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briefly explain the changes in mathematics curriculum in korean.

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Joongkwoen Lee Department of Mathematics Education, Dongguk University Phil Dong 3 Ga, Joong Gu, Seoul, Korea E-mail: joonglee@dgu.edu The beginning of mathematics curriculum in Korea started in 1885. The modern meaning of mathematics curriculum in Korea started in 1945. The 1st mathematics curriculum (1955~1963) can be characterized as real life experience centered curriculum. The focus of the 2nd mathematics curriculum (1964~1972) was systematic learning. The 3rd mathematics curriculum (1973~1981) was influenced by New Math Movement. The 4th mathematics curriculum (1982~1988) started from the failure of New Math and the emergence of the Back to Basics Movement in the U.S. The 5th mathematics curriculum (1989~1994) basically maintained the tradition of the 4th curriculum. The 6th curriculum (1995~1999) increasingly stresses mathematical thinking abilities by the way of fostering mathematical problem-solving abilities. The 7th mathematics curriculum (2000~2006) are represented by the implementation of differentiated curriculum.

1. The Quickening of Mathematics Curriculum in Korea (1885~1945) The beginning of mathematics curriculum in Korea started in 1885. Hansung High school (4years) and Hansung girls High school taught mathematics from 1885. The schools syllabus of lecture is the following. From 1910 to 1945, there were lots of changes in mathematics curriculum in Korea. 5 years middle school (current middle school and

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high school) taught mathematics as two parts - numbers and figures. It was a higher level compared to the earlier curriculum. The syllabus of lecture dealt with 1st order equations, 1st order functions, 2nd order equations, and 2nd order functions.

Table 1-1. Syllabus of Lecture School Grade 1 2 3 4 High school arithmetic, algebra (6hours) algebra, geometry (5hours) algebra, geometry, bookkeeping (4hours) geometry, bookkeeping (4hours) Girls High school integer, fraction (2hours) fraction, decimal, abacus (2hours) ratio, summation, abacus (2hours)

The modern meaning of mathematics curriculum in Korea started in 1945. The government made known to the public a guide line of general education system and teaching hours of mathematics per week.

Table 1-3. Mathematics Hours (Middle School) grade boys hours girls 3 3 3 3 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4

At that time, middle school and high school were not divided. 4years middle school covered middle and high school curriculum. Boys learned mathematics one more hours per week than girls. 2. The Period of a Syllabus of Lectures (1946~1954) 2.1. Elementary School The syllabus of lectures for elementary school mathematics presented overall mathematics subjects. Counting was emphasized for the first grade students. The second grade textbooks showed two digit numbers addition and subtraction. For the 3rd grade students, divisions and fractions were introduced. The 4th grade students learned abacus, time, area, and volume. For the 5th grade students, making equation, mensuration, the circular constant were introduced. Ratio, rotation figures, power, and movement were taught for the 6th grade students. 2.2. Middle School The syllabus of lectures for middle school mathematics arranged in a raw the items of mathematics subjects without educational goals and assessment plans. The hours teaching mathematics per week were 5hours for lower level middle school, and 1st grade 5hours, 2nd and 3rd grades of liberal art class 0~2hours, and 2nd and 3rd grades of science class 6~7hours for high level middle school students. The following Table 1-4 shows mathematics contents and hours. There were many problems in the period of a syllabus of lectures (1946~1954). The content of mathematics was too difficult for the students who were not ready to study. The system of mathematics curriculum was not well organized.

J. Lee Table 1-4. Mathematics Contents and Hours lower level middle school compulsory(175hours) measurement(35h) statistics(40h) basic figure(35h) character(35h) table(20h) compulsory(175hours) changing and modifying equation(75h) magnify reduction movement of figures(40h) characteristic of figures(30h) triangle and trigonometric function(30h) compulsory(175hours) trigonometric function(45h) approximate calculation(35~40h) algebra(35~40h) trajectory(50~60h) high level middle school compulsory(175hours) demonstration geometry(plane)(50h) statistics(55h) series and continuous change(70h) selective(175hours) plane triangle(30h) algebra(40h) plane analytic geometry(35h) differential integral calculus(70h) selective(175hours) differential integral calculus(105~125h) solid geometry(50~70h)

3. The 1st Mathematics Curriculum (1955~1963) The 1st mathematics curriculum can be characterized as real life experience centered curriculum, which was influenced by Progressivism in the U.S. which valued learner's experience in real life. Because this curriculum regards the school subject mathematics as a tool for the betterment of living, the structure or the system of mathematics was ignored. Thus, the contents of the mathematics curriculum were in low level and mainly life-problem oriented. Lenience and ignorance in the mathematics structure of the 1st mathematics curriculum caused the decline of students mathematics achievement, which necessitated the 2nd curriculum revision. 3.1. Elementary School The 1st grade curriculum provided basic concept of fraction and real life mathematics which were not showed in the period of a syllabus of

lectures (1946~1954). The 2nd grade students learned fractions and the 9 9 multiplication table. The 3rd grade students dealt with 3 digit numbers for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The 4th grade students learned revenue and expenditure. For the 5th grade students symmetry and center, probability and permutation, combination, mensuration, and the circular constant were eliminated. They just handled plane concept of figures and measures. The 6th grade students learned number, calculation, fraction and ratio, measure, tables, problem solving in real situation, and figures. The 1st mathematics curriculum (1955~1963) lowered the overall levels compared to the period of a syllabus of lectures (1946~1954). 3.2. Middle School The 1st grade students learned the concept of approximate value and decimal point, and a prime factor. They used characters to present equations. The 2nd grade students began with real life mathematics problems. Character and expression, simple 1st order equation, measure and error and approximate value also introduced for the 2nd grade students. The 3rd students dealt with discount insurance, tax, and check. They learned inequality expression and basic demonstration knowledge. 3.3. High School The 1st grade students learned function, trigonometry function, measured value, probability, statistics, economy and finance, figures and it nature. There were number and calculation of expressions, algebra function, algebra, trigonometry function, probability, statistics, series, and integral in the analytic calculus. In the geometry geometric system, linear type, circle, trajectory, solid figures, coordinate and equation were founded. 4. The 2nd Mathematics Curriculum (1964~1972) The focus of the 2nd curriculum was systematic learning, which was based on Herbarts Essentialism (Park, 1998). The 2nd curriculum placed

J. Lee

great value on the logical and theoretical aspects of mathematics, and pursued the improvement of students' mathematical abilities. 4.1. Elementary School For the 1st grade students fraction was added to number chapter. In calculation part multiplication and division were introduced. The 2nd grade students combined number and fraction. They emphasized multiplication and division. The 3rd grade students learned addition and subtraction of integers, fractions, and decimals. Introduction of abacus was eliminated for the 4th grade students. They stressed multiplication and division. The calculation using abacus appeared at first time in the 5th grade. They faced the circular constant. In the 6th grade curriculum the notations of { }, , [ ] were appeared. They learned time and velocity. 4.2. Middle School The 1st grade students learned using characters, positive negative numbers, measure, measured number and error that came from 2nd grade level. For the 2nd grade students the law of calculations was introduced. They reduced skills of calculation. For the 3rd grade students learned mathematics 2~4hours per week. 4.3. High School Common mathematics dealt with number and expression, approximate value, equation and inequality expression, function, equation of curve, plane figures and its nature. Mathematics I (for liberal art students) treated of calculation of log, series, probability, statistics, differential and integration, 3-dimension space. Mathematics II (for science students) handled equation and inequality expression, exponent and log, trigonometry function and vector, series, probability, statistics, differential and integration, figures.

5. The 3rd Mathematics Curriculum (1973~1981) The 3rd mathematics curriculum was influenced by New Math, which occurred as the result of the discipline centered curriculum and mathematics modernization movement. The 3rd curriculum attempted to introduce abstract but fundamental ideas (for example, sets) early in the curriculum and to continually return to these ideas in subsequent lessons, relating, elaborating, and extending them. Bruners discovery learning was also crucial element in the 3rd curriculum. 5.1. Elementary School The 1st grade students learned the concept of relation and set that was not appeared in the 2nd mathematics curriculum (1964~1972). For the 2nd grade students, correspond relation was newly introduced. They learned unit of money. In the 3rd grade curriculum, the symbol of set was appeared. They treated of one to one correspondence in terms of function relations. The error of true value and approximate value was a special feature of the 4th grade curriculum. The whole set, complement set, empty set, relation of ratio appeared for the 5th grade students. The 6th grade students studied the law of exponent and frequency distribution table. They did not learn abacus at the 6th grade. 5.2. Middle School Ratio and unit of ratio, metric unit, statistics table, shape of basic figures which are in the 1st grade curriculum moved to elementary curriculum. However, vertical, parallel, negative number, positive number, the law of calculation, 1st order equation, coordinate plane, volume of solid figures, surface area of solid figures moved into the 1st grade curriculum from the 2nd grade curriculum. Set, algebraic structure of number system, product set and function, number of cases, and probability were newly added in the 2nd grade curriculum. In the 3rd grade curriculum, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division of fraction expression, fraction equation, ratio, projected figure were eliminated. Algebraic structure of real number system, binomial operation, residue class, 2nd order

J. Lee

equation and relation, sample survey, topological nature of figures were newly adopted in the 3rd grade curriculum. 5.3. High School Set, conditional statement, true value table, mathematical induction, flow chart, polynomial, rational expression, irrational expression, 3rd and 4th order equation, synthetic division, remainder theorem, ellipse, hyperbola, region of inequality, approximate value of integral were added in the mathematics I. Error of approximate value moved to middle school curriculum. Plane figures and its' nature moved to mathematics II. We can find 3rd and 4th order inequality expression, rational inequality, matrix, axiom structure of plane geometry, directional cosine, directional ratio, length of curve in mathematics II. Monogram, slide rule, projected figure were eliminated in mathematics II. 6. The 4th Mathematics Curriculum (1982~1988) The 4th mathematics curriculum started from the failure of New Math and the emergence of the Back to Basics Movement in the U. S. Students basic computation skills were weakened due to the structural approach to mathematics of the 3rd curriculum. Thus the 4th curriculum reduced contents, lowered the level of difficulty, and emphasized obtaining of minimal competencies in mathematics. 6.1. Elementary School The introduction of set in the 1st grade curriculum was expurgated. They adopted corresponding relation and comparing numbers by paring and making expression. The 3rd grade students treated four digit numbers calculation. The equivalent relation of sets was deleted for the 4th grade mathematics curriculum. The introduction of subset, whole set, and empty set moved from chapter of number to chapter of relation for 5th grade students. The raw of exponent was erased in the chapter of number for the 6th grade curriculum.

6.2. Middle School Addition and subtraction of binary system and quinary system, the law of calculation, and its nature, relation of two sets were expurgated for the 1st grade curriculum. Simultaneous inequalities, transformation of figures were eliminated for the 2nd grade curriculum. Corelation moved from 3rd grade curriculum to the 2nd grade curriculum. Binary operation, residue class, and sample survey were erased in the 3rd grade curriculum. 6.3. High School In the 4th mathematics curriculum, there is no new mathematical subject that added to high school mathematics curriculum. The principle of log rule, operation of function, approximate value of integral, formula of Heron were deleted in mathematics I. Axiomatic construction of plane geometry was eliminated in mathematics II. 3rd order matrix was reduced to 2nd order matrix in mathematics II. 7. The 5th Mathematics Curriculum (1989~1994) The 5th mathematics curriculum basically maintained the tradition of the 4th curriculum. The main direction of revision was to emphasize students mathematical activities in mathematics class, and to consider affective aspects of learning mathematics. From this period, keeping in step with the current social trends, the mathematics curriculum started to take the information society into account. 7.1. Elementary School The 1st grade mathematics curriculum treated finding unknown terms in simple addition and subtraction using materials. The 2nd grade mathematics curriculum emphasized the relation of multiplication and division, applying multiplication and division. Segment, half line, straight line, and congruence of segments were expurgated in the 3rd grade mathematics curriculum. Drawing figures, set, elements, subset,

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and symbols ({ }, , , ) were deleted in the 4th grade mathematics curriculum. The 5th grade mathematics introduced set, elements, subset, cup, and cap. Finding area of obtuse triangle, and regular polygon were deleted in the 5th grade mathematics curriculum. Development figures of prism and cylinder were added to the 6th grade mathematics curriculum. 7.2. Middle School Calculation of approximate value was eliminated in the 1st grade mathematics curriculum. The basic concept of circle moved from the 3rd grade curriculum to the 1st grade mathematics curriculum. The law of exponent was treated within natural number in the 2nd grade mathematics curriculum. Probability moved from the 3rd grade mathematics to 2nd grade mathematics curriculum. The 3rd grade mathematics curriculum did not handle algebraic structure, solving 2nd order equation by using graphs, position relation of basic figures. Irrational number moved from the 2nd grade to the 3rd grade curriculum. 7.3. High School The 5th mathematics curriculum for high school reduced the number of mathematics subjects. Specially, true table, true value, sum of logic, product of logic, and composite of propositions were deleted in the general mathematics. Mathematics I adopted Gauss elimination. Ellipse, hyperbola moved from general mathematics to mathematics II. 8. The 6th Mathematics Curriculum (1995~1999) The 6th mathematics curriculum is not so much different from the previous one. The 6th curriculum increasingly stresses mathematical thinking abilities by the way of fostering mathematical problem-solving abilities. This curriculum period especially emphasized the necessity of discrete mathematics in school mathematics.

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8.1. Elementary School Comparing width, weight, and volume were added to the 1st grade mathematics curriculum. The 2nd grade mathematics curriculum deleted the concept of circles. Problem solving in relation chapter was emphasized in the 3rd grade mathematics curriculum. Acute angle, obtuse angle, acute triangle, and obtuse triangle were newly appeared in the 4th grade mathematics curriculum. Set was eliminated for the 5th grade students. Parallel displacement and symmetric displacement were newly adopted in the 5th grad mathematics curriculum. Subtraction of integer was added to the 6th grade mathematics curriculum. However, abacus, regular polygon, and width were eliminated in the 6th grade mathematics curriculum. 8.2. Middle School The 1st grade mathematics curriculum expurgated equivalence, constant, tree. They reduced set, integer and rational number, calculation of expression. The 2nd grade mathematics curriculum reduced probability. Approximate value and error moved from the 1st grade to 2nd grade mathematics curriculum. The 3rd grade mathematics curriculum eliminated maximum value and minimum value of 2nd order function within limited range, applying 2nd order function, relationship of 2nd order function and 2nd order equation, and perfect square number. 8.3. High School Parabola moved from common mathematics to mathematics II. Mathematics I eliminated Gauss elimination. Mathematics I and mathematics II were separated in terms of dealing with subjects. Mathematics II added differential of inverse function and function expressed with parameters.

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9. The 7th Mathematics Curriculum (2000~2006) The core characteristics of the 7th mathematics curriculum are represented by the implementation of differentiated curriculum, which can be one of the alternative ways of alleviating such problems of our education as instruction of mathematics is carried out without considering students abilities and aptitudes in the classroom. The following will show the rationale for the revision of the 6th mathematics curriculum and the main features of the current differentiated curriculum, namely the 7th mathematics curriculum. 9.1. General Features of the 7th Curriculum The Korean educational period consists of the two periods: Compulsory Period (10 years from grade 1 to 10) and Elective Period (2 years from grade 11 to 12). Otherwise, to prevent the redundancy and inefficiency of math contents, and to pursue the consistency of mathematics education, previous school level distinction is abolished even though the distinction in terms of administration still exists. Mathematics in the Compulsory Period is organized in a stepwise and level-referenced manner that allows the teacher to consider the rate of the students cognitive development and to thereby select core contents of the curriculum based on a learning hierarchy and difficulties. Moreover, the curriculum would separate basic and enriched content to make it possible for each student to maintain his or her own learning pace and to have a creative learning experience. In the mathematics curriculum, level based differentiated curriculum manner is applied because the school subject mathematics is relatively hierarchic, structured, and creates severe individual differences among pupils in the process of instruction. Thus, the mathematics curriculum is organized and implemented in a level based differentiated curriculum manner in the Compulsory Period (from grade 1 to 10; 10 levels and each level with 2 sub-levels A and B). In Elective Period (from grade 11 to 12; 2 levels and each level with 2 sub-levels A and B), the subject selection differentiated curriculum manner is applied for the students to select their own subjects based on their own needs and

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capacities. In the mathematics curriculum, this curriculum manner is applied to all the students in grades 11 and 12. In these two grades various mathematics subjects are available such as Practical Mathematics, Mathematics I, Mathematics II, Calculus, Probability and Statistics, and Discrete Mathematics. 9.2. The Flow and Basic Structure of the 7th Curriculum For each of the two educational periods, i.e. Compulsory Period (10 years from grade 1 to 10) and Elective Period (2 years from grade 11 to 12), corresponding mathematics curriculums are developed. Each of these two mathematics curriculums are composed of 5 parts, such as characteristics, objectives, contents, teaching & learning methods, and evaluation. During the Compulsory Period (from grade 1 to grade 10), mathematics is compulsory, which means all students are required to take the same mathematics courses. But, during grades 11 and 12, tracking in mathematics is available. 9.3. Synopsis of the 7th Mathematics Curriculum The 7th mathematics curriculum is organized and implemented in a level based differentiated curriculum manner in the Compulsory Period (from grade 1 to 10; 10 levels and each level with 2 sub-levels A and B). On the other hand, in the Elective Period (from grade 11 to 12; 2 levels and each level with 2 sub-levels A and B), subject selection differentiated curriculum manner is applied for the students to select their own subjects based on their needs and capacities. 9.3.1. Compulsory Period The Compulsory Period mathematics curriculum consists of the following six content domains: Numbers and Operations, Geometric Figures, Measuring, Probability and Statistics, Letters and Expressions, and Patterns and Functions. In the domain of Numbers and Operations, students can understand the concepts of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers. Also, they can

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correctly add, subtract, multiply, and divide those numbers in the elementary and middle school levels. Also, the importance was continuously emphasized in Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000). Similarly, in our mathematics curriculum, almost every step from grade 1 to 6 contains spatial perception as an important content. This spatial perception content mainly consists of space movement related contents, so called a motion geometry, which could be instructed through the learners own positive learning activities dealing with concretely contrived geometric devices, so that they would contain purposed geometric concepts. Instruction of spatial perception is expended such an order as: experiencing the various spatial senses; operating spatial senses mentally; and utilizing and expressing the spatial sense mathematically. The second notable change is actually not about content itself but about something noteworthy in instructing which was described in the curriculum document. So to speak, in dealing with proposition proof, this curriculum urges not straight proof but referring to intuitions or to considering related problematic situations. The domain of Geometric Figures, students can understand the concepts and the nature of plane figures and solid figures. In the domain of Measuring, students can understand and apply the concepts of length, time, weight, angle, width, volume, and trigonometric rate. In the domain of Probability and Statistics, students can understand the concepts of the numbers of cases, probability, and can organize and represent data in tables and graphs. In the domain of Letters and Expressions, students can use the letters in representing mathematical ideas to solving expressions and understanding the concepts of equations and inequalities. In the area of Patterns and Functions, students can explore patterns and understand the basic concepts of correspondence, linear functions, quadratic functions, rational functions, irrational functions and trigonometric functions, and can use problem-solving strategies. 9.3.1.1. Number and Operation Domain As we can find easily in following table, the quantity of the contents of Number and Operation domain begins to steeply decrease at grade 8.

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This Number and Operation domain has been separated into two domains such as Number and Operation up to the 6th curriculum. Considering the fact that these two domains have traditionally contained main contents in elementary school mathematics, it is natural that this domain has become an abnormally large domain that is a prime consideration for teachers. In the aspect of a shift in contents occurred in those mathematics curriculums including the present curriculum, the content set is regarded as the most dynamically changed one. Thus we do not hesitate to mention sets as a representative content in discussing the changes in school mathematics curriculum in Korea. In the third curriculum initiated in 1973, sets first appeared in grade 2. After that first appearance, however, sets were continuously moved to upper grades following changes in the curriculum revise. After all, in the 7th curriculum sets disappeared in elementary school mathematics, and appeared first in the 7th grade. 9.3.1.2. Geometric Figure Domain The Geometric Figure domain, which traditionally has been a solid one, now undergoes big changes in the 7th curriculum. The first remarkable change is that spatial perception is newly introduced and emphasized especially in the elementary level. The content spatial perception was prescribed by the NCTM (1989) in Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics as a subject that should be included in the mathematics curriculum at the elementary and middle school levels. Also, the importance was continuously emphasized in Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000). Similarly, in our mathematics curriculum, almost every step from grade 1 to 6 contains spatial perception as an important content. This spatial perception content mainly consists of space movement related contents, so called a motion geometry, which could be instructed through the learners own positive learning activities dealing with concretely contrived geometric devices, so that they would contain purposed geometric concepts. Instruction of spatial perception is expended such

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an order as: experiencing the various spatial senses; operating spatial senses mentally; and utilizing and expressing the spatial sense mathematically. The second notable change is actually not about content itself but about something noteworthy in instructing which was described in the curriculum document. So to speak, in dealing with proposition proof, this curriculum urges not straight proof but referring to intuitions or to considering related problematic situations. 9.3.1.3. Measuring Domain Strongly interrelated domain with Geometric Figure is the domain Measuring. For instance, even though both domains deal with the common geometric figures Geometric Figure domain handles the constituent elements and the properties of the geometric figures. On the other hand, Measuring domain talks about the length, area, and volume of the geometric figures. 9.3.1.4. Probability and Statistics Domain In the 7th mathematics curriculum, stem-and-leaf plots have been introduced for the first time. Stem-and-leaf plots provide efficient ways of showing information, as well as comparing different sets of data. Moreover, they are very easy and interesting for the elementary students to learn. 9.3.1.5. Letters and Expressions Domain In the Letters and Expressions domain the main features of the contents are separated into two parts according to the school level. One is the problem solving which runs throughout the elementary school level (grade 1 through 6), and the other one is the equation and inequalities which runs throughout the middle and high school level (grade 7 through 10). In fact, in the elementary school level, the concept of real mathematical letters or expressions are not proper to learn and the problem solving could not either be properly included in the domain.

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Thus, the content problem solving was included in the domain just for convenience sake. Considering the fact that problem solving could not be treated as simply a mathematical content but as a way to teach and learn mathematics, it is not a proper way to locate the problem solving in the middle of the curriculum as if it would be one of the normal mathematics contents. 9.3.1.6. Patterns and Functions Domain Finding patterns in mathematics is a powerful problem-solving strategy. This pattern was newly systemized into the 7th school mathematics curriculum. Instructions of patterns in this curriculum are categorized into three topics such as: experiencing various patterns and finding rules; representing and creating patterns; and expressing patterns into mathematical rules and making use of them. Up to the 6th curriculum the function was defined in such manner as not the dependence of quantities, but the fact of the correspondence itself, on the basis of which certain objects are regarded as being assigned to other certain objects. The concept of a function is reduced to set-theoretical definitions. However, in this curriculum the function is explained as a variable quantity that is dependent upon another variable quantity. Thus the essence of the concept is the dependence of quantity. 9.3.2. Elective Period In mathematics curriculum, this selective curriculum manner is applied to all the students in grades 11 and 12. In these two grades various mathematics subjects are available such as Practical Mathematics, Mathematics I, Mathematics II, Calculus, Probability and Statistics, and Discrete Mathematics. 9.3.2.1. Practical Mathematics Practical Mathematics is an optional course offered to students who want to learn mathematics for daily life without having to complete the 10th level. This subject enables students to apply the basic concepts and

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rules of mathematics, to consider various types of problem solving in real life situations. The contents emphasize the application of mathematics in the four domains: the calculator and the computer, economic life, everyday statistics, and problem solving. The contents use easy and interesting material from real life, which are based on the mathematics lower than the 10th level. 9.3.2.2. Mathematics I Mathematics I is the first course to be offered to students who wish to study advanced mathematics after completing level 10 of Mathematics in the Compulsory Period. Through this course, students understand basic mathematical concepts, principles, and laws, and develop mathematical thinking ability, logical reasoning ability, and reasonable and creative problem-solving ability. This course is a prerequisite for Mathematics II. The contents consist of an algebra domain, including exponents and logarithms, matrixes and sequences; and analysis domain, including the limits of sequences, exponential functions, logarithmic functions; and a probability and statistics domain, including permutation and combination, probability, and statistics. 9.3.2.3. Mathematics II Mathematics II is a course to be offered to the students who want to study more advanced mathematics after Mathematics I. Through this course students can attain deeper mathematical knowledge and better develop their mathematical thinking ability, logical reasoning ability, and then develop abilities and attitudes to solve problems reasonably. This course is suitable for students who wish to study the natural sciences or technological sciences at the college level. The contents of Mathematics II consist of an algebra domain, including equations and inequalities; an analysis domain, including limits and the continuity of a function, the differentiation and integration of polynomial functions; and a geometry domain, including quadratic curves, space figures and coordinates of space.

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9.3.2.4. Differentiation and Integration Differentiation and Integration is a course designed for students who want to study advanced differentiation and integration of various functions after having completed Mathematics II. In this course students will be able to gain advanced knowledge in differentiation and integration. They will develop their mathematical thinking, logical reasoning, and problem-solving ability. This course is appropriate for students who want to study the natural sciences or technology at the college level. The contents consist of trigonometry, the limits of trigonometry, the limits of exponential functions and logarithmic functions, differentiation and integration of various functions, and the application of differentiation and integration. 9.3.2.5. Probability and Statistics Probability and Statistics is an optional course offered to students who wish to study applied probability and statistics without having to have completed level 10 mathematics. This subject enables students to improve their data processing ability and their inferential ability necessary for the information age. It will enable them to understand the statistical phenomena in society and nature and, hence, to improve their analytical ability. It is suitable for students who need to use probability and statistics in real life situations through experimental and operational activities. The contents consist of real life examples in the following four areas: descriptive statistics, probability, random variables, probability distributions, and statistical estimation, all of which are based on the first 10 levels. 9.3.2.6. Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics is offered to students regardless of whether they have completed Level 10 mathematics or not. In Discrete mathematics, using basic mathematical concepts, principles, and laws will develop the students abilities and aptitude to analyze mathematically, to think

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logically and to solve reasonably finite or discontinuous discrete problem situations. This is a course needed for students who want to have experience in discrete mathematical knowledge. The contents consist of four domains: selections and arrangements, graphs, algorithms, and decision making and optimization. For each of these domains, various real world problems should be utilized to lead students to easy and interesting discrete mathematical situations. References

1. Kang, O. K. (1997). The 7th elementary and secondary school mathematics curriculum of republic of Korea. Seoul: The Ministry of Education. [in Korea] 2. Lee, J. K. (2004). Mathematics curriculum in Korea. Seoul: KyungMoonSa. [in Korea] 3. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA.: The Author. 4. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA.: The Author. 5. Paik, S. Y. (2004). Mathematics curriculum in Korea. Paper presented at ICME10, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004. 6. Park, K. M. (1997). Mathematics curriculum in Korea. Research in Mathematical Education, 1(1), 4359. 7. Park, K. M. & Leung, K. F. S. (2002). A comparative study of the mathematics textbooks of China, England, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and the United States. Paper presented at the ICMI comparative study conference, the University of Hong Kong, 20th25th October, 2002. 8. Park, K. M. (2003). Issues related to the mathematics curriculum revision. Paper presented at the MathLove Seminar on mathematics curriculum, Seoul, 14th June, 2003. [in Korea]

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