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Kristen Jackson 9th World History 3/15/13 8.1.9 B - Analyze and interpret historical sources. 8.4.12 A - Evaluate the significance of individuals and groups who made major political and cultural contributions to world history since 1450. 8.4.12 B - Evaluate historical documents, material artifacts and historic sites important to world history since 1450. 8.4.12 C - Evaluate how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organization, transportation and roles of women since 1450. Students will be able to explain what Martin Luthers complaints against the Catholic Church were and why he had problems with the Church. Do Now Think/Pair/Share: What role did the Catholic Church play in European life during the Middle Ages? The warm-up will be a discussion of the previous units discussion of religion during the Middle Ages. During the previous unit, we discussed the power of the church and how the church influenced the actions of everyday people. However, as we move forward into the Renaissance, we will begin to discuss how exactly the Renaissance orchestrated the shift from a reliance on the Church to widespread challenges of the church. We have addressed the writings of both Erasmus and Giovanni and how their unorthodox criticisms of the church were revolutionary. Now we will begin discussing Martin Luther and his concerted disregard for the church. Before we enter the direct instruction for the day, students will complete the summary section of their Cornell Notes in order to segue into the next days lesson.

PA Academic Standard: (Description)

Lesson Objective: (confirm measurability) Introduction (What will be your Do Now or Warm Up activity to start the class? What expectations will you set? What will you say/do to engage and motivate students? How will you introduce the lesson objective and agenda?)

Enduring understandings: How did the Renaissance attitude extend to religious reformations? What were Martin Luthers complaints against the Catholic Church? Why did Martin Luther have problems with the Catholic Church? Direct Instruction: (Describe how you are able to model process, product and thinking) To supplement the discussion, there will be PowerPoint slides for students to take notes from. We will continue working on summarizing slides in order to practice our summary skills. Introduction to Martin Luther, his conflict with the church, and the 95 Theses using the following video. http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/martin-lutherthe-95-theses-and-the-birth-of-the-protestant-reformation.html (only play up to 4 minutes as the video is quite long). The video introduces Martin Luther and how his 95 Theses birthed the Protestant Reformation. I will have students simply

respond to the video with I notice.../I wonder statements to simply gauge their initial reactions. Then, I will explain that during this time period, conflicts related to the Church were increasing. The church began selling indulgences which basically implied people could buy their way into heaven. Martin Luther, a Catholic Monk, wrote a letter to the Archbishop of Mainz to explain his position. The Catholic Church saw his disagreement as heretical and he was excommunicated (review of definition). I will ask students how they think this played out. Students will offer responses. We have discussed the power of the church and during yesterdays lesson, challenges that the church often abused its power one of the desired responses is that there was perhaps a growing formal movement against the church. I will then tell the students that there were conflicts over the papacy and that people began thinking that the Church should have less political involvement. After the analysis of sources, we will come back and address the churchs response to Martin Luthers 95 Theses and his Trial at the Concordat of Worms. Students will take brief notes on what the charges were and what the church felt Martin Luther did wrong.

Guided Practice: (Describe what you will be doing and what the students will be doing) Independent Practice: (Describe what the students will be doing and how you will confirm student understanding.) Exit Assessment: (Describe how you will confirm success in meeting lesson objective) Homework: (Should only be given to the observers)

Then, in groups, students will analyze a small section of Luthers text. Each one will represent a different overall criticism that Luther makes about the Catholic Churchs power. Students in the group will fill out the graphic organizer (attached) to help them dissect their text. They will then select a representative to share out in front of the class what their excerpt represented.

The Believing Game (used to discuss controversial issues in an organized setting). Students will be broken into two groups. One group will represent Martin Luther and the other will represent the Church. I will ask each side to draft three points in favor of their sides perspective. They cannot challenge the other side, they can only write points that summarize why they believe what they do. Students will then write a paragraph response to the question: who was justified? If you were in the jury at Martin Luthers trial, would you vote in favor of prosecuting him of heresy or no? Explain.

What was one of Martin Luthers criticisms of the Catholic Church?

Write 2 paragraphs (minimum) addressing something you disagree with or believe is unfair and explain why. Mimic Martin Luthers style: use your words to express exactly what you find unfair, why, and how you would do it differently. You can pic any topic of your choice. Each paragraph should be a minimum of 7 sentences.

Excerpt #1 - Repentance 1.When our Lord and Master, Jesus Christ, said "Repent", He called for the entire life of believers to be one of repentance. 2. The word cannot be properly understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, i.e. confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy. 3.Yet its meaning is not restricted to repentance in one's heart; for such repentance is null unless it produces outward signs in various mortifications of the flesh. 4. As long as hatred of self abides (i.e. true inward repentance) the penalty of sin abides, viz., until we enter the kingdom of heaven. Excerpt #2 Sale of Indulgences 42. Christians should be taught that the pope does not at all intend that the purchase of indulgences should be understood as at all comparable with the works of mercy. 43. Christians should be taught that one who gives to the poor, or lends to the needy, does a better action than if he purchases indulgences. 44. Because, by works of love, love grows and a man becomes a better man; whereas, by indulgences, he does not become a better man, but only escapes certain penalties. 45. Christians should be taught that he who sees a needy person, but passes him by although he gives money for indulgences, gains no benefit from the pope's pardon, but only incurs the wrath of God. 46. Christians should be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they are bound to retain what is only necessary for the upkeep of their home, and should in no way squander it on indulgences. 47. Christians should be taught that they purchase indulgences voluntarily, and are not under obligation to do so. Excerpt #3 - Purgatory 26. The pope does excellently when he grants remission to the souls in purgatory on account of intercessions made on their behalf, and not by the power of the keys (which he cannot exercise for them). 27. There is no divine authority for preaching that the soul flies out of the purgatory immediately the money clinks in the bottom of the chest. 28. It is certainly possible that when the money clinks in the bottom of the chest avarice and greed increase; but when the church offers intercession, all depends in the will of God. Excerpt #4 Power of Indulgences 35. It is not in accordance with Christian doctrines to preach and teach that those who buy off souls, or purchase confessional licenses, have no need to repent of their own sins. 36. Any Christian whatsoever, who is truly repentant, enjoys plenary remission from penalty and guilt, and this is given him without letters of indulgence. 37. Any true Christian whatsoever, living or dead, participates in all the benefits of Christ and the Church; and this participation is granted to him by God without letters of indulgence. 75. It is foolish to think that papal indulgences have so much power that they can absolve a man even if he has done the impossible and violated the mother of God.

76. We assert the contrary, and say that the pope's pardons are not able to remove the least venial of sins as far as their guilt is concerned. Excerpt #5 Selling indulgences to finance the building of St. Peters Church 50. Christians should be taught that, if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence-preachers, he would rather the church of St. Peter were reduced to ashes than be built with the skin, flesh, and bones of the sheep. 51. Christians should be taught that the pope would be willing, as he ought if necessity should arise, to sell the church of St. Peter, and give, too, his own money to many of those from whom the pardon-merchants conjure money. 52. Why does not the pope liberate everyone from purgatory for the sake of love (a most holy thing) and because of the supreme necessity of their souls? This would be morally the best of all reasons. Meanwhile he redeems innumerable souls for money, a most perishable thing, with which to build St. Peter's church, a very minor purpose.

Name: Date: Martin Luther 95 Theses Primary Source Analysis Part 1 Directions: Select up to 4 of the excerpts given of the 95 Theses. First, you will translate it into modern language. Put it in your own words so you can understand it. Then, in the second box, summarize the argument Martin Luther is making against the Church. Finally, write what you think the Church was doing wrong. We will do one together to model what I want to see. Type of criticism: Real world translation Summary/meaning What was the church doing wrong?

Name: Date: Martin Luther 95 Theses Primary Source Analysis Part 1 Directions: Complete the table with a summary of the 5 different types of criticisms discussed. As each group explains their understanding of their excerpt, take notes to summarize the different type. Fill in the first row of the table for your group. Type of Criticism Summary of Criticism What was the Church doing wrong?