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TP IP #10.

Punic Wars After first Punic War-Rome subjugated foreign policy; sit as proto-nation state offering full citizenship to other nation states; force structure provided; offered hope to move up in social structure; consuls with imperium for limited time to limit power; problematic with cohesiveness and professional for limited engagements but not for war on the scale of Punic. Strategic situation: unstable, Carthiginians resent Rome, Rome grabs Sardinia as buffer, stretch Erbo Treaty; Rome is surrounded by threats... Economy: Roman navy limits Carthage's trade; mass production lines for ships; innovators, copiers and improvers; Roman Military power: shifts from land to land and naval power; corepus (sp?) added to exploit Carthiginians combat power limits; "machine" army, doctrine, possibly operational design; Roman Culture - sense of destiny; great empire identity; Government: militarized and military becomes politicized; higher power in either realm requires success in the other; Carthiginian status: brittle power w/limited manpower and sea power; trading organization, hierarchical with lots of small colonies, ethnically diverse, mercenary military, rely on few capable military leaders, ruling class does not participate in military; Barca family...strategic imperative focused on Spain; Interwar - Spain becomes more valuable than North Africa economically to Carthage; allows rebuilding of power/resilience-Second Punic war strains convert from conscript to professional army -----------------------Second Punic War Proximate cause: Ebro Treaty, disagreement over Saguntum, ally of Rome; spheres of influence vs spheres of interest subject to interpretation of the Romans; Strategies: Rome--centralized, politically directed consuls; political object and military object tied; attack Spain, politically pressure Carthage, kill them all or until they accept peace;

Carthage---Hannibal--decentralized, military object sans political; defeat Roman armies calls into question Roman power which will the break away Roman allies; assumptions: Rome will oblige him, he will win, amount of destruction required; Three successful operations--Cannae dilemma: now Hannibal is expected to protect fissured allies; Romans build 25 legions, events convince cities not good idea to abandon Rome...Hannibal doesn't have resources to protect Romans are creating as much trouble for Carthage--Spain, Siciliy, Greece, ... Decisive point occurs not in Italy; Scipio Africanus--seizes New Carthage; learns and adapts to Hannibal's tactics; he now has battle strategy he knows will work; retrains his army based on environment expected (Spain, Italy, Sicily, Africa) Sicily--resource and advance naval base to connect to Hannibal--unsuccessful; revolts put down by Roman invention, stealth, deception, power As a result of Punic Wars... Middle class fighting wars for years, farms bought up by wealthy, middle class has nothing and becomes new proletariat, division of classes increases, power increases with elite through competition, ***unhinged the social and economic nature of Rome As we build strategy, to what degree is what we're doing or contemplating going to change the nature of what we have and who are? Fabius vs Scipio--focus on Italy and settle vs directly coerce in Africa;