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# Calibration 101

Kim Lyon
FEV Inc. Senior Engineer
Calibration Specialist GM Powertrain
Chrysler LLC Senior Technical Specialist -Retired

Acknowledgement
Many of the following slides were originally
created by former Chrysler engineer, John
Bucknell and originally presented at the
Overview
Covers what you will need to know about the
system to be calibrated
Wont cover knob turning which is
dependent on the specifics of the control
system being used.
Topics are typical of questions encountered in
Design Judging of the engine/powertrain area.

Calibration Philosophy
Fundamentals
In order to calibrate anything, you must understand
the physics of the system.

In order to be a good calibration engineer one must
cultivate a sense of being a good engine-ear. Use

The system defines the calibration, not the calibrator.
The system will tell you what it needs if you are
smart enough to listen.
What Is An I.C. Engine?
The primary function of an internal
combustion engine is to pump air in and out
of a combustion chamber where a
combustible fuel is mixed at a ratio which
maximizes power output and minimizes fuel
consumption under all operating conditions.

In a gas engine at full throttle, which is more
difficult to increase (control), air or fuel?
Part One Engine Fundamentals
Reciprocating Internal Combustion
Heat Engines
Characteristics
Slider-crank mechanism has high mechanical
efficiency (piston skirt rubbing is source of 50-60%
of all firing friction)
Piston-cylinder mechanism has high single-stage
compression ratio capability leads to high
thermal efficiency capability
Fair to poor air pump, limiting power potential

Powertrain & Calibration Topics
Background
Powertrain terms
Thermodynamics
Mechanical Design
Combustion
Architecture
Cylinder Filling &
Emptying
Aerodynamics
Calibration
Spark & Fuel
Transients &
Drivability
Reciprocating Engine Terms
V
c
= Clearance Volume
V
d
= Displacement or Swept Volume
V
t
= Total Volume
TC or TDC =
Top or Top Dead Center Position
BC or BDC =
Position
Compression Ratio (CR)

c
c d
V
V V
CR
+
=
Further Aspects of Geometric Compression Ratio
Thermodynamics
Otto Cycle
Diesel Cycle
Throttled Cycle
Supercharged
Cycle
Source: Internal Comb. Engine Fund.
Thermodynamic Terms
MEP Mean Effective Pressure
Average cylinder pressure over measuring period
Torque Normalized to Engine Displacement (V
D
)
BMEP Brake Mean Effective Pressure

IMEP Indicated Mean Effective Pressure
MEP of Compression and Expansion Strokes
PMEP Pumping Mean Effective Pressure
MEP of Exhaust and Intake Strokes
FMEP Firing Friction Mean Effective Pressure

BMEP = IMEP PMEP FMEP
) liter ( V
) Nm ( Torque 4
) kPa ( BMEP
D
-
=
t
.) in . cu ( V
) ftlb ( Torque 48
) psi ( BMEP
D
-
=
t
Thermodynamic Terms continued

Work =

Power = Work/Unit Time

Specific Power Power per unit, typically
displacement or weight
Pressure/Volume Diagram Engineering tool to
graph cylinder pressure
dV P -
}
Cycle / volutions Re
Second / Cycles Work
Power
-
=
Indicated Work
TDC BDC
Source: Design and Sim of Four Strokes
TDC BDC
Source: Design and Sim of Four Strokes
Pumping Work
Engine Breathing
Volumetric Efficiency (or V.E.) is how we describe the engines
ability to pump air.

Stated as a percentage of the theoretical volume of air that
the engine can move for one cylinder cycle.

Well tuned engines (such as race engines) can exceed the
theoretical 100% limit because of boosting or tuning effects
(aftercharging).
Momentum Effects
Pressure loss influences dictate that duct diameter be as large
as possible for minimum friction

Increasing charge momentum enhances cylinder filling by
extending induction process past unsteady direct energy
transfer of induction stroke

Decreasing duct diameter increases available kinetic energy
for a given mass flux

Therefore duct diameter is a trade-off between velocity and
wall friction of passing charge

Pressure Wave Effects
Induction process and exhaust blowdown both cause pressure
pulsations

Abrupt changes of increased cross-section in the path of a
pressure wave will reflect a wave of opposite magnitude back
down the path of the wave

Closed-ended ducts reflect pressure waves directly, therefore
a wave will echo with same amplitude

Pressure Wave Effects cont
Friction decreases energy of pressure waves, therefore the 1
st

order reflection is the strongest but up to 5
th
order have
been utilized to good effect in high speed engines (thus active
runners in F1)

Plenums also resonate and through superposition increase
the amplitude of pressure waves in runners small impact
relative to runner geometry

Effects of Intake Runner Geometry
Aerodynamics
Losses due to poor aerodynamics can be equal in magnitude
to the gains from pressure wave tuning

Often the dominant factory in poorly performing OE
components

If properly designed, flow of a single-entry intake manifold
can approach 98% of an ideal entrance on a cylinder head
(steady state on a flow bench).

Aerodynamics cont
Flow Separation
Literally same phenomenon as stall in wing elements
pressure in free stream insufficient to push flow along

Recirculation pushes flow away from wall, thereby
reducing effective cross-section so-called vena
contracta

Simple guidelines can prevent flow separation in ducts
studies performed by NACA in the 1930s empirically
established the best duct configurations
Induction Restriction
Air cleaner and intake manifolds provide some resistance to
incoming charge

Power loss related to restriction almost directly a function of
ratio between manifold pressure (plenum pressure upstream
of runners) and atmospheric
Compression Ratio
The highest possible compression ratio is always the design
point, as higher will always be more thermally efficient with
better idle quality

Knock limits compression ratio because of combustion
stability issues at low engine speed

Most engines are designed with higher compression than is
best for combustion stability because of the associated part-
Valve Events
Valve events define how an engine breathes all the
time, and so are an important aspect of low load as

Valve events also effectively define compression &
expansion ratio, as compression will not begin until
the piston-cylinder mechanism is sealed same with
expansion. VVT can change the engines effective
compression ratio as opposed to the geometric
compression ratio.
Valve Event
Timing
Spider Plot - Describes
timing points for valve
events with respect to
Crank Position

Cam Centerline - Peak
Valve Lift with respect to
TDC in Crank Degrees
Valve Events for Power
Maximize Trapping Efficiency
Intake closing that is best compromise between compression
stroke back flow and induction momentum (retard with increasing
engine speed)
Early intake closing usefulness limited at low engine speed due to
knock limit
Early intake opening will impart some exhaust blowdown or
pressure wave tuning momentum to intake charge
Maximize Thermal Efficiency
Earliest intake closing to maximize compression ratio for best burn
rate (optimum is instantaneous after TDC)
Latest exhaust opening to maximize expansion ratio for best use
of heat energy and lowest EGT (least thermal protection
enrichment beyond LBT)
Valve Events for Power
Minimize Flow Loss
Achieve maximum valve lift (max flow usually at L/D >
0.25-0.3) as long as possible (square lift curves are
optimum for poppet valves)
Minimize Exhaust Pumping Work
Earliest exhaust opening that blows down cylinder
pressure to backpressure levels before exhaust stroke
Earliest exhaust closing that avoids recompression
spike (retard with increasing engine speed)
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 5200 5600
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
f
t
-
l
b
s
)
Engine Speed (rpm)
Centerline Effects On Torque
115 degree centerline 120 degree centerline 124 degree centerline
Summary
Components Relative Impact (Prioritized) on
Performance

1. Cylinder Head Ports & Valve Area
2. Valve Events
3. Intake Manifold Runner Geometry
4. Compression Ratio
6. Exhaust Restriction
7. Air Cleaner Restriction
Making Power
Four-stroke engines are volumetric flow rate devices the
only route to more power is increased engine speed, more
valve area or increased charge density

More speed, charge density or valve area are expensive or
difficult to develop therefore minimizing losses is the
most efficient path with existing engine architectures

Friction horsepower is often overlooked.

Combustion Terms
Open Brake Power Power measured by the
absorber (brake) at the crankshaft
BSFC - Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
Fuel Mass Flow Rate / Brake Power
grams/kW-h or lbs/hp-h
LBT Fueling - Lean Best Torque
Leanest Fuel/Air to Achieve Best Torque
LBT = 0.0780-0.0800 FA or 0.85-0.9 Lambda
Thermal Enrichment Fuel added for cooling due to
component temperature limit
Injector Pulse Width - Time Injector is on

Lean Best Torque Fuel Air Sweeps
76%
78%
80%
82%
84%
86%
88%
90%
92%
94%
96%
98%
100%
102%
0.0660 0.0690 0.0720 0.0750 0.0780 0.0810 0.0840 0.0870 0.0900 0.0930 0.0960 0.0990 0.1020 0.1050 0.1080 0.1110
F/A FN
T
o
r
q
u
e

D
e
l
t
a

F
a
c
t
o
r

F
r
o
m

L
B
T

1856 RPM, 70 kPa MAP 3296 RPM, 98 kPa MAP 3296 RPM, 56 kPa MAP 3296 RPM, 84 kPa MAP
4544 RPM, 70 kPa MAP 3296 RPM, 98 kPa MAP 2688 RPM, 70 kPa MAP
Spark Held Constant During Fuel Air Sweep
Using Exhaust Energy
Highest expansion ratio
recovers most thermal
energy
Turbines can recover
heat energy left over
from gas exchange
Energy can be used to
drive turbo-compressor or
fed back into crank train
Source: Internal Comb. Engine Fund.
Supercharging
Increases specific output
by increasing charge
density into reciprocator
Many methods of
implementation, cost
usually only limiting factor
Valvetrain
Specific Power = f(Air Flow,
Thermal Efficiency)
Air flow is an easier variable to
change than thermal efficiency
90% of restriction of induction
the greatest airflow will have
highest specific power potential
Peak flow from poppet valve
engines primarily a function of
total valve area
More/larger valves equals greater
valve area
Combustion Terms continued
Spark Advance Timing in crank degrees prior to TDC for
start of combustion event (ignition)
MBT Spark Maximum Brake Torque Spark
Minimum Spark Advance to Achieve Best Torque
Burn Rate Speed of Combustion
Expressed as a fraction of total heat released versus crank
degrees
MAP - Manifold Absolute Pressure
Absolute not Gauge (does not reference barometer)
Combustion Terms continued
Knock Autoignition of end-gasses in combustion chamber,
causing extreme rates of pressure rise.
Knock Limit Spark - Maximum Spark Allowed due to Knock
can be higher or lower than MBT
Pre-Ignition Autoignition of mixture prior to spark timing,
typically due to high temperatures of components
Combustion Stability Cycle to cycle variation in burn
rate, trapped mass, location of peak pressure, etc. The lower
the variation the better the stability.

Engine Architecture
Influence on Performance
Intake & Exhaust Manifold Tuning
Cylinder Filling & Emptying
Momentum
Pressure Wave
Aerodynamics
Flow Separation
Wall Friction
Junctions & Bends
Induction Restriction
Exhaust Restriction (Backpressure)
Compression Ratio
Valve Events

Part Two
Torque, Power, and Performance
Driver pushes on Pedal to move vehicle
Pedal formerly known as Gas Pedal, and
before that, Accelerator Pedal

Pedal Driver
Driver Intent Relates to Pedal Position
Pedal Position
Foot off
Pedal
Floored
Slow
down
Maintain
speed
Speed up
a little
Speed up
a lot
D
r
i
v
e
r

I
n
t
e
n
t

Driver Intent
Driver Intent is essentially acceleration rate (+
or -)
Since pedal position is related to driver intent,
pedal position is related to desired vehicle
acceleration.
Acceleration Relates to Pedal Position
Pedal Position
Foot off
Pedal
Floored
V
e
h
i
c
l
e

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Vehicle Acceleration
Newtons First Law:
F=ma
Vehicle mass is constant (ignoring fuel usage,
washer solvent spray, and any fluid leaks)
So, Force is proportional to acceleration
Force Relates to Pedal Position
Pedal Position
Foot off
Pedal
Floored
F
o
r
c
e

A
p
p
l
i
e
d

t
o

V
e
h
i
c
l
e

Where Does the Force Come From?
Power- the rate at which work is done:
Power is Force times Velocity (linear)

Power is Torque times Rotational Speed (rotary)
( )( )
( )( ) V F
Velocity Force Power
=
=
( )( )
( )( ) e =
=
T
Speed Rotational Torque Power
Where Does the Force Come From?
Engine produces power:
( )( ) engine engine engine T P e =
Where Does the Force Come From?
Transmission:

Ignoring Losses, of Course

( )( )
( )( ) | |
( )( )
engine trans
engine engine
trans
engine
trans engine
trans trans trans
P P
T
n
n T
T P
=
e =
(

e
=
e =
Where Does the Force Come From?
Axle:

Ignoring Losses, of Course

( )( )
( )( ) | |
( )( )
engine trans axle
trans trans
axle
trans
axle trans
axle axle axle
P P P
T
n
n T
T P
= =
e =
(

e
=
e =
Where Does the Force Come From?
Tire:

Ignoring Losses, of Course

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
engine trans axle vehicle
axle axle
axle
axle
vehicle vehicle vehicle
P P P P
T
T
V F P
2
er TireDiamet
2
er TireDiamet
= = =
e =
(

|
.
|

\
|
e
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
Where Does the Force Come From?
Power is conserved:

POWER IS ABSOLUTE

Torque is relative (depends on gear ratio)

Ignoring Losses, of Course
vehicle axle trans engine P P P P = = =
Where Does the Force Come From?
The force comes from engine power:

At a given vehicle velocity, force, and therefore
acceleration, depends on power produced by
the engine

vehicle
engine
vehicle
V
P
F =
Force Relates to Pedal Position
Pedal Position
Foot off
Pedal
Floored
F
o
r
c
e

A
p
p
l
i
e
d

t
o

V
e
h
i
c
l
e

Engine Power Relates to Pedal Position
Pedal Position
Foot off
Pedal
Floored
E
n
g
i
n
e

P
o
w
e
r

0
25
50
75
100
0
25
50
75
100
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
m
a
n
d
e
d

(
%

o
f

m
a
x

p
o
w
e
r
)
Vehicle Speed (% of max speed)
Pedal Position (%)
Engine Power Relates to Pedal Position
Powertrain Control
Should provide the power level demanded
by the driver as efficiently as possible
Efficiency could be based on:
minimum fuel consumption
minimum emissions
best NVH
some combination of these or other considerations
Should use the best combination of:
engine speed (gear ratio)
throttle position (ETC)
fuel flow rate
EGR rate
cylinder deactivation
variable valve timing
active manifold
boosting devices
Specific Fuel Consumption vs. Speed & MAP
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Engine Speed (rpm)
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
M
A
P

(
k
P
a
)
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
B
S
F
C

(
l
b
/
h
p
-
h
r
)
0.41
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.60
0.65
0.70

Engine Power vs. Speed & MAP
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
E
n
g
in
e

S
p
e
e
d

(
r
p
m
)
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
M
A
P

(
k
P
a
)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
P
o
w
e
r

(
b
h
p
)
10.00
10.00
10.00
25.00
25.00
50.00
75.00
100.00
150.00
200.00
250.00
300.00

HP = (Torque x RPM) / 5252

Vehicle Performance
Best possible vehicle acceleration if engine runs at
peak power (not at peak torque)

Transmission that allows the engine to provide the
highest average power over an acceleration event
will give best vehicle acceleration
more transmission gears improves vehicle acceleration
by keeping engine speed in range that makes more
power
Simulated Vehicle Performance with Different
Transmissions
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (s)
V
e
h
i
c
l
e

S
p
e
e
d

(
m
p
h
)
100% Efficient CVT
90% Efficient CVT
4 Speed Automatic
Engine Performance Optimization Criteria
Typically engine program goals are a peak
torque value and a peak power value
Assuming different sets of engine hardware
could meet the program goals, only one set
of hardware will perform the best in a
vehicle
The best performing vehicle will have the
highest average power delivered to the
wheels during an acceleration event, which
is dependent on transmission capability
Engine Optimization Example:
Which Engine Performs Better in a Vehicle?
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000
Engine Speed (rpm)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
l
b
-
f
t
)
,

P
o
w
e
r

(
b
h
p
)
engine A
engine B
engine A engine B
Peak Torque (lb-ft) 400 400
Average Torque (1200-5600rpm) (lb-ft) 362 351
Peak Power (bhp) 350 350
Average Power (1200-5600rpm) (bhp) 234 231
Engine Optimization Example
Engine A & Engine B both meet program
objectives
Which one is better?
It depends on the transmission
Engine B will perform better if transmission
keeps engine speed above 3200 rpm during an
acceleration event
This is true for any of the typical vehicle
performance metrics:
5 sec. Distance
0-60 time
1/4 mile time
Engine Tuning
Various mechanical elements and effects
combine to determine how well an engine
moves air into and out of the combustion
chamber.

Magnitude of effects are not equal, find out
which ones affect your engine most through
1D modeling or dyno testing.
Intake Tuning
for WOT Performance
Intake manifolds have ducts (runners) that
tune at frequencies corresponding to engine
speed, like an organ pipe
Longer runners tune at lower frequencies
Shorter runners tune at higher frequencies
Tuning increases local pressure at intake valve
thereby increasing flow rate
Duct diameter is a trade-off between velocity
and wall friction of passing charge
Exhaust Tuning
for WOT Performance
Exhaust manifolds tune just as intake
manifolds do, but since no fresh charge is
being introduced as a result not as much
impact on volumetric efficiency (~8%
Catalyst performance usually limits production
exhaust systems that flow acceptably with
little to no tuning
WOT IMEP Exhaust Manifold Comparison
4-2-1 Tubular Header vs 4-1 Close Coupled Cast
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
Engine Speed (rpm)
I
M
E
P

(
k
P
a
)
/
P
M
E
P

(
k
P
a
)
-150
-135
-120
-105
-90
-75
-60
-45
-30
-15
0
IMEP 4-2-1 1044.1 1122.8 1188.5 1226.6 1269.2 1290.5 1337.9 1390.1 1445.7 1427 1445.8 1435.4 1411.7 1337.9
IMEP 4-1 Cast 1102.5 1162.2 1225.5 1252.3 1248 1262.4 1320.9 1403.6 1403.5 1406.3 1398 1367.2 1294.6
PMEP 4-2-1 -5.3 -9.7 -14.2 -19.7 -23.0 -29.9 -38.4 -52.3 -64.0 -78.5 -90.8 -107.9 -122.8 -136.2
PMEP 4-1 Cast -12.5 -16.8 -20.8 -26.1 -32.0 -40.3 -54.0 -68.6 -81.0 -89.0 -99.8 -111.5 -119.5
1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 5200 5600 6000 6400
generally do not
appear on production
engines due to the
impairment to catalyst
light-off performance
(usually a minimum of
distance for cold-start
exhaust heat to be
lost). Performance
can be enhanced by
3-8% across 60% of
the operating range.
Tuning in Production I4 Engine
350
370
390
410
430
450
470
Engine Speed (rpm)
A
i
r

M
a
s
s

p
e
r

C
y
l
i
n
d
e
r

(
m
g
)
Trapped Mass 372 381 373 421 428 402 397 430 454 453 458 460 431 401
1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 5200 5600 6000 6400
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120

240
250
250
275
275
300
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 5200 5600 6000 6400
d Speed [rpm]
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
B
M
E
P

S
I

[
k
P
a
]
2006 2.4L WE BSFC MAP (g/kW-h)

Engine Power and BSFC vs Engine Speed
Summary
Components Relative Impact on
Performance
1. Cylinder Head Ports & Valve Area
2. Valve Events
3. Intake Manifold Runner Geometry
4. Compression Ratio
6. Exhaust Restriction
7. Air Cleaner Restriction
Powertrain Closing Remarks
Powertrain is compromise
Four-stroke engines are volumetric flow rate devices
the only route to more power is increased engine
speed, more valve area or increased charge density
More speed, charge density or valve area are
expensive or difficult to develop therefore
minimizing losses is the most efficient path within
existing engine architectures
Highest average power during a vehicle acceleration is
fastest peak power values dont win races
Part Three Calibration
Calibration
What is it?
Optimizing the control system (once hardware is finalized) for
drivability, durability & fuel economy
Its just spark and fuel how hard could it be?
Knowledge of Thermodynamics, Combustion and Control
Theory all play in
Fortunately race engines have no emissions constraints and
use race fuel (usually eliminates any knock) therefore are
relatively easy to calibrate

Calibration Terms
Stoichiometry Chemically correct ratio of fuel to air for
combustion
F/A Fuel/Air Ratio
Mass ratio of mixture, a determination of richness or
leanness. Stoichiometry = 0.0688-0.0696 FA
Lambda Excess Air Ratio
Stoichiometry = 1.0 Lambda
Rich F/A F/A greater than Stoichiometry Rich <
1.0 Lambda
Lean F/A F/A less than Stoichiometry Lean >
1.0 Lambda
Calibration Terms continued
Brake Power Power measured by the absorber
(brake) at the crankshaft
BSFC - Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
Fuel Mass Flow Rate / Brake Power
grams/kW-h or lbs/hp-h
LBT Fueling Lean Best Torque
Leanest Fuel/Air to Achieve Best Torque
LBT = 0.0780-0.0800 FA or 0.85-0.9 Lambda
Thermal Enrichment Fuel added for cooling due to
exhaust component temperature limit
Injector Pulse Width - Time Injector is Open

Calibration Terms continued
Spark Advance Timing in crank degrees prior to
TDC for start of combustion event (ignition)
MBT Spark - Maximum Brake Torque
Minimum Spark Advance to Achieve Best Torque
Burn Rate Speed of Combustion
Expressed as a fraction of total heat released
versus crank degrees
MAP - Manifold Absolute Pressure
Absolute not Gauge (which references barometer)
Control System Types
Alpha-N
Engine Speed & Throttle Angle
Speed-Density
Engine Speed and MAP/ACT
MAF
Engine Speed and MAF

Alpha-N
Fuel and spark maps are based on throttle
angle which is very non-linear and requires
complete mapping of engine
Good throttle response once dialed in
Density compensation (altitude and
temperature) is usually absent needs to be
recalibrated every time car goes out

Speed-Density
Fuel and spark maps are based on MAP density of
charge is a strong function of pressure, corrected by
air temp and coolant temp therefore air flow is
simple to calculate
Less time-intensive than Alpha-N, once calibrated is good
most common type of control
Needs less mapping can do WOT line and mid-map then
curve-fit air flow (spark needs a little more in-depth for
optimal control)

MAF
Fuel and spark maps are based on MAF airflow
measured directly
MAF sensor isnt the most robust device
Pressure pulses confuse signal, each application has to be
mapped with secondary damped MAF sensor (usually a 55 gallon
drum inline)
Least noisy signal is usually at air cleaner so separate transport
delay controls need to be calibrated for transients and leaks need
to be absolutely eliminated
Boosted applications usually add a MAP as well

Control System Components
Fuel System
Injectors, Fuel pump & Regulator
Basic Sensors
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) or Mass Air Flow
(MAF)
Crank Position (Rpm & TDC)
Cam Position (Sync)
Air Charge Temp (ACT)
Engine Coolant Temp (ECT)
Knock Sensor
Lamda Sensor

Fuel System
Injectors
Volumetric flow rate solenoids, linear relationship between
pulsewidth and flow for given pressure delta
Battery offset is time necessary to open and close solenoid
time is fixed for any voltage
Duty cycle is injector on time itll go static above 95%
Bernoulli relationship for different pressure deltas allowing
differing flow rates for a given injector
High impedance injectors have lower dynamic range and
lower amperage and thus less heat in controller
Fuel Pump & Regulator
Pressure needs to be sufficiently high to prevent vapour lock
(>4bar) and low enough that engine can idle
In-tank regulation adds least heat but has line-loss as flow
rate increases, ie fuel pressure changes with flow
Manifold-referenced regulation can help injectors achieve
higher flow rates at elevated boost or lower flows at low
vacuum making calibration more complicated

1
2
1
2
P
P
V
V
A
A
=
-
-
Pulsewidth
Pulsewidth + Battery Offset
P
i
n
t
l
e

H
e
i
g
h
t
Bernoulli Effect of Fuel Pressure
Sensors
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)
A variable-resistance diaphragm with perfect vacuum on one side and
manifold pressure on other
Mass Air Flow (MAF)
A heating element followed by a temperature-sensitive element. Heated
element is maintained at a constant temperature and based upon the
measured downstream temperature the mass flow rate can be
determined
Crank Position
High resolution for spark advance, less-so for crank speed and with once-
per-rev can indicate TDC
Cam Position
Low resolution for syncronization for sequential fuel injection and
individual cylinder spark
Air Charge Temp and Engine Coolant Temp
Thermistors used for air density correction and startup enrichment
Sensors, cont
Knock Sensor
A piezoelectric load cell that measures structural vibration. Knock is a
pressure wave that travels at local sonic velocity and rings at a
frequency that is a function of bore diameter (typically between 14-
18kHz). When the structure of the engine (typically the block) is hit with
this pressure wave it rings as well, but at a frequency that is a function of
the structure (ie materials and geometry). A FFT analysis of different
mounting positions (nodes not anti-nodes) is necessary to determine the
center frequency to listen for knock (which is measured via in-cylinder
pressure measurements) without picking up other structure-borne
noise.
Sensors, cont
Lamda Sensor (EGO)
Compares ambient air to exhaust
oxygen content (partial pressure of
oxygen). Sensor output is
essentially binary (only indicates
rich or lean of stoichiometry).
Wide-band Lamda Sensor
(UEGO)
Compares partial pressure of
oxygen (lean) and partial pressure
of H
m
C
n
, H
2
& CO (rich) with
ambient. Gives output from ~0.6
to 2 Lamda. Turns vehicle into a
rolling dyno.

UEGO Schematic
EGO Schematic
Knock
Causes of Knock
Knock = f(Time,Temperature,Pressure,Octane)
Time Higher engine speeds or faster burn rates reduce knock tendency.
Burn rate can come from multiple spark sources, more compact
combustion chambers or increased turbulence
Temperature Reduced combustion temperatures reduce knock through
reduced charge temperatures (cooler incoming charge or reduced
residual burned gases), increased evaporative cooling from richer F/A
mixtures and increased combustion chamber cooling
Pressure Lower cylinder pressures reduce knock tendency through
lower compression ratio or MAP pressure
Octane Different fuel types have higher or lower autoignition
tendencies. Octane value is directly related to knocking tendency

Knock continued
Effects of Knock
Disrupts stagnant gases that form boundary layer at edge of
combustion chamber, increasing heat transfer to components
and raising mean combustion chamber temp that can lead to
pre-ignition
Scours oil film off cylinder wall, leading to dry friction and
increased wear of piston rings
Shockwave can induce vibratory loads into piston pin, piston
pin bore and top land - reducing oil film thickness and
accelerating wear
Shockwave can be strong enough to stress components to
failure

In-cylinder Pressure Measurement
Piezoelectric pressure
transducers develop
charge with changes in
pressure
Installed in combustion
chamber wall or spark
plug to measure full-
cycle pressures
Typical pressure probe installation
Passage drilled through deck face (avoiding coolant jacket)
Cylinder Pressure Trace
No Knock
Cylinder Pressure Trace
Knock Limit or Trace Knock - Best Power
Cylinder Pressure Trace
Severe Damaging Knock
Pre-Ignition
Effects of Pre-Ignition
Increases peak cylinder pressure by beginning heat release
too soon
Increased cylinder pressure also increases heat load to
combustion chamber components, sustaining the pre-ignition
Increases loads on piston crown and piston pin
Sustained pre-ignition will typically put a hole in the center of
the piston crown

Burn Rate
Burn Rate = f(Spark, Dilution Rate/FA Ratio, Chamber Volume Distribution,
Engine Speed/Mixture Motion/Turbulent Intensity)
Spark
Closer to MBT the faster the burn with trace knock the fastest
Dilution Rate/FA Ratio
Least dilution (exhaust residual or anything unburnable) fastest
FA Ratio best rate around LBT
Chamber Volume Distribution
Smallest chamber with shortest flame path best (multiple ignition sources shorten flame
path)
Engine Speed/Mixture Motion/Turbulent Intensity
Crank angle time for complete burn nearly constant with increasing engine speed
indicating other factors speeding burn rate
Mixture motion-contributed angular momentum conserved as cylinder volume decreases
during compression stroke, eventually breaking down into vortices around TDC increasing
kinetic energy in charge
Turbulent Intensity a measure of total kinetic energy available to move flame front faster
than laminar flame speed. More Turbulent Intensity equals faster burn.

Combustion & Thermodynamics Summary
Peak Specific Power
LBT fuelling for best compromise between available oxygen and
charge density
MBT spark if possible, fast burn rate assumed at peak load
Highest engine speed to allow highest compression ratio
Highest octane
Peak Thermal Efficiency at desired load
Highest compression ratio will have best combustion, usually
with highest expansion ratio for best use of thermal energy
MBT spark with fastest burn rate
10% lean of stoichiometry will provide best compromise
between heat losses and pumping work, but not used because
of catalyst performance impacts in pass cars
Transient Fueling
Liquid fuel does not burn, only fuel vapour
Heat from somewhere must be used to make vapour which is why
up to 500% more fuel must be used on a cold start to provide
sufficient vapour for engine to run (relationship between
temperature and partial pressure of fuel fractions)
Most of heat during fully warm operation comes from back side of
intake valve and port walls
Because of geometry a large portion of fuel wets wall this film travels at
some fraction of free stream. Therefore some fuel from every pulse goes
into engine and some onto port wall.
On a fast acceleration, additional fuel must be added to offset the slowly
moving wall film. Opposite true on decels.
If injector is positioned far upstream volumetric efficiency increases due fuel
heat of vapourization cooling incoming charge, but a large amount of wall is
wetted leading to poor transient fuel control

Injector Targeting
Targets Valve
Targets Port Wall
Better Tip Location
Thermal Enrichment
Durability
Combustion temperatures can reach 4000 deg K and drop
to 1800 deg K before Exhaust Valve Opening (EVO)
Materials must operate at sufficiently low temperature to
maintain strength, so Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
limits must be adhered to for sufficient durability
Usually 950 deg C runner temperature is acceptable for a
developed package, as low as 800 deg C for undeveloped
components may be necessary
Primary path for cooling is additional fuel beyond LBT, as
heat of vapourization cools the charge before ignition
(pressure-charged engines primarily)

Drivability
Throttle Response
Drivers expect some repeatability and resolution
of thrust versus pedal position some degree of
spark mapping (retard) and pedal to throttle cam
can help a drivers confidence
Usually least developed and of most importance is
tip-in (throttle closed to small opening) where
torque can come in as a step change

Calibration Summary
Calibration is compromise
Fueling level is a compromise between engine protection
and good V.E.
Best spark advance for drivability may be too close to the
knock limit.
Focus on calibration of primary functions first (fuel and
spark)
Need to understand to understand why a dyno engine
calibration will be different than one derived from a
vehicle. Can the dyno replicate vehicle transients fully?
References
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, John B
Heywood, 1988 McGraw-Hill
The Design and Tuning of Competition Engines Sixth
Edition, Philip H Smith, 1977 Robert Bentley
Design and Simulation of Four-Stroke Engines, Gordon
P. Blair, 1999 SAE
Advanced Engine Technology, Heinz Heisler, 1995 SAE
Vehicle and Engine Technology, Heinz Heisler, 1999 SAE