburger. Caviar Iced vodka. If you prefer Champagne, it should be full-bodied (eg Bollinger, Krug). Ceviche Try Australian Ries or Verdelho; South African or New Zealand Sauv Bl. Charcuterie Young Beaujolais-Villages, Loire reds such as Saumur, Swiss or Oregon Pinot N. Young Argentine or Italian reds. Sauv Bl can work well too. Chicken/turkey/guinea fowl, roast Virtually any wine, including very best bottles of dry to medium white and finest old reds (esp burgundy). The meat of fowl can be adapted with sauces to match almost any fine wine (eg coq au vinwith red or white burgundy). Try sparkling Shiraz with strong, sweet, or spicy stuffings and trimmings. Chicken Kiev Alsace or Pfalz Ries, Hungarian Furmint, young Pinot N. Cheesecake Sweet white: Vouvray or Anjou or fizz, refreshing but nothing special. Cheese fondue Dry white: Valais Fendant or any other Swiss Chasselas, Roussette de Savoie, Grüner Veltliner, Alsace Ries, or Pinot Gr. Or a Beaujolais Cru. For Wine & cheese, see p.27. Chilli con carne Young red: Beaujolais, Zin, or Argentine Malbec.

Chinese Food • Canton or Peking style Dry to medium-dry white – Mosel Ries Kabinett or Spätlese trocken – can be gd throughout a Chinese banquet. Light Monbazillac, too. Gewurz is often suggested but rarely works (but brilliant with ginger), yet Chasselas and Pinot Gr are attractive alternatives. Dry or off-dry sparkling cuts the oil and matches sweetness. Eschew sweet-and-sour dishes but try St-Emilion __, New World Pinot N, or Châteauneuf-du-Pape with duck. I often serve both white and red wines concurrently during Chinese meals. Szechuan style Verdicchio, Alsace Pinot Blanc or very cold beer. Chocolate Generally only powerful flavors can compete. California Orange Muscat, Bual, Tokáj Aszú, Australian Liqueur Muscat, 10-yr-old tawny port; Asti for light, fluffy mousses. Experiment with rich, ripe reds: Syrah, Zin, even sparkling Shiraz. Médoc can match bitter black chocolate. Banyuls for a weightier partnership. Or a tot of good rum. Chowders Big-scale white, not necessarily bone dry: Pinot Gr, Rhine Spätlese, Albariño, Australian Sem, buttery Chard. Or fino sherry. Choucroute garni Alsace Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Ries. Or beer. Christmas pudding, mince pies Tawny port, cream sherry, or liquid Christmas pudding itself, Pedro Ximénez sherry. Asti or Banyuls. Cold meats Generally better with full-flavoured white than red. Mosel Spätlese or Hochheimer and Côte Chalonnaise are v.gd, as is Beaujolais. Leftover cold beef with leftover Champagne is bliss. Cod If roast, a good neutral background for fine dry whites: Chablis, Meursault, Corton-Charlemagne, cru classé Graves, Grüner Veltliner, German (medium) Kabinett or dry Spätlesen or a gd light red, eg Beaune. Coffee desserts Sweet Muscat inc Australia liqueur or Tokáj Aszú. Confit d’oie/de canard Young tannic red Bordeaux Cru Bourgeois, California Cab Sauv and Merlot, and Priorato all cut the richness. Choose Alsace Pinot Gr or Gewurz to match it. Consommé Medium-dry amontillado sherry or sercial madeira. Coq au vin Red burgundy. In an ideal world, one bottle of Chambertin in the dish, two on the table. Crab and Ries are part of the Creator’s plan. cioppino Sauv Bl; but West Coast friends insist on Zin. Also California sparkling wine – or any other full-bodied sparkler. cold, with salad Alsace, Austrian or Rhine Ries; dry Australian Ries or Condrieu. Show off your favorite white. soft-shell Top Chard or top-quality German Ries Spätlese. with black bean sauce A big Barossa Shiraz/Syrah. Creams, custards, fools, syllabubs See also Chocolate, Coffee, Ginger, and Rum. Sauternes, Loupiac, Ste-Croix-du-Mont, or Monbazillac. Crème brûlée Sauternes or Rhine Beerenauslese, best Madeira or Tokáj. (With concealed fruit, a more modest sweet wine.)

Crêpes Suzette Sweet Champagne, Orange Muscat or Asti. Crostini Morellino di Scansano, Montepulciano d’Abruzzo, Valpolicella, or a dry Italian white such as Verdicchio or Orvieto. Crudités Light red or rosé: Côtes du Rhône, Minervois, Chianti, Pinot N; or fino sherry. For whites: Alsace Sylvaner or Pinot Blanc. Dim-Sum Classically, China tea. For fun: Pinot Grigio or Ries; light red (Bardolino or Loire ). NV Champagne or gd New World fizz. Duck or goose Rather rich white: Pfalz Spätlese or off-dry Alsace Grand Cru. Or mature gamey red: Morey-St-Denis, Côte-Rôtie, Bordeaux, or burgundy. With oranges or peaches, the Sauternais propose drinking Sauternes, others Monbazillac or Ries Auslese. Peking See Chinese food. wild duck Big-scale red such as Hermitage, Bandol, California or South African Cab Sauv, or Barossa Shiraz – Grange if you can find it. with olives Top-notch Chianti or other Tuscans. Eel, • • jellied NV Champagne or a nice cup of (Ceylon) tea. smoked Strong/sharp wine: fino sherry or Bourgogne Aligoté. Schnapps.

Eggs See also Soufflés. Difficult: eggs clash with most wines and can actually spoil gd ones. But local wine with local egg dishes is a safe bet. So ____ of whatever is going. Try Pinot Bl or not too oaky Chard. As a last resort I can bring myself to drink Champagne with scrambled eggs. Quail’s eggs Blanc de Blancs Champagne. Seagull’s (or gull’s) eggs Mature white burgundy or vintage Champagne. Oeufs en meurette Burgundian genius: eggs in red wine calls for wine of the same. Escargots Rhône reds (Gigondas, Vacqueyras), St-Véran or Aligoté. In the Midi, v.gd Petits-Gris go with local white, rosé or red. In Alsace, Pinot Bl or Muscat. Fennel-based dishes Sauv Bl, or young, fresh red like Beaujolais. Fish and chips, fritto misto (or tempura) Chablis, white Bordeaux, Sauv Bl, Pinot Bl, Gavi, fino, montilla, Koshu, tea; or NV Champagne and Cava. Fish baked in a salt crust Full-bodied white or rosé; Meursault, Rioja, Albariño, Sicily, Côtes de Lubéron or Minervois. Fish pie (with creamy sauce) Albariño, Soave Classico, Pinot Gr d’Alsace. Fish terrine Pfalz Ries Spätlese Trocken, Grüner Veltliner, Chablis Premier Cru, Clare Valley Ries, Sonoma Chard; or manzanilla. Foie gras White. In Bordeaux they drink Sauternes. Others prefer a late-harvest Pinot Gr or Ries (inc New World), Vouvray, Montlouis, Jurançon Moelleux or Gewurz. Tokáj Aszú 5 puttonyos is a Lucullan

crisp Italian white or sweetish German white (Rhine Spätlese). With Spanish pata negraor jamon. California or New Zealand Chard. Santenay or Grand Cru St-Emilion. Goat’s cheese (warm) Sancerre. Or Budweiser (Budvar) beer.de-Venise. Tursan. Pommard. Game birds. California. • cold game Mature vintage Champagne. Pouilly-Fumé or New World Sauv Bl. Old dry amontillado can be sublime. Or Mexican beer. • flans and tarts Sauternes. Châteauneuf-du-Pape or New World Cab Sauv. Goulash Flavoursome young red such as Hungarian Zin. Guacamole California Chard.Washington or Margaret River Chard. Sauv Blanc. Hake Sauv Bl or any fresh fruity white: Pacherenc. Gazpacho A glass of fino before and after. Monbazillac. Game pie. Marsanne or Albariño. great red Rhône. Australian sparkling Shiraz or strong east Mediterranean reds: eg Greek or Turkish. New World botrytized Ries and Sem.choice. • hot Red: Oregon Pinot N. Grand Cru Chablis. Haggis Fruity red. • cold Gd quality white burgundy. Hamburger Young red: Beaujolais or Australian Cab Sauv. Chilled Chinon. Ginger desserts Sweet Muscats. inc Grand Cru Chablis or Chard from Sonoma or New Zealand. Saumur-Champigny or Provence rosé. • salads A fine sweet sherry or any Muscat-based wine. • dried fruit (and compotes) Banyuls. Chianti or Zin. young. mature vintage Champagne. Beaujolais or light Pinot N. Fruit • fresh Sweet Coteaux du Layon or light sweet Muscat. dry Muscat or NV Champagne. plain-roasted The best red you can afford. • older birds in casseroles Red (Gevrey-Chambertin. Ham. • poached Sweet Muscatel: try Muscat de Beaumes. Rivesaltes or Maury. white Navarra. But never Chard or Sauv Bl. Halibut As for turbot. eg young claret. Soft Pinot Noir or lightish Cab Sauv. Or Sauv Bl. . Morellino di Scansano or a young Australian Shiraz. try fino sherry or tawny port. Frankfurters German Ries. Mosel Spätlese (not Trocken). Or of course malt whisky. Uruguayan Tannat. Moscato di Pantelleria or Spanish dessert Tarragona. If the foie gras is served hot. Napa Valley Cab Sauv or Rhône). raw or cured Alsace Grand Cru Pinot Gr. Lebanon’s Chateau Musar. Haddock Rich dry whites: Meursault. mousse or brandade A wonderful dish for showing off any stylish full-bodied white. sweet Vouvray or Anjou. Gravadlax Akvavit or iced sake. • well-hung game Vega Sicilia. • smoked. cru Beaujolais or Champagne.

but a little less grand. cru classé Graves. Gaillac. Lamb. If wine is essential. Ribero del Duero or Rioja Reserva. Rhône (eg Gigondas). or Valpolicella Amarone. Amaretto liqueur with vanilla. white Rioja or English white. Or try cider. Or emphasize the heat with a tannic Barolo or Barbaresco. Banyuls. Cornas. Greek white or dry Sauv Bl. Ice-creams and sorbets Fortified wine (Australian liqueur Muscat. In Spain. cutlets or chops As for roast lamb. Alsace Pinot Bl. Cornas. Alsace Ries. Cab Sauv. • raw or pickled Dutch gin (young. Salice Salentino Riserva or Fleurie. Indian sparkling. Penedès Chard or Cava. Rioja. Kidneys Red: St-Emilion or Fronsac: Nuits-St-Georges. the partner of the finest old Rioja and Ribera del Duero Reservas. roast One of the traditional and best partners for v. sweet Asti or sparkling Moscato. spicy dry white. Mateus Rosé. very cold: Orvieto Abboccato. Or Douro reds with Portuguese lampreys. Chablis.Hare Calls for flavorful red: not-too-old burgundy or Bordeaux. not aged) or Scandinavian akvavit. Bandol. no sugar). Mackerel Hard or sharp white: Sauv Bl from Touraine. rum with chocolate. Scotch? Dry oloroso sherry is surprisingly gd. or Zin or Shiraz. Barbaresco. Vinho Verde. Guinness is gd. Herrings. Houmous Pungent. Bourgogne Aligoté. cava and NV Champagne. Liver Choose a young red: Beaujolais-Villages. Indian food Medium-sweet white. and cold beer. Barbaresco. sweet Ries from Germany or Austria. South African Chenin Bl. Australian Grenache or Mourvèdre. Chablis Premier Cru. Spanish or Australian Cab Sauv or top Alentejo. Merlot. At breakfast: Champagne. St-Joseph. Kippers A gd cup of tea. Pfalz Spätlese. Rully. . • Calf’s Red Rioja crianza. PX sherry). preferably Ceylon (milk. Lentil dishes Sturdy reds such as southern French. Zin or Portuguese. or deep-flavoured reds such as Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Lobster. the sweeter the wine. or Tokáj Aszú. the sharper the lemon. South African Chard. California Chard or Australian Ries. New Zealand Pinot N for spicy lamb dishes. • salad NV Champagne. • fried/grilled Need a white with some acidity to cut their richness. still or sparkling: Mâcon-Villages. Australia’s Grange would be an experience. try Muscadet 2003. Lemon desserts For dishes like Tarte au Citron. Mosel Spätlese. fine white burgundy. Lamproie à la Bordelaise 5-yr-old St-Emilion or Fronsac. richly sauced Vintage Champagne. Kedgeree Full white. eg Furmint or modern Greek white.gd red Bordeaux – or its Cab Sauv equivalents from the New World. esp Napa and Coonawarra. Condrieu.

Or lager. Asti or Champagne doux. Panettone Jurançon moelleux. Or characterful white. Frascati or Alto Adige Chard. top white Rioja. supple red. red A chameleon. • pesto (basil) sauce Barbera. Fino sherry is in its element. vintage or tawny port (nature’s match for walnuts). Côtes de Provence. white Graves. Navarra or Rioja. Pommard. Sauv Bl or Guinness. Or Rioja Reserva or Ribera del Duero. • seafood sauce (eg vongole) Verdicchio. raw NV Champagne. Nuits-St-Georges. Mussels Muscadet-sur-lie. • cooked Puligny-Montrachet or gd New World Chard. • meat sauce Montepulciano d’Abruzzo. Barsac. Gigondas or Coteaux du Languedoc. Or California or Coonawarra Cab Sauv. Chablis Premier Cru. grey Verdicchio. Manzanilla sherry. Chablis Premier Cru or a lightly oaked Chard. Somontano. Mezze A selection of hot and cold vegetable dishes. . Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Barolo. young red Bordeaux. Muscadet. Oregon Pinot N or Chilean Merlot. late-harvest Ries. which needs fuller rather than leaner wines. Osso buco Low tannin. Corbières. Orange desserts Experiment with old Sauternes. proper dry Vinho Verde or Schnapps. madeira. Hungarian Hárslevelü or Furmint. Meringues Recioto di Soave. such as Dolcetto d’Alba or Pinot N. or Sauv Bl. Rully or unoaked Chard. Mediterranean vegetable dishes Vigorous young red: Chianti. Pasta Red or white according to the sauce or trimmings: • cream sauce Orvieto. Paella Young Spanish wines: red. Tokáj Aszú. esp Pinot N. or California Orange Muscat. Or dry Italian whites such as Soave and Lugana. Ligurian Vermentino. as is rosé from the Languedoc or Provence. Ajaccio or New Zealand Pinot N. New Zealand Sauv Bl. Pomerol. Mullet. adaptable to gd white or red. Salice Salentino or Merlot. Oysters. Monkfish Often roasted. Cirò. Vin Santo or Setúbal Moscatel. Champagne is gd with either. Moussaka Red or rosé: Naoussa from Greece.• smoked An oily wine-destroyer. New Zealand Cab Sauv or Merlot. Sparkling is a gd all-purpose choice. Oxtail Match with a rather rich French red such as St-Emilion. Try Australian/New Zealand Chard. Soave. Mullet. Mille-feuille desserts Delicate sweet sparkling white such as Moscato d’Asti or demi-sec Champagne. Sangiovese. Vin Santo or Tokáj Aszú. Nuts Finest oloroso sherry. peppered or bison-grass vodka. dry white or rosé from Penedès.

southern French red or Douro red. Pastrami Alsace Ries. Peperonata Dry Australian Ries. Alsace Ries Grand Cru or noble Mosels. young Sangiovese. Chianti Classico. Pizza Any __ dry Italian red. Chinese is gd with Pinot N. Rioja Reserva. Portuguese Alentejo or Yecla and Jumilla from Spain. Cornas. a smooth red like a light Pomerol or Volnay. Lirac. or young red (Tempranillo. Pigeon Lively reds: Savigny. Crozes-Hermitage. Or Rioja. Perch. or Australian Chard (unoaked). little sugar) Excellent with fine reds which themselves taste of raspberries: young Juliénas. fish pâté Muscadet. Pfalz Ries – even fine mature Champagne. Western Australia Sem or New Zealand Sauv Bl. Or try top Swiss Fendant or Johannisberg. Portugal’s suckling pig is eaten with Bairrada Garrafeira. • squab Fine white or red burgundy. Quiches Dry full-bodied white: Alsace. south Italian red. according to ingredients. Or try Franken Silvaner Spätlese. or light reds. Red drinkers can try Tempranillo or Grenache. Regnié. Alsace Ries Grand Cru or mature claret. Graves. (“Cocktail sauce” kills wine. people. Australian Shiraz. Zin.) Quail Alsace Ries Grand Cru. Banyuls or Ries Beerenauslese. Chusclan. duck pâté Châteauneuf-du-Pape. roasted Sauv Bl. Gavi or South African Chenin Bl. Mâcon-Villages. Pipérade Rosé. Pumpkin/Squash dishes Full-bodied fruity dry or off-dry white: Viognier or Marsanne. mature claret or Pinot N. sandre Exquisite freshwater fish for finest wines: top white burgundy. even Pomerol. dry Rheingau. or Pomerol. and in time. Chinon. Prawns. roast A gd rich neutral background to a fairly light red or rich white. It deserves __ treatment – Médoc is fine. Pâté de campagne A dry white __: Gd vin de pays. Sauv Bl. Pimentos. or South Australian Grenache. Pot au feu. Raspberries (no cream. Saumur-Champigny. Rasteau. chicken liver Calls for pungent white (Alsace Pinot Gr or Marsanne). or even amontillado sherry. Chianti Classico. or New Zealand Pinot Noir. Pork. Chiroubles. Graves. Periquita). Pecan pie Orange Muscat or Australian liqueur Muscat. Rabbit Lively medium-bodied young Italian red or Aglianico del Vulture. Pfalz Ries. Graves. New Zealand Chard. Pears in red wine A pause before the port. Sangiovese di Romagna. cocido Rustic red wines from the region of origin. or dry South Australian Ries. demi-sec Vouvray. . or California Pinot N. Or try Rivesaltes. bollito misto. shrimps or langoustines Fine dry white: burgundy. Chambolle-Musigny. or Cab Fr.• Pâté • • • • tomato sauce Barbera.

Verdelho. Also vodka. Condrieu. V. mousses.or ChassagneMontrachet. dress the salad with wine or a little lemon juice instead of vinegar. Sip amontillado. youngish Sem. Shellfish Dry white with plain boiled shellfish. Gewurz from Alsace or New Zealand. • NB Vinegar in salad dressings destroys the flavour of wine. wines. Salmon fishcakes call for similar. but less grand. iced sake. . Australian Ries. Rum desserts (baba. vintage Champagne. If you want salad at a meal with fine wine. __. Satay Australia’s McLaren Vale Shiraz. Condrieu. Idaho or New Zealand Chard. Muscadet. • with fungi porcini Finest mature Barolo or Barbaresco. with seafood Pinot Gr from Friuli. schnapps or akvavit. Fernão Pires. Salads As a first course. Corton-Charlemagne. Rheingau Kabinett/Spätlese. sparkling wines will match. or modern Greek. Grüner Veltliner. With plateaux de fruits de mer: Muscadet. or Corsican. Chablis Grand Cru. Meursault. Sauerkraut (German) Lager or Pils. Chablis or Châteauneuf-du-Pape. • grilled or seared Hermitage Blanc. • salade niçoise Very dry. South African Sauv Bl. or dry Vouvray. Pouilly-Fumé. sea urchin and anago (eel). Sardines. Sashimi If you are prepared to forego the wasabi. top Australian Chard. Sand-dabs This sublime fish can handle your fullest Chard (not oaky). Dolcetto or Barbera d’Alba. Or Washington or Tasmanian Chard. Alsace Pinot Gr. But a Ries Auslese can be amazing. Sea bass Weissburgunder from Baden or Pfalz. or Pinot N. Entre-Deux-Mers.Risotto. • smoked A dry but pungent white: fino sherry. Soave. unoaked Chard or dry Ries. Young Pinot N can be gd. Salmon. Pfalz Ries Spätlese or vintage Champagne. Rheingau Ries and English Seyval Bl. richer wines with richer sauces. California. ice-cream) Muscat – from Asti to Australian liqueur. any dry and appetizing white wine. Trials have matched 5-putt Tokáj with fat tuna. not too light or flowery white or rosé: Provençal. • in cream sauces German Spätlese. fino sherry or beer. Sauv Bl. or Gewurz. Rhône. Montrachet. according to weight of dish. Chablis Grand Cru. Chablis Grand Cru. fresh grilled Very dry white: Vinho Verde. Grüner Veltliner. Otherwise. • carpaccio Puligny-Montrachet. Shark’s fin soup Add a teaspoon of Cognac.gd for any fine or delicate white: Clare Valley dry Ries. seared or grilled Fine white burgundy: Puligny. Scallops An inherently slightly sweet dish. Chablis. • with Asian seasoning New Zealand. best with finest whites. California Chard or New Zealand Sauv Bl. esp with blue cheese dressing. Australian Ries. Gavi.

• with sauce Depending on the ingredients: sharp dry wine for tomato sauce. etc. Summer pudding Fairly young Sauternes of a gd vintage (95 96 97 98). or any sharpish dry white or rosé. Steak and kidney pie or pudding Red Rioja Reserva. Strawberries and cream Sauternes or similar sweet Bordeaux. Champagne can also be gd with many kinds of soufflé. Snapper Sauv Bl if cooked with Oriental flavours. Barbera. which can cope with the wide range of flavours in both hot and cold dishes. Sangiovese. Sushi Hot wasabi is usually hidden in every piece. otherwise lusty full-flavoured red. Shiraz. Tagines These vary enormously. or mature Cabernet. or NV brut Champ. or Zin. • spinach (tougher on wine) Light Chard (Mâcon-Villages. Douro red. • fish Dry white: ___ Burgundy. fairly rich for sole véroniquewith its sweet grapes. T-bone. St-Véran). wild (no cream) Serve with red Bordeaux (most exquisitely Margaux) poured over. filet. Sweetbreads A grand dish.) Sake. but fruity young reds are a gd bet: Beaujolais. white Rhône with Mediterranean flavours. simple Chablis. Alsace. or its equivalent. My choice: Château Haut-Brion. sake or beer. etc. etc: plain. German QbA trocken wines. or Valpolicella. Stews and casseroles Red burgundy comes into its own. Steak au poivre A fairly young Rhône red or Cab Sauv. Or a sweet (or rich) Champagne. Sole. top Alsace Pinot Gr or Condrieu. grilled or fried Perfect with fine wines: white burgundy. such as Toro. Corbières. fiorentina (bistecca) Any top red (but not old wines with Béarnaise sauce: top Californian Chard is better). so grand wine. Chard. Or. Nothing grand. Strawberries. Merlot and Shiraz. Tapenade Manzanilla or fino sherry. or a clean straightforward wine like Muscadet or Verdicchio.Skate with brown butter White with some pungency (eg Pinot Gr d’Alsace). plaice. • cheese Red burgundy or mature Cab Sauv. Bergerac or Valpolicella. Tempranillo. Korean Yuk Whe (The world’s best steak tartare. Bordeaux. • sweet soufflés Sauternes or Vouvray moelleux. of course. Tapas Perfect with fino sherry. Steak tartare Vodka or light young red: Beaujolais. depending on the sauce. Vouvray Moelleux or Jurançon Vendange Tardive. Soufflés As show dishes these deserve ___ wines. but not too dry: Rhine Ries or Franken Silvaner Spätlese. Swordfish Full-bodied dry white of the country. . tournedos.

grilled or seared White. Tiramisú This Italian dessert works best with Vin Santo. red. New Zealand) or Ries (German Spätlese or Australian). New Zealand reds and full dry rosés. California Chard or New Zealand Sauv Bl. or rather rich whites (Pfalz Spätlese or Hunter Semillon). or rosé of fairly fruity character. or Côtes du Rhône would be fine. • coconut milk Hunter Valley or other ripe. • carpaccio Viognier. Tuna. eg Mosel (Saar or Ruwer). Greek. Gewurz or Verdelho. Roussillon) or rather sweet white (eg German Spätlese). Alsace Pinot Bl for refreshment. or cut with pungent dry white such as Pouilly-Fumé or fresh red such as Saumur-Champigny. Rully or Bourgogne Aligoté. The bland supermarket version goes well with any delicate white or Champagne. Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise or Sauternes and Australian Liqueur Muscats. Tongue Gd for any red or white of abundant character. Thai food Ginger and lemongrass call for pungent Sauv Bl (Loire. a German or Austrian Ries. oaked Chards. Fino sherry works well. . Trifle Should be sufficiently vibrant with its internal sherry. Alsace Pinot Bl. roast A good neutral background dish for any fine old red which may have faded with age (eg a Rioja Reserva). Pinot N or a light Merlot are the best reds to try. But Mosel Spätlese is best. Australian or New Zealand equivalent. Condrieu. Tripe Red (eg Corbières. Better: Western Australian Sem/Chard. Zabaglione Light-gold marsala. Whitebait Crisp dry whites: Chablis. Mosel or Nahe Spätlese or Auslese (not trocken). South Africa. Try white Rioja or a Marsanne. esp Italian. Australian botrytized Sem or Asti. And of course sparkling. Vitello tonnato Full-bodied whites esp Chard. Trout Delicate white wine. Veal. a top St-Véran. Australia. Touraine Sauv Bl. Bordeaux or California Cab of a mature vintage. Verdicchio. or Alsace Pinot Gr. Also Beaujolais. or in blends – Rhône. Mature Rheingau. Chablis or Champagne. white Hermitage. California or South African Sauv Bl. but also with young tawny port. Venison Big-scale reds inc Mourvèdre – solo as in Bandol. mature Chablis or its California. or fino sherry. Loire reds. or light reds (eg young Cabernet or Valpolicella) served cool.Taramasalata A rustic southern white with personality. • smoked Sancerre. Turbot Serve with your best rich dry white: Meursault or ChassagneMontrachet. Wine & cheese The notion that wine and cheese were married in heaven is not born out by experience. or Vouvray. Fine red wines are slaughtered by strong cheeses: only sharp or sweet white wines survive.

esp aged. and a few English cheeses complement fine claret or Cab Sauv and great Shiraz/Syrah wines. Rhône. Parmesan. pure white rind if pasteurized. Natural rind (goat’s or sheep’s cheese) with bluish-grey mould (the rind is wrinkled when mature). marsala. esp for Burgundy cheeses. But . Sugary. Carré de l’Est. Bergerac. English unoaked whites. Semi-soft cheeses. Côtes du Frontonnais. Gouda. St-Nectaire Powerful white Bordeaux. But strong cheeses need less refined wines. old Gouda. Savoie. is a classic. Blue cheeses Roquefort can be wonderful with Sauternes. Mozzarella Light crisp white – Simple Bordeaux Blanc. Bloomy rind soft cheeses. so its appearance is a guide to the type of wine to match it. no rind – cream cheese. young Australian (or Rhône) Shiraz/ Syrah or Grenache if it’s mature. Jurançon. Chard. o The main exception constitutes a third principle: o wines and cheeses of a region usually sympathise. Gruyère. light fresh Sauv Bl. Bardolino or Beaujolais. very fresh red such as Bordeaux. Alsace Pinot Gr. Individual cheeses mentioned below are only examples taken from the hundreds sold in good cheese shops. Bougon (goat’s milk ‘Camembert’) Full dry white burgundy or Rhône if the cheese is white and immature. fruity St-Emilion. Also powerful whites.Principles to remember. Chaource. very young. some Spanish. Reblochon. grey-pink thickish rind – Livarot. Italian Chard or English whites. are first: o the harder the cheese the more tannin the wine can have. o Fresh. vigorous Languedoc. Comté. It is the sweetness of Sauternes. powerful. Intensely flavoured old oloroso. mature Epoisses. with rather sticky orange-red rind – Langres. Hard cheeses. Soave. or rosé – Anjou. southern Italian and Sicilian whites. o And second: the creamier the cheese is the more acidity is needed in the wine. but don’t extend the idea to other blues. Maroilles. Manchego and other Spanish cheeses. Camembert. Sicilian or Bairrada. dryish Ries. Valençay. granular old Dutch red Mimolette or Beaufort are gd for finest mature Bordeaux. Cahors. Cheddar and most “traditional” English cheeses Particularly hard to generalize here. Tomme de Savoie. despite exceptions. waxed or oiled. preferably tawny. madeira. Pont l’Evêque. Corsican. southern Italian. or very light. aged white Rioja or dry oloroso sherry. crème fraîche. o Cheese is classified by its texture and the nature of its rind. Stilton and port. Milleens. amontillado. The acidity of Tokáj Aszú also works well. and preferably local ones. Washed-rind pungent soft cheeses. Cantal. which complements the saltiness. Also for Tokáj Aszú. esp Alsace Gewurz and Muscat. sometimes dusted with ash – St-Marcellin Sancerre. Munster Local reds. often showing marks from cheesecloth – Gruyère family. or dotted with red: Brie. and other fortified wines go with most blues.

Parmesan. Musigny flowery. roast partridge or grouse.the strongest of these cheeses kill most wines. the wine sometimes guides the choice of food rather than the usual way around. mutton. can be excellent. Fully mature great vintages (eg Bordeaux 61 66 75) Shoulder or saddle of lamb. halibut are best. or Vega Sicilia Beef. drenched in butter. or cheese soufflé after the meat has been served. or grilled rump of beef. They should help bring out the best in your best wines. great old burgundy The classic Burgundian formula is cheese: Epoisses (unfermented). roast with a touch of garlic. Food & finest wine With very special bottles. vigorous younger burgundy Duck or goose roasted to minimize fat. Barolo. Côte-Rôtie. or whole suckling pig. or better. Or lobster or wild salmon. brill. porcini mushrooms. Mature but still vigorous (eg 85 86 89) Shoulder or saddle of lamb (inc kidneys) with rich sauce. bone-marrow on toast. well-hung game. other top Chards White fish simply grilled or meunière. A fabulous cheese but a terrible waste of fine old wines. Côte d’Or red burgundy (Consider the weight and texture. English cheese (esp best farm Cheddar) but also hard goat’s milk and ewe’s milk cheeses such as Berkswell and Ticklemore. The following suggestions are based largely on the gastronomic conventions of the wine regions producing these treasures. venison. Great Syrahs: Hermitage. white burgundy. Grange. grouse. Barbaresco Risotto with white truffles. organic chicken stuffed with truffles or herbs under the skin. or woodcock for those progressively more rich and pungent.) Roast chicken. which grow lighter/more velvety with age. roast with a hint of herbs (but not garlic). Fillet of beef marchand de vin(with wine and bone-marrow). saddle of hare. etc. Merlot-based Bordeaux (Pomerol. is a safe standard with red burgundy. Dover sole. Avoid Beef Wellington: pastry dulls the palate. Corton-Charlemagne) or equivalent Graves Roast veal. Château-Grillet or Hermitage Blanc Very light pasta scented . great Romanées can be exotic. guinea-fowl for slightly stronger wines. White wines Top Chablis. Red wines Red Bordeaux and other Cabernet Sauvignon-based wines (very old. Rioja Gran Reserva. plus much diligent research. Supreme white burgundy (Le Montrachet. capon. Also the character of the wine: Nuits is earthy. Pesquera… Richly flavoured roasts: wild boar. then partridge. or sweetbreads. roast ribs. entrecôte. richly sauced white fish or scallops as above. Pommard renowned for its four-squareness. pasta with game sauce (eg pappardelle alle lepre). sweetbreads. Hare and venison ( chevreuil) are alternatives. Condrieu. turbot. St-Emilion) Beef as above (fillet is richest) or venison. light and delicate: eg pre-60) Leg or rack of young lamb.

grouse or woodcock. quince. Sauternes Simple crisp buttery biscuits (eg Langue-de-Chat). Pan-seared foie-gras.with herbs and tiny peas or broad beans. smoked salmon or choucroute garni. nectarines. Fruit desserts. Desserts made from rhubarb. gooseberries. Old vintage Champagne (not Blanc de Blancs) As an apéritif. or apples. Beerenauslese/Trockenbeerenauslese Biscuits. cream desserts. greengages. or with cold partridge. . Not tropical fruit. apples. Gewurztraminer Cheese soufflé (Münster cheese). or apple tart. Great vintage port or madeira Walnuts or pecans. peaches. even chocolate can be wonderful. white peaches. Pinot Gris Roast or grilled veal. Tokáj Aszú (4–6 putts) Foie gras is thoroughly recommended. Vendange Tardive Foie gras or Tarte Tatin. Grand Cru Alsace Ries Truite au bleu. strawberries (without cream). A Cox’s Orange Pippin and a digestive biscuit is a classic English accompaniment. Experiment with blue cheeses. etc Buttery biscuits. Supreme Vouvray moelleux.

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