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Clean environment through green technology

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT IN AN INDIAN
CONTEXT
By
P. S. SURESH & C. KRISHNA KUMAR2
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ABSTRACT

Proliferation of vehicles in the roads coupled with the non commensurate expansion of road capacity have
resulted in traffic congestion and increased pollution levels in most of the roads in cities across the world
and cities of India are no exception to this. It is estimated that a higher percentage of harmful emissions are
caused by road transport alone and a major chunk of these emissions are caused by stopping and starting of
vehicles at intersections. Increasing the capacity of the existing road network alone cannot be seen as a
panacea of ever increasing congestion on roads. It is here the necessity of transportation systems
management is coming into prominence. It can be seen that automobile emissions, which causes
disastrous side effects on environment can be reduced to a great extent by using various transportation
system management measures. Transportation systems management is the application of transportation
engineering, planning and traffic control techniques, within a defined policy framework, to the road
network in a given area or over an extended length of road, to achieve a specific set of community
objectives. This covers the traffic management measures like installation of traffic signals with advanced
controllers, area traffic control systems etc. along with other transportation system management measures
like transit management including public transport priority, demand management measures like car pooling,
restraint measures like congestion pricing in the central business districts etc. This paper details various
transportation systems management measures and explains further, relevance of these measures in an
Indian context. The effectiveness of these transportation system management measures with emphasis on
traffic control are discussed in this paper. Traffic control appurtenances like LED based signal aspects,
solar based signals etc. and its energy saving capabilities are further discussed in this paper. Energy savings
accrued from the installation of these appurtenances in an Indian city are also detailed in this paper.

1.Introduction

Transportation systems are built to serve people in undertaking their economic, social and cultural
activities. Demand for the use of transportation facilities has been higher than the capacity of the systems in
cities for a long time. Traffic congestion and related impacts of it like environmental degradation, wastage
of fuel etc. are on the rise in most of the cities across the world as an after effect of increased mobility.
Proliferation of vehicles in the roads coupled with the non commensurate expansion of road capacity have
resulted in traffic congestion and increased pollution levels in most of the roads in cities across the world
and cities of India are no exception to this. It is estimated that a higher percentage of harmful emissions are
caused by road transport alone and a major chunk of these emissions are caused by stopping and starting of
vehicles at intersections. Increasing the capacity of the existing road network alone cannot be seen as a
panacea of ever increasing congestion on roads. It is here the necessity of transportation systems
management is coming into prominence. It can be seen that automobile emissions, which causes
disastrous side effects on environment can be reduced to a great extent by using various transportation
system management measures. Transportation systems management (TSM) is the application of

1
Manager- T.E., CMS Traffic Systems Ltd., W 324, M.I.D.C., Rabale, Navi Mumbai.400701.
e mail pssuresh@cms.co.in
2
General Manager, CMS Traffic Systems Ltd., W 324, M.I.D.C., Rabale, Navi Mumbai.400701.
e mail ckrishnakumar@cms.co.in
transportation engineering, planning and traffic control techniques, within a defined policy framework, to
the road network in a given area or over an extended length of road, to achieve a specific set of community
objectives. This covers the traffic management measures like installation of traffic signals with advanced
controllers, area traffic control systems etc. along with other transportation system management measures
like transit management including public transport priority, demand management measures like car pooling,
restraint measures like congestion pricing in the central business districts etc. Transportation system
management for city road transport is detailed in this paper. TSM integrates short term transportation
elements with emphasis on low or moderate cost.
Various transportation system management measures are detailed in this paper. These measures are
effective in augmenting the capacity and help in reducing the ill effects of traffic congestion. Traffic
control measures are an important element of TSM. Effectiveness of traffic control measures including
advanced ones like area traffic control systems in reducing the environmental degradation are discussed.
Energy saving capabilities of some traffic control appurtenances are detailed further in this paper.

2. Transportation systems management

ITE (1981) describes TSM as a planning and operating process designed to conserve resources and energy
and to improve the quality of urban life. All existing transportation facilities are viewed as elements of
single system; the objective is to organize these individual elements into one efficient , productive and
integrated transportation system. And it further state that TSM is an important component of a
comprehensive transportation plan. It should be considered before embarking on capital intensive set of
operations. Different classes of TSM actions are detailed in Table 1.

TABLE 1. TSM ACTIONS

Class Strategy group Actions
Traffic management Traffic operations Intersections and roadway
Aimed at improving vehicle widening
movements by increasing the One way streets
capacity and safety of the existing Turn lane installation
facilities and systems Turning movement and land use
restrictions

Traffic control Local intersection signal
improvement
Arterial signal system
Area signal system
Expressway diversion and
advisory signing
Expressway surveillance and
control
Roadway assignment Exclusive bus lane-arterial
Take- a lane
Add- a -lane
Bus-only street
Contra flow bus lane
Reversible lane systems
Expressway HOV bypass
Exclusive HOV lane
Take- a lane
Add- a –lane

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Pedestrian and bicycle Widen sidewalk
Pedestrian grade separation
Bike ways
Bike storage
Pedestrian control barriers
Transit management Transit operations Bus route and schedule
Transit management modification
Inter modal Coordination Express bus service
Bus traffic signal pre emption
Bus terminals
Simplified fare collection
Marketing programme
Maintenance improvements
Vehicle fleet improvements
Operations monitoring
programme
Park and ride facilities
Transfer improvements
Demand management Para transit Carpool matching programmes
Oriented towards reducing trips Van pool programmes
or number of vehicles by Taxi/group riding programmes
encouraging other types of Dial- a-ride
transportation services Elderly and handicapped service
Work Schedule Staggered work hours and
flexible work hours
Restraint measures Parking management Kerb parking restrictions
These measures are aimed at Residential parking control
discouraging vehicle use mostly Off- street parking restrictions
through restrictive controls HOV preferential parking
Parking rate charges

Restricted Areas Area licensing
Auto restricted zones
Pedestrian malls
Residential traffic control
Commercial vehicle On street loading zones
Off street loading zones
Peak hour on street loading
prohibition
Truck route system
Pricing Peak hour tolls
Low occupancy vehicle tolls
Petrol tax
Peak/off peak transit fares
Elderly and handicapped fares
Reduced transit fares

Use of these TSM measures were of limited nature in most of the cities of India. Measures like public
transport priority have started in limited stretches in cities like Mumbai. Parking management measures are
implemented in some limited areas. Heavy vehicles are banned within city limits during peak hours.
However most of the cities in India are in need of a well co- ordinated TSM action plan to effectively

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manage the burgeoning traffic. Many roads in cities are not having adequate pedestrian facilities and it
appears that footpaths and subways are the most neglected areas. Indian cities are beset with the problem
of heterogeneous traffic. However, even a simplest measure like segregating the traffic on the basis of
speed has not been enforced in most of the Indian cities. Measures like Congestion pricing as implemented
in cities like London and Singapore are yet to be implemented in Indian cities.

3. Traffic control measures

Traffic control consists of use of signs, signal and road markings. Effective use of these can result in
savings of energy. In the case of signalized intersections , number of measures can be taken so that fuel
wastage to vehicles in the road network are reduced. These include,
1. Traffic responsive signal time plans
2. Coordination of signals in arterial roads
3. Vehicle actuated signals
4. Area traffic control systems

3.1 Traffic responsive signal time plans
Normally in the cities, traffic movements are repetitive. Traffic volume in peak hours and non peak hours
are measures and according to this optimum signal time plans are generated and implemented. Softwares
like Traffic Network Study Tool (TRANSYT) are used for this purpose. Optimised signal plans can result
in reduced delay and number of stops to vehicles, which in turn reduce the fuel consumption of vehicles.

3.2 Coordination of signals in arterial roads
Traffic signals along an arterial road can be co- ordinated so that traffic movement along the arterial road is
given preferential treatment. In this method vehicles along arterial roads have to face minimum delay and
number of stops. In peak traffic hours, the vehicle movement through the arterial roads being heavy, this
method can result in fuel saving of vehicles.
Traffic signals in an important arterial road in Pune, having a length of approximately 5 km was co-
ordinated by using optimised signal plans generated by TRANSYT. Benefits of signal co-ordination in
Pune Satara road as found by TRANSYT simulation run are listed in Table 2.

TABLE 2 BENEFITS OF SIGNAL COORDINATION IN PUNE SATARA ROAD

Particulars Fuel consumption in Fuel consumption in Savings of fuel (in
litres/hr. litres/hr. litres/hr.)
(Before coordination) (After coordination)
Morning peak 404.0 385.4 18.6
Evening peak 410.9 390.9 20.0
Off peak 400.2 383.5 16.7

It was found that the annual fuel savings due to this signal co- ordination works out to be 52,790 litres
amounting to Rs. 1.8 million as per December 2003 average fuel prices.

3.3 Vehicle actuated signals
In this case, signal phases are controlled by detector actuations. This can be fully actuated or semi
actuated. In the case of semi actuated signals, a designated street will have green at all times until detector
on the side street detect vehicles on minor streets. The signal then provides green to the minor street traffic
after an appropriate change interval.
In the case of fully actuated signals, all signal phases are controlled by detector actuations. Minimum and
maximum green time are specified for each phase. Cycle lengths and green times vary considerably in
response to the traffic demand. Certain phases in the cycle may be optional and may be skipped entirely if
detectors sense no demand.

3.4 Area Traffic control systems (ATC)

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In area traffic control systems, number of signals are controlled from one centralized location. This can be
fixed plans by time of day, traffic responsive or real time (dynamic) ATC. In fixed type ATC signal plans
are generated as per traffic volume measurements and these are implemented according to the time of day.
In traffic responsive ATC, traffic flow are measured and are compared with a library of traffic flows and
time plans in the central computer system. Suitable time plans are selected according to the traffic flow and
implemented in signals.
In the case of real time ATC, traffic flow is measures by detectors. Optimised signal plans are generated in
the centralized computer with the help of in built traffic models. The optimised plans are sent back to the
controllers at junctions and implemented. Real time ATC is capable of adjusting the signal time plans
according to the variations in traffic flow. It was found that implementation of real time ATC has resulted in
reduction of delay and increase in travel speed for the vehicles in the network. Benefits of real time ATC in
Delhi are detailed in Table 2. It can be seen from the table that there is a reduction in delay of 21.7 % in the
ATC area. The travel speed has increased to 22.86 Km/h in spite of an increase in number of vehicles using
the network.

TABLE 2: BENEFITS OF ATC IN DELHI

Parameter Before study After Study Difference Percentage

Delay per km (sec) 50.8 39.7 -11.0 - 21.7

Journey Time per km (sec) 165.6 157.5 - 8.1 - 4.9

Average Speed in ATC area (km/h) 21.74 22.86 1.12 5.2

Veh-km per hour in the ATC area
107,191 133,734 26,543 24.8
over 31 months

4. Energy saving traffic control appurtenances
4.1. LED retrofit traffic signals
Incandescent bulbs are being used as light sources in traffic signal heads for a long time now. Light
Emitting Diodes (LED) have been used in place of incandescent lamps in traffic signals of late due to its
energy efficiency and longevity. In the city of Surat, signal aspects were replaced with Light Emitting
Diodes (LED) in place of incandescent bulbs in majority of intersections

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Figure 1 LED signal face

4.1.1 Cost savings
268 red signal faces, 391 amber signal faces and 522 green signal faces were replaced with LED signals. In
addition to this Pedestrian signal faces of 187 numbers each of red and green were also retrofitted with
LED signals. Considering 60%, 35% and 5 % as the usage time of red , green and amber signal faces
respectively , annual savings were calculated as shown in Table 3. Initially, the incandescent lamps were
having wattage of 100 each and the same was reduced to 10 for red and amber, 4 for green and 3 for
pedestrian green and pedestrian red.

TABLE 3 ENERGY SAVINGS PER YEAR
Initial After LED
Wattage Wattage wattage installation. Savings/yr
Signal faces Number -Incandescent LED (kwhr.) (kwhr.) (kwhr.)
Red 268 100 10 127166 12717 114449
Amber 391 100 10 7136 714 6422
Green 522 100 4 66686 2667 64018
Pedestrian Red 187 100 3 92144 2764 89380
Pedestrian Green 187 100 3 23889 717 23173
Blinkers 123 100 10 53874 5387 48487
Total 370895 24966 345929
Figure 2 shows the possible savings for different signal faces as per the variation of unit cost of electricity for
25 junctions.

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2500000

2000000
Annual savings in Rs.

1500000

1000000

500000

0
1 2 3 4 5
Cost of electricity (Rs/kwhr.)

Red Amber Green Pedestrian red Pedestrian green Blinkers Total

Figure 2 Annual savings for 25 junctions.
4.1.2 Possible savings

Possible savings were calculated on the basis of the details available from the study in Surat. It was found that
17 % of signal faces are red, 23 % Amber, 31% green, 11 % each pedestrian red and pedestrian green and 7 %
blinkers. These figures were used for estimating the annual savings for different number of intersections.
Possible savings with an electricity charge of Rs 3/kw.hr. for different number of intersections are shown in
Figure 3

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14000000

12000000

10000000
Annual savings

8000000

6000000

4000000

2000000

0
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Number of junctions

Red Amber Green Pedestrian red Pedestrian green Blinkers Total

Figure 3 Possible savings for signalised different intersection groups at Rs 3/kwhr
It can be seen from figure 3 that there can be a savings of Rs. 9.5 million, at an electricity rate of Rs 3
/kwhr, for a city having 500 signalised intersections if retrofitting with LED is done
Over the past few years the use of LED retrofitting in traffic signals is growing phenomenally due to its energy
efficiency and durability. By taking into account technology explosion taking place in the development of LED,
it is expected that their efficiency will double in every two years and due to this the number of LED in a signal
can be brought down without affecting the intensity of light output It was found that the power savings due to
LED is 88 % and the savings in maintenance cost is 51 %. It is estimated that in a city having 500 intersections
approximately Rs. 9.5 million can be saved per annum, at a rate of Rs. 3/ kw. hr. of electricity, by completely
retrofitting signals with LED aspects
In addition to this, use of appurtenances like solar based signals have resulted in energy savings. These are
suitable in areas having erratic power supply. The cost effectiveness of this depends on the storage capacity of
back up battery.

5. Conclusion
Various transportation systems management measures have been detailed in this paper. These include traffic
management measures like installation of traffic signals with advanced controllers capable of co-ordinating
signals, area traffic control systems etc. along with other transportation system management measures like

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transit management including public transport priority, demand management measures like car pooling, restraint
measures like congestion pricing in the central business districts etc. TSM measures in Indian cities are far
from adequate. A well co-ordinated TSM action plan is needed in Indian cities to mange the burgeoning traffic
. Traffic control measures like co-ordination of signals, area traffic control system etc. can result in fuel
savings and reduction in delay . It was found that Co-ordination of signals in a 5 km arterial road in Pune has
resulted in an annul fuel saving amounting to Rs.1.8 million. The implementation of ATC in Delhi has resulted
in reduction in delay and increased travel speed to the vehicles traveling through the network in spite of the
increase in traffic. Appropriately designed traffic control appurtenances can also yield energy savings. Use of
LED based signal faces has resulted in energy savings in the city of Surat.

References

1. Mayinger, Franz (Editor), (2001) “Mobility and traffic in the 21st century” Springer-Verlag Berlin
2. Mc Shane, W. R. and Roess, R.P.(1990) “Traffic Engineering” Prentice Hall, New Jersey
3. ITE (1981) “Planning urban arterials and Freeway systems: Proposed Recommended Practice, ITE Journal ,
February.
4. Technology Information, Forecasting and assessment council (TIFAC) (1996) “Road Transportation
Technology vision 2020” Department of science and Technology, Government of India. New Delhi.

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