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NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund 2000 Annual Report
to the founders of NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
They had a revolutionary dream, and the brilliance, tenacity and passion to move that dream toward reality. Challenged by their example, we are proud to continue and expand their work.
the power of the law
Table of Contents 1 Letter from the President and Chair The Heart of the Matter 2 3 To Promote the General Welfare 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 17 18 20 21 22 www.womensenews.org U.S. v. Morrison Violence and the Workplace Challenge and Choice NOW Legal Defense 70s history NOW Legal Defense 80s history NOW Legal Defense 90s history New Realities, New Approaches Education for Women’s Rights Making the Links Financial Information Contributors
The National Judicial Education Program
Thirty years ago a group of women made the remarkable decision to create a legal arm for the women’s movement. Their goals were wonderfully immodest, and intensely important. This new organization, NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, armed with neither staff nor funding, would ﬁrst and foremost “provide legal services to bring women into full participation in all activities of American life by securing for them their full legal rights under the Constitution.” They would also determine the facts about discrimination in facilities, services, privileges, rights and opportunities, of all kinds, which are denied, restricted or otherwise conditioned to anyone on the basis of race, color, sex, religion or national origin, and “combat any such discrimination by legal action.” Finally, they would provide legal counsel to “persons and groups whose civil rights and liberties are threatened or infringed or violated.” The founders’ dreams were nothing if not comprehensive! We wear our laurels with pride, but we Those of us who carry on their work today celebrate our founders, and continue to pursue their dreams. This annual report dutifully, and with great pleasure, tells the story of the past eighteen months — eighteen rather than twelve, because of a change in our ﬁscal year. But it also celebrates thirty years of incredible accomplishment. It is quite literally a primer of milestones in women’s progress. And echoing the words on the cover, it details the challenges we see looming ahead, challenges which too often equal if not exceed those that came before, in terms of both gravity and intractability. Where have we been? In the ﬁght for access to education, employment rights and reproductive rights we have been at the forefront of change. At a time when no one in public life had named, much less prohibited, sexual harassment, we brought it to public attention, called it sex discrimination, and persuaded the Supreme Court to ban it. When We are conﬁdent that we will be ready, because we are conﬁdent in the thoughtfulness, intelligence and ﬁdelity of our support. Thank you for being a part of that support. Together, we can and will do what needs to be done. And our founders, wherever they are, will be cheering us on, because our dreams are as bold, and as powerful, and as critical as were theirs. Sincerely, Kathy Rodgers President Minna Schrag Chair Where are we going? We need to take on the so-called New Federalist movement, the right wing’s recessional for people’s rights in favor of states’ rights, a movement which has the potential to roll back the civil rights gains of the last four decades. We need to counter this hugely successful effort in the courts, including the Supreme Court, to remove authority to legislate and regulate from the federal government and Congress and turn it over to the states. We need to tackle the core issue of child care, and position it at the center of the public dialogue. We need to secure the expansion and reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act and deal with the next iteration of the welfare reform act, in the hope that it will be more concerned with getting and keeping people out of poverty than simply getting them off the welfare rolls. Seismic changes in the legal and societal landscape are rumbling, and we need to be ready for them. can’t rest on them. the problem of violence against women seemed too ingrained and too inevitable to be subject to public attention, we nonetheless formed and led an enormous national coalition which worked with Congress to create and enact the landmark Violence Against Women Act of 1994. And for twenty years — yes, another anniversary — our National Judicial Education Program has, with brilliance and passion, fostered gender equity in our legal system.
2000 Annual Report
The Heart of the Matter
Economic Justice for All Women
Employment issues were front and center when NOW Legal Defense put together its first legal docket thirty years ago. From barriers to women in non-traditional jobs through discrimination against female flight attendants because of marital status and age to partnerships in law and accounting firms, the focus was blindingly clear. Our founders knew that without the capacity for economic autonomy women could never be equal. That statement remains true, and our litigation practice over the last eighteen months bears out our belief in it. We have been involved in key cases relating to sex discrimination, age discrimination and the kinds of evidence necessary to prove it, and sexual harassment in the workplace. We are proud of and will continue our work on cases like these with implications for women at every point on the socio-economic spectrum. We have a special commitment, however, to women in poverty, for whom the discriminatory roadblocks are particularly immense. Our State Advocacy Project, now in its third year, is the centerpiece of our work on economic opportunity and justice for low income women. The Project network, 350 members at the beginning, now consists of more than 2000 organizations and individuals across the country. And our massed power is making a real difference. We’ve worked hard to persuade Congress and the Department of Health and Human Services that the federal government should offer states financial incentives for programs that get women out of poverty, not just off of welfare. We succeeded and incentives are now in place for good employment training and child care programs. It was no small achievement.
People are entitled to some dignity when they’re putting their lives together. Senior Staff Attorney Sherry Leiwant, reflecting on the case of Norma C
Our work is national and big picture, but it touches real women, in very real ways. We represented Norma C., a participant in New York’s welfare-to-work program, when she was sanctioned — removed from the welfare rolls — for not reporting to a work site where she was being sexually harassed by her supervisor. New York’s response to her complaint was to assert that welfare-to-work workers have no federal employment rights because they are not really employees. We persuaded the EEOC that New York was wrong. Today Ms. C., formerly homeless, with two small children, driven to welfare during a desperate period in her life, is on her feet and off welfare. She tells us that our work on her behalf gave her the strength she needed to turn her life around. In our turn, we are talking with EEOC officials in other states, including Illinois and New Jersey, about similar abuses against similarly vulnerable women. With the welfare reform act almost up for reauthorization, we are convening working groups on the legislative issues that most affect women, such as caregiving and child care, violence, and employment training. We will use the results of those meetings to undergird our efforts to create effective welfare reform that is humane and achieves long-term economic independence for women.
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
To Promote the General Welfare
Ending Women’s Poverty
They came to Washington, D.C. on March 6 and 7, 2000. More than 300 women, and men, arrived in our nation’s capital for the first ever national conference on poverty as a women’s issue. NOW Legal Defense convened To Promote the General Welfare to shine a spotlight on the fact that welfare is not about poverty, is not about laziness, is not about economics but is, emphatically, about women. Our second goal: to shine that same spotlight on another fact, that welfare reform is social engineering, designed to change behaviors, to change the way women lead their lives. And our final goal was to facilitate the creation of a newly broadened and strengthened national alliance of women helping women, adding the voices of middle and upper class women to those of advocates and activists, researchers and educators, funders and policy makers, all committed to advancing the needs and rights of women in poverty. The energy was high after a provocative plenary panel consisting of Heidi Hartman, Director of the Institute for Women’s Policy Studies; Prema Mathai-Davis, Chief Executive Officer, YWCA of the U.S.A.; Diane Dujon, from the Massachusetts Welfare Rights Union; Dorothy Roberts, Professor of Law, Northwestern; and Sarah Buel, Professor of Law, University of Texas. They took as their subject, and challenge, the four complex issues NOW Legal Defense has identified as the cornerstones to end women’s poverty: jobs, education and training; child care; violence; and reproductive rights, the hidden sub-text of the welfare reform bill. Participants learned from the activists who led breakout sessions, and learned from each other. Strategies were developed. Collaborations born. Priorities established. The dialogue was direct, the intellectual level heady, and the energy off the charts. An executive summary of To Promote the General Welfare has been prepared and is available from NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund. To request a copy, call us at (212) 925-6635.
We assume that for battered women their number one goal must be leaving the batterer, getting a protective order, filing for divorce...The most terrifying moments in my life were not having a gun held to my head. It was the third night of feeding my kids macaroni and ketchup, realizing we’re out of macaroni and we’re out of food stamps–and we’re not going to get any more for about a month. Sarah Buel, University of Texas, former welfare recipient
Since welfare reform, more than fifteen thousand students on welfare have been forced to drop out of the City University of New York. Kathy Rodgers, President, NOW Legal Defense
2000 Annual Report
In recent months NJEP Director Lynn Hecht Schafran delivered major addresses at Yale Law School’s “Women, Justice and Authority” conference; the California Center for Judicial Education and Research’s conference “The New Millenium: Women of Color as Court Leaders and Managers;” and at the Annual Meeting of the National Consortium of Task Forces on Race & Ethnic Bias in the Courts. She also spoke on Revolutions/ Revelations in Legal Education at the University of Cincinnati Law School and on the national gender bias task force movement at the San Francisco Queen’s Bench annual Judges’ Dinner. This April she received the Columbia Law School Public Interest Law Award from the Columbia Public Interest Law Foundation.
The National Judicial Education Program
New Technology, New Audiences
The year 2000 marks the twentieth anniversary of the National Judicial Education Program to Promote Equality for Women and Men in the Courts, a distinguished and award-winning jewel in NOW Legal Defense’s programmatic crown. For two decades NJEP has persevered in its efforts to demonstrate that even judges have bias, and has succeeded, against stiff odds, in moving judges’ and attorneys’ gender bias from an invisible problem to grounds for reversal and sanction. The year 2000 also marks an intense and productive period of innovation for NJEP. First and foremost, Program staff produced a video version of our highly regarded model judicial education curriculum, Understanding Sexual Violence. This much-needed video/workbook version of the curriculum allows judges to acquire essential information when they need it, in the midst of their demanding dockets and workloads. The video was piloted in both independent study and small group settings, and the evaluations and comments have been uniformly positive and enthusiastic. Special thanks go to the State Justice Institute and the Department of Justice, the primary funders of the project, and Lifetime Entertainment Services, which provided substantial in-kind assistance. On another but allied front, NJEP adapted Understanding Sexual Violence for prosecutors, a substantial task judges have been asking us to undertake for seven years. The two-day judges’ program evolved into a four-day prosecutors’ program, with expanded material on victims, offenders, experts and juries and new material on certiﬁed sexual assault examiners, drugfacilitated rape and DNA. Program staff compiled two comprehensive resource manuals to complement the training for each participant in two pilot trainings. After the pilot phase was complete our ebullient independent evaluator, a nationally recognized expert on crime victims and rape, concluded that “it rocked!”
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
What News Looks Like When Women Matter
Women’s Enews is a new, professionally written and edited on-line news service and news magazine hatched by NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund. Its purpose is to transform the mainstream news coverage of public policy issues, people and events that women are concerned about and that affect women’s lives. It’s substantive. It’s authoritative. It’s ambitious. It’s current. And it has edge. Women’s Enews reaches out to two audiences. Our ﬁrst target is the media: reporters, editors and producers in print, broadcast TV and radio. We want them to read our stories and use them, as is or as the launching point for totally new stories. Our second target is the general public — women and men, legislators and voters, opinion shapers and opinion makers — who care about the issues we cover. We use two formats to contact our audiences: a dedicated Web site and email. Women’s Enews ofﬁcially launched with a gala reception sponsored by Merrill Lynch on June 15 and we have published regularly since that date. We started with an outreach list of 500 people from all the major media, most of whom are still with us as subscribers; today we have more than 1300 subscribers. Our Web site had 100,000 hits in June; 200,000 in July; and 300,000 in August. And we accomplished all this with just one press release and zero dollars spent on advertising. Imagine the growth ahead! At a time when the crashes of Web creations can be as steep as their climbs, some might suggest that Women’s Enews is a risky undertaking for an organization known best for litigation and the development of legislative policy. But we learned sound lessons from those crashes — keeping our stafﬁng lean and our site focused. Moreover we have not forgotten that our full name is NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, and public education has always been one of our primary and most effective tools. Ignoring the vital importance of the media to the policies
The distinguished outside members of the Women’s Enews Advisory Board
Mary Kay Blakely, Professor, Missouri School of Journalism Martha Burk, President, Center for Advancement of Public Policy Eve Burton, Vice President, CNN Carolyn A. Butts, Publisher, African Voices Jane Ciabattari, writer and editor Agi Clark, advertising executive Susan Douglas, Professor, University of Michigan Carol E. Head, consultant Carolyn Heilbrun, Professor Emerita, Columbia University Angelia Herrin, journalist and editor Frances A. McMorris, Editor, The Daily Deal Joanne Omang, journalist and novelist Caryl Rivers, Professor, Boston University Marlene Sanders, Chair, correspondent, producer and writer Davia Temin, marketing and public affairs counsel Steve Weinberg, author
For a free subscription to Women’s Enews call Robyn Rossnagel at (212) 925-6635 or email her at firstname.lastname@example.org.
women want and need would be the height of folly.
2000 Annual Report
“The Morrison case represents a step backwards both for women’s efforts to achieve equality and for civil rights more generally. With this ruling, the Court usurped Congress’ fact ﬁnding function, dismissing its determination, based on volumes of legislative testimony, that gendermotivated violence is discrimination warranting federal intervention. The ruling calls into question Congress’ ability to protect civil rights by enacting federal legislation to combat and remedy discrimination. It is likely to have a chilling effect on Congress’ ability to protect all of our civil rights. It also highlights the impact of just one Supreme Court Justice’s vote.” Martha Davis, Legal Director
U.S. v Morrison
Violence, Federalism and Women’s Rights
It’s a long story. From 1990 until 1994, crafting and securing passage of what became the landmark Violence Against Women Act was a top priority of NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund. We developed legislative priorities and legislative language. We worked closely with members of Congress as they sifted through mountains of evidence. The depth and scope of the Congressional debate stemming from that evidence was remarkable. And we established and chaired a national coalition of well over 1000 members to push for enactment. The Act contained an historic civil rights provision, enabling victims of gender motivated violence to sue their attackers. Not unexpectedly there were a series of District Court challenges to the constitutionality of this provision, known as the civil rights remedy; in each case, in most of which NOW Legal Defense was involved, the remedy’s constitutionality was vigorously upheld. Christy Brzonkala’s case bucked the tide. In December 1995 Christy Brzonkala sued her alleged rapists in federal district court in Virginia. The district court, and then the circuit court, struck down the remedy as unconstitutional, asserting that Congress exceeded its powers in enacting this particular provision of VAWA. We petitioned for certiorari on September 28, 1999, which the Supreme Court granted. In March 2000 NOW Legal Defense Senior Staff Attorney Julie Goldscheid, along with the Solicitor General of the United States, argued the case before the Court which, in May, delivered a 5-4 opinion striking down the civil rights remedy. The majority opinion, written by Justice Rehnquist, was based on an extremely narrow deﬁnition of federal power. Or, to put it another way, states’ rights trumped peoples’ rights. The immediate reaction at NOW Legal Defense was to consider whether a federal remedy could be constructed that would pass constitutional muster under the Court’s new analysis in Morrison. And we still believe this would be a signiﬁcant step forward. We are convinced, however, that the vastly more important task is to take up and challenge the entire collection of legal principles and political philosophy its adherents call “new”federalism. We believe that forty years of signiﬁcant civil rights legal development is in peril and that we have no choice but to enter the fray. Strategically. Boldly. And in collaboration with like-minded organizations and individuals — legal scholars, historians, activists and veterans of the civil rights movement.
Julie Goldscheid spoke on Morrison and VAWA at, among others, the University of Michigan Law School, American University School of Law, Brooklyn Law School, the African American Task Force on Violence Against Women, the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, the Lesbian Rights Summit and on Fox News.
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
Violence And The Workplace
Battered Women Employed
NOW Legal Defense doesn’t believe in duplicating efforts. We make a point of identifying those areas of an issue where we can make a unique contribution, and where we can lead. With the issue of violence against women one of those areas is the effects of domestic violence in the workplace. For eighteen months NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, in collaboration with the Legal Aid Society of San Francisco, sparked an innovative national project, Battered Women Employed, to help battered women free themselves from violence by advocating for their employment rights. This unique bi-coastal collaboration represented a programmatic expansion for NOW Legal Defense because it included a substantial direct service component, counseling individual battered women about their employment-related legal rights and representing them when necessary, particularly in cases where their employment was wrongfully terminated because they were victims of domestic violence. BWE attorneys also helped women who were ﬁred or who quit their jobs because of fear for their safety in the workplace obtain unemployment compensation or workers‘ compensation. We created this innovative direct service program because of the pressing need to develop effective and replicable models for working with this little-understood and too often ignored population. Along with our legal counseling and advocacy, BWE conducted a vigorous public education campaign, including development of the highly practical fact sheets noted on this page, as well as a series of well-attended “know your rights” sessions for battered women and their advocates. In addition BWE became a key source of training and technical assistance for a wide variety of service providers, labor union representatives, advocates and attorneys. NOW Legal Defense does believe in covering all bases. And since our wildly popular 1996 manual for employers, The Impact of Violence In the Lives of Working Women: Creating Solutions – Creating Change went out of print, we began intensive work on a new edition, which we plan to publish in 2001. The new edition will add information and guidance targeted speciﬁcally to small businesses.
Do you know someone who needs to know more about the employment rights of battered women?
Call or write us for the following BWE fact sheets: Safety Planning in the Workplace: Protecting Yourself and Your Job Taking Leave from Work for Your Own Serious Health Condition Taking Leave from Work for a Family Member’s Serious Health Condition Eligibility for Unemployment Compensation Domestic Violence Victims’ Right to Take Time from Work to Participate in Criminal Proceedings Domestic Violence and Welfare-to-Work Programs Employment Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Domestic Violence Victims Your Legal Rights When Your Batterer Injures You at Work Employment Discrimination Against Domestic Violence Victims
25% 74% 96%
of battered women lose their jobs at least in part because of domestic violence of battered women who have jobs are harassed at work by their abusive partners of battered women experience problems at work because of their abusive partners
2000 Annual Report
On another front in the reproductive rights trenches, NOW Legal Defense continues its more than ten year battle to end the pernicious activities of Randall Terry and Operation Rescue. On June 14, 1999, the U.S. Supreme Court denied certiorari in NOW v. Terry, rendering final our previous judgment against Terry and others of his colleagues, a significant victory. We have focused since then on attaching their assets, a not uncomplicated proposition since most of the key figures involved, including Terry, have sought the shelter of bankruptcy to avoid their legal obligation. Nothing worthwhile is ever easy.
Challenge and Choice
The Sojourner Case
Simple question. What happens to a child when her family doesn’t have enough money to pay for health care and adequate food? Simple answers. While a child may survive without health care, she is much more likely to have extended illnesses, causing her to miss school in the short run and develop serious and costly medical conditions in the long run. Inadequate food means hunger, possibly malnutrition and more serious and costly medical conditions. Inadequate nutrition can cause brain damage. Who pays? The child, of course. But so does society in vastly more expensive services to treat illness as well as in the failure to maximize the child’s potential. Given these realities, how do you explain a system that systematically makes it impossible for many people properly to care for and nourish, let alone clothe and house their children? It’s not easy! Nonetheless many states have adopted precisely such a system, known as the “family cap,” a denial of public assistance benefits to a child born into a family already receiving welfare assistance. NOW Legal Defense prefers to call them “child exclusion provisions,” because that’s what they do, and NOW Legal Defense, for over three years, has been fighting New Jersey’s child exclusion policy through the Sojourner case. In the course of the case’s slow progress through the judicial system, several interesting facts emerged. A Rutgers University study demonstrated that the New Jersey child exclusion policy had no positive impact on recipients finding employment or increasing earnings, two key goals of child exclusion. Even more interesting, because it flies directly in the face of the strong anti-choice subtext of the policy, the abortion rate among New Jersey welfare recipients after the implementation of child exclusion increased, in spite of a decline in the rate in the general population. There is no end in sight to Sojourner, and there’s no end to NOW Legal Defense’s determination to see an end to child exclusion. With partners ranging from the ACLU to Catholic Charities, we will move forward with determination.
The Child Exclusion provision of New Jersey’s welfare law punishes the child because the state disapproves of the behavior of the mother. As a result, some needy children are denied basic necessities of life. All of New Jersey’s poor children deserve equal protection under the law. Senior Staff Attorney Sherry Leiwant
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
the power of the law
Thirty Years of Defining and Defending Women’s Rights
The second wave of feminism began to roll on shore in the mid-1960s and swelled rapidly in boldness and determination. But by the end of the decade it became clear that this new women’s movement was missing a critical piece, a legal arm. In 1970 that legal arm was constituted by many of the same women who helped found the National for available resources. An early leader, Gene Boyer, ruefully commented that “The Fund was poor, very poor. We had no staff, no offices, just a telephone answering machine in Washington, D.C.” The Fund was indeed poor in dollars and cents but wildly rich in the talents of its early board members, who included Betty Friedan, Jane Trahey, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Elizabeth Janeway, Ellie Smeal, Mary Jean Tully, Karen
Women; they called it NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund. NOW Legal Defense was to be a sister organization, and to develop the legal strategies and mount the litigation efforts necessary to eliminate the sex discrimination that riddled American society. The vision was a good deal bigger than the
DeCrow, Muriel Fox, now
Shapely-legged man kicks off Womanpower ad campaign.
Feminists tend to the Future of the Family, November 19, 1979.
Muriel Fox, a founder of NOW and past NOW Legal Defense board president, leads the charge at the national ERA march on the Capitol, July 9, 1978. With 100,000 marchers, the event was one of the largest for women’s rights in American history.
Federal judge Marilyn Hall Patel and now Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
of these efforts –for one example, see the “great legs” on the prior page. In 1974 NOW Legal Defense began what became PEER, the landmark eighteen year Project on Equal Education Rights, a monumental effort that almost singlehandedly ensured vigilant and effective implementation of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, prohibiting discrimination in educational institutions receiving federal funds. PEER drove NOW Legal Defense to open a Washington, D.C. office, and led to the organization’s first major foundation funding, from The Ford Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
This amazing group of women decided to concentrate the Fund’s efforts in the areas of employment and education. The employment focus led to cutting edge litigation on sex discrimination, a series of challenges to the practices of dozens of corporations, universities, cities and states in the areas of separate male and female help wanted ads; hiring; segregated job assignments and seniority lists; and promotion, pregnancy leave and termination policies. And moving from the court house to the court of public opinion, NOW Legal Defense devised, in 1973 and again at the turn of the decade, a brilliantly incisive public relations campaign that undergirded all
The passage of Title IX in 1972 led to the creation of NOW Legal Defense’s award-winning Project on Equal Education Rights (PEER), a nearly two decade long program.
Stephanie Clohesy, Executive Director (1977-1985) and board VP (1988-1994), with former board member Ellie Smeal at NOW Legal Defense’s Roundtable on New Leadership in the Public Interest, October 29, 1980.
(counter-clockwise from bottom right) Donna Shalala, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Hazel Henderson, Betty Friedan, William Donaldson, and Grace Montanez Davis at the Roundtable on New Leadership in the Public Interest, October 29, 1980.
The decade ended with a new Executive Director, Helen Neuborne (1989-1994)
On The Move
In 1980 NOW Legal Defense formally inaugurated one of its most powerful and long-lived initiatives, the National Judicial Education Program to Promote Equality for Men and Women in the Courts, recognizing that gender bias in the courts prevents women from receiving justice under the laws we worked so hard to create and enforce. Because good laws are only as effective as the system that interprets and applies them, NJEP began to create course modules on some of the most pressing areas of gender bias in the judicial system, succeeded in presenting them to judges for whom this was often a confounding and threatening notion, and set the groundwork for what became a highly successful national gender bias task force movement, in both state and federal courts. PEER continued, shaping
national public policy and
At a press conference, PEER Director Holly Knox displays the Silver Snail awarded to states that lag in improving educational equity for women and girls.
mounting a brilliantly effective model state-
Bringing a fresh eye to the microscope with the Project on Equal Education Rights (PEER).
Nontraditional employment gets a jumpstart from the workplace rights campaign, 1980.
wide effort in Michigan, which rapidly won the backing of the state’s civic, political and business leadership. Michigan PEER was an early example of what became one of NOW Legal Defense’s signature approaches to tackling problems, create a coalition of key people and groups at the grassroots level and work with that coalition to cement positive and fruitful relationships with the power structure. NOW Legal Defense mounted a Media Reform Project to obtain greater media responsiveness toward women, a precursor of today’s Women, Policy and Media Program and it helped found and for several years housed the Child Care Action Campaign, an early commitment to the notion that child care is indeed a women’s issue. Two other notable efforts were created during the eighties, the Intern Program, NOW Legal Defense’s contribution to training the next generation of feminist lawyers and the Legal Information and Referral Service, a unique national link, available to women and their attorneys, to locally based resources as well as our own print materials on women’s legal issues. The litigation program of NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund flourished. The organization worked on ERA, at the state level; family law; constitutional and civil rights. It continued its signature efforts on employment discrimination, working on issues of insurance and pension rights; hiring, firing and promotion practices; workplace sexual harassment; and pay equity among others. And it began its highly targeted work on reproductive rights, defining and defending the right of safe access to reproductive health clinics.
Donna Brazile champions the power of Title IX to demand equal athletic opportunities for women and girls.
Newsweek runs public service announcement demanding equal employment rights.
Astronaut Dr. Sally Ride is honored at the 1983 Equal Opportunity Awards dinner
NOW Legal Defense public service ad campaign, designed by former board member Jane Trahey.
Lifetime “Caring for Kids” coalition members converge on Washington, D.C. (7th from left, NOW Legal Defense Board member Isabel Carter Stewart, 8th from left, NOW Legal Defense President Kathy Rodgers).
National Judicial Educational Program Director Lynn Hecht Schafran addresses the National Press Club at the annual Supreme Court press briefing.
Kathy Rodgers, who joined NOW Legal Defense as President in 1995.
Kathy Rodgers stakes out the Supreme Court press after oral argument in the Gebser v. Lago Vista School District sexual harassment case.
Public Policy Office, NOW Legal Defense put together
At the Forefront
Early in 1990 a call from Sen. Joseph Biden (D-Del), asking for help on the issue of violence against women, led to one of NOW Legal Defense’s largest, most important and most successful programs. NOW Legal Defense took on the challenge of creating a comprehensive national response to this epidemic when the conventional wisdom was that it was a private and not a public problem, that it was too big to tackle and that it was not a women’s issue. Spearheaded
and led what is today a national coalition of over 2500 members which worked with the congress for four long and difficult years conceptualizing, crafting and pushing for enactment of what became the Violence Against Women Act of 1994. And after passage, while defending the Act’s ground breaking civil rights remedy in the courts, we worked to implement its provisions and in 2000 to secure its reauthorization for another five years at twice the Act’s original funding. Throughout the
Postcard campaign in support of the Violence Against Women Act reauthorization.
Legal Director Martha Davis, triumphant after the successful “rescue” of Randall Terry’s frequent flier miles. The seizure was a symbolic reminder to the public of the hundreds of thousands of dollars owed by Terry for Operation Rescue’s illegal clinic blockades.
NOW Legal Defense’s work with congressional allies led to passage of two critical pieces of women’s rights legislation, the Violence Against Women Act and the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act in 1994.
NOW Legal Defense in the press.
decade we stamped our distinctive brand on approaches to the grim problem of domestic violence’s impact in the workplace and, starting in l999, with our new Immigrant Women Program, on issues affecting battered immigrant women. The exigencies of the Welfare Reform Act drove us into another large-scale comprehensive effort, the State Advocacy Project, a multi-year, seven state project to assess and influence the effect of welfare reform on women. Our thesis is that to be successful welfare reform must do more than push women off of welfare, it must also lift them out of poverty. Our contention is that to do so legislation must address the chief barriers facing women trying to leave poverty: inadequate job training, inadequate child care, the impact of violence on poor women’s lives, and discriminatory reproductive rights legislation. This is another coalition project, and a model of its kind.
Throughout the nineties we worked innovatively and successfully on sexual harassment, in the schools, in the military and in the workplace; in 1998 we were in the Supreme Court in four landmark sexual harassment cases, in one of which, Faragher v City of Boca Raton, we were winning co-counsel. Our reproductive rights work continued, focusing on assuring violence- free access to clinics; we were almost singlehandedly responsible for the hard won landmark Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act. Our concern about child care resurfaced. Our commitment to a bias-free judicial system was maintained and expanded. And we started a cutting edge women’s internet news service, www.womensenews.org. We were at the forefront, and we’re going to stay there.
New Realities, New Approaches
The Immigrant Women Program
In 1910, at the height of our last great wave of immigration, 14.8% of the United States population was foreign born. Shortly thereafter the percentage dropped precipitously. That began to change in the 1980s, and by 1990 this country’s foreign-born population was up to 7.9%, by 1997, almost 10%. To look at it another way, an estimated one out of every ﬁve children under the age of eighteen in the United States is an immigrant or the child of immigrant parents. In New York City, reﬂecting the fact that immigrants tend to cluster along the coasts, approximately 60%, or four million, of current residents are immigrants and their children. This current wave of immigration differs starkly from that of a century ago in its ethnic diversity, in particular the higher percentage of non-Europeans. As a consequence the issues of acculturation today revolve around signiﬁcantly different conceptions of women’s role in the family and society. Little wonder then, that when NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund saw the opportunity of attracting one of the country’s leading legal experts on immigrant women to our staff we grabbed it. Our new resident expert, Leslye Orloff, and her colleagues are focusing ﬁrst on the special issues affecting battered immigrant women, an important ﬁt with our larger program to end violence against women. NOW Legal Defense’s Immigrant Women Program opened its doors on September 1, 1999. Since then it has broken new legal ground on issues of gender-based asylum; trained lawyers, advocates and service administrators in seven states; strengthened several key advocacy networks; developed sophisticated training manuals for Immigration and Naturalization Service ofﬁcers and TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) workers nationwide; worked to improve access to shelter and public beneﬁts for battered immigrant women and their children; and, in collaboration with the American Bar Association’s Commission on Domestic Violence, launched what we hope will be a national project to build sophisticated broad-based statewide service networks for battered immigrant women. The Immigrant Women Program’s successful efforts to include provisions protecting battered immigrant women in the reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act were typical of their high-energy, high-goal style. Working with John Conyers (D-MI), Sheila Jackson Lee (DTX), Connie Morella (R-MD), and Jan Schakawsky (D-IL) in the House and Senators Spencer Abraham (R-MI), Orrin Hatch (R-UT), and Edward Kennedy (D-MA), Immigrant Women Program staff educated, negotiated, drafted and defended what was to become landmark legislation for battered immigrant women. And when the preliminaries were over, Program staff put together a powerhouse coalition composed of the National Network on Behalf of Battered Immigrant Women, Catholic Charities, the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and the National Immigration Law Center and led a successful national lobbying effort.
2000 Annual Report
Education for Women’s Rights
Talking With Congress, Talking With the Media, Talking With Women
For NOW Legal Defense education is more than just a word in our name. It’s a strategy that closely parallels and complements our litigation. It’s part of what deﬁnes our uniqueness. The work of our Washington, D.C. Public Policy Department is at the heart of our educational efforts. Patricia Blau Reuss, Vice President for Government Relations, and her staff are well known and highly respected on Capitol Hill for their sophisticated knowledge of issues affecting women and for their supportive working relationships with congressional staffers. A resource to Congress, they are regularly consulted and their advice is heeded. Public Policy’s priorities over the eighteen months covered by this report focused on reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act, a long and painfully uphill battle that culminated with tremendous success in the last days of the congressional session. The Act is reauthorized for ﬁve years, at twice the original funding levels. Our leadership and mobilization of the National Task Force to End Sexual and Domestic Violence Against Women reinforced our work with Congress and was critical to achieving this remarkable outcome. VAWA could easily have absorbed all of Public Policy’s attention but there were other items on the agenda. Pat Reuss characterized one of those items with her customary pithiness: “We reclaimed the child care issue as a part of the feminist agenda.” In addition, we succeeded in obtaining strong and meaningful regulations for the Family Violence Option of the Welfare Reform Bill. We worked hard on hate crimes legislation and tried to ﬁnd a way to make the raft of developing “fatherhood” bills, funding programs to help poor and lowincome fathers become more employable and responsible, sensitive to the needs of abused and battered partners of some of the targeted fathers. We spread the word about BOB, the Building Opportunities Bonus we helped craft as part of welfare reform to reward states that include child care, violence counseling and the promotion of non-traditional employment in their welfare plans. And we prepared our approach to the reauthorization of TANF, the so called welfare reform bill, scheduled for 2002. And while all this was going on we continued to produce a monthly Congressional brieﬁng on women’s economic issues on behalf of the National Council of Women’s Organizations. It’s a truism that public policy follows public opinion, and that public opinion is shaped by the media: talking with Congress is important, but talking to and through the media is essential. Our Communications Department spearheads our dialogue with the media, and it has racked up some very impressive records. Most signiﬁcantly an all time high number of letters to the editor and op eds were placed since January 1999 in major newspapers across the country and represented, in large part, a careful evolution of message starting with our loss in U.S. v Morrison.
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
A key element in our overall media strategy is the Supreme Court press briefing we hold each year at the National Press Club in Washington, prior to the opening of the Court’s new session. The briefing has become a mustattend for the leading reporters on the Supreme Court beat, and this last briefing was no exception. We distribute carefully prepared materials analyzing the potential impact on women of the major cases about to come before the court. And we lead a lively discussion and Q and A on those cases. The success of our Supreme Court press briefings over the years has positioned us as the leading voice on women’s legal rights in the country and we are very proud of that accomplishment. The last building block of our educational efforts is the small but enormously effective Legal Information and Referral Department we operate out of our New York office. Each year the I & R Hotline, supplemented by a series of constantly updated print resource kits, reaches over 4000 individual women, and many of the lawyers who represent them, with solid basic information on women’s legal rights. The Information and Referral Department not only provides much needed assistance to those women, but also acts as an early warning system for our legal staff, highlighting those areas of growing or new concern we need to assess for potential priority in our overall legal program.
The following Legal Resource Kits are available through NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund’s Legal Information and Referral Department:
Child Custody Child Support (fact sheet) Court Watching in Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Cases Domestic Violence and Child Custody Divorce Planning Employment-Sex Discrimination and Sexual Harassment How to Find a Lawyer (English/Spanish brochure) Incest and Child Sexual Abuse Pregnancy and Parental Leave Sexual Harassment in Housing Sexual Harassment in the Schools Stalking Violence Against Women
Fearing for her life, Jane L. agreed to
become engaged to an abusive boyfriend. She immediately began plotting a way to escape him. She called NOW Legal Defense the day before her planned departure because she was afraid that leaving the immediate area would not be enough to keep her safe. Her fiancé had the resources and the aggressiveness to track her and her children down and she was concerned that she was endangering her children by leaving. We were able to connect Ms. L. with an advocate both in the state she was leaving and in the state to which she would move. The advocates helped her secure a temporary restraining order and made arrangements to keep her protected in her new home. When it was over, we learned that and Jane’s that escape she was had doing been well. successful,
Making the Links
Child Care and Women’s Equality
Until the quality, affordability and accessibility of child care in America is dramatically improved, equality will remain a dream for millions of American women. With 70% of all women with children under 18 working outside the home, it’s clear that this is a serious issue, one that society can ill afford to neglect. NOW Legal Defense is determined to intensify the public conversation about child care, and expand its scope to include the disparate impact on women of today’s meager child care “system,” where far too often child care is unavailable, and if available unaffordable, or of dangerously poor quality. NOW Legal Defense is determined to make the case, and let it be heard, that child care affects all women who need or want to work, at all points along the socio-economic spectrum. Ask the CEO of any major corporation – child care is not just a problem for poor women. This is an increasingly inescapable issue for American business, and American society, and a relatively new priority for NOW Legal Defense. And we’ve alreadycome a long way. We co-
Look at the facts
For U.S. families with children between the ages of 3 and 5, at all income levels, child care is the third greatest expense after housing and food. Full day child care costs as much as tuition at a public university – $4,000 to $10,000 per year. Half the child care provided for America’s youngest children has been rated only “fair” in quality. Only 1 in 10 children eligible for child care subsidies are actually getting any help.
chair the child care task force of the National Council of Womens Organizations, where the spotlight is on the child care workforce, 98% of whom are women, 35% of whom are women of color, and who earn an average of only $11,780 per year. We chair the task force’s legislative committee, which is working on federal legislation to promote better training, and higher salaries, for child care professionals. We entered a partnership with Lifetime Television’s “Adopt a Politician” campaign, which encourages individuals and organizations formally to put pressure on candidates in this election year, urging them to step up to the plate on child care. We invited 2000 of our donors to join the campaign, and we ourselves adopted the presidential candidates. We are also happy to announce the formation of a powerful collaboration between The Child Care Law Center, The Welfare Law Center and NOW Legal Defense to support state and local advocacy for quality child care for low-income families. Funded by a three-year $900,000 grant from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the collaboration targets four states – California, Illinois, New York and Texas – where we will help local advocates enforce the laws on child care, expand low-income families’ participation in the child care subsidy program, craft policies to strengthen access to care, and join national child care partnerships. Looking forward, we hope to work with a broad range of corporate, legal and activist partners to forge a strategic approach to making child care in America really work, for children, for their parents, for society at large. We believe that nothing less is good enough. Poll after poll tells us that the American people know this, that they’re talking about the child care crisis in welfare ofﬁces, at suburban soccer games, and at every stop between, and that they want action. Now it’s time to persuade the government to act.
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
Year Ended June 30 Six Months Ended June 30
Income Major Gifts Corporations and Foundations Government Grants Direct Mail Income Legacies and Bequests Special Events Other Income 1,186,223 1,402,665 106,711 616,534 2,402,427 905,335 698,374 7,318,269 Expenses Economic Justice Violence Against Women Gender Fairness in the Courts Women, Policy and Media Reproductive Rights Child Care Public Information and Education Program Planning and Organizational Development Communications Management and General Fundraising 798,677 718,007 605,952 308,913 256,676 401,494 125,354 455,830 303,017 421,851 1,203,412 5,599,183
186,042 942,734 326,006 495,098 1,257,120 3,207,000
405,820 520,248 262,090 217,125 197,302 44,328 154,993 53,189 201,721 468,299 2,525,115
Net Revenue Fund Balance July 1 Fund Balance June 30
1,719,086 3,640,753 5,359,839
681,885 2,958,868 3,640,753
Effective January 1,1999, NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund changed its ﬁscal year end from calendar year December 31, to June 30.
2000 Annual Report
$100,000 and Above
Anonymous Faith Bell Mia Chernin The Ford Foundation Addie Ross Friedman Bernard F. & Alva B. Gimbel Foundation Casey Geddes Miller The Charles Satinover Fund State Justice Institute United States Department of Justice Marilyn Karnes Willaumez Cosmair, Inc. Dayton Hudson Corporation Del Laboratories, Inc. Escada (USA), Inc. Federated Department Stores Lissa Fowler GFT Apparel Corp. John & Kathryn Greenberg Anne L. Harper Philip S. Harper Foundation IBM Corporation Johnson & Johnson Kiehl’s Since 1851, Inc. KPMG LLP Lillian E. Kraemer Lifetime Television The May Department Stores Company Foundation Morgan Stanley Dean Witter Motorola Foundation The New York Community Trust New York Times Foundation The New-Land Foundation, Inc. Revlon The Estelle Richmond Trust Virginia L. Richmond Helena Rubinstein Foundation Salomon Smith Barney Catherine Samuels & Jeremy Henderson Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, Inc. Shearman & Sterling P. J. S. Simpson Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, LLP Marla Stewart & Wayne Svoboda The SYRATECH Corporation Tucci, Segrete & Rosen Consultants, Inc. Viacom Inc. Weil, Gotshal & Manges Cummins Engine Foundation Ellen Tracy, Inc. Estee Lauder, Inc. Terry Satinover Fagen The Malcolm Gibbs Foundation, Inc. S. William & Pat Green Antonia M. Grumbach Gucci America Inc. Bonnie Howard Institute for Equality in Marriage Investcorp International Inc. J.P. Tod’s Karen E. Katzman, Esq. Margaret H. & James E. Kelley Foundation, Inc. Joyce L. Kramer Philanthropic Fund Lafayette 148, Inc. Michele Coleman Mayes Morvillo, Abramowitz, Grand, Iason & Silberberg, P.C. Stephen H. Oleskey Frances G. & John E. Pepper Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation Prada USA Corp. PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLP Psymark Communications The Ralph’s/Food 4 Less Foundation Nancy M. Riordan The Theo T. & Hilda Rose Foundation Sanoﬁ Beaute, Inc. Sara Lee Corporation Schering-Plough Corporation The Streisand Foundation Tahari, Ltd. Tamarack Foundation The Taubman Company Texaco, Inc. Unilever United States Foundation, Inc. John Vanderstar Vera Wang Bridal House, Ltd. Karen E. Wagner, Esq. Yves Saint Laurent Corporation Bank of America Hathaway Barry BBDO Worldwide Berkhemer/Clayton, Inc. Christine Beshar, Esq. Patricia F. Bierlein Carol O. Biondi Bill Blass, Ltd. Edith C. Blum Foundation, Inc. Boeing North American, Inc. Connie Y. Boyer Mary D. Brady Marjorie Braude, M.D. Breakthru Unlimited Dorothy Laybourne Brickhouse Lynda Bridge The Shephard Broad Foundation Lawrence Broch Denise Scott Brown Katie Buckland Margaret A. Burnham, Esq. Mary Ellen Capek Karen B. Caplan Kathleen H. Cardinal Carole Hochman Designs, Inc. Susan Sills Casamassima CFDA Foundation, Inc. Chicago Foundation for Women Stefani Cochran & Dan Couch Ann Cohen & Jonathan Strum Jane Simoni Cooke Donna Costa, Esq. Covington & Burling Sheila Crowell Daedalus Foundation Cornelia Daly, M.D. Evan Davis & Mary Rothwell Davis Sharon Davis Anita L. DeFrantz Louise Delano Lynne Deutch Francine & Roger Diamond Discovery Communications, Inc. Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette, Inc. Donna Haag, Inc. James & Barbara Donnell Leslie Dorman Catherine J. Douglass Mary C. Drazy Ina Drew Mary Maples Dunn The Echo Foundation Electric Power Research Institute Eller Media Company Kimberly Marteau Emerson Sara & Dean Engelhardt Essence Communications, Inc. Fashion Fair Cosmetics Fidelity Investments Charitable Gift Fund Eileen Fisher, Inc. Kathie Florsheim Ford Motor Company Fund
$50,000 to $99,999
ABC, Inc. Robert Sterling Clark Foundation Joseph Drown Foundation The Huber Foundation Ralph & Marjorie Knowles The Moriah Fund United States Department of Health & Human Services Warner-Lambert Company
$25,000 to $49,999
Anonymous Bell Atlantic The Jacob & Hilda Blaustein Foundation Elizabeth J. Cabraser, Esq. Goldman, Sachs & Co. The George Gund Foundation Hearst Corporation IOLA Bett Kniseley Marriott & William Marriott The McGraw-Hill Companies Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc. Ms. Foundation for Women Jessie Smith Noyes Foundation Donald A. Pels Pﬁzer Inc. Rockefeller Family Fund Saks Fifth Avenue Vera Skubic Trust The Jane M. Timken Foundation United States Trust Company The Young & Rubicam Foundation
$5,000 to $9,999
Anonymous (4) ADP, Inc. Air-Tech Abatement Corporation Allen & Company Incorporated American Home Products Corporation AnnTaylor, Inc. AT&T The Susan A. & Donald P. Babson Charitable Foundation Paul & Edith Babson Foundation Bergdorf Goodman Body Action Design Inc. Ruth McLean Bowman Bowers Foundation Bowne of New York Burberrys International Ltd. Ronald W. Burkle Foundation Carole Little Company Chanel, Inc. Liz Claiborne Inc. Communications Workers of America Barbara & Bill Cox
$1,000 to $4,999
Anonymous (8) The Abernathy/MacGregor Group Inc. Active Apparel Group, Inc. Aileen Adams Adelphia Communications Corp. Altman-Stiller Foundation American Building Maintenance Co. Architectural Digest ARCO Foundation Arden Realty Limited Partnership Giorgio Armani Corporation Paul & Catherine Armington Artists In Residence, Inc. Association of State, City & Municipal Employees Holly G. Atkinson, M.D. Jacqueline Avant Avis, Inc. Lynn P. Babicka
$10,000 to $24,999
Anonymous American Express Arnold Communications, Inc. Bates Worldwide Bear Stearns & Co. Fritz Beshar & Peter Lehner Birger Christensen USA Bloomingdale’s Calvin Klein Cosmetics The Chase Manhattan Corporation The Chazen Foundation Colgate-Palmolive Company The Conde Nast Publications, Inc.
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
Judith R. Forman Soﬁa S. Fruton Fujisankei Communications International, Inc. Georgie & Milton Gatch David Geffen Foundation Gretchen S. Geller The J. Paul Getty Trust Martha E. Gifford Barbara A. Gilmore Charles & Sara Goldberg Charitable Trust Michael S. Gould GPU Energy Granite Broadcasting Corporation Greenberg Foundation Cynthia Greenleaf Marlene Grossman Hachette Filipacchi Magazines, Inc. Hale & Dorr Carole Handler Hanes Hosiery Elisabeth Harper Molly Hauser J. W. Hershey The William & Flora Hewlett Foundation Elizabeth Hill Kathryn S. Hirsch Ann Hollister Judy Holston Carolyn Schaller Hopley The Maria Hummer & Bob Tuttle Foundation Alice Hutchins Intercosmetics, Inc. Anne T. Johnson Laura Johnson, Esq. Michael H. Jordan Helene L. Kaplan Karen Kaplowitz Janet Karatz Amy L. Katz, Esq. Beverly I. Katz, Esq. Robert M. Kaufman Meryl R. Kaynard Keyspan Energy Richard & Marianne Kipper Joyce Kramer Philanthropic Fund Anne Kresl KSD Foundation, Inc. Evelyn Landgraf Marta J. Lawrence Lear Family Foundation Barbara F. Lee Dale & Norman Leff Eileen LeFort The Leslie Fay Companies, Inc. The Mortimer Levitt Foundation, Inc. Susan B. Lindenauer Victoria Lins Linda Lucks & Michael Rosenfeld Eileen D. Lynch
H. Gwen Marcus Marin Community Foundation Mark Eisen Company Patricia Yancey Martin Debra A. Mayer, Esq. Eileen L. McDonagh & Robert E. Davoli Sandra McGaughey Ruth M. McKay Julie S. Mellum Microsoft Corporation Casey Geddes Miller Maya Miller Avy L. & Roberta L. Miller Foundation Mine Reclamation Corporation Cindy Miscikowski Molloy & Company Jane & Stanley Moss Stewart R. Mott Charitable Trust Shauna Woods Mueller Pamela M. Mullin The Natori Company Nautica Enterprises, Inc. New York Presbyterian Hospital Newsweek Elaine M. Nonneman Northrop Grumman Corporation O’Melveny & Myers, LLP Charles Ogletree, Jr. Antonia M. Orﬁeld, O.D. Oscar de la Renta, Ltd. Rebecca Bean Otto & Phil Otto Paciﬁc Bell Sara Paretsky Dr. Louis P. Paul People Magazine Diana Peterson-More The Philadelphia Foundation Philip Morris Companies, Inc. The Jay and Rose Phillips Family Foundation Stacy D. Phillips Pillsbury, Madison & Sutro Sara Portnoy Lynn Povich Qantas Airways, Ltd. Valerie Ray The Reebok Foundation Judith Reichman, M.D. Patricia C. Remmer Rena Lange (U.S.A.), Inc. Joyce Rey Deborah L. Rhode Susan F. Rice Andrea L. Rich, Ph. D. Nancy Roberts Pamela Robinson David Rockefeller The Rockefeller Foundation Kathryn J. Rodgers Congresswoman Lucille Roybal-Allard Laurie Rubin SAP America, Inc. Elizabeth Scheuer
Minna Schrag & David I. Goldblatt Hon. Patricia Scott Schroeder Phyllis N. Segal Harriet Selwyn Seventeen Magazine Dr. William G. Sharwell Sony Pictures Entertainment, Inc. Southern California Gas Co. Lisa Specht Helen H. Spiro Domna Stanton State Farm Insurance Companies Joseph & Martha Steele Sidney Stern Memorial Trust Isabel Carter Stewart Rosalie Swedlin Targeted Media for Medicine, Inc. The A. Alfred Taubman Foundation Phyllis Teitelbaum & Anthony Lunn THE Clinic Tiffany & Co. Time, Inc. Anna May & Clayton Timmons Tommy Bahama UAW Labor Employment & Training Corporation United Food & Commercial Workers International Union United Jewish Appeal-Federation The United Methodist Church University of California, Los Angeles Andrea L. Van de Kamp Belinda Smith Walker Carolyn F. Webber Weichert Relocation Company Wells Fargo Bank Marissa C. Wesely White Birch Foundation Lois Q. Whitman Eleanor Barrett Wilder Helen Wolcott Adele & Ira Yellin YWCA of Greater Los Angeles Gail Zappa
Bonnie K. Burger Barbara Burnim Marguerite Carmine Louisa Chapman, M.D. The Chase Manhattan Foundation Vicki G. Cheikes Mrs. John T. Childs, Jr. Dayl A. Cohen Compton Foundation, Inc. Walter J. Crawford, M.D. Paul G. De Vido Philip Devon Family Foundation Beth Rudin DeWoody Elsbeth B. Dusenbery Edelman Public Relations Worldwide Sue & Charles Edwards Cindy Eisenberg Ulrika Ekman Eleanor Elliott Gail Erickson Sandra C. Eskin Christine Essel Lauren W. Field Janet Fisher Dana Hartman Freyer Linda Gara Eleanor Gerson Paige Gillies Goldstein & Greenlaw, LLP Elaine & David Gould Barbara Grodd Ann Grover Louise Hamer-Cato Linda Lee Harper Sally & Benjamin Head Mr. and Mrs. James Heller Barbara A. Helstrom Myna Meshul Herscher Sheila Holderness Herbert Horvitz Joan Hughes H. Nona Hungate, Ph.D. Hunter College Carole Isenberg Eric Javits, Inc. Jeffrey & Foster, Inc. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Emma Coleman Jordan Lois Juliber Jane Kammerman Elaine Kant L. Eileen Keller Barry Kieselstein Enterprises, Inc. Phyllis Kindinger Judge Joan Klein & Conrad Klein Nina Klionsky & Leon Metlay Therese A. Kozlowski Barbara Lawrence Nancy L. Lazar Judith Leiber, Inc. Joan M. Leiman, Ph.D. Cynthia Leive
$500 to $999
Anonymous (10) Elaine & Miles Alexander Jan Aronson Dean Attaway Linda Baldwin Avila Bally, Inc. Louise Chazen Banon Suzanne Barnett, Ph. D. Susan David Bernstein Elizabeth J. Black Stanley Blacker, Inc. Elreen T. Bower Elizabeth L. Bremner Judith T. Broder, M.D. Alice C. Brown Jennifer Buchwald-Baerwald Bullitt Foundation
2000 Annual Report
Nathan Leventhal Diana L. Little Los Angeles County Commission for Women Louis Vuitton U.S.A., Inc. Lozier Foundation Morton & Sophia Macht Foundation, Inc. Jane Mansbridge & Christopher Jencks Marathon Communications Ellen R. Marram Margaret E. Martin Katharine E. Merck G.G. Michelson Lois E. Miller Kathleen A. Mortensen Sara E. Moss Kristin Arnold Nagel Joshua and Beth Nash National Association of Women Business Owners Los Angeles New Prospect Foundation Barbara Nims Richard W. Odgers Rose Oliver Owyang Mary-Lou Pardue Mary E. Pennock Lewis Perkiss Sue Rempel-Thompson & Robert Thompson Elizabeth Reynolds Susan Rice Esther Leah Ritz Rose & Kindel Nancy & Miles Rubin Helen B. Rudin Yvette Rudnitzky Joan & Ed Schur Thomas McNair Scott Elizabeth Sheehan Ann Sheffer Alix Kates Shulman & Scott York Deborah Shure, M.D. Robert Shwartz & Susan Greenberg Susan Slaughter Betty Smith Emily L. & Robert E. Smith Debbie Smyth Southern California District Council of Carpenters William & Arlene Staley Christine Steiner Phyllis W. Stevens Catharine R. Stimpson Mary-Christine Sungaila, Esq. Janet Surkin Deborah Tannen Jon J. Thaler The Alan & Peggy Tishman Foundation, Inc. Marvin Traub Associates Gene Trolander
United Way of New York City Frances R. Wainwright Warhaftig Associates, Inc. Rita W. Warner Robert & Betty Weinstock Pamela Weisberg Guida West Jo Lynne Whiting Frances P. Wilkinson Elizabeth Williams Winky Foundation Gertrude K. & Theodore W. Winsberg Rosalie J. Wolf Catherine Woolner Miwon Yi Faith A. Young Evelyn Zucker
Alice C. Brown Eva H. Cadwallader, Ph.D. Mia Chernin Margot O. Clark Stephanie J. Clohesy Elizabeth Cuthbertson Muriel Fox Betty Friedan Addie Ross Friedman Dorothy J.M. Harvey William Hawkins, Jr. In memory of Helen S. Hawkins Bonnie Howard Anne Hale Johnson Karen E. Katzman Ruth Krohn Kislingburg Helen S. Lapham Barbara Lawrence Molly Lischin Catharine Lucas Vera May Marghab Leigh Marlowe Casey Geddes Miller Elli Nilsen Elaine M. Nonneman Mary Albert O’Neill Mary K. Peabody Jan & Charles Raymond Estelle Richmond Virginia L. Richmond Joan Ross Yvette Rudnitzky Alma Sanford Merriam Packard Sargent Phyllis N. Segal Barbara Sherman
Jane A. Skinner Vera Skubic Mary Doyle Springer Dr. Kathleen M. Stafford Doris A. Steppe Sally E. & Robert Stoddard Jane Timken Thorpe Tucker Mary Jean Tully Ruth A. Whitney Marilyn Karnes Willaumez
Pro Bono Legal Services
Kaye, Scholer, Fierman, Hays & Handler, LLP Dina Bakst Sheila Boston Karen Katzman Morrison & Foerster Jonathan Band James Bergin Jamie Levitt Jin Hee Lee Robert Murphy Elizabeth Phillips Laura M. Santana Sidley & Austin Paul Hammersbaugh White & Case, LLP Elaine Johnston
3COM Corporation American Express Foundation ARCO Foundation The Chase Manhattan Foundation The Chubb Corporation Corn Products International Ericsson Federal Insurance Ford Motor Company Fund The J. Paul Getty Trust Helene Curtis Industries, Inc. The William & Flora Hewlett Foundation Robert Wood Johnson Foundation MasterCard International MediaOne Group Microsoft Mobil Foundation New Century Energies Foundation Pﬁzer Inc. Philip Morris Companies, Inc. Pitney Bowes Prudential Foundation The Prudential Insurance Company of America The Rockefeller Foundation Spear, Leeds & Kellogg The Times Mirror Foundation Unilever Home & Personal Care- USA US Bancorp US WEST
We honor and thank those committed NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund supporters who have made the decision to invest in equality for women and girls as members of the Equal Rights Legacy Society. By including NOW Legal Defense in their estate planning, they have insured that we can continue to use the power of the law to provide a more equitable future for all Americans. For information on how you can join the Equal Rights Legacy Society, please call Sheila Holderness at (212) 925-6635.
Equal Rights Legacy Society
Barbara M. Cox, Co-Chair John Vanderstar, Co-Chair Anonymous (2) Beverly A. Bear Marlys Becker Faith Bell Regina M. Bonney Gene Boyer Mary D. Brady Karen Brandt
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
Board of Directors
Minna Schrag, Chair Proskauer Rose LLP (retired) Sara L. Engelhardt, First Vice Chair The Foundation Center Anne L. Harper, Vice Chair Harper Consulting Catherine Samuels, Vice Chair Program on Law and Society Open Society Institute/US Programs Alice E. Richmond, Secretary Richmond, Pauly & Ault Stephen H. Oleskey, General Counsel Hale and Dorr Michele Coleman Mayes, Treasurer Colgate-Palmolive Company Holly G. Atkinson, M.D., Executive Committee Member-At-Large Cornell University Weill Medical College Department of Public Health Elizabeth Cabraser Lieff, Cabraser, Heimann &Bernstein, LLP Kathleen H. Cardinal Civic Activist
Ina R. Drew The Chase Manhattan Bank Mary Maples Dunn The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University Kim Gandy NOW Antonia M. Grumbach Patterson, Belknap, Webb & Tyler, LLP Patricia Ireland NOW Emma Coleman Jordan Georgetown University Law Center Ralph I. Knowles, Jr. Doffermyre Shields Canfield Knowles & Devine Deborah Rhode Stanford University School of Law Kathryn J. Rodgers NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund Honorable Patricia Scott Schroeder Association of American Publishers, Inc. Isabel Carter Stewart Girls Incorporated Elizabeth Toledo NOW
Patricia J. Williams Columbia University Law School Adele A. Yellin Civic Activist Nancy Hoffmeier Zamora Zamora & Hoffmeier Distinguished Directors Betty Friedan Author John Vanderstar Covington & Burling Honorary Directors Muriel Fox, Chair Harleysville Insurance Co. Barbara M. Cox Doty & Cox Etta Froio W/Women’s Wear Daily Lisa Specht Manatt, Phelps & Phillips
Board of Directors and Staff
Administration Kathryn J. Rodgers, President Leslie J. Calman, Executive Vice President Robert J. Geryk, Director, Finance and Administration Sandra Brown Basso, Coordinator, Executive Department Donna Brady, MIS Specialist Candy Judge, Accountant Nancy Lambert, Administrative Manager Jesse Sanford, MIS Specialist Communications Kathy Parrent, Director Siobhan Benet, Associate Amy DeMarco, Associate Josh Harman, Webmaster Development Sheila Holderness, Vice President, Institutional Development Aditi Dhruv, Assistant Amy Hackett, Grants Coordinator Legal Martha F. Davis, Vice President and Legal Director Dina Bakst, Staff Attorney Geoff Boehm, Staff Attorney Sarah Bradley, Assistant Spenta Cama, NAPIL Fellow Hon. Mary Davis, Visiting Staff Attorney Aditi Dhruv, Assistant Julie Goldscheid, Senior Staff Attorney Ilizabeth Gonchar Hempstead, NAPIL Fellow Juli Ana Grant, Legal Information and Referral Coordinator Taiwaan Harrison, Assistant Marcellene Hearn, Staff Attorney Sherry Leiwant, Senior Staff Attorney Roslyn Powell, Staff Attorney Heather Ronovech, Senior Assistant Yolanda Wu, Staff Attorney Laurie N. McIntosh, Senior Grants Associate Tasseli McKay, Associate Katey Wood, Associate National Judicial Education Program Lynn Hecht Schafran, Vice President and Direc Roberta Baldini, Staff Attorney Kerry Dieckman, Assistant Gretchen Elsner, Associate Amita Swadhin, Assistant Public Policy Patricia Blau Reuss, Vice President, Government Relations Bulbul Gupta, Administrative Policy Aide Jacqueline K. Payne, Policy Attorney Immigrant Women Program Leslye Orloff, Senior Staff Attorney and Directo Janice Kaguyutan, Policy Attorney Women, Policy and Media Program Rita Henley Jensen, Director Victoria Graham, Managing Editor, Women’s Enews Robyn Rossnagel, Assistant Editor, Women’s Enews
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