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Cognates:True,false,andinbetween

ByDr.JonAske,DepartmentofForeignLanguages,SalemStateUniversity EnglishandSpanishshareagreatmanywordsfromcommonorigins,suchas telfonoandtelephone,whichmakethelearningofSpanishmucheasierthan learningotherlanguages.Wordsthathavethesameoriginarecalledcognates. Inlinguisticsthetermcognatereferstonativewordsindifferentlanguagesthat descendfromthesamewordinanearlier,parentlanguage,suchasEnglishfish andSpanishpez,whichmayseemunrelatedatfirstsight,butarenot.Spanishpez comesfromthewordpiscisinLatinandEnglishfishcomesfromthewordfiscinan earlierprotoGermaniclanguage,alsofrom2000yearsago.Andthesefiscand pisciscomefromyetanearlierform*piskinanearlierlanguagewecallProto Indoeuropeanspokenatleast5000yearsago. Inlanguageteaching,however,thetermcognatetypicallyreferstowordsthat havethesameorigin,whateverthatmaybe,includingwordsthathavebeentaken fromanotherlanguagethroughwhatsknownasborrowing.InthiswayEnglish leaderandSpanishlder,whichcamefromEnglishthroughborrowing,wouldbe cognatewords.ThewordcognateinEnglishandthewordcognadoinSpanish wouldbecognatestoo,eventhoughbothlanguagesborrowedthewordfrom anotherlanguage,namelyLatin!Yes,Spanishborrowedittoo,eventhough SpanishisderivedfromLatin,sincetheoriginalLatinwordcognatushadmorphed intothewordcuadobrotherinlawthroughthecenturies.Thisteachesusa veryimportantlesson:thatlanguageschangethroughtimeandthattheirwords canchangeinsound(cognatecuado)andmeaningtoo. Throughoutitshistory,EnglishhasborrowedagreatmanywordsfromLatinand LatinateorRomancelanguages(languagesthathaveevolvedfromLatin,the languageorRome).ThebulkoftheSpanishvocabularydescendedorallyand uninterruptedlyfromspoken(oral)Latinspoken2,000yearsago,givinguswords likecuadofromLatincognatus,butithasalsoborrowedextensivelyfromwritten Latininthepast1,000yearssinceSpanishbecameawrittenlanguage,muchlike Englishhasandforthesamereason,toenrichitsvocabularytomakeitasrichas Latins.(TheRomansdidittoowhentheyborrowedextensivelyfromAncient Greekmorethan2,000yearsago.)Thisexplainswhytherearesomanysimilar wordsinEnglishandSpanishwithverysimilarshapesandmeanings,suchas SpanisheducarandEnglisheducateor,aswesaw,cognateandcognado. NotallLatinwordsinEnglishweretakenfromwrittenLatin,however.Sometimes thecognatewordturnsouttohavereachedEnglishthroughoraltransmission.A fewofthesecamefromthetimewhentheancestorsofEnglishspeakerslivedas neighborsoftheRomansinEurope.Thusthewordwinewasborrowedalong withthebeveragefromtheLatinwordvinus(pronouncedwinusinLatin).Until the17thcenturyEnglishspeakerspronouncedthewordwineasweene,another 1

exampleofsoundchange.MostoftheorallytransmittedwordsthatEnglsihgot fromLatincamealongwhentheFrenchspeakingNormansinvadedEnglandin 1,066. Orallytransmittedwordsmaynotbeeasilyrecognizabletotheuntrainedeyefrom theirwrittenLatincounterparts,aswesawintheexampleofcognatusandcuado inSpanish.InEnglish,too,wefindwordslikesurvey,whichcomesfromLatin supervisare,takenfromspokenNormanFrenchabout1000yearsago.English,of course,alsohasthecognatesupervise,whichcomesfromwrittenLatinandis muchclosertotheoriginal. LatinatewordsinEnglishtakenfromwrittenLatinarecalledclassicalorlearned words(inSpanishtheyrecalledpalabrascultasorcultismos).Latinatewordsthat havecomedowntousthroughoraltransmissionandaremuchaltered,areknown aspopularwords(inSpanishtheyrecalledpalabraspatrimoniales). LatinwordsdidntalwaysreplacenativeEnglishwords,soinEnglishweoftenhave doubletsofwords,suchasgoin(Germanic)andenter(Latinate).Sometimesthe LatinatewordisfancierthantheGermaniconeand,ifSpanishhasacognate,it maybethefancyEnglishwordsSpanishcognateisamoreordinaryword. Cognatesdonotalwayshavethesamemeaning,though,andSpanishlearnersare alwayswarnedtowatchoutforfalsefriends,wordsthatlookorsoundalike,but whichdonothavethesamemeaningandthuscauselearnersproblems. Sometimestwowordslookalikenotbecauseofanycommonorigin,butbecause ofmerecoincidence,suchasEnglishpieandSpanishpiefoot,orEnglishnude andSpanishnudoknot,orblindandblindartoarmor,oronceandonce eleven.Thesewordsarenotcognates,butjustmerecuriosities. Moreoftenthannottheproblemstemsfromthefactthattwowordsdohavethe sameorigin,butthroughtheagesthemeaninghaschangedforoneorbothof thewords.Wesometimescallthesefalsecognatesorfalsefriends.Thisiswhat wewillbelookingatinthesepages. However,whatseemtobefalsecognatestotheuntrainedeye,atsecondglance arereallynotsofalse,ifwehappentoknowsomethingabouttheoriginalmeaning andaboutthehistoryoftheword.Thepointofthishandoutistolookintothe natureofthesesocalledfalsefriendsandseewhatwecanlearnfromthe differencesandmaybeevenmakepairsofwordsseemfriendliertoeachother. SometimesEnglishSpanishbilingualsstartusingaSpanishfalsecognatewiththe meaningthatithasinEnglishbutwhichitneverhadinSpanish.Learnersof Spanisharesometimesguiltyofthis,butsoarenativeSpanishspeakerswhoalso speakEnglish.ThisresultsinmanyexamplesofwhatiscalledSpanglish:for exampleusingaplicarinSpanishtomeanapplyinthesenseofapplyingforajobor ascholarship. Thefollowinglistcontainsagreatmanyofthesefalseandsemifalsefriends.

Thefirstword(blue)istheSpanishoneandthesecondone(green)theEnglishone.

ApologavsApology Apologareferstodefenseoraeulogy. Apology=unadisculpaorexcusa. AprobarvsApprove Aprobarmeanstoapprove(of),consentto,orendorse,aswellastopassatest orclass. Approve=aprobar,parecerbien,estardeacuerdo,darelvistobueno; acreditar ArenavsArena<Lat.arenasand Arenameanssand. Arena=anfiteatro,redondel,plaza.Romanarenaswerecoveredwithsand,like bullrings(plazasdetoros)nowadays. ArgumentovsArgument<Lat.argumentumproof,evidence,token,subject, contents<argueretoprove,argue Argumentomeansargumentinthesenseofreasoning(asinacourtroom). Argumentinthesenseofdisagreementtranslatesasunadiscusin,pelea, disputa,orpolmica. AsesinovsAssassin<Arabichaanhashishusers Asesinocanrefertoanassassinaswellasnonpoliticalmurdererorkiller.It's alsoanadjective:murderous,e.g.criminalasesinomurderouscriminal. Assassin=asesino. AsistenciavsAssistance<Lat.assistere<ad+sistercausetostand Asistenciausuallymeansattendance,thoughitcanalsomeanassistanceasin prestarasistenciaprovidehelp. Assistanceismostcommonlytranslatedbyayudaorauxilio. AsistirvsAssist<Lat.assistere<ad+sistercausetostand Asistirmeanstoattend. Assisttranslatesasayudar. AtendervsAttend<Lat.attenderetostretchtoward,giveheedto<ad+ tendere AtendercanmeantoattendinLatinAmerica,butinSpainitmeanstopay attentionto,toheed,ortocarefor. Attend=asistir. AutorvsAuthor<Lat.auctor(n.)<augeretoincrease,originate Autorcanrefertoanauthororwriteraswellasthecreatorofsomething,such asapainting,ortheperpetratorofacrime(elautordelcrimen). Authornearlyalwaysindicatesawriter:unautor,unaautora.

Absoluto(&absolutamente)vsAbsolute(&absolutely)<Lat.absoltus unconditional,pastparticipleofabsolveretoloosen,setfree,absolve Absolutomeansabsolute,utter,complete,butenabsolutomeansnotatall,by nomeans,noway. Absolute=absoluto.Absolutely=completamente,totalmente,absolutamente. TheinterjectionAbsolutely!=Claro!Porsupuesto!Sinduda!Sinlugara dudas! ActualvsActual<LateLat.actualisactive,practical<Lat.actusact,action, performance Actualmeanscurrentorpresent:ElpresidenteactualviveenMadridThe currentpresidentlivesinMadrid.Actualmentemeanscurrently,atpresent,or now. Actualmeansverdaderoorefectivo.Actuallycanbetranslatedbyrealmente, enrealidad,orenefecto. AdvertenciavsAdvertisement:nounsderivedfromLat.ad+verteretoturn to/towards Advertenciaisawarning,pieceofadvice,reminder,orpreface;theverbis advertirandithastwosensestowarn andtonotice Advertisement=unanuncio. AgonavsAgony<LateLat.agonia<Gk.agniastruggle Agona=deaththroes,dyingmoments. Agonyreferstoterriblephysicalormentalpain:doloragudo,angustia. AlteradovsAltered<Med.Lat.alteraretomakeother<Lat.altertheother Alteradocanmeanchangedoralteredaswellasangryorupset. Altered=modificado,cambiado,alterado. AmericanovsAmerican[America=thecontinentvs.America=theUSA] AmericanousuallyreferstoanyonefromtheAmericancontinent. American=estadounidense(adjectiveofEstadosUnidosUnitedStates) AplicarvsApply<Lat.applicarejoin,fix,orattachto<ad+plicfold,twist together Aplicarmeanstoapplysomething,likepaint,acream,atheory,orsanctions. Applicationreferstotheactofapplyingoneofthesethings. Apply=aplicarwhenitisatransitiveverb;therelatednounapplicationthen translatesasaplicacin.Asanintransitiveverb,ithasmanytranslations:apply forajobsolicitaruntrabajo(noun:solitudeapplication);toapplyoneselfto isaplicarse;toapplyinthesenseofbeapplicableisseraplicableor corresponder,referirse. 3

BachilleratovsBachelor<Lat.Med.baccalaureatus<baccalaureus<baccalarius youngmanaspiringtoknighthood<baccalaurilaurelberry(symbolofvictory) BachilleratoistheequivalentofahighschooldiplomaintheUSorAlevelsin theUK;unbachillerisapersonwithsuchadegree(ratherarchaic). Bachelorreferstoanunmarriedman:unsoltero.Abachelor'sdegreeisuna licenciatura. BillnvsBillion(CoinedbyJehanAdamin1475) BillninSpanish,likeinmostoftheworld,isamillionmillion (1,000,000,000,000),whichisatrillionintheUS(butabillioninUK). Billion,foranAmerican=milmillones:1,000,000,000. BlancovsBlank<Germanicblankgleaming,white,blinding BlancoisusuallytheSpanishwordforthecolorwhitebutcaninsomeinstances betranslatedbyblank:unapginaenblancoablanksheetofpaper. Blankisanadjectivemeaningenblanco,liso,orsinadorno. BufetevsBuffet<Frenchbuffet<?Med.Lat.bufetumboard,cupboard,counter Bufeteisadeskoralawyer'soffice. Buffetreferstounacantina,unbuffetlibre,orunacomidabuffet. CmaravsCamera<Lat.camerachamberorbedchamber<Greek kamaraanythingwithanarchedcover Cmaracanmeanacamera,acameraoperator,orachamber.InMexico recmaraisanotherwordforbedroom(orthefurnituretherein). Camerausuallyreferstoastillcamera:unacmara,unamquinafotogrfica. AnEnglishcognatewordthatcamethroughFrenchischamber. CampovsCamp<Lat.campusopenfield,levelplain Campomeanscountry(side)andfield. Campreferstouncampamentoandsometimesbando(asinfromthesame camp) CargovsCargo<LateLat.carricaretoload<carrusfourwheeledwagon Cargoreferstoapostorpositionaswellasachargeinthesenseof responsibility:hacersecargodetotakecharge,estaralcargotobein charge;andfinancesandlaw:sincargofreeofcharge,retirarloscargos contratodropthechargesagainst. Cargo=cargamento,carga.EnglishgotcargofromSpanishcargaload,from cargartoload.AnEnglishcognatewordthatcamefromFrenchischarge. CarpetavsCarpet<OldItaliancarpitahairyblanket Carpeta=folder(computerorotherwise);alsorecordjacket/sleeveandafew otherlocalizedmeanings.SpanishgotthiswordfromFrenchcarpettesmall tapestryorcarpet Carpetisunaalfombraorunamoqueta. 5

CarreravsCareer<Lat.<LateLat.carrria<carrus'wheeledvehicle'. Carrerausuallyreferstorunning,race;acareer;oruniversitystudies. Careerindicatesunacarreraprofesionalorunaprofesin. CartavsCart/Card<Lat.charta<AncientGreekkhartspapyrus,paper Cartareferstoa(postal)letter,document,deed,charter,map,ormenu. Acardisusuallyunatarjeta:postalcard=tarjetapostal;creditcard=tarjetade crdito.Aplayingcardisunacarta(jugaralascartas=playcards).Cartis accidentallysimilartocartaandittranslatesasuncarro,unacarreta,un carretn,orunacarretilla ChocarvsChoke<? Chocarnormallymeanstoshockorstartle(aperson),tocollide(twovehicles), toclink(glasses)ortoshake(hands).ItprobablycomesthroughFrenchfrom ProtoGermanic*skukjanan,*skukanantojoltandisakintoEnglishshock. Choke=sofocarseoratragantarse.<OldEnglish*c*ocian,from,perfective prefix+coce,cacejaw,cheek ColegiovsCollege<Lat.collegiumsociety<collgacolleague,partner, associate,fellow Colegioreferstoahighschool,usuallyprivate.ApublichighschoolinSpainis uninstituto. Collegecanbetranslatedbycolegioonlywhenitrefersto"colleges"asin divisionsofaschool.Otherwise,college=universidadorescuelasuperior. ColoradovsColored<pastparticipleofLat.colrrepaint,color<Lat.color color Coloradomeansredorreddish,esp.intheface:estscoloradoyoureredin theface. Colored=decolor. ComplexinvsComplexion<Lat.complexionacombination,connection,period <complexus,pastparticipleofcomplecti,toentwine,encompass Complexinreferstoone'sconstitution,makeup,temperament,orphysical build. Complexion(quality,colour,orappearanceofskinontheface)=latez,elcutiz, orlapiel. Compromiso(&comprometer)vsCompromise<LateLat.compromissuma compromise,originallyamutualpromisetorefertoarbitration<compromissus, pastparticipleofcompromitteretomakeamutualpromisetoabidebythe decisionofanarbiter<comtogether+promitteretopromise Compromisoisanobligation,commitment,promise,oragreement. Compromiseishardtotranslatewithoneword;asanounitcanbeexpressed asunaavenencia,unacuerdomutuo,unasconcesionesrecprocas,oruna solucinintermedia;unasolucindecompromiso.Theverbwouldtranslateas 6

llegaraunacuerdomutuo,llegaraunarreglo.Comprometertranslatesthe othersenseofcompromise,namelythatofendangeringorputtinginadifficult situation,committingsomeonetosomething. ConductorvsConductor<Med.Lat.conductus,past.part.ofcondcerelead, bringordrawtogether,fromcon+dclead Conductorequalsconductorwhenreferringtoscience:unconductorde electricidadconductorofelectricity.ItcanalsomeanadriveroraTVorradio presenter. Conductorofanorchestraisun(a)director(a),andtrainconductorisun(a) revisor(a). ConexinvsConnection<Lat.connexio"aconclusion,bindingtogether"< connect,alternativespellingofcnect"Ibindtogether"<co"together"and nect"Ibind" Conexinisaphysicalorlogicalconnection. Connectionwhenreferringtohuman/emotionalconnectionsisunarelacin. ConferenciavsConference<Lat.cnferrebear/carrytogether Conferenciacanmeanconference,meeting,lecture,speech,orphonecall. Conference=unaconferencia,unareunin,unaasamblea,oruncongreso. ConstipacinvsConstipation(inLatinconstipatummeantstuffedup,bunchedup) Constipacinanditssynonymconstipadobothrefertoacoldorcatarrh. Constipation=elestreimiento. ContestarvsContest<Lat.contestaritocalltowitness<com+testiswitness Contestarmeanstoanswerorreply. Contestasaverbmeansimpugnar,atacar,disputar,orcontender. ConvenientevsConvenient<Lat.convenirecometogether,besuitable Convenientemeanssuitable,fitting,proper,useful,oradvantageous. Convenientmeanscmodo,prctico,til,oraccesible. CopavsCup<LateLat.cuppa<?Lat.cpatub Copa=aglassorgoblet,analcoholicdrink,atrophy(laCopadelMundo WorldCup). Cup=unataza. CopiavsCopy<Med.Lat.copia<Lat.copiaabundance(cf.copious) Copiaisaphotopcopyorotherduplicate. Copycanalsomeanunejemplar(ofabook)orunnmero(ofamagazine). CorajevsCourage<OldFrenchcorage<Lat.corheart Corajecanmeancourageaswellasanger. Couragecanbetranslatedbyelcorajeaswellaselvalor,lavalenta,los nimos,andlasfuerzas. 7

CorrespondervsCorrespond<Lat.comwith+respondretoanswerto Correspondermeansthingsliketocorrespond,tally,fitin,match,orbelong. Correspondtranslatestocorresponderonlyinthesenseofagreeingwithor matching(e.g.,thiscorrespondswithourthoughts).Whenreferringtoa correspondencebymail,theSpanishtranslationisescribirseorestaren correspondenciacon. CuestinvsQuestion<Lat.quaestio<quaereretoseek,ask Cuestinisamatter/issue/questiontoberesolved. Questionistranslatedbycuestinwhenreferringtoanissue,orunapregunta whenaskingaquestion. CultovsCult<Lat.cultuscare,adoration<colerecultivate Cultoasanounitcanrefertoareligioussectortoareligiousservice (=worship).Asanadjective,itmeansculturedorrefined,highbrow,learnd. Cult=unasecta. DamnificadovsDamned<Lat.damnumharm,cf.Spanishdao Damnificado=victim,injuredparty;fromtheverbdamnificartoinjure,harm, damage(cf.thenearoppositeindemnifyinEnglish). Damnedmeanscondenadoormaldito. Decepcin/DecepcionarvsDeception/Deceive(<de+capereseize/takefrom,cf. captive) Decepcin=disappointment.Decepcionar=todisappoint. Deception=unengao,unfraude.Todeceive=engaar,defraudar. DefraudarvsDefraud<dfraudre=cheat,deceive Defraudarcanmeantodefraudorcheataswellastodisappointorletdown. Defraudmeansestafarordefraudar. DelitovsDelight[notcognates] Delito(<delictumfault,offense<dlinquere)referstoacrime,offence,or misdeed. Delight(<delectaredelight,please<delicereallure)=elplacer,eldeleite, elencanto,orladelicia.Todelight=encantarordeleitar. DepartamentovsDepartment<OldFrenchdepartirdivide Departamentomeansdepartment,section;office;compartment;province;or apartment. Department=departamento,seccin,ministerio. DesgraciavsDisgrace<Lat.disapart+grtiafavor,charm,thanks,grace Desgraciameansmisfortune,mishap,accident,setback,orbadluck. Disgracereferstoladeshonraorignominia.

DeshonestovsDishonest<O.Fr.deshoneste<Lat.dehonestusvulgar,lowclass; unbecoming<de+honestushonorable,reputable,distinguised,respected Deshonestodescribingapersonitcanmeandishonest,untrustworthy, cheating,andevenlying;talkingaboutactsorwordsitcanmeanindecentor lewd:unaproposicindeshonestaisanindecentproposal Dishonest=pocohonrado,fraudulento. DespertarvsDesperate[notcognates] Despertarmeanstowakeup,bothfigurativelyandliterally,andrequiresa directobject.Tosay"I'mwakingup"inthesenseofgettingoutofbed,you needtousethereflexiveform,despertarse. Desperate=desesperado. DestituidovsDestitute<Lat.destitutus,p.p.ofdestitureabandon,deprive Destituidomeansremovedordismissedfromoffice. Destitute=indigente,desamparado,necesitado,orenlamiseria. DiscovsDisco<Lat.discus<Gk.diskusdisk,quoit,platter DiscoAsidefromdisco(teque),ithasnumeroustranslations:disk,discus,traffic light,andaudiorecord,CD. Disco(shortforFr.discoteque)=discoteca,disco,orsaladebaile. DiscusinvsDiscussion<Lat.discussus,p.p.ofdiscuteretostrikeorshakeapart, breakup&inMedievalLat.examine,discuss<disapart+quateretoshake Discusincanbeasimplediscussion,butmorecommonlyitrefersto somethingmoreintense,likeadebate,dispute,orargument. Discussionisequivalenttodiscusinordeliberaciones. DiscutirvsDiscuss<Lat.discutere<dis+quatereshakeoff Discutirisstrongerthandiscuss;morelikedebateorargue. Discuss=hablarde,tratarde,comentar. DisgustovsDisgust<Lat.dis+gustusapart+taste/tasting Disgustoisnotasstrongasdisgust;itmeansannoyance,displeasure,grief,or trouble. Disgustreferstorepugnanciaoraversin. EcharvsEcho[notcognates] Echarhasmanymeanings,includingtothrow,toput,topour,togive,tocut, andtopush.<Lat.iactrethrow(cf.Eng.eject) Echomeansresonar,repetir,orhacereco.<Lat.echo<Anc.Greek(kh) <(kh),sound EditorvsEditor<Lat.editus,p.p.ofedere,bringforth,produce,fromex,out+ dare,togive(+nounofagentsuffixor). Editorisanadjective:publishing,andanoun:publisheroreditor. Editorcanbetranslatedbyeditor,redactor,ordirector(derevistaoperidico) 9

EducacinvsEducation<educaretorear,educate<educeretoleadforth Educacinhasabroadermeaningthaneducation.TheSpanishword'sbest translationisupbringing,whichincludesbothschooleducationaswellaswhat achildlearnsathome. Educationisbesttranslatedbyformacinorenseanza. EducadovsEducated[seeabove] Educadomeanswellmannered,polite,orcultivated,fromtheverbeducarto raise,bringup,rear. Educatedisfromtheverbtoeducate:formarorinstruir. EfectivovsEffective<Lat.effectvuspractical<effectus,pastparticipleof efficere(seeeffect)</exoutof+faceredo,make Efectivomeansrealoractual.Enefectivomeansincash.Efectivosaremilitary forcesor(police)officers;theadverbefectivamentemeansindeed,really Effective=eficaz. ElevadorvsElevator<Lat.elevatus,p.p.ofelevare<eout+levarelift ElevadormeanselevatoronlyinplaceslikeMexico,thoughunelevadorde granosisagrainelevatoranywhere. Elevator=unascensor(<Lat.ascensorpersonwhoascends;rider,charioteer EmbarazadavsEmbarrassedtheoriginisdisputed,butperhapsEng.embarrassed <Frenchembarrasserembarrasser,"toblock"or"toobstruct",orfiguratively,"to putoneinadifficultsituation"<Port./Sp.embaraainanoose/rope>inadifficult situation;inSpanishembarazadaacquiredthespecializedmeaningofpregnant(cf. unwantedpregnancy) Embarazadanowadaysitmeansjustpregnant(adj.).Itcanalsobeanoun:una embarazada=apregnantwoman,anexpectantmother. Embarrassedisavergonzado,molesto,orincmodo,cohibido;beembarrassed is:tenervergenzaandinsomecountriesternerpena EmocionalvsEmotional<Lat.emotus,p.p.ofemovretomoveout,remove< e/exout+movretomove Emocionaladj.havingtodowithemotion,e.g.estadoemocionalemotional state;Emocionantemeansexciting,thrilling,ormoving;emocionadois moved,overcomewithemotion Emotionalindicatessomethingthatisafectivo,emocional,oremotivo,or someonethatissentimental. EquivocadovsEquivocal<Lat.aequivocus<aequiequiequal+voxvocvoice Equivocadomeanswrong,mistaken:nmeroequivocado:wrongnumber; equivocarsetomakeamistake,dothewrongthing;equivocacinmistake Equivocalisequvocoorambiguo;equivocationisevasiva,subterfugio.

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EventualvsEventual<Lat.ventusanevent,occurrence<veniretohappen, tocomeout</exoutof,from+venirecome Eventualmeansfortuitous,possible(notcertain),contingent,precarious(e.g. empleoeventual). Eventual=final(resulting),definitivo,consiguiente. ExcitarvsExcite<Lat.excitarecallout,arouse,stimulate,frequentativeof excierecallout,arouse,excite)<exout+cierecall,summon Excitarisnowadayslargelyrestrictedtomeantoexcitesexually,whenusedfor people(thoughnotnecessarily).Samethingforthederivedadjectiveexcitado. Excitewhentalkingaboutsomethingyou'relookingforwardtoisentusiasmar orprovocar.Althoughexcitedcanbeexcitado,itisusuallybesttranslatedas entusiasmado,ilusionado;ansioso,nervioso;alborotado,revolucionado. xitovsExit<Lat.exitusexit<ex+iregoout xitomeanssuccess:agranxitoverysuccessful.Originallyitmeantresult, outcome,andfromthereitcametomeangoodresults=success. Exitisunasalida(theoldSpanishcognatewasejida). FbricavsFabric<Lat.fabricaworkshop,art,productofart,structure;productof aclothworkshop,fabric<faberartisan;workman Fbricaisafactory,plant,ormill. Fabriciseltejidoorlatela. FactoravsFactoryMed.Lat.factoria<Lat.factormaker<factusmade< faceremake Factoracanmeanafactory(insomeSpanishspeakingcountries),butismore commonlyatradingpost. Factory=unafbrica. FacultadvsFacultyMedievalLat.facultasbranchoflearning<Lat.facultas capability,ability,skill<facilitaseasiness,facility,etc.(cf.Sp.facilidad) Facultadreferstomentalfaculty,powerorability,orauniversitydepartment. Facultyinreferencetoagroupofteachersiselprofesorado. FaltavsFault<Lat.Vulg.fallta<Lat.fallita,pp.offalleredeceive,slipby, disappoint Faltaisalack,want,need,absence,shortage,failure,orshortcoming. Afault(imperfection)isundefecto,undesperfecto,orunaimperfeccin.Fault (blame)islaculpa. FamiliarvsFamiliar<Lat.familiafamily Familiarasanounitreferstoarelative.Asanadjectiveittypicallymeans pertainingtothefamily(familiar,domestic,informal,plain,orcolloquial).In somecontextsithasthemeaningithasinEnglish:meesfamiliaritsounds

familiar,meresultafamiliar;theverbfamiliarizarsederivesfromthislatter sense:tofamiliarizeoneselfwith,togetusedtosomething Familiarisonlyanadjective:occasionally=familiar,butitsbesttranslatedas conocido,comn,consabido,ntimo;be/gettoo/sofamiliar=tomarse confianzasorlibertades. FastidiosovsFastidiousadj.<Lat.fastidiosuspassivesense:thatfeelsdisgust: disdainful,scornful,fastidious;activesense:thatcausesdisgust:disgusting, loathsome<fastidiumdisgust(cognatewithSp.hasto);theEnglishmeaningis derivedfromthepassivesense,whereastheSpanishoneisderivedfromtheactive sense. Fastidiosomeansannoyingorboring.ItcanmeanfastidiousinLatinAmerica; itsfeltasderivedfromtheverbfastidiartobother,pester,upset Fastidiousmeansescrupuloso. FirmavsFirmSp.firmasignature<firmaraffirm;sign;Eng.firm(noun)<Ger. firmabusiness<Ital.firmasignature(likeSpanish)(Eng.firm(adj.<Lat.firmus steady) Firmacanrefertoafirm,butmorecommonlymeansasignature. Firmasanadjectivemeansfirme,slido,duro,seguro.Asanoun,itcanbe translatedbyunafirmaorunaempresa. FiscalvsFiscalLat.fiscalis(adj.)<Lat.fiscus(noun)treasury Fiscalmeansfiscalortaxrelatedasanadjective.Asanoun,however,itrefers toadistrictattorneyorpublicprosecutor. Fiscal=fiscal. FormalvsFormal<Lat.formalis,adj.offormaform Formalmeansformalwhenreferringtoevents,butitmeansreliable, dependable,responsible,orseriouswhenreferringtopeople. Formalmeansformal,solemne,oficial,or,whenreferringtoclothing,de etiqueta. FracasovsFracas<Italianfracasso<Lat.infra+cassusempty,lacking,useless Fracasoisafailureordisaster. Fracasisunegrescaorunareyerta. FtbolvsFootball<Engl.foot+ball Ftbolreferstosoccer(inAmericanEnglish);thewordftbolcomesfromthe Englishwordfootball,whichiswhatsocceriscalledinEngland,thecountry wherethesportoriginated. Football=elftbolamericano. FtilvsFutile<Lat.ftilis(adj.)futile,vain,worthless,useless Ftilmeanstrivial,trifling. Futilemeansintil,vano,orinfructuoso. 12

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GrabarvsGrab[notcognates] Grabar<Fr.graverengrave,carve(<Gmnk.):istoengrave,record,or impress. Grab<Gmn.grabbentosnap:meansasir,coger,orarrebatar. GraciosovsGracious<Lat.gratiosusenjoyingfavor,agreeable<gratia "kindness,favour,esteem"<grtuspleasing;themeaninghaschanged somewhatinbothEnglishandSpanish. Graciosomeansfunnyorcute. Gracious=gentil,corts,orrefinado. GroseravsGrocery<Lat.grossusbig,thick,large;coarse;bymetaphorical extensiondifferentmeaningsarosefromthiswordwhichledtothecurrent meanings Grosera<gruesothick,ordinary,coarse<Lat.grossus=itseemstofollow theapatternonmostSpanishwordsforstores,butinfactitrefersonlytoan actofrudeness,crudeness,orvulgarity.Thepersonwhoengagesinthis behavioriscalledgrosero. GroceryStore<Fr.grosseriewholesale<Lat.grossus=tiendade abarrotes/comestibles,bodega,orabacera,dependingonwhatcountry. HonestovsHonest<Lat.honestushonorable<honos,honorhonor Honestomeanssincere,honorable,butalsodecent,modest. Honest=sincero,franco,honesto,honrado. HumorvsHumor<Lat.(h)umorbodyfluid,humour Humormeanshumorormood:debuenhumorinagoodmood,demal humorinabadmood Humorreferstograciaorhumor.Senseofhumor=sentidodelhumor. IdiomavsIdiom<Lat.idioma<Gk.(idioma),apeculiarity,property,a peculiarphraseology,individualpeculiarityofLanguage,idiom Idiomareferstoalanguage(broadeningoftheoriginalmeaning) Idiom=modismo,giro,expresinidiomtica;lenguaje,estilo IgnorarvsIgnore<Lat.ignorare<ignarusignorant,unknown<innot,neg.+ gnoscereknow Ignorarmeanstonotknowortobeunawareof(originalmeaning) Ignorehascometomeansomethinglikepretendnottonotice:nohacercaso de,desatender,ordejaraunlado. InsultovsInsult<Lat.insultretojumpat,insult<salretojump Insultomeansinsultinmostplaces,butinMexicoitcanalsoreferto indigestionorastomachache. Insult=insulto. IntroducirvsIntroduce<Lat.intrdcere<intr+dcinside+lead,pull 13

Introducirmeanstoputinside;introduceonlyinthesenseofintroducinga topic. Introducecanmeantointroduceatopicoraperson.Thelatteristranslatedby presentarinSpanish. JubilacinvsJubilation<Lat.ibiltiashoutingforjoy Jubilacinreferstoretirement:boththeactofretiringandapension. Jubilation=jbilo. LaborvsLabor<Lat.laborwork Laborcanmeananykindofwork:paidwork,chores,needlework,etc. Laborreferstoeltrabajo(theactualwork)orlamanodeobra(theworkers). LargovsLarge<Lat.largusgenerous,plentiful Largomeanslong. Large=grandeorimportante. LecturavsLecture<Med.Lat.lectrareading<lectusread<legeretoread Lecturareferstotheactofreadingorreadingmaterial. Lecture=unaconferencia,unaexplicacin,orunsermoneo. LetravsLetterLat.litteraletterofthealphabet;inplural,"epistle Letrarefersonlytoaletterofthealphabet. Letterisunletra(ofthealphabet)orunacarta(thatyouwritetoafriend). Librera/LibrerovsLibrary<Lat.librariumbookcase,chestforbooks<librarius concerningbooks<libertheinnerbarkoftrees","paper","parchment","book Libreraisabookstore,whilelibreroreferstoabooksellerorbookcase. Libraryreferstounabiblioteca. LujuriavsLuxury<Lat.luxuriarankness,luxury<luxusextravagance,luxury Lujuria=lust,lewdness,excess. Luxury=ellujo(lujocomesfromluxus). MamavsMama<Lat.mammaabreast/Reduplicationofma;atrendpresentin manyIndoEuropeanlanguages,probablywithultimateorigininbabytalk Mamareferstoabreast. Mama=mam(althoughmammominSpanishmustcomefrommama,the shiftinthestresswasprobablyduetoinfluenceofotherlanguages) MangovsMango[notcognates,notrelated] Mangocanmeanmangothefruitaswellasahandle(asofaknife)<Lat. mancusadj.ofthehand<manushand. Mango=mango(thefruit)<Portuguesemanga,probablyfromMalayalam (ma)orTamil (mky) Marca/MarcovsMark<LateLat.marca<Germanicmarkoboundary,boundary marker 14

Marcaisamark(asinaspotorline)aswellasabrand,make,orlabel.In sports,unamarcaisarecordorbesttime.Unmarcoisa(picture)frame,goal, setting,orframework. Markcanbetranslatedbyunamancha(aspot)orunaseal(asign). MasavsMass<Lat.massalump,dough Masacanmeanmass(intermsofpeopleandvolume),aswellasdough. Massismasainphysics;inreferencetochurchislamisa(fromLateLat.missa, nounuseoffemininepastparticipleofclassicalLat.mitteretosend). MatarvsMate[notecognates] Matarmeanstokill. Mate=asanounisunmacho/unahembraforanimals,uncompaero/una compaeraforpeople.Tomatemeansaparearorunir. MayorvsMayor<Lat.maiorgreater,larger(FromProtoIndoEuropean*mag great+*yos(comparativesuffix) Mayorasanadjectivemeansmain,major,larger,older.Asanounintheplural itcanmeanadults(losmayores). Mayor=elalcaldeorlaalcadesa. MolestarvsMolest<Lat.molestaretobother,annoy<molestusburdensome, annoying<molesaburden,difficulty,labor,trouble Molestarmeanstoannoyorbother. Molest=acosarsexualmente. MotivovsMotive<Lat.motivus<motus,past.part.ofmovretomove Motivoisn'tnecessarilythesamethingasmotive(whichtendstohavea negativeconnotation,like"motiveforthemurder");it'smorelikereasonor cause. Motive=mvil,motivos,orintencin. NaturalvsNatural<Lat.ntrlis<ntranature<ntus,perfectparticipleof nscortobeborn Naturalasanadjectivemeansnatural,fresh(withfruit),andillegimate(with children).Asanounitmeansnatureornative. Naturalcanbetranslatedbynatural,normal,innato,orbiolgico(withfamily members). Negocio/negociarvsNegotiation/negotiate:negotiate/negociar<Lat.negotiatus, pastparticipleofnegotiaritocarryonbusiness<negotiumbusiness<negnot+ otiumleisure Negocioreferstoabusiness,abusinessdeal,ortransaction. Negotiationisunanegociacin(negotiate=negociar). NombrevsNumber[notcognates] Nombremeansnameorsometimesnoun(sustantivo).<Lat.nominename 15

Numberisunnmero<Lat.numerusnumber NoticiavsNotice<Lat.notitiaacquaintance,awareness<notusknown Noticiaisanewsitemorpieceofnews;noticiasmeansnewsorinformation. Notice:isaletrero(sign),aviso(warning),preaviso(priornotice),oranuncio (announcement) OcasinvsOccasion<Lat.occasio,occasionopportunity<occideretofall down<ob+cadere Ocasinisusuallyachanceoropportunity.Itcanalsomeancauseorreason, andinsomecountriesitreferstoabargain. Occasionreferstounavez,unaoportunidad,unacontecimiento,unarazn,or unmotivo. OcultovsOccult<Lat.occultushiddenaway<occuleretocoverup<ob+ culerecover,hide Ocultoadj.thatcanmeanhidden,concealed,orsecret,aswellasoccult. Occult=noun,ocultoormisterioso. OficialvsOfficialadj.<Lat.officiumduty,service OficialasanadjectiveisthesameasinEnglish.Asanoun,itreferstoamilitary officeroraskilledworker. Officialasanounistypicallyunfuncionario(governmentofficial). OficiovsOfficeLat.officiumtask,business,duty,officialduty,office,court Oficio=tradeorfunction,religiousservice/mass,oranofficialletter. Officeisunaoficina,undespacho. OrdinariovsOrdinary<Lat.rdinriusregular,orderly<rdorder Ordinariocanmeanordinaryaswellascommonorcoarse(inreferencetoa person) Ordinary=normalorcorriente. PanvsPan[notcognates] Pan=bread(<Lat.panisbread) Panisunacazuela,cacerola,olla,orsartn(fryingpan)(<Old.Eng.panne<Lat. patina'dish,pan'<Greekpatan) Papa/PapvsPapa Papameanspotatowhenit'sfeminine(exceptinSpainwhereitspatata)and popewhenit'smasculine.PapisequivalenttopapaordadinEnglish. Papa=pap. ParientevsParent<Lat.parens/parent,pres.part.ofpareretobringforth,give birthto,orproduce(cf.Spanishparir) Parienteisanyrelative Parent=elpadreorlamadreonly. 16

PatrnvsPatron<Lat.patrnusprotector<pater"father" Patrncanindicateabossorowneraswellasapatternorstandard. Patron=patrocinador,mecenas(ofthearts),cliente(customer),orpatrono (patronsaint) PlagiovsPlague[notrelated] Plagioisplagiarism.<Lat.plagum<plagireplagiarize Plaguereferstolapeste,laplaga,orelfastidio.<Lat.plagablow PrcticamentevsPractically<LateLat.practicusactive<AncientGreek (praktiks),oforpertainingtoactionorbusiness,active,practical Prcticamentemeanspracticallyinthesenseof"inapracticalway"or"in practicalterms."Itshouldnotbeusedtomeanalmost. Practically=casi. PrecisovsPrecise<Lat.praecisus,p.p.ofpraecideretocutoff(prae+caedere) Precisocanmeanprecise,correct,ornecessary. Precise=precisoorexacto. PresentevsPresent Presente=presentwhentalkingabouttimeorpresence. Presentmeaning"gift"isunregalo(<Lat.praesentaretopresent). PreservativovsPreservative<Lat.praebefore+servaretokeep;observe Preservativoindicatesacondom. Preservativeisunconservante. PretendervsPretend<Lat.praetendereputforward,holdout,frompraepre, before+tenderestretch Pretendermeanstoaspire,expect,claim:EllapretendeserricaShe claims/attemptstoberich.Archaicuse:towoo(cf.pretendiente=suitor). Pretendistranslatedbyfingirorsimular. PrivadovsPrivate<Lat.prvtus,pastparticipleofprivarebereave,deprive, release<prvussingle,individual,peculiar Privadomeansprivateasinexclusive(suchasaschoolorclub). Privateisfairlygeneralit'sbasicallytheoppositeofpublicandcanbe translatedbyprivado,personal,secreto,ntimo,orparticular. ProcurarvsProcure<Lat.procurretotakecareof<profor+curacare Procurarusuallymeanstotry,attempt,andtomanage(todosomething),e.g. procurabairsiempreItriedtoalwaysgo.Inmorefancylanguageitmay meantoprocure,obtain. Procure=obtener,conseguir. QuitarvsQuit<Med.Lat.quitresetfree<quitefreeof,released Quitarmeanstotakeaway,remove(getridof).Quitarse=takeoff(clothing). 17

Quit=dejar,abandonar,salirde.Toquitone'sjob=abandonarelpuesto, dimitir.Toquitsmoking=dejardefumar. RarovsRare<Lat.rarus"loose,spacedapart,thin,infrequent" Rarocanmeanrare(uncommon),butmorecommonlymeansoddorstrange. Rare=pococomnorexcepcional.Englishrare=partiallycooked<Germanic hrreboiledlightly RealvsReal<1)LateLat.relisactual<rsthing;2)Lat.rglisregal,royal Realcanmeanreal(true)(from1)aswellasroyal(from2). Realmeansreal(true),verdadero,autntico,orlegtimo(from1). RealizarvsRealize<Lat..relisactual Realizarmeanstorealizeonlyinthesenseoftomakereal,toattain,orto fulfill,carryout(execute),make(viaje/visita),conduct(test/interview). Realizecanmeanrealizar,butalsodarsecuentade,comprender,&reconocer. RecetavsReceipt<Lat.recepta,pastpart.ofreciperereceive Receta=recipeor(doctors)prescription. Receipt=unrecibo. RecoleccinvsRecollection<Lat.recollectus,pastparticipleofrecolligereto collectagain<re+colligeretogather Recoleccinisacollection,harvest,orsummary. Recollectioniselrecuerdoorlamemoria. RecordarvsRecord<Lat.recordricalltomind,remember,recollect<re back,again+corheart;mind Recordarmeanstoremember,recall,orremind. Record(setdowninwriting,etc.)=registrar,inscribir,orgrabar. RedvsRed[notcognates] Redreferstoanetwork<Lat.retenet Redisthecolorrojo<OldEnglishrad,fromProtoGermanic*raudaz RelativovsRelative<Lat.adj.relativus<relatus,perfectpassiveparticipleof referretocarryback,toascribe<reagain+ferretobearorcarry RelativoasanadjectiveithasthesamemeaningastheEnglishadj.relative. Relativeasanadj.=relative/a;asanoun=parienteorfamiliar. RestarvsRest<Lat.restretostay,remain<re+strestandagain Restarmeanstotakeawayorsubtract,tonotgivemuch,toremainorbeleft or,insports,toreturn. Restasanoun=restoanditcomesfromLat.restare;theverbrest=descansar orapoyar<ProtoGermanic*rastrest;bed RevolvervsRevolver<Lat.revolvereturnover,rollback<reback,again+ volvereroll 18

Revolver(stressonthee)isaverb:tomovearound,stir,revolve,ordisturb. Revolverisanoun:unrevlver(stressontheo).(Arevolverisahandgunwith acylinderofseveralchambersthatrevolvearoundanaxel.)Torevolve (intrans.)isgirar(turn),darvueltas,and(trans.)hacergirar,darvueltas. RopavsRope[notrelated] Ropameansclothing(<Germanic/Gothic*raupa,cognateofEnglishrobe). Rope=unacuerdaorunasoga(<OldEng.rp<ProtoGermanic*raiparope SalariovsSalary<Lat.salariumofsalt<salsalt(itreferstotherationofsalt giventoRomansoldiersalongwiththeirpay) Salario(compensationreceivedbyworkersinexchangefortheirlabor)refers towages,whichcouldbehourlywages,while Salary(periodicpaymentfromanemployertoanemployee)indicatesfixed earningspermonthoryear:elsueldo. SanovsSane<Lat.sanushealthy Sano=healthy,fit,orintact. Sanemeanscuerdo,sensato,orensusanojuicio(pertainstomentalhealth). SensiblevsSensible<Lat.sensibilis<sensus,pastparticipleofsentiretofeel Sensible=sensitive(pielsensible)orappreciable(aumentosensible). Sensiblemeansjuicioso,sensato,orprudente;prctico(sensibleshoes) SimplevsSimple<Med.Lat.simplus<Lat.simplex,simpliconefold,havingone ingredient<sem/simone+plex/plicfold Simple(notcomplicated)=simple;(mere)simpleorordinario(unsimple soldado);(people)=simpleminded Simpleinmostsenses=simple;(notspecial,notcomplicated)=sencillo. SoportarvsSupport<Lat.supportaretransport<sub+portarecarryunder Soportarmeanstobear,carry,support,holdup,orwithstand. Supportasaverbisusuallytranslatedbyapoyar,sostener,ormantener. SucedervsSucceed<Lat.succedre1)approach,follow;2)happen;3)prosper, besuccessful;etc.<subnear+cederetogo Sucedermeanstohappenortofollow,comenext(Lat.meanings1&2). Succeed=tenerxito,triunfar(Lat.meaning3) SucesovsSuccess<Lat.succssushappening;success<succedere(seeabove) Sucesoisanevent,incident,happening,oroutcome. Successreferstounxitoortriunfo. TablavsTable<Lat.tabulatable(inlaterLatin);board(inearlierLatin) Tablarefersprimarilytoa(wooden)board;tableinmathandgraphics. Tableisunamesaandoccasionallyunatabla(inmathandgraphics) TipovsType<Lat.typusimage<Greek(tupos)mark,type,model 19

Tipomeanstype/kindaswellasguy,dudeorbloke. Type=tipoorclase.Theverbtotype(write)usedtobeescribiramquina (madeobsoletebytechnologicalchanges)oteclear(<tecla);tipear(and taipear)arecommoninsomecountries.TheDiccionarioPanhispnicodeDudas recommendsmecanografiaranddactilografiar. TrampavsTramp[notcognates] Trampaisatrap. Trampisaunvagabundoorunazorra. TratarvsTreat<Lat.tractaretodragabout,handle,dealwith,frequentativeof traheretodrag,pull Tratarmeansmostlytotreatorhandle;todealwith,beabout,havetodowith. Treatasaverbmeanstratar,invitar,curar,ordiscutir. ltimamentevsUltimately[nearcognates] ltimamentemeanslately,recently.<Lat.ultimusfarthest,last,final Ultimately=enltimainstancia,alfinal,alalarga,enelfondo<Lat.ultimatus <ultimaretocometoanend;belast<ultimusfarthest,last,final ltimovsUltimate[nearcognates:seeabove] ltimomeansfinalorlast. Ultimatehasseveralmeanings:thebestdefinitivo,themost important/essentialfundamental,esencial;thelatestltimogrito. VasovsVase<Lat.vsumdish,vessel;vase;utensil;tool Vasoisaglassortumbler,fordrinking. Vaseindicatesunfloreroorjarrn.
Theprecedinglist,minustheintroduction,isaheavilymodifiedandexpandedversionofa listoffalsecognatesfoundinamongotherplacesspanish.allinfoabout.comin2005.The originalsourceisunknown. Additionalsourcesused: http://en.wiktionary.org,http://latinlookup.com/ NTCsDictionaryofSpanishFalseCognates,byMarcialPrado MerriamWebsters11thCollegiateDictionary,OxfordEnglishSpanishDictionary, DiccionariodeMariaMoliner

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