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Rev. 2 April 29, 2013
RESPONSE TO OFF‐HANDED REMARKS BY DALAI LAMA ON ABC NEWS By Han Maung Initial Publication: April 24, 2013 http://abcnews.go.com/International/dalai‐lama‐pleads‐myanmar‐monks‐end‐violence‐ami d/story?id=19013148#.UXiAxMrSyHc The following is my response to ABC News report prepared by Muhammad Lila on April 22, 2013. The esteemed Dalai Lama was bushwhacked into making an offhanded comment by none other than MUHAMMAD LILA of ABC News. Though, all that the Dalai Lama said was "All the major religions teach us the practice of love, compassion and forgiveness. So a genuine practitioner among these different religious traditions would not indulge in such violence and bullying of other people." It was written up in the ABC News report as if it was a “message” for the monks in Myanmar to end violence, forgetting the fact the monks have no hand in it at all. This report was a propaganda piece to justify the false claims being propagated by the Muslims around the world. The Dalai Lama was only making a case for universal love, compassion and forgiveness. However, can any Islamic leader officially state that Islam teaches universal love, compassion and forgiveness irrespective whether the other person in muslim or non‐muslim and whether men or women? If so, will Saudi Arabia and other Sharia muslim countries change their laws to allow non‐muslim to practice their religion in public and without fear of being beheaded? Even if Dalai Lama had intended his remarks for the monks, we need to examine it carefully. After all, Dalai Lama had always quoted "My followers should not accept my teachings out of faith and devotion, but after investigation and experimentation.'” Again, according to Dalai Lama “The so‐called ‘Tibetan Buddhism’, has entirely been borrowed from India, more precisely from Nalanda.” Nalanda, in the ancient Magadha country, was a place visited by the Buddha and Lord Mahavira several times. It is the home town of Ven. Sariputra; and where King Asoka, one of India's greatest emperors, had erected a Stupa at the spot where he was cremated. However, history revealed genocide had occurred at Nalanda and where once there was a great Buddhist university, and now none of these great universities exist. These were the earliest universities in the world, predating Oxford and Cambridge, not only devoted to religion but also to sciences and mathematics and attracted scholars and students from as far
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away as Tibet, China, Greece, and Persia. The residential Nalanda University had up to 30,000 students but it was totally destroyed and burned down by Muslim invaders under a small but barbaric army led by Bakhtiyar Khalji in 1193. The university was so large that it took over three months to burn. Instead of taking arms or conversion to Islam, the Buddhists opted to be slain by the invaders and thousands were burned alive. The brightest and the best minds of the time and countless books were lost, and the country side was laid to waste. Similarly, Buddhism that was once a predominant religion in countries as far as Afghanistan, Maldives, India, Indonesia have completely disappeared due to relentless attacks by barbaric Islamic forces and the pacifist nature of Buddhism. By comparison, the damage to Tibet by communist China was far less than those inflicted by the barbaric Islamic forces. Let us also examine the case of Tibet, which was once an independent country headed by the Dalai Lama, and now a part of China. The Dalai Lama, with his vast wisdom and compassion was unable to stop the Chinese annexation of Tibet. He and his retinue of followers with the help of US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had to flee Tibet and are currently living in exile in Dharamshala, India, with very little hope of returning to their ancestral homeland. If Myanmar or other Buddhist countries were to follow the Tibetan way against foreign infiltration and invasion or violence by an alien barbaric culture, the indigenous Buddhist people in those countries would either become refugees in a third country or be annihilated as in the case of Nalanda. Buddhism can only exist if the other party is willing to reason and discuss. Like Bakhtiyar Khalji who issued a Fatwah to annihilate Buddhists, according to Muslim Sharia law, Buddhists are non‐believers and it is the duty of all muslims to kill them. Hence, in Rakhine state in 2012, the riot was caused after several muslim men raped, sodomized and murdered a young Buddhist girl. Similarly, in Meikhtila 2013, the violence started after an innocent Buddhist monk who was riding behind a motorcycle through the muslim part of the town was hacked, dragged alive ‐ INTO a MOSQUE ‐ and tortured, brutalized, burned and executed by a bunch of muslim men; while the rest of the towns people cheered on. Thus, all violence and assault in Myanmar were initiated by the muslims, and if the Buddhists lay people had not been the majority and willing to take up arms, it would be akin to suicide and they would have suffered the same fate as the Nalanda University. When needed, even Asoka “The Great” was not absolutely non‐violent after his conversion to Buddhism. Therefore, I am sad to inform the esteemed Dalai Lama, per your own guidance, your off handed remarks if intended to the monks in Myanmar, have been tested and found wanting. LET NOT THE HISTORY OF NALANDA REPEAT ITSELF AGAIN.
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Instead, please help form an international organization of predominantly Buddhist nations such as ASSOCIATION OF BUDDHIST NATIONS (ABC) or ORGANIZATION OF BUDDHIST NATIONS (OBN) (starting with Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Bhutan, Japan and Mongolia) not only to counter the threat from Muslim fundamentalism and other forms of terrorism but also to have a united voice in world affairs. The question regarding China and Tibet will need to be sorted out. Countries with minority Buddhist population can be admitted on observer status on a case by case basis. FINALLY, ALL BUDDHISTS MUST “REMEMBER NALANDA” AND PLEDGE “NEVER AGAIN”
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which means protector. 2: Text added as shown in teal color .wikipedia. 2 April 29. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. that existed from 750–1174 CE.org/wiki/Pala_Empire 4 Note on Rev. Rev. during the Classical period of India. 2013 LIST OF ATTACHMENTS A ABC New Report (2 pages) B Nalanda Wikipedia (12pages) C Nalanda The Pursuit of Science (3 pages) D The last lesson at Nalanda (2 pages) E The Six Buddhist Universities of Ancient India (7 pages) Prior to invasion by the barbaric Islamic forces the PĀLA EMPIRE was an Indian imperial power. all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala (Modern Bengali: পাল pāl). http://en.
issued by Human Rights Watch. gesturing to his Saffron colored robes. Recent satellite photos released by Human Rights Watch show a huge scale of destruction: During a three-day period in March.UXkrs0rh Dalai Lama Pleads for Myanmar Monks to End Violence Amid Damning Rights Report By MUHAMMAD LILA DHARAMSALA. the Tibetan leader made a personal plea. political party operatives. some emotion makes you want to hit. which began during the summer of 2012 as a series of small skirmishes between Buddhists and Muslims in central Myanmar. It's unclear whether Myanmar has responded to the report. represent his most public condemnation of the Buddhist-led violence that has left hundreds dead and an estimated hundreds of thousands homeless. some with their hands bound behind their backs.com/International/dalai-lama-pleads-myanmar-monks-end-violence-amid/story?id=19013148#. shows a pre-planned pattern of violence in the Southeast Asian country. April 22. or want to kill. In another village. "It's very sad. including entire villages razed to the ground and the bodies of men. including 28 children. were completely destroyed. compassion." the Dalai Lama said. Please stop. more than 800 buildings in a single Burmese village.http://abcnews. 2013— ATTACHMENT ." It's unclear how much weight the Dalai Lama's words will carry in violence-stricken areas of Myanmar (formerly known as Burma). made by the Dalai Lama during an exclusive interview with ABC News from his home-in-exile in Dharamsala. The Myanmar government classifies the Rohingyas as Bangladeshi immigrants. who stand accused of exhorting followers to attack Myanmar's minority Muslims. The violence. India. tolerance. 2013 07:13:14AM MDT . a small ethnic group that represents no more than 3 to 5 percent of Myanmar's total population. compassion and forgiveness. Nearly all the violence has been directed toward Myanmar's minority Rohingya Muslims. denying them official citizenship. "All the major religions teach us the practice of love. We are followers of Buddha. So a genuine practitioner among these different religious traditions would not indulge in such violence and bullying of other people. has spread considerably.com The Dalai Lama Condemns the Buddhist-Led Violence in Myanmar Amid a damning new report showing official Myanmar complicity in ethnically cleansing entire Muslim towns and villages. where a new report accuses Buddhist monks. mostly in Rohingya neighborhoods. were allegedly hacked to death. The recent remarks. India.A abcnews. "Buddha always teaches us about forgiveness.go. "If from one corner of your mind." he said earlier this month. then please remember Buddha's faith. The report. 1 Page 1 of 2 Apr 25. women and children buried in mass graves. and ordinary Myanmar residents of committing brutal acts of violence against the country's tiny Rohingya minority. 70 people." When asked what he would say if he could speak directly with Buddhist monks in Myanmar. "We are religious people. Burmese laws prevent them from travelling without permission and owning land.go. the world's foremost Buddhist leader has a message to the Buddhist monks accused of spearheading the violence.
UXkrs0rh Several residences were also reduced to ash. The Dalai Lama revealed that at the outset of the violence. India and the Himalayan mountain range." Born Tenzin Gyatso in China's Qinghai province in 1935. I'm quite sure that behind the scenes. or fatwa. the Dalai Lama has millions of followers spread primarily throughout China. said. suggesting arson as a-widespread tactic. through talk." saying the words amounted to lip service that were. and unlike other religious leaders. does not have the power to issue an edict. the Dalai Lama remains hopeful that Suu Kyi can still intervene to solve the crisis. the same denomination that is widely practiced in Myanmar. the Dalai Lama's tone and mood noticeably changed when the issue of Myanmar's ongoing violence was raised. Despite the criticism. Human Rights Watch accuses Burmese authorities of turning a blind eye. critics pounced after she told a conference in Japan. food.com/International/dalai-lama-pleads-myanmar-monks-end-violence-amid/story?id=19013148#. The use of violence is outdated." Copyright © 2013 ABC News Internet Ventures 2 Page 2 of 2 Apr 25." he said.go. During his interview with ABC News. "I'm quite sure. warning of a humanitarian crisis if the violence isn't brought to an end. While parts of the interview were jovial and filled with laughter.http://abcnews. she can help. asking her to intervene to help quell the violence. It accuses the government of "systematically restricting humanitarian aid" and "imposing discriminatory policies" on its Muslim minority. Thailand and much of Southeast Asia. he had spoken directly to Burmese pro-democracy activist and Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Ski. In April. 77. and never solves problems. in effect. too little too late. Mongolia. Tibetan Buddhism flows from the Theravada school of Buddhism. the Dalai Lama's tone became slow and somber when discussing Buddhist violence. demanding the violence come to an end. He does not have official contact with Burmese authorities. "All problems must be solved through dialogue. though many of the rituals are different. "As a fellow Nobel laureate. Many of those who fled now ATTACHMENT A live in overcrowded camps where they lack sufficient access to water. and in some cases participating in the violence. "We're in the 21st century" the Dalai Lama. "we must learn to accommodate those with different views from ours. 2013 07:13:14AM MDT . Suu Kyi has been harshly criticized for failing to speak out on behalf of the Rohingyas. shelter and medicine.
Singapore. The complex was built with red bricks and its ruins occupy an area of 14 hectares. Nalanda नालं दा — city — Ruins of Nalanda University Nalanda Coordinates: 25.4438281°E Country State District India Bihar Nalanda IST (UTC+5:30) 803115 +91-6112 BR 21 Rajgir 1 Etymology 2 History 2. Japan. The great library of Nalanda University was so vast that it is reported to have burned for three months after the invaders set fire to it. India. China. supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire. Greece.1 History of the university and the Gupta heyday 2. The site is located about 88 kilometres south east of Patna. India. the free encyclopedia http://en. and Persia.Wikipedia. announced a proposed plan to restore and revive the ancient site as Nalanda International University. and other nations.2 Nalanda in the Pāla era 2. China. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Śakrāditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta I or Kumara Gupta II) and 1197 CE. the university attracted scholars and students from as far away as Tibet.1367959°N 85.4438281°E From Wikipedia. and drove the monks from the site.1367959°N 85. Nalanda was ransacked and destroyed by an army under Bakhtiyar Khilji in 1193.Nalanda . ransacked and destroyed the monasteries.org/wiki/Nalanda ATTACHMENT .B Coordinates: 25.3 Decline and end Time zone PIN Telephone code Vehicle registration Nearest city 1 1 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM .wikipedia. In 2006. the free encyclopedia Nālandā was an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar. At its peak. and was a religious center of learning from the fifth century CE to 1197 CE.
1 Libraries 3.2 Curriculum 3. as does a seal discovered at the site. development and fruition from the sixth century to the ninth.B Lok Sabha constituency Vidhan Sabha constituency Nalanda Nalanda The Chinese pilgrim-monk Xuanzang gives several explanations of the name Nālandā. the history of Nalanda university "falls into two main divisions—first.' which is also identified as Nalanda by many scholars. hence the name. one of gradual decline and final dissolution from the ninth century to the thirteen—a period when the tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in 2 Replica of the seal of Nalanda University set in terracotta on display in the ASI Museum in Nalanda 2 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM . one of growth. One is that it was named after the Nāga who lived in a tank in the middle of the mango grove. is that Shakyamuni Buddha once had his capital here and gave "alms without intermission".Nalanda . the free encyclopedia http://en.org/wiki/Nalanda 3 Overview 3. when it was dominated by the liberal cultural traditions inherited from the Gupta age.wikipedia.  Some historical studies suggest that the University of Nalanda was established during the reign of a king called Śakrāditya. Another. the one he accepted. the second.Wikipedia. Both Xuanzang and Prajñavarman cite him as the founder.3 Influence on Buddhism 4 Excavations 5 Ruins 6 Plans for revival 7 Institutions 8 Railway Station 9 In popular culture 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links ATTACHMENT . of the Gupta Dynasty. Śāriputra died at the village called 'Nalaka. As historian Sukumar Dutt describes it.
a Turk. Despite all this. reported that thousands of monks were burned alive and thousands beheaded as Khilji tried his best to uproot Buddhism the burning of the library continued for several months and "smoke from the burning manuscripts hung for days like a dark pall over the low hills. and anatomy."??? ATTACHMENT . 1197–1264) visited the site in 1235. he found it damaged and looted. . the Nalanda University was sacked by the fanatic Bakhtiyar Khilji. instructing a class of about 70 students. it seems from the evidence that the different seats of Buddhist learning that functioned in eastern India under the Pāla were regarded together as forming a network. he started an ordination lineage of the Mulasarvastivadin lineage to complement the two existing ones. in his chronicle the Tabaqat-I-Nasiri .org/wiki/Nalanda eastern India. During Chag Lotsawa's time there an incursion by Turkish soldiers caused the remaining students to flee. and Jaggadala. 1400 CE when Chagalaraja was reportedly the last king to have patronized Nalanda. When the Tibetan translator Chag Lotsawa (Chag Lo-tsa-ba. Muslim conquest in India is seen by scholars as one of the reasons of the decline of Buddhism in India. the free encyclopedia http://en." and it was common for great scholars to move easily from position to position among them." The last throne-holder of Nalanda. 3 3 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM . Odantapurā.B A number of monasteries grew up during the Pāla period in ancient Bengal and Magadha. The five monasteries formed a network.Wikipedia. the premier university of the era. alchemy. centres of learning at Nalanda and northern India to be responsible for the demise of ancient Indian scientific thought in mathematics. In Tibet. five great Mahaviharas stood out: Vikramashila. astronomy." Ahir considers the destruction of the temples. the Nālānda was less singularly outstanding. Nalanda. Somapura. According to Tibetan sources. The Persian historian Minhaj-i-Siraj. fled to Tibet in 1204 CE at the invitation of the Tibetan translator Tropu Lotsawa (Khro-phu Lo-tsa-ba Byams-pa dpal). an interlinked group of institutions. with a 90-year-old teacher. Rahula Shribhadra. came under the aegis of the Pālās. as other Pāla establishments "must have drawn away a number of learned monks from Nālānda when all of them . "all of them were under state supervision" and there existed "a system of co-ordination among them . "remnants of the debilitated Buddhist community continued to struggle on under scarce resources until c.Nalanda ." Evidence in literature suggests that in 1193. Shakyashribhadra.wikipedia. During the Pālā period. past its prime but still illustrious. . monasteries.
The library was located in a nine storied building where meticulous copies of texts were produced. adorned with the full-blown cups of the blue lotus.000 students and 2. In its heyday. Tibet.wikipedia. the monastery is reported to have owned 200 villages given as grants.000 teachers. it ATTACHMENT .. and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. The subjects taught at Nalanda University covered every field of learning. He described how the regularly laid-out towers. and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea. along with many other meditation halls and classrooms.e. the free encyclopedia http://en. The university was considered an architectural masterpiece. the dazzling red flowers of the lovely kanaka hang here and there. The Tang Dynasty Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang left detailed accounts of the university in the 7th century. i.php?title=Template:BuddhasHolySites&action=edit) accommodated over 10. Persia and Turkey.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalanda Nalanda was one of the world's first residential universities.B Pilgrimage to Buddha's Holy Sites The Four Main Sites Lumbini · Bodh Gaya Sarnath · Kushinagar Four Additional Sites Sravasti · Rajgir Sankissa · Vaishali Other Sites Pataliputra · Gaya · Kosambi Kapilavastu · Devadaha Kesariya · Pava Nalanda · Varanasi Later Sites Sanchi · Mathura Ellora · Ajanta · Vikramshila Ratnagiri · Udayagiri · Lalitgiri Bharhut · Barabar Caves view · talk · edit (//en.Nalanda . it had dormitories for students.org/w/index." The pilgrim states: "An azure pool winds around the monasteries. and outside groves of mango trees offer the inhabitants their 4 4 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM . Indonesia. China. Japan. It is also one of the most famous universities. During the period of Harsha. forest of pavilions. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples. harmikas and temples seemed to "soar above the mists in the sky" so that from their cells the monks "might witness the birth of the winds and clouds.wikipedia. On the grounds were lakes and parks.
was nine stories high and housed the most sacred manuscripts including the Prajnaparamita Sutra and the Samajguhya. Furthermore. it was separated into three large buildings: the Ratnasagara. authors. literature. Called the Dharmaganja." ATTACHMENT . Sarvāstivāda Sautrāntika 3. Like most other Indian ancient and medieval period libraries. The Ratnadadhi. astrology. the Ratnadadhi. and the Ratnaranjaka. the library was to be built in a “finely built stone building” and each manuscript would have been placed on iron shelves or stack and covered with cloth and tied up. or Piety Mart. According to Tibetan legend. and Alexander Berzin specifies these as: 1. Unfortunately. the library was again burned by Tirthaka medicants.the Tibetan tradition holds that there were "four doxographies" (Tibetan: grub-mtha’) which were taught at Nālandā. Sutra. This bibliography. The library not only collected religious manuscripts but also had texts on such subjects as grammar. The towers were supposedly immense.Wikipedia. the Mahāyāna philosophy of Nāgārjuna 5 5 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM . or Anukamanikas. Rishi’s name. In nalanda university. the free encyclopedia http://en. according to the text.B The entrance of many of the viharas in the Nalanda University ruins can be seen with a bow marked floor.Nalanda .org/wiki/Nalanda dense and protective shade. would have listed the books by hymns. According to the Bhaskara Samhita. the university and library were reportedly repaired shortly after by Muditabhadra. logic. and the Abhidamma. Mādhyamaka. the librarian in charge. was not only responsible for maintaining the materials but also for guiding readers in their studies The exact number of volumes of the Nalanda University Library is not known but it is estimated to have been in the hundreds of thousands. astronomy. and the hymnal metre. Structure The library at Nalanda University was an immense complex.wikipedia. the bow was the royal sign of the Guptas. form of sutras. Nalanda would have used a basic catalogue to help patrons find materials. a Buddhist sage. bejewelled and gilded to reflect the rays of the sun. Buddhists texts were most likely divided in three classes based on the Tripitaka’s three main divisions: the Vinaya. and medicine Classification It is clear that Nalanda University library had a classification scheme which was possibly based on a text classification scheme developed by the great Sanskrit linguist Panini. Destruction The library was destroyed in 1197–1203 during the Muslim invasion in which Bakhtiyar Khalji sacked it and set it to flames. an ancient text on organizational practices. Sarvāstivāda Vaibhāṣika 2. meaning the Ocean of Gems.
Korea and Japan. In the 7th century. stems from the late (9th–12th century) Nalanda teachers and traditions. Xuanzang records the number of teachers at Nālandā as being around 1510. Other forms of Buddhism." ATTACHMENT . 500 were able to explain 30 collections. it would not pass. Then they ordered the officer. Samkhya. medicine. If there was a difference of opinion on a certain issue. 6 6 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM . and logic as diligently as they applied themselves to metaphysics. Students studied science. the curriculum of Nalanda University at the time of Mañjuśrīmitra contained: . flourished within the walls of the ancient university. as well as resident monks: If the monks had some business. he would be forced to leave the monastery. The scholar Dharmakirti (ca. Xuanzang was among the few who were able to explain 50 collections or more. astronomy. as well as and one of the primary theorists of Buddhist atomism. With the objection of a single monk. There was no use of beating or thumping to announce his case. both its Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions. Yijing wrote that matters of discussion and administration at Nālandā would require assembly and consensus on decisions by all those at the assembly. only the abbot Śīlabhadra had studied all the major collections of sūtras and śāstras at Nālandā. philosophy. At this time. such as the Mahāyāna Buddhism followed in Vietnam. Of these. Yoga-shastra. one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic.Wikipedia. No force or coercion was used to convince. A number of scholars have associated some Mahāyāna texts such as the Śūraṅgama Sūtra. China. the free encyclopedia http://en. 7th century). Cittamatra.. taught at Nalanda. and the scriptures of Buddhism. the Mahāyāna philosophy of Asaṅga and Vasubandhu According to an unattributed article of the Dharma Fellowship (2005).B A vast amount of what came to comprise Tibetan Buddhism. to circulate and report the matter to the resident monks one by one with folded hands. Thus in the seven hundred years of the monastery's existence no man has ever contravened the rules of the discipline. They studied foreign philosophy likewise. and only 10 teachers were able to explain 50 collections. Courses were drawn from every field of learning. The king showers it with the signs of his respect and veneration and has assigned the revenue from a hundred cities to pay for the maintenance of the religious.org/wiki/Nalanda 4.. they would assemble to discuss the matter. In case a monk did something without consent of all the residents. Buddhist and Hindu. an important sūtra in East Asian Buddhism. they would give reason to convince (the other group). foreign and native.virtually the entire range of world knowledge then available. Vihārapāla. the Veda. approximately 1000 were able to explain 20 collections of sūtras and śāstras. Xuanzang also writes: "The lives of all these virtuous men were naturally governed by habits of the most solemn and strictest kind. sacred and secular.wikipedia.Nalanda .
Other than structures. Basically a hundred feet wide passage runs north-south with the row of temples on the west and that of the monasteries on the east of it. The interesting feature of this temple is the dado of two hundred and eleven sculptured panels over the moulded plinth. Central courtyard. bronze and stucco. Harṣa notified the chancellor of Nālandā. row of cells all around with a common verandah. The monasteries are quite identical in general layout and appearance.Wikipedia. and Xuanzang to refute the views of the monks from Odisha. a secret chamber for keeping valuables. are some characteristic features of almost all the monasteries at Nalanda. Originally it had four corner towers out of which two are in existence and decorated with rows of niches containing beautiful stucco images of Buddha and Bodhisattvas which are fine specimens of Gupta art. kitchen. Nālandā was held in contempt by some Sthaviras for its emphasis on Mahayana philosophy. Prajñāraśmi. The main temple site 3 is the largest and most imposing structure at southern extremity of the row of temples and is surrounded by votive stupas. who sent the monks Sāgaramati. single entrance and common place for prayer or meeting etc. the excavations have unearthed many sculptures and images in stone.org/wiki/Nalanda ATTACHMENT . Significant among the Buddhist sculptures are Buddha in different postures.wikipedia. a Chinese visitor. When this occurred. According to Hwui-Li.B  with the Buddhist tradition at Nālandā. well. 7 7 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM . Siṃharaśmi. staircase for going to upper stories. mocking the "sky-flower" philosophy taught there and suggesting that he might as well patronise a Kapalika temple.Nalanda . the free encyclopedia http://en. They reportedly chided King Harṣa for patronising Nalanda during one of his visits to Odisha. A temple different in character and not conforming to the general layout of the remains is represented by temple site 2. granary. Excavations conducted by Archaeological Survey of India during 1915–37 and 1974–82 have exposed the extensive remains of six major brick temples and eleven monasteries arranged on a systematic layout and spread over an area of more than a square kilometre. Ron Epstein also notes that the general doctrinal position of the sūtra does indeed correspond to what is known about the Buddhist teachings at Nālandā toward the end of the Gupta period when it was translated. Another mound called 'Sarai Tila' very close to the monastery complex has revealed ruins of a temple with murals and feet portion of a colossal stucco image of Lord Buddha.
Main article: Nalanda International University On 9 December 2006. philosophy and spiritualism along with other subjects. The Nalanda Museum contains a number of manuscripts." 8 8 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM .530 by the fifth. Ganesa. and a few images are of Brahmanical deities like Vishnu. Siva-Parvati. Marichi.812.in). and shows many examples of the items that have been excavated. Nālandā is no longer inhabited. terracottas. Prajnaparamita. Nearby is the Surya Mandir. India. In the first phase of the project. which recreates the history of Nalanda using a 3D animation film narrated by Shekhar Suman. India's first Multimedia Museum (http://www.. potteries etc. A renowned international scholar will be its chancellor. the New York Times detailed a plan in the works to spend $1 billion to revive Nalanda University near the ancient site. enrolment will reach 5. Jambhala etc. plaques. Tara. inscriptions.org/wiki/Nalanda Avalokitesvara. although if Xuanzang's account of Nalanda's extent is correlated with present excavations.prachinbharat. Presently. ATTACHMENT . Today the nearest habitation is a village called Bargaon. and 4. The report goes on to say that "The proposed university will be fully residential.wikipedia. Besides this there are four more sections in the Multimedia Museum: Geographical Perspective.Wikipedia. almost 90% of it remains unexcavated. the free encyclopedia http://en. News Post India reported that the Japanese diplomat Noro Motoyasu said that "Japan will fund the setting up an international university in Nalanda in Bihar". a modern centre for Pali (Theravadin) Buddhist studies was founded nearby by Bhikshu Jagdish Kashyap.com) was opened on 26 January 2008. Mahishasura-mardini. In the 'second phase'.Nalanda .nnm. On 28 May 2007.. seven schools with 46 foreign faculty members and over 400 Indian academics would come up. this institute is pursuing an ambitious program of satellite imaging of the entire region. like the ancient seat of learning at Nalanda. Merinews reported that the revived university's enrolment will be 1.ac. the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara (http://www. On 12 June 2007. a Hindu temple. Surya etc. The antiquities have been exhibited for the visitors in the site museum maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India. A consortium led by Singapore and including China.B A number of ruined structures survive. copper plates. In 1951.000 square metres.137 in its first year. "The university will impart courses in science. Manjusri. Hall of Nalanda and Revival of Nalanda. The known and excavated ruins extend over an area of about 150. sealings. Other noteworthy discoveries of excavations include the murals. Historical Perspective. coins." . Japan and other nations will attempt to raise $500 million to build a new university and another $500 million to develop necessary infrastructure.
School of Languages and Literature. and comparative religion. is expected to be presented to the East Asia Summit in December 2008. Abdul Kalam has accepted the offer to join the revived Nalanda International University sometime in September 2007. the Jakarta Globe Reported Parliament in New Delhi passed a bill approving plans to rebuild the campus as a symbol of India's global ambitions. said the final report in this regard. China. It was decided that Nalanda would largely be a post-graduate research university. School of historical studies.. The Times of India reported that Dr A.in/) Nava Nalanda Mahavihara is a modern centre for Pali (Theravadin) Buddhist studies. Japan and Singapore are rebuilding the ancient university. the foundation of University would likely be in the year 2009 and the first teaching class could begin in a few years from then.B Revived Nalanda University (http://nalandauniv.wikipedia.Wikipedia.edu.ac. Sen. On 11 May 2008. and. School of Ecology and Environmental Studies. School of International Relations and Peace. School of Business Management and Development. according to Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen. with the following schools: School of Buddhist studies. The Times of India reported that host nation India and a consortium of East Asian countries met in New York to further discuss Nalanda plans.in) India. the free encyclopedia http://en." On 13 September 2010.and rediscovering old relationships.nnm. who heads the Nalanda Mentor Group." NDTV reported on 5 May 2008 that.org/wiki/Nalanda On 15 August 2007. The objective of the school was claimed to be "aimed at advancing the concept of an Asian community.P. philosophy.o mere raja 9 9 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM . ATTACHMENT .J. Nalanda 1970: Hindi movie Johny Mera Naam uses the location of Nalanda ruins for its climactic song..Nalanda ."/> Nava Nalanda Mahavihara (http://www.
nic.com/2006/12/09/opinion /09garten.the first residential international University of the World" (http://www. 4. JA Underwood (trans) Orion Press. doi:10. 19. "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". ^ "The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire" (http://www. ^ Young Oon Kim (1976). ii. 20. ISBN 81-7646-447-3. World Religions: Volume 2: India's Religious Quest.bih. Numen 42 (2): 141. p. Buddhist Monks And Monasteries of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. 149. and Unwin Ltd. Jeffrey E. Orion Press.B Platonic Academy Puspagiri University Sharada Peeth Taxila Vikramaśīla University 1. 329. London.htm). Buddhist Architecture (http://books.com/images /about.1163/1568527952598657 (http://dx. Education in Ancient India (http://books.htm).html) The Berzin Archives. 6. ^ "The Buddha and the Sahibs" by William Dalrymple ^ Scott. ISBN 0-86171-329-X pg 15 10. Nalanda Open University.in. Hartmut (2002).html?scp=1&sq=Nalanda&st=cse). Orient Longmans. 2. London.ac.uk /books?id=7s19sZFRxCUC& printsec=frontcover& dq=Education+in+Ancient+India#v=onepage& q=nalanda&f=false). ^ a b Sukumar Dutt (1962).com/?id=9jb364g4BvoC& printsec=frontcover& dq=%22Buddhist+Architecture%22#v=onepage &q=nalanda&f=false). Sixth. ^ D. 344. Rituals. ISBN 0-9844043-0-9. New York. Ahir (2005)." Garten. Buddhist Monks And Monasteries of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. Varanasi: Nand Kishore & Bros. ISBN 81-208-0498-8. B. 9. 12. p.com/web/en /archives/e-books/unpublished_manuscripts /historical_interaction /pt3/history_cultures_20. pp. 5. Retrieved 2010-02-22. ^ Rene Grousset. ^ a b Sukumar Dutt (1962). David (May 1995).167f 7. Anant Sadashiv (1965).google.google. Wisdom Publications. George Allen and Unwin Ltd. ^ "Destinations :: Patna" (http://bstdc. the free encyclopedia http://en. ^ Altekar. New York Times.nytimes. 3. Publishing.co.. George Allen 11. ^ Gertrude Emerson Sen (1964). ISBN 978-90-04-12556-8. 29 December 2009. The Story of Early Indian Civilization. Education in Ancient India.html). 14. Grafikol.1163%2F1568527952598657). 352–353. R. ^ Nalanda Digital Library. ^ Beal: op. Golden State Publishing Co.nalanda. ^ "About Us" (http://www.doi. In the Footsteps of the Buddha. "Nalanda Digital Library-Nalanda Heritage-Nalanda. 1971 p158 ^ a b Rene Grousset (1971).Nalanda .org/wiki/Nalanda Ancient Universities of India Benares I Ching (monk) Nava Vihara ATTACHMENT .nalandaopenuniversity. ^ Le Huu Phuoc (2010). 8.in /Patna. p.wikipedia. 10 10 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM . Brill.nitc. Nalanda. ^ Vajrayogini: Her Visualization. ^ a b c "Really Old School (http://www. 159.org /10.nitc. and Forms by Elizabeth English.Wikipedia. 16.in/about /NalandaHeritage. 13. ISBN 81-208-0498-8. p. ^ Sukumar Dutt (1962).ac. 60. London. ^ Scharfe. 9 December 2006. ISBN 81-208-0498-8. George Allen and Unwin Ltd.berzinarchives. p. cit. In the Footsteps of the Buddha.C. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 17. 18. 15. Buddhist Monks And Monasteries of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. Buddhism Declined in India : How and Why?.
History and Development 38. 102 ^ Dutt. Studies in the Buddhistic ^ Taher. 25. p. /authenticity.4 39. Benoy K. ^ India Plans to Lift Ancient University From other two – Chittamatra and Madhyamaka – the Ashes (http://www. (1970).Wikipedia. 24." /education/india-plans-to-lift-ancient-universityabcd Mookerji. p. Ancient Indian from-the-ashes/395949) ^ Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist. ^ Patel & Kumar 2001. the free encyclopedia http://en. ^ "The Shurangama Sutra (T. Lalmai. 4:21–65. ^ Bhatt. Two – (http://timesofindia. 1989. Joseph. K. Ashok. Growth of libraries in (http://online. Libraries & librarianship Mahāyāna Buddhism and Early Indian Culture. A.unesco. K. 945): A Press.37 (http://www. Christmas. ^ Joshi.org/en/tentativelists/5407/) 11 11 of 12 4/25/2013 9:16 AM .sfsu. 11 May 2008. p. Buddhist Tenet Systems Regarding Illusion: A Merinews. Retrieved 2010-02-22. (1994). p. Sukumar. 28 May 2007. (1972).edu/~rone/Buddhism India. Buddhist Monks And Monasteries of India: Their History And of libraries in India. ^ "Nalanda to move from ruins to riches studied four systems of Buddhist tenets. Berlin. ^ Dutt. 1994.B ISBN 0-7661-9347-0. 565 34. 29. p. 264 librarianship in India. 171 and library science in India. 23. Frontline 25 (5). 1995. 26. (2008). p. of ancient and medieval India.com ^ Berzin. Radhakumud. The 45. Practical Approach.37.merinews. World Heritage (http://whc. ^ Walser.com were subdivisions within Mahayana. 1987. D. ^ Humphreys. Delhi: Atma Ram 2005.Nalanda . Librarianship Culture of India. ^ a b Nava Nalanda Mahavihara ^ Taher & Davis.. ^ Datta.com /archives/sutra/level5_analysis_mind_reality /education/20070612/55820. Buddhist monasteries. 111 contribution to Indian culture. such as Nalanda. of the Sarvastivada school within Hinayana. 40. & Davis. 334. New Delhi: Ashok Kumar Mittal. Reappraisal of its Authenticity" ^ Khurshid. ^ Patel. 1979 ISBN 81-208-0498-8. George Allen Publications. 28 initiative (http://www. p. monks 44.org/wiki/Nalanda 21. London. Source: 42.nnm.com/articleshow Vaibhashika and Sautrantika – were subdivisions /3029197. ^ "Nalanda Int’l University: A commendable ^ Datta. India eNews. 32. /four_indian_tenets_illusion_.G. 28. ATTACHMENT . p. 33. p.K. K. 22.jsp?articleID=125171)". 27. p.frontlineonnet.com/fl2505/stories/20080314250506600.com/web/en Nalanda" (http://www.thejakartaglobe. Buddhist Monks and Banarsidass.html) (accessed: 2 43. /four_indian_buddhist_tenet_systems 12 June 2007. (2001). Westport: Greenwood 37. ^ Sukumar Dutt (1962). "In the Indian Mahayana Times of India. Buddhist monks and 35. The Four Indian /catFull. Behl. p. M. "Art: Thoughts and Images (15 of 25)" (http://www. ^ "Kalam to join Nalanda University soon. 15 August 2007. (1 March 2008). S.htm).indiaenews.wikipedia.indiatimes. & Krishan." The January 2008). B. 1962.ac. and Unwin Ltd. Nāgārjuna in Context: ^ Datta. Alexander (2002). International Library Review. 1995.htm). ^ "Japan eager to invest in university at  (http://www. (1995). New Delhi: Mittal Contribution To Indian Culture.in/) ^ Bhatt. The Wisdom of monasteries of India: Their history and their Buddhism. J. Delhi: Motilal 36. 31. 22 41. Libraries and Monasteries of India.jha. R. 1970.cms)". Germany.berzinarchives.htm). 30.
that is. Bakhtiyar Khilji. But how does it compare with other old universities in the world? Well. if we do not insist on continuous existence. and Nalanda was firmly committed to just that. That is enough vaunting of age (as you know. led by the ruthless conqueror. which did not stay in existence continuously either. Another distinguished university. Since the university is being. Al-Azhar University in Cairo. the fact that Nalanda was a very ancient university is becoming better known. understanding. since it is still an obscure entity for most people in the world. re-established under a joint Asian initiative. Nalanda was more than six hundred years old. ATTACHMENT . by a long margin. what is the oldest university in the world? In answering this question. when Nalanda was already more than five hundred years old.Nalanda and the pursuit of science . which was established in the early fifth century..thehindu. and even compared with the oldest European university. but before I go into that rather complex issue. when Bologna was born. and I hope you have got the point: we are talking about the oldest university in the world by a long margin. with which Nalanda is often compared. But we are getting there. one's mind turns to Bologna. in India we take age quite seriously). Nalanda was violently destroyed in an Afghan attack. Bologna. including of course Oxford University which was established in 1167.' Amartya Sen's keynote address at the 98th Indian Science Congress in Chennai on January 4.' Special Arrangement ‘Nalanda stood for the passion of propagating knowledge.The Hindu http://www. right now. I am finding out how hard it is to re-establish a university after an 800 year hiatus. Where does Nalanda fit into this picture? “Nowhere” is the short answer if we are looking for a university in continuous existence. 2011 01:56 IST | Updated: January 14. 2011 18:30 IST Nalanda and the pursuit of science Amartya Sen CENTRE OF LEARNING: 'Science has to fight parochialism.C Opinion » Op-Ed Published: January 8. and since I happen to have the difficult task of chairing its interim governing body. Had it not been destroyed and had it managed to survive to our time. I must say something about Nalanda itself. viz.ece?homepage=t..com/opinion/op-ed/article1063459. 970 AD. the oldest university in the world. an internationally renowned centre of higher education in India. This meeting here gives me an opportunity to recollect the pursuit of science in old Nalanda which will inspire and guide our long-run efforts in new Nalanda. The university is being re-started right now. and Cambridge in 1209. because mainly for cost reasons — indeed entirely for cost reasons — we cannot start the science faculties immediately (physical and 1 1 of 4 4/25/2013 9:19 AM . Nalanda university. The subject of this talk is Nalanda and the pursuit of science. shortly after the beginning of Oxford University and shortly before the initiation of Cambridge. was ending its continuous existence of more than seven hundred years as Oxford and Cambridge were being founded. Nalanda would be. and to other old citadels of learning. was established at a time. in 1193. to Paris in 1091. I say long run. initiated in 1088.
The second question to ask is the difficult one about the room for science in what was after all a religious institution. Yi Jing. viz Buddha. since it offers a clue to the possible significance of this form of Buddhism for all kinds of observational and experimental sciences.C 2 2 of 4 4/25/2013 9:19 AM . Indeed. partly because we have to start thinking about the long run (even as we try to raise money for initiation and expansion).” Yi Xing was particularly concerned with calendrical calculations. First. whose focus of preaching was on enlightenment (the name given to Gautama. management and development. Some of the fields were directly related to Buddhist commitments. Nalanda was a Buddhist foundation. and comparative religion).. as Joseph Needham notes. The point to remember here is that by the nature of the philosophy of Buddha. who was a student of Nalanda.ece?homepage=t. the mathematician. The recollection — and more challengingly. and still others linked Buddhist intellectual queries with interest in analytical discipline. Tantrism became a major force in China in the seventh and eighth centuries. and surely the central focus of these institutions were studies of Buddhist philosophy and practice.000 students. on Chinese mathematics and astronomy in the seventh and eighth centuries. at least initially. and of adherents of Tantric Buddhism in particular. it was still a part of a larger tradition of organised higher education that developed in that period in India — in Bihar in particular. biological sciences cost much more money than the humanities and the social sciences do). Yi Xing dealt with a variety of analytical and computational problems. including the teaching of — and research in — humanities (such as history. many of which had no particular connection with Tantrism or Buddhism at all. but as a way of understanding better the Buddhist intellectual impact. The combinatorial problems tackled by Yi Xing included such classic ones as “calculating the total number of possible situations in chess. was the old Nalanda sufficiently large to be a factor in whatever pursuit it might have been championing? Was it not merely a drop in an ocean of superstition and ignorance that some people see as the characteristic feature of the Indian old world: you only have to read James Mill's “History of India. the greatest Chinese astronomer and mathematician of his time. there were in the vicinity other such institutions.” Yi Xing (or I-Hsing. but he had acquired a great expertise also on Indian writings on mathematics and astronomy. but belonged to a tradition of which Nalanda was one of the results. and this is important to recollect in thinking about the tradition of Nalanda. Nalanda was an old centre of learning that attracted students from many countries in the world. In addition to Nalanda. as were Vikramshila and Odantapuri. and had followers among Chinese intellectuals of the highest standing. (I request the audience to be careful of the distinction between Yi Xing. Yi Xing was familiar with the Indian religious literature. such as Xuanzang and Yi Jing in the seventh century. One of the connections on which evidence of intellectual connections between China and India is plentiful is the impact of Buddhists in general. itself means “enlightened”). interested in medicine.” Needham goes on to remark that “this fact alone should give us pause. among other things. on imperial order. it would be a mistake to assume that Yi Xing's mathematical or scientific work was somehow motivated by religious concerns. to use Needham's spelling). to see how firm and politically important this conception of the past was in keeping modern India in check.” which was obligatory reading for all British civil servants sent off to run the Raj. and information technology). There was a larger social culture to which Nalanda belonged. Despite his own religious connection. Let me identify a few questions about the pursuit of science in Nalanda. such as architecture and sculpture. and Yi Jing. a new calendar for China. others went with the development and dissemination of Buddhist culture. such as medicine and healthcare. Let me comment briefly on the last — not specifically with reference to Nalanda. Tantric mathematicians had a significant influence on Chinese mathematics as well. Calendrical studies in which Indian astronomers located in China in the eighth century.Nalanda and the pursuit of science . and to whom I referred earlier. “the most important Tantrist was I-Hsing (+672 to +717). Well. As a general mathematician who happened to be also a Tantrist. as well as the social sciences and the world of practice (such as international relations. It is also important to recognise that while Nalanda was very special. Incidentally. were ATTACHMENT . languages and linguistics.thehindu.The Hindu http://www.. studying various subjects. Chinese students in particular. even though he himself studied in Nalanda. Indeed. was one of many translators of Tantric texts from Sanskrit into Chinese. the intellectual trained in Nalanda. had at its peak 10.com/opinion/op-ed/article1063459. and the rest of Asia. and even constructed. but a few also from as far in the west as Turkey. assessment — of the scientific tradition in old Nalanda are important right now. in the Tang period. there was a basic epistemic and ethical curiosity in the tradition of intellectual Buddhism that sought knowledge in many different fields. along with Yi Xing. Xuangzang wrote about them too. with Tantric fascination with numbers). particularly China and Tibet. who was in fact never a student of Nalanda. Korea and Japan. Since many Tantric scholars had a deep interest in mathematics (perhaps connected. Nalanda. a residential university. but also because a scientific attitude and disciplined thought are important for the entire conception of new Nalanda. wrote extensively on what they saw and what they particularly admired about the educational standards in Nalanda. Nalanda is the only non-Chinese institution in which any Chinese scholar was educated in the history of ancient China.) As a Buddhist monk. was fluent in Sanskrit. who was. such as Vikramshila and Odantapuri.
were not involved in mathematical studies. I do not know.. since the documents in Nalanda were indiscriminatingly burnt by Bakhtiyar and his conquering army. and on which there was on-going research. A third question concerns the subjects that were actually taught in Nalanda. we have to rely mostly on the accounts of outsiders who did not share that reticence. I have discussed elsewhere how deep this argumentativeness is in Indian intellectual history. like Henry Sidgwick. from Nalanda who were involved in mathematics (a subject that was flourishing in India in this period) and whose documents have been lost. and astronomy.Nalanda and the pursuit of science . I end with two final remarks. we do know.ece?homepage=t. sculpture. however. we may well find out whether there were tensions in the relation between science and religion in Nalanda. and provided an eye-catching sight in the Nalanda campus. would with powerful arguments. Xuangzang comments on that. of course. chastising the University of Padua for not standing up sufficiently for Galileo. in nearby Pataliputra (Patna). such as Yi Xing. or did not share the religion of the foundations involved. There were plenty of organised argumentative matches going on in Nalanda. I heard Paul Ricoeur. in India or China or elsewhere. What is. mathematics and optics. and refers elegantly to the observational tower that seemed to rest among the cloudy fog high up. it was the Christian university of Padua — one of the earliest of the extant universities in the world — that produced Galileo Galilei. that we have to appreciate in interpreting what was going on in old Nalanda. Isaac Newton was religious — indeed very mystically oriented — and while he revolutionised the nature of physics. while receiving an honorary doctorate at Padua. and did not raise the kind of questions about compatibility that some later Trinity-men. were medicine. history. from Indian accounts. did not train in Nalanda. It is this general intellectual animation. into the scientific connections of Nalanda. it nevertheless pursued general intellectual and scientific studies the products of which were of great interest also to people who were not religious. that logic was a subject that was taught in Nalanda. particularly trigonometry. in a very general way.C 3 3 of 4 4/25/2013 9:19 AM . just before the time when Nalanda would come to its sudden end). Ricoeur's arguments were impeccable. particularly involved. though it seemed a little unfair to blame the current Rector of Padua for Padua's lack of support for Galileo. (I was. We have to rely therefore of the accounts of students of Nalanda who wrote about what they had seen. and this too fits. such as Xuangzang and Yi Jing. and to illustrate with another example. The faculty and the students in Nalanda loved to argue. law and linguistics. architecture. This ATTACHMENT .) To what extent such conflict arose in Nalanda. another recipient. and given the reticence of Indians to write about history (a subject of interest in itself). but as more documents come to light. Indeed. all the Indian experts that the Chinese brought to China for astronomical work were mathematicians (one of these Indian mathematicians became the Director of the official Board of Astronomy of China in the 8th century). Those in China who were deeply involved in Indian mathematics. in addition to religion. The final remark concerns the passion for propagating knowledge and understanding that Nalanda stood for. There may have been others.com/opinion/op-ed/article1063459. made good use of the progress of trigonometry that had already occurred in India by then (going much beyond the original Greek roots of Indian trigonometry). Brahmagupta and others). was the place were the mathematicians doing front-line innovative work on the subject were congregating. Here we do have a problem. mine and Venky Ramakrishnan's) college's (that is Trinity's) the-then religiosity. We do know that among the subjects taught. In that period the progresses in Indian and Chinese astronomy were closely linked with developments with mathematics. such as Yi Jing and Xuangzang. this was also about the time when Indian trigonometry was having a major impact on the Arab world (with widely used Arabic translations of the works of Aryabhata. We do not know enough about the ancestry of the Indian mathematicians who went to China to decide whether any of them had Nalanda connections. to seek arguments and defences. public health. What about mathematics? As it happens the Chinese chroniclers from Nalanda. The mixture of religion and science was by no means unique to Nalanda. I take the liberty of mentioning here that it is not. but I want to add here that it is a part of the scientific tradition as well. but we do know that from early fifth century Kusumpur.thehindu. The first one concerns an aspect of the intellectual life of Nalanda that emerges powerfully from the accounts we do actually have about Nalanda from Chinese as well as Indian scholars. incidentally amused when.The Hindu http://www. unique to Nalanda that as a religious foundation. and very often held argumentative encounters. which would later influence European mathematics as well. as it happens. The movement east of Indian trigonometry to China was a part of a global exchange of ideas that also went West around that time. However.. through the Arabs (Gherardo of Cremona would make the first Latin translation of Arab mathematical texts that reported on Indian work in 1150. Further indirect evidence in the direction of the presence of mathematics in Nalanda curriculum was the inclusion of astronomy in Nalanda. Varahamihira. and my guess is that eventually evidence would emerge on this part of the curriculum in Nalanda as well. he had no problem with his (and. including animation in analytical and scientific questions. refusing to accept positions and claims on grounds of faith. Indeed. absolutely clear is that this Buddhist foundation made much room for the pursuit of analytical and scientific subjects within the campus of Nalanda university.
who won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1998 and was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1999. and Nalanda was firmly committed to just that.com/opinion/op-ed/nalanda-and-the-pursuit-of-science/article1063459. 2013 6:47:34 PM | http://www. Xuangzang used this commitment in an argument with the faculty in Nalanda when he was asked — and pressed — to stay on as a faculty member in Nalanda.. He mentioned his commitment. 98th Indian Science Congress.com/opinion/op-ed/article1063459. was one reason for its keenness to accept students from abroad.ece © The Hindu ATTACHMENT . Amartya Sen. (Dr. and chairman of the Interim Governing Board of Nalanda University. and here he invoked Buddha himself..thehindu. and to forget those who are not yet enlightened?” If the seeking of evidence and vindication by critical arguments is part of the tradition of science. after he had completed his studies. Xuangzang as well as Yi Jing mentions the warm welcome they received as they arrived in Nalanda from China.The Hindu http://www.Nalanda and the pursuit of science . Indeed. Amartya Sen.) Keywords: Nalanda University.C 4 4 of 4 4/25/2013 9:19 AM .thehindu. is Professor of Economics and Philosophy at Harvard University in the U. Venky Ramakrishnan Printable version | Apr 25. to spread enlightenment “to all lands. Science has to fight parochialism. religious literature. Buddhist culture.ece?homepage=t. so is the commitment to move knowledge and understanding beyond locality.S.” He asked the rhetorical question: “Who would wish to enjoy it alone. ancient knowledge.
indianexpress. All they found were books. placing sacred white scarves on some statues. Back home. Late Sara 2G We Eve BSE Ind Fire As I browsed. what finished Buddhism off was that it revolved around the Sangha. I began my search for answers. China. Even the infamous Jaichand built a monastery to honour his Guru. the White Huns of Mihirakula — behaved no differently towards the Sangha although they were Shiva-bhakts. After Odantapura.com/oldStory/31704/ ATTACHMENT . I downloaded the pages of the past. Let me quickly add that Bakhtiyar Khilji’s Turkic forefathers. To alien invaders. the greatest ever Buddhist university. a monastery’s imposing walls and towers made it an obvious military target. 25 Apr 2013. the monastery near Nalanda. As I looked at walls still blackened by the bonfires of books. It was with the greatest difficulty that the Guptas and others managed to save their lands from their depredations in the sixth century. with its hundreds of monks and thousands of books. a terribly poignant account of the last lesson at Nalanda emerged. and with none left to explain their meaning. was destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khalji’s Turki troops around 1200 AD. 9:21 IST Home India World Business Cities Photos Sports Entertainment Lifestyle Tech O Archive Share | Larger | Smaller Parshu Narayanan Posted: Sep 18. as we now believe. the Turks found no treasure and certainly no arms. it was by Nalanda’s last student: A Tibetan monk called Dharmaswamin. with sincere patrons like Harsha. nearly forty years after its sack. Buddhism was not swallowed up by Sanatana Dharma. Incredibly. Nalanda. was razed and all the monks beheaded. As I walked into the ruins. The museum nearby gives you a glimpse of Nalanda’s sanctity and fame across the Buddhist world: Tibet. a huge dark sadness descended on me. 2003 at 0000 hrs IST I had to attend a wedding at Patna and managed a side trip to Nalanda. they were burnt and Odantapura turned into a military camp. Srimitra. He visited Nalanda in 1235. While inside. It thrived. No.D INDIAN EXPRESS FINANCIAL EXPRESS EXPRESSINDIA LOKSATTA JANSATTA SCREEN ePA Speeches in poor taste are not new in Maharashtra Suhas Palshikar Updated: Thu. and found a small class still conducted in the ruins by a 1 1 of 3 4/25/2013 9:22 AM . Japan and most of Southeast Asia. I saw a group of Tibetan monks walking through.The last lesson at Nalanda http://www.
indianexpress. Jayadeva. Express Specials Small silicon wire App to tell Radioactive paint Your gaze to help 2 2 of 3 4/25/2013 9:22 AM . the class dispersed. Rahul Sribhadra. Packing a raggedy bundle of surviving manuscripts under his robe. and after the last lesson (it was Sanskrit grammar) Rahul Sribhadra told his Tibetan student that he had taught him all he knew and in spite of his entreaties asked him to go home.com/oldStory/31704/ ATTACHMENT . Only the two of them came back. with Dharmaswamin carrying his nonagenarian teacher on his back into hiding.The last lesson at Nalanda http://www. Warned of a roving band of 300 Turks. And both he and the Dharma of Sakyamuni made their exit from India. Dharmaswamin left the old monk sitting calmly amidst the ruins. the teacher was kept fed and alive by a local Brahmin. Weak and old.D ninety-year old monk.
They introduced the learning of the Greeks and Romans as well as knowledge gathered from their contacts with India. etc.htm ATTACHMENT . This set the pace for Martin Luther�s reformation which broke the power of the Catholic Church. after this the Europeans pushed back the power of the Churches and began to make progress in civilisation. In contrast to this with the rise of Buddhism in India. Illiteracy and religious intolerance prevailed during the Dark Ages. The Dark Ages of European history was really the golden age of the Christian Church.org/ebud/ebdha240. because it did the conversion of the barbarians to Christianity during this time. These seats of monastic learning (Pirivenas) gradually developed and some of them became full-fledged universities. Buddhist monks could opt for a life of meditation in the forests. The famed library at Alexandria was burnt down by a Christian mob led by a prelate. This is very much in contrast to what happened in the Roman empire in Europe with the rise of Christianity. or a life of teaching. propagating the Dharma as a result of the activities of the teaching monks. As a result of these barbarities Europe was plunged into the darkness of ignorance and poverty for a thousand years. Hypatia the learned philosopher and teacher was dragged into a Church and her flesh was torn off her body. Seneca.budsas.E BuddhaSasana Home Page English Section t is well-known that with the rise of Buddhism in India there dawned the golden age of India�s culture and civilisation. As a result Buddhist India came to have five major 1 1 of 7 4/25/2013 9:24 AM . Socrates. Schools and centres of philosophy were closed down.g. Aristotle. preaching.The six Buddhist universities of ancient India http://www. With the coming of Christianity into power the Dark Ages dawned upon Europe. seats of learning arose. Plato. The great philosophers and intellectuals of Europe who left their mark on human civilisation were all pre-Christian pagans who lived prior to the rise of Christianity. There was progress in all aspects of Indian civilisation under the impact of Buddhism. During this era whatever progress that was achieved by the Greeks and the Romans received a set-back and came to a stand-still. Portugal and parts of France. At the end of this period the Muslims had conquered parts of the Roman empire and established their rule in Spain. there arose many centres of learning which did not exist before. e. Pliny. The ensuing liberal policies persuaded by the Protestants brought about the Renaissance. The Christian era was masked by an absence of such men.
His son Vijra built the fifth monastery.org/ebud/ebdha240. I . In this he gives an account of Nalanda and his stay there. the Buddha sojourned at Ambavana the mango-park with his disciples. Bihar is so called because it had a large number of Viharas or Buddhist monasteries. China. Nalanda was also the home town of Ven.Tsing (675-685) was another Chinese monk who came to India and studied at Nalanda. He too like Hiuen Tsang has left an account of his travels. Sariputra. Nalanda University Nalanda is the best known of ancient India�s universities. In the 10th century when Hieun Tsang entered the university. Vickramasila. They came from all parts of India and foreign lands. 2. 4. there were 10.Tang . Odantapuri. Nalanda University was an expansion and extension of this seminary. They found the information given there invaluable for them to locate the sacred shrines of the Buddhist in India. It�s site has been discovered and it�s ruins have been preserved by India�s Department of Archeology. It appears that King Kumara Gupta (AC 415-455) built the first monastery at Nalanda.000 resident students. Jagadalala and 5. the ancient Magadha country. King Harsha Siladitya built the sixth monastery and surrounded the university buildings with 9� high wall. We get a comprehensive account of Nalanda university from Hieun Tsang the brilliant Chinese scholar who came there for his studies during the reign of King Harsha-Siladitya. At the time of Fa-Hion�s visit it was an ordinary Buddhist monastery. This has been translated into English by Samuel Beal a British scholar who was once the ambassador to Peking. It�s site was not too for nor too close to the city.Si . Magadha is well known as the cradle of Buddhism. It was a seminary for training Buddhist monks. Indians and their scholars were hopelessly ignorant of these places and could do nothing to help the archeologists. Back in China he wrote this famed "Ta . These five were 1. Hence it was selected as an ideal centre for the pursuit of Buddhist studies by monks.budsas. When in Nalanda. It was India�s 2 2 of 7 4/25/2013 9:24 AM . Somapura.E universities which achieved wide fame.htm ATTACHMENT . It is situated in Bihar State. He visited it during his preaching itineraries. King Buddha Gupta (AC 455-467) Jatagatha Gupta (AC 467-500) Baladitya (500-525) and Vijra (525) made additions and expansions to the buildings.Yu . Nalanda. Nalanda was a prosperous city during the days of the Buddha. King Asoka had erected a Stupa at the spot where he was cremated.The six Buddhist universities of ancient India http://www. 3. It has been called the treasure house of accurate information by European Archeologists. Lama Taranata the Tibetan historian also gives an account of Nalanda in his works. King Baladitya made a shrine-room a house of worship which was 300 feet high.Ki" Buddhist Travels in the western world.
Nalanda was graced by the presence of India�s most brilliant Buddhist luminaries. Hieun Tsang states that 100 lectures were delivered there every day. Nalanda�s ruins and excavations are preserved in a Museum by the Indian government. Lectures.500 workers at Nalanda. Silabhadra. a lighthouse of wisdom and learning. He was called Dvara Pandita. Dignaga. The works they left behind are mostly available 14 Tibetan and Chinese translations. Aryadeva. literature etc.org/ebud/ebdha240. It�s chancellorship was reserved for India�s foremost Buddhist scholar when Hieun-Tsang visited Nalanda Silabhadra Maha Thera held the post. debates and discussions were part of the educational curriculum. 1510 teachers. Java and Sri Lanka were found there. Nalanda was maintained by the revenue from seven villages which were granted by the king. Kamalaseela. Proficiency in Sanskrit was necessary. Korea. Prior to that Nalanda flourished for a thousand years. Therefore the standard required were high. The study of Mahayana was compulsory for Buddhists. China. On 19. Dharmakeerty etc. as it was the medium of instruction. Of the Indian students only 30% managed to pass and gain admission. At that time there were 10. One could also study the doctrines of 18 other Buddhist sects. Nalanda university occupied an area of 30 acres. 1957 the Dalai Lama handed over the ashes of Nalanda�s famed alumni .000 students. Bhaviveka.11. The originals perished when Muslim invaders under Bhaktiar Khilji set fire to Nalanda and beheaded the monks. This included the Theravada commerce. Admission to Nalanda was by oral examination. Jagadish Kashyap was appointed head of the institution on 12. Some of them were Nagarjuna. This is revealed in the archeological remains which show food abandoned in a great hurry. (AD 1037).The six Buddhist universities of ancient India http://www. Sumatra. All Chinese monks going to India for higher studies in Buddhism had to go to Java and brush up their Sanskrit. Students from foreign lands such as Tibet. fine-arts. The observatory of the university was situated in a very tall building.htm ATTACHMENT . Santarakshita. One could study Hinayana forms of Buddhism. The six systems of Hindu philosophy were also taught. administration and astronomy were also taught. Charred rice from the granaries also tell this sorry tale.Hieun Tsang to the Indian government. This was done by a professor at the entrance hall. Hieum Tsang reports that of the foreign students only 20% managed to pass the stiff examinations. and about 1. There were three large libraries bearing the names Ratna-Sagara.budsas. Dharmapala. Rajendra Prasad inaugurated the Nava Nalanda Viharaya at a site close to the ancient university. Ratna-Nidi and Ratna-Ranjana. One of these was nine storeys high. Bhaktiar Khilji the invader of Magadha set fire to Nalanda. Master of the Tripitaka Ven. There were no external students at the university. Japan. 3 3 of 7 4/25/2013 9:24 AM . creed and nationality were no barriers in keeping with the Buddhist spirit. The discipline was exemplary.58 the President of India. medicine. astrology. Casts. the first of it�s kind in the world. One could also study secular subjects like science. 01. When the monks were about to have their meals.E leading University.
Board of Discipline and the Board in charge of entrance examinations. It was called �Vidyagriha�. The curriculum of studies was similar to that of Nalanda. There were six �Dvara Panditas� i. Odantapuri 4 4 of 7 4/25/2013 9:24 AM . Like Nalanda Vickramasila was also surrounded by a high-wall. 108 Professors were engaged in teaching and administrative duties. Dipankara Sri Gnana who is also known as Atisha (AC 960-1055) was the more-famous of the scholars of Vickramasila. Here too high standards were maintained. There were six entrances to this building and near each entrance was a monastery for resident monks about 150 teachers were accommodated in each monastery. B.budsas.4. The Muslims carried the university idea to the West. Under the Pala Kings Vickramasila rose to 9 positions when it rivalled Nalanda and bade well to outshine it. Bagalpur District Vickramasila was said to be a sister institution of Nalanda and was said to have been founded by a monk called Kamapala. under the patronage of King Dharmapala. Sri Gnana�s period was the golden era of Vickramasila.80 carried an account of the discovery of the ruins of Vickramsila by Dr.e Professors who examined candidates seeking admission. Kahalagon.org/ebud/ebdha240. They constituted the Board of Education. Superintending Archeologist in charge of the discovery of the ruins of the Vickramsila Excavation Project.world. Vickramasila Vickramasila is said to have been situated on the banks of the Ganges near the northern part of Magadha. Vickramasila achieved it�s high water mark of prosperty and fame under him. the Indian newspaper �Searchlight� of 25. Board of Administration. Although it�s site was undiscovered. Vickramasila was managed by a staff of Professors.htm ATTACHMENT . S. In the centre of the university was the main lecture-hall. The Chinese government donated five lakhs of rupees for a mausoleum which enshrines these relics. He postponed it for some time till he completed his work at Vickramasila and then undertook the task. The King granted land-endowments for it�s upkeep later King Yasapala also patronised the institutions by liberal land endowments.E headed by Pandit Nehru. Varma. His fame spread far and wide as the propagator of Buddhism in Tibet Tibetans hold his name in the highest veneration.The six Buddhist universities of ancient India http://www. (AC 770-810). Here preference was given to the Tantric form of Buddhism. According to this Vickramasila was situated at Antichak Village. Inaugurated in about 800 A. and after that universities came up in the western . In 1038 Sri Gnana left Vickramsila for Tibet to organise Buddhist studies in that country. When he was at Vickramasila he was invited to teach and propagate Buddhism in Tibet. it graced the land until it was demolished by the Muslim invaders.C.
The ruins of these buildings cover an area of about 1 square mile. about 6 miles away from Nalanda. The Buddhist teacher Sakya Sri Bhadra. Jagaddala King Ramapala (1077-1129) is said to be the founder of this University. There were about 177 cells for monks in additions to the shrines and image houses. Vallabhi achieved fame as the centre for Hinayana Buddhism.htm ATTACHMENT . It followed the methods. Later he joined Odantapuri King Gopala (660-705) was the patron who helped to found this university. Vallabhi Vallabhi University achieved as much fame as Nalanda. and traditions of Nalanda. practices. seeing that Nalanda. According to the Tibetan records there were about 12. There was a large gate and the buildings were surrounded by a high-wall. Jagaddala University was the largest construction works undertaken by the Pala Kings. King Devapala (AC 810-850) is said to have erected the Dharmapala-Vihara at Somapura. It is said they mistook the universities with their high walls for fortresses. A common refectory and a kitchen are among the ruins. The Maitraka kings who ruled Western India constructed a monastery at Vallabhitheir capital. They gave every encouragement and assistance to Buddhist studies at this institution. This university flourished for about 750 years before it was abandoned after the Muslim invasion. It is said that his pupil Danaseela translated ten books to Tibetan Sakya Sri Bhadra was responsible for the propagation of Tatntric Buddhism in Tibet. The Maitraka kings spent lavishly to maintain their university. and Odantapuri were in ruins after the Muslim invasion. This was a centre for the study and dissemination of Tantric Buddhism.The six Buddhist universities of ancient India http://www. This was situated in Maghada.org/ebud/ebdha240.budsas. Vickramsila. Acharya Sri Ganga of Vickramasila had been a student here. Hieum Tsang visited Vallabhi. Somapura Somapura was situated in East Pakistan. and we are not in a position to give more details. He lived for seven years at Jagaddala.000 students at Odantapuri. Our knowledge of this seat of learning is obscure.E Odantapuri was considered the second oldest of India�s universities. While Nalanda was the centre for Mahayana Buddhism. entered Jagaddala for his studies. This too perished at the hands of the Muslim invaders. According to Tibetan works many books were translated to the Tibetan language at Jagaddala. and reported in his "Ta-Tang-Si-Yu-Ki" as follows: 5 5 of 7 4/25/2013 9:24 AM . They thought the Buddhist monks were "Shaven headed Brahmins" who were idolaters. In the 7th century Vallabhi was as prosperous and famous as Nalanda. In 1027 the Muslim invaders sack and destroyed Jagaddala. Remains of three -strayed buildings are to be seen.
They are said to be the founders of Vallabhi. The country is rich and prosperous. I -Tsing� s record I-Tsing records that foreign students were found at Vallabhi. It flourished from 475 to 1200 A. They do not believe that Abhidharma was the teaching of the Buddha." There are about 100 shrines and about 6. This was maintained by a fund established by the King. The Elders Gunamoti and Sthiramatic were Nalanda�s alumni and were teaching there for a time. The course of studies included Comparative Religion.budsas. They come from many lands far and near from these facts we know that like Nalanda-Vallabhi was internationally recognised. The Buddha had visited this land during his ministry. mundane as well as supra-mundane. it rendered yoemen service in the field of learning and culture.000 resident monks studying at Vallabhi. Law. This is how it should be in a religion that teaches that ignorance is the worst enemy of Mao and the cause of ace his sufferings while knowledge (Pragnya) is his highest asset. There was a large library. When the Portuguese conquered the Kotte Kingdom there were flourishing Buddhist Seminaries (Pirivenas) at Totagamauwa. Precedence was given to Sammitiya doctrines at this University.org/ebud/ebdha240. Politics. Vallabhi followed the Nalanda pattern in most of it�s activities. and Wattala. It met the same fate as other Universities at the hands of the Muslim invaders.E -"The population of Vallabhi is very large. 6 6 of 7 4/25/2013 9:24 AM . There are stupas erected by King Asoka to mark the spots hallowed by the Buddha�s visit. Pragnya wins all that is good in this world. Agriculture.000 Buddhist monks.C. There are about 100 monasteries with about 6. Economics also formed a part of the curriculum. There are also many Hindu temples and a large Hindu population in this past of the country. and other eminent people. Most of them belong to the Sammitiya Sect. displayed their skill in the presence of the royalty.The six Buddhist universities of ancient India http://www. As the founders came from Nalanda. and finally brings him the highest happiness. Imported luxury goods are seen in this city. Keragala. An inscription put up by King Guhasena confirms this. The Six systems of Hindu Philosophy and various other schools of Buddhism.htm ATTACHMENT . I-Tsing records that the graduates of Vallabhi. There are over a hundred millionaire families there. Thus it would be seen that as long as Buddhism was a power to reckon with in India. They believed in the Antarabhava doctrine and were exponents of Puggalavada a traditions that disregards Abhidharma teachings that are inconsistent with the Sutra-Teachings. nobbles. The Sandesa poems of the period give glowing descriptions of them and their rectors.
P. Then followed an age of ignorance.island. Sri Lanka.F.htm ATTACHMENT . These Seminaries were upgraded and converted to secular Universities by the S.E They were all raised to the ground "leaving not one stone upon another" according to Portuguese writers of the period. Finally during the reign of King Kirti Sri Rajasinha.html [Back to English Index] last updated: 21-05-2003 7 7 of 7 4/25/2013 9:24 AM . Church on it�s land. 15 May 2003. Udunnwara. Ven. Quyroz mentions the demolition of the Wattala Vijayabahu Pirivena and the erection of the R. Government. His papillary successors opened the Vidyoda and Vidyalankara Pirivenas in Colombo. decay and corruption for some 200 years. http://www. -ooOoo- Source: The Island.The six Buddhist universities of ancient India http://www.lk/index.L.org/ebud/ebdha240. Weliwita Saranankara started his Buddhist revival opening his Seminary at Niyamakanda.budsas. C.