Human Resource Management 1. Define human relations. Ans.
1 Human relations is the skill or ability to work effectively through and with other people. Human relations includes a desire to understand others, their needs and weaknesses, and their talents and abilities. For anyone in a workplace setting, human relations also involves an understanding of how people work together in groups, satisfying both individual needs and group objectives. If an organization is to succeed, the relationships among the people in that organization must be monitored and maintained. 2. What is quality circle? Ans.2 Participative management technique within the framework of a companywide quality system in which small teams of (usually 6 to 12) employees voluntarily form to define and solve a quality or performance related problem. In Japan (where this practice originated) quality circles are an integral part of enterprise management and are called quality control circles. 3. Explain human resource planning. Ans.3 The on-going process of systematic planning to achieve optimum use of an organization's most valuable asset - its human resources. The objective of human resource (HR) planning is to ensure the best fit between employees and jobs, while avoiding manpower shortages or surpluses. The three key elements of the HR planning process are forecasting labour demand, analysing present labour supply, and balancing projected labour demand and supply. 4. What do you mean by job specifications? Ans.4 Nature of a job specification is a statement of knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job. It are minimum acceptable qualifications to perform a particular job. It is the same job criteria. A statement of employee characteristics and qualifications required for satisfactory performance of defined duties and tasks comprising a specific job or function. Job specification is derived from job analysis. 5. Define selection. Ans.5 Selection is the process of obtaining and using information about job applicants in order to determine who should be hired for long- or short- term positions. Selection is the process of picking individuals with requisite qualification and competence to fill jobs in organization. 6. What is career planning? Ans.6 The process of establishing career objectives and determining appropriate educational and developmental programs to further develop the skills required to achieve short- or long-term career objectives. 7. What is job- evaluation? Ans.7 An assessment of the relative worth of various jobs on the basis of a consistent set of job and personal factors, such as qualifications and skills required.
The objective of job evaluation is to determine which jobs should get more pay than others. Several methods such as job ranking, job grading, and factor comparison are employed in job evaluation. Research indicates, however, that each method is nearly as accurate and reliable as the other in ranking and pricing different jobs. Job evaluation forms the basis for wage and salary negotiations. Job evaluation is a systematic assessment of job content. It establishes the worth of a job in terms of salary or wage compared to other jobs. Many elaborate schemes have been developed and applied with varying degrees of success. While some structure is necessary on a project, pay is more likely to be governed by market conditions, scarcity, individual knowledge, performance or trade agreements. Job evaluation is the method of ordering jobs or positions with respect to their value or worth to the organization, and placing them into job families and zones. Job evaluation is the A formal process by which management creates a job worth hierarchy within an organization. The two basic approaches are the market data approach and the job content approach. 8. Explain salary administration. Ans.8 The establishment and management of an organization's compensation policy, including the maintenance of employment records and the setting of job classifications, wage brackets, overtime policy, and salary review plans. 9. Explain the nature of human resource management. Ans.9 Human Resource Management: Nature Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include: • It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises. • Its focus is on results rather than on rules. • It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. • It encourages employees to give their best to the organization. • It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups. • It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. • It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees. • It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. • It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, economics, etc. 10. Explain the concept of international human resource management. Ans.10 international human resource management (IHRM) is the process of procuring, allocating, and effectively utilising human resources in a multinational corporation. If the MNC is simply exporting its products, with only a few small offices in foreign locations, then the task of the international HR manager is relatively simple. However, in global firms human resource managers must achieve two somewhat conflicting strategic objectives. First, they must integrate human resource policies and practices across a number of subsidiaries in different countries so that overall corporate objectives can be achieved. At the same time, the approach to HRM must be sufficiently
maintenance. productivity etc. selection. 11. for example. 12. we find that a staff manager is in a line relationship with other employees in his own particular department.11 Human Resource Management: Scope The scope of HRM is very wide: 1. Industrial relations aspect-This covers union-management relations. The line managers have command authority over their departments. medical assistance.. transfer. layoff and retrenchment. Another aspect of line-staff relationship is based on their authority relations. Ans. 2. etc. Explain the objectives human resource planning. to recruit and retain the human resources of required quantity and quality. education. training and development. Thus. to foresee the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling up of consequent vacancies 3. Ans. health and safety.flexible to allow for significant differences in the type of HR policies and practices that are most effective in different business and cultural settings. collective bargaining. Personnel aspect-This is concerned with manpower planning. This point in line-staff relationship is often missed.. The line managers are dependent on staff specialists for achieving their goals. Ans. raw materials etc. Similarly. but to other staff departments also such as materials. transport. spare parts. but they don’t have authority over other managers. production. staff managers will find themselves superfluous if line people do not need or reject their advice and services. outside their own departments. etc. housing. the materials manager does not provide him supplies. 13. recruitment. tools. incentives. i. line or staff. to meet the needs of the program of expansion. and so forth. quality control.12 Line and staff managers are in an international and interdependent relationship with one another. placement.
. 2. A personnel manager extends expert advice not only to line departments. rest and lunch rooms. promotion. if. quality control managers does not cooperate with him by providing guidance about quality specifications. the maintenance manager does not provide him repairing and maintenance services. Describe the scope of human resource management. remuneration. grievance and disciplinary procedures. guidance and services to the line. 3. settlement of disputes. diversification etc. A production manager cannot function effectively. staff managers have command authority over their own departments. Describe the line and staff relationship. joint consultation. etc.e. creches. recreation facilities. sales and finance. and can be clarified with an example. Similarly. Welfare aspect-It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens.13 Objectives of Human Resources Planning The important objectives of manpower planning in an organization are 1.. and in staff relationship with managers and employees in all the other departments. Interactions are involved in their day-to-day relationships of staff advice. Their function is to give advice and render service to the line departments as well as to other staff departments.
Discuss the job design approaches. discipline etc. Ans.14 There are three important approaches to job design namely 1. (d) Interest tests. to improve the standards skill .. However. 16. on the job training can disrupt the workplace and result in an increase in errors as learning proceeds. Employees get to learn a wide variety of jobs and gain increased insight into the interdependency between jobs and a wider perspective on organizational activities. (k)Situational tests (l) Dexterity tests. (c) Achievement tests. 15... to make the best use of its human resources. Job enlargement and job rotation involve increasing the number of tasks in a job and systematic shifting of workers from one task to another over time. to maintain congenial industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resources. Ans. 7. to minimize imbalances caused due to non-availability of human resources of right kind .The job characteristics approach Work simplification is the standardization and narrow. New employees frequently learn their jobs by understudying a seasoned veteran. 14. 9. ability.15 (a) Intelligence tests. to estimate the cost of human resources. (g) Projective tests (h) Personality tests. to foresee the impact of technology on work.knowledge.16 Training Methods Most training takes place on the job. (e) Knowledge tests (f) Projective tests. On the job methods includes: • Orientation training • Job-instruction training • Apprentice training • Internships and assistantships
.4. Job enrichment designs jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them and increases the amount of responsibility in a job through vertical loading. 8. In such cases off the job training methods are used. to assess the surplus or shortage of human resources and take measures accordingly. The Job Characteristics Model focuses on five core job characteristics and three critical psychological states.right number in right time and right place. Job rotation involves lateral transfers that enable employees to work at different jobs. explicit specification of task activities for workers. and 10. existing employees and future human resources requirements 5.Human approach 3. 6. (i) Judgement tests. (j) Performance tests. This can be attributed to the simplicity of such methods and their usually lower cost. Describe various tests of selection. (b) Aptitude tests.Engineering approach 2. On the Job training: Popular training methods include job rotation and understudy assignments. Ans. Explain various methods of training. respectively.
• Job rotation • Coaching Off the job training: There are a number of off the job training methods that managers may want to make available to employees. To provide information for making decisions regarding lay-off. 17.
i. To facilitate for testing and validating selection tests. as in the case of Hyundai Engineering. They are :
To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance. self and management development programmes. interview techniques through comparing their scores with performance appraisal ranks. 4) To provide opportunity for improvement of their potentialities to those who are less capable and efficient. Describe the various objectives of performance appraisal. quantity and style of the work performance of the individuals working in the organisation.17 Objectives of Performance Appraisal System :. To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance.Performance appraisal aims at attaining the different purposes. To guide the job changes with the help to continuous ranking. To help the superiors to have a proper understanding about their subordinates. • Vestibule • Lecture • Special study • Films • Television • Conference and discussion • Case study • Role playing • Simulation • Programmed instruction • Laboratory training. To carry out a fair and impartial assessment of the quality. 3) To reward the capable and efficient employees. Tata Power aims at employee development through performance appraisal. 2) To assess the extent of the various factors which influence the performance of the individuals. To contribute to the employee growth and development through training. retrenchment etc. Ans.
6) To help management in evolving and framing sound policies and programmes relating to selection. 18. and business decisions are no exception. ethical issues arise. A properly executed Audit will reveal problem areas and provide recommendations and suggestions for the remedy of these problems. procedures. etc. documentation and systems to identify needs for improvement and enhancement of the HR function as well as to ensure compliance with ever-changing rules and regulations.5) To make optimum utilisation of the available human resources for the fulfilment of the organisational goals. Sections of review include:
Hiring and Orientation Benefits Compensation Performance evaluation process Termination process and exit interviews Job descriptions Form review Personnel file review
The purpose of an HR Audit is to recognize strengths and identify any needs for improvement in the human resources function. Ethics refers to fundamental principles of right and wrong.19 whenever people’s actions affect one another. placement. training. control and man power planning. Ans. write a note on human resource audit. usually in a checklist fashion. Explain the ethical issues of human resource. Some of the reasons to conduct such a review include:
Ensuring the effective utilization of the organization’s human resources Reviewing compliance concerns with a myriad of administrative regulations Instilling a sense of confidence in management and the human resources function Maintaining or enhancing the organization’s and the department’s reputation in the community Performing “due diligence” review for shareholders or potential investors/owners Establishing a baseline for future improvement for the function 19.
Ans. discipline. promotion. ethical behaviour is
. An Audit involves systematically reviewing all aspects of human resources.18 A Human Resources Audit is a comprehensive method (or means) to review current human resources policies.
21. such as those involving security or legal matters. There is uniform policy in administration International Human Resource Management Staffs work outside their national boundaries. businesses. Other departments handle other issues. Confined to crèche and cultural interactions. schooling of children. Less number of Rule and Regulations to be managed.. currency exchange rates which are variable and may impact the benefits of TCNS and PCNS. IHRM management has to be ready to face challenges like underperformance of expatriate employees. should be ethical. the human resource team investigates them and takes action when necessary. in a survey conducted by the Wall Street Journal. rather than just staying out of legal trouble.mostly employment and taxation rules of the home country. conflicts with co-workers or supervisors or complaints of sexual harassment. Critically evaluate the human resource management in India. ‘HR measurement – a practice that is central to the future growth and success of our profession. Nationwide Insurance has a three-person ethics office that offers a confidential “helpline” for employees.cultural training. Ans. For example. Many ethical issues in the workplace involve human resource management. including HRM decisions. Broader Perspective. 4 out of 10 executives reported they had been asked to behave unethically.Management has to be done according Host Country Nationals (HCNS) . When employees raise these concerns.
Challenges are confined to the situation of a particular country.21 Human resource management evaluation refers to the procedures and processes that measure. We are
Special Training is not required for Socio Cultural adaptation. 20.’ ‘HR used to be the feel-good department. Recent surveys indicate that the general public and managers do not have positive perceptions of the ethical conduct of U. employment opportunity for spouse.
No special attention into the personal life. work permit etc. employment rules. Differentiate the domestic and international human resource management. Very high number of rules and regulations which are related to taxation. Parent Country Nationals (PCNS) and Third Country Nationals. evaluate and communicate the value added of human resource management practices to the organization. diplomatic relationships between host country and parent country. Now the focus is on value added. but the evidence suggests that is not always what happens. Ans.S. Business decisions.behaviour that is consistent with those principles.(TCNS) Special attention to personal life of expatriate employees. language translating services. Special Training for expatriates so that they might not face unnecessary hassles in the alien socio cultural environment.20 Domestic Human Resource Management Staffs are placed within the national boundaries. About two-thirds of the calls to the help line involve issues related to human resource management—for example. The goal of these efforts is to keep employees focused on living up to the company’s values.
When it comes to engaging the manpower. will he be able to employ those who will deliver the required performance. Only if he comprehends the nature and scope of the business.in the midst of a fundamental shift from being a cost item on the balance sheet to being. 3. When evaluating an entire HRM system. Once you have the
. action in response to audit findings. its ability to accomplish business objectives and its ability to speak of accomplishments in business language.’ ‘HR must become bottomline valid. so that people with complimentary skills can be employed. This way the HR department can design an accurate job profile and job expectations. a clearly defined object of the process.. the existing 'talent pool' in the workplace should be taken into consideration. It ensures that the workforce is competent enough the meet the targets. independence from the subject being audited. managers have used two methods in recent years. technical work in the form of a systematic gathering and analysis of data. The functions of the HR manager are varied. the HR manager must calculate the expected workload. 4. Implement action plans 22. demands the HR manager to first understand the business requirement. 5. Ans. he has to assess the currently employed workforce and their shortcomings. if not a profit centre. Establish a project team 4. It must demonstrate its validity to the business. HRM auditing HRM benchmarking. HRM auditing The term ‘HRM audit’ can be interpreted in different ways. 2. Evaluating human resource management systems Statistical and financial evaluations of the HR contribution are best suited to evaluating particular HR practices or programmes. Select the benchmarking partners 5. While recruiting the new employees. then to at least being able to justify return on investment. but. The HR function must perform in a measurable and accountable way for the business to reach its objectives. as in a financial audit. HRM Benchmarking process : 1. Additionally. the manager should have a keen eye for spotting the talent. there are a number of generally accepted elements of audit practice : 1. Analyse and interpret the data 7. policies and systems based on the evidence. Identify human resource 2. practice to benchmark 3. an evaluation of HR activities. Collect the data 6. Explain the process of human resource planning.22 The human resource planning process. Identifying these shortcomings goes a long way in choosing an efficient workforce. Need for evaluation of HRM : organizational change flexibility and productivity improvements the adoption of HR strategies the increased importance of human capital increased accountability partnership relationships and the growing use of HR information systems. Share information/ report results 8.
In case of no difference If there is no difference between the manpower requirements and the manpower supply.decided job descriptions. looking for candidates who fit the job will be easy. During manpower shortage. he finds out how many managers. Human resource planning process. Estimation of Manpower Supply The HRD manager then estimates the manpower supply. A good HR manager is one who has the zeal and passion to motivate his prospective employees to perform to their potential. Estimation of manpower requirements must be made in terms of quantity and quality. In case of difference If there is a difference between the manpower requirements and the manpower supply the HRD manager takes the following actions. 1. During manpower surplus. This is because manpower requirements are equal to the manpower supply. Manpower Shortage If the manpower requirements are greater than the manpower supply then there is manpower shortage. 2. Then he prepares a list of all the activities (jobs) that are required to achieve the objectives. Estimation of Manpower Requirements The HRD manager then estimates the manpower requirement of the organisation. 3. Comparison of Manpower The HRD manager then compares the manpower requirements and manpower supply. That is. thus. the HRD manager takes the following actions :-
. 6. the HRD manager takes the following actions :Termination i. Review of Organisation's Objectives The HRD Manager first studies the objectives of the organisation. 2. it is only the relevant experience that matters more. Manpower Surplus If the manpower requirements are less then the manpower supply then there is a surplus. Lay-off. He is supported by the HRD department. then the HRD manager does not take any action. can be considered as one of the strategic steps for building the strong foundation of an efficient workforce in an organization! HRP is done by the HRD manager. 1.e removal of staff. Don't be fooled by their qualifications. and employers are available in the organisation. 4. Voluntary retirement. 5. He also does Job's analysis. That is. He takes following Steps in the process of Human Resource Planning HRP. he finds out how many people (manager and employers) will be required to do all the jobs in the organisation.
Motivation of Manpower HRP also motivates the employers and managers by providing. and new work force must take their place fill the manpower gap. Drawbacks The chief drawback of these methods is that estimation of manpower is made using guesswork. This is because many employees and managers leave the organisation by resignation. Process of Human Resource Planning 1. Participative Approach: – Here the supervisors and the management sit together and projections are made after joint consultations. retirement. make necessary adjustments and finalise them. technology to be used. like production department. etc. etc. b. d. financial and non-financial incentives. Work Study method: – This technique is suitable to study the correlation between volume of work and labour i. Delphi Technique: – ‘Delphi’ Technique is named after the Greek Oracle at the city of Delphi. 2. the views of different experts related to the industry are taken into consideration and
. mergers. Monitoring Manpower Requirements The HRD manager must continuously monitor the manpower requirements. 8.Promotions Overtime Training to improve quality. Forecasting of quality of human resources like skills. method of production etc. knowledge. Hire staff from outside. marketing department and workload level. In this method. diversification. values and capabilities needed in addition to quantity of human resources is done through the following methods: a. reduction in operations. sales department. demand for human resources is estimated based on the workload. This helps in uninterruptible functioning of the organisation. Ratio-Trend analysis: – In this method depending on the past data regarding number of employees in each department.e. They adopt one of the three approaches mentioned below: Bottom-Up approach: – Here the concerned supervisors send their proposals to the top officials who compare these with the organisational plans. Past values are plotted and extrapolated to get fairly accurate future projections. Executive or Managerial Judgement: – Here the managers decide the number of employees in the future. etc ratios for manpower are estimated. Demand forecasting: – Forecasting the overall human resource requirement in accordance with the organisational plans is one of the key aspects of demand forecasting. acquisitions. Work study method is more appropriate for repetitive and manual jobs when it is possible to measure work and set standards. Top-Down approach: – Here the management prepares the requirements and sends the information downwards to the supervisory –level who finalises the draft and approves it. Analysing the Corporate Level Strategies: – Human Resource Planning should start with analysing corporate level strategies which include expansion. Therefore Human Resource Planning should begin with analysing the corporate plans of the organisation before setting out on fulfilling its tasks. c. Statistical Techniques: – These methods use statistical methods and mathematical techniques to forecast and predict the supply and demand of Human Resources in the future.
In order to judge the internal supply of human resources in future human resource inventory or human resource audit is necessary. Once the future internal supply is estimated. 6. Action Planning: – Once the manpower gaps are identified. and 5) evaluation and followup. 2) Learning. transfer and promotion. The Five Step Training and Development Process 1) needs analysis. People may be persuaded to quit voluntarily through a golden handshake. 2) instructional design. changing attitudes. Plans to meet the surplus manpower may be redeployment in other departments and retrenchment.then a consensus about the Human Resource requirement is arrived at. B. 5. or increasing skills. A. Modify the Organisational plans: – If future supply of human resources form all the external sources is estimated to be inadequate or less than the requirement. better skills may be given more enriched jobs. 4) implement the program. Deficit suggests the number of persons to be recruited from outside. whereas surplus implies redundant employees to be re-deployed or terminated. selection. 4. and action learning. the manpower planner has to suggest to the management regarding the alterations or modifications in the organisational plans. The general management development process consists of (1) assessing the company’s strategic needs (2) appraising the managers’ current performance and (3) developing the managers. Estimating manpower gaps: – Manpower gaps can be identified by comparing demand and supply forecasts. and 4) Results. supply of external human resources is analysed. 7. 3) Behavior. Analysing Human Resource Supply: – Every organisation has two sources of supply of Human Resources: Internal & External. and is the process through which a company plans for and fills senior level openings. Designing the Study – The evaluation process of choice is controlled experimentation. Succession planning is part of this process. Managerial On-The-Job Training methods include: job rotation.23 Evaluating Training Programs
A. How you will evaluate the training and development programme? Describe.
. human resources can be obtained for certain posts through promotions and transfers. Management Development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge. Human resource inventory helps in determining and evaluating the quantity of internal human resources available. Controlling and Review: – After the action plans are implemented. Such comparison will reveal either deficit or surplus of Human Resources in the future. Hence. which uses both a training group and a control group (that receives no training) to assess their before and after performance in order to determine the extent to which performance in the training group resulted from the training itself rather than some organization-wide change. plans are prepared to bridge these gaps. Training Effects to Measure – Four basic categories of training outcomes can be measured: 1) Reaction. 3) validation. the organisation has to plan for retaining of existing employees. the organisation has to take care not only of recruitment but also retention of existing employees. Internally. In view of shortage of certain skilled employees. Deficit can be met through recruitment. human resource structure and the processes should be controlled and reviewed with a view to keep them in accordance with action plans
23. Employees estimated to be deficient can be trained while employees with higher. Delphi technique is used primarily to assess long-term needs of human resource. coaching/ understudy approach. 3.
and sometimes. 6.
24. 2. Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques 1. When You’re On Your Own. 2. Weighted checklist method
. subordinates. Seminars and conferences – offered by many companies and universities. supervision. HR for Line Managers and Entrepreneurs: Creating Your Own Training Program – several options are explored for different avenues for training and development such as outsourced learning and prepackaged training solutions. Performance appraisal methods (Tools of ) Performance appraisal methods include 11 appraisal methods / types as follows: 1. Corporate Universities and In-House Development Centers are being established by many companies to expose prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills. 3. 2. and the like. and the latter is responsible for coaching the trainee. and to counsel the executive so he or she can capitalize on those strengths and overcome the weaknesses. 4. Executive Coaches are being used by firms to improve their top managers’ effectiveness. Role Playing is aimed at creating a realistic situation and then having the trainee assume the parts (roles) of specific persons in that situation.
B. 5. Critical incident method This format of performance appraisal is a method which is involved identifying and describing specific incidents where employees did something really well or that needs improving during their performance period. 3.24 I. peers. University-Related Programs provide executive education and continuing education programs in leadership. family. Job Rotation – moving management trainees from department to department to broaden their understanding of all parts of the business. Ans. letting the trainee practice the correct way. Mentoring/Coaching/Understudy Approach – where a trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he/she is to replace. An executive coach is an outside consultant who questions the executive’s boss. Management Games – computerized management games allow for the trainees to be involved. in order to identify strengths and weaknesses. The Case Study Method – presents a trainee with a written description of an organizational problem. Discuss the various techniques of performance appraisal. Behavior Modeling involves showing the trainee the correct way to do something. 8.1. 7. Action Learning – programs give managers and others released time to work full-time on projects to analyze and solve problems in departments other than their own. and giving the trainee feedback on his/her performance.
managers/ supervisors are required to figure out the strong and weak points of staff’s behaviors. Management By Objectives (MBO) method MBO is a method of performance appraisal in which managers or employers set a list of objectives and make assessments on their performance on a regular basis. 9. 11. Managers will make comparisons of an employee with the others. instead of making comparison of each employee with some certain standards. 8. while 70 or 80% will be in the middle level and the rest will be in the lowest one. Performance ranking method The performance appraisal of ranking is used to assess the working performance of employees from the highest to lowest levels.In this style. 180… 10. Graphic rating scales This format is considered the oldest and most popular method to assess the employee’s performance. it is vital that the proportions be shared in the way that 10 or 20 % will be the highest levels of performances. The results will be calculated and then such option with highest score will be mostly chosen.
. the management just simply does checks on the performance levels of their staff. For instance. 5. This method mostly cares about the results achieved (goals) but not to the way how employees can fulfil them.Forced ranking (forced distribution) In this style of performance appraisal. performance appraisal is made under a method where the jobs being evaluated based on descriptive statements about effective and ineffective behavior on jobs. The form is a mix of the rating scale and critical incident techniques to assess performance of the staff. Behaviorally anchored rating scales This formatted performance appraisal is based on making rates on behaviors or sets of indicators to determine the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of working performance. In this style of performance appraisal. 6. 3. This post also information that can be used as references for such methods of performance assessments of 720. employees are ranked in terms of forced allocations. and finally make rewards based on the results achieved. Essay Evaluation method In this style of performance appraisal. 25. There will be a list of relevant options. Ans. Essay evaluation method is a non-quantitative technique. 4.25 21st Century Human Resources Current Issues Organizations continue to face HR issues including the following: Steady supply of talents and management Effective leadership development Globalized business environment requiring diversity management skills Good governance in order to build integrity and trust among managers and employees Effective demographic management. It is often mixed with the method the graphic rating scale. 360 degree performance appraisal The style of 360 degree performance appraisal is a method that employees will give confidential and anonymous assessments on their colleagues. Each option is in comparison with the others in the list. 540. 7. Explain the existing challenges at present as against of human resource management. Behavioral Observation Scales The method based on the scales of observation on behaviours is the one in which important tasks that workers have performed during their working time will be assessed on a regular basis. Paired comparison analysis This form of performance appraisal is a good way to make full use of the methods of options.
people need organizations. Organizations encounter several obstacles in meeting their goals and in a similar way all employees report some problems in their attempts to be productive and efficient in their jobs and to feel satisfied in their work lives. The vast majority of people must work to support themselves and their families. It permeates all levels of management in an organization. To meet these multifarious needs. Efficient means that it must use the minimum amount of resources needed to produce results. Training is offered to sharpen and improve their skills. Employees are rotated on various jobs so that they gain experience and exposure. It motivates employees through systematic process of recruitment. Every attempt is made to use their talents fully in the service of organizational goals. it tries to integrate human assets in the best possible manner in the service of an organization. Unfortunately. Development oriented: HRM intends to develop the full potential of employees. But people work for many reasons other than economic security. The central challenge facing society is the continued improvement of our organizations. both private and public. Action oriented: HRM focuses attention an action. In short. both as individuals and groups. Of course. save scarce resources. Such claims appear in organizations’ annual reports and mission statements. The resultant gains are used to reward people and motivate them toward further improvements in productivity. An organization that exists to produce goods and services has a good chance to survive and prosper if it consists of the Right People.
. selection. many also work to keep busy and feel useful. The challenge of human resource management is to minimize these obstacles and problems. training and development coupled with fair wage policies. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. Pervasive force: HRM is pervasive in nature. The reward structure is tuned to the needs of employees. this union seldom approaches perfection. It encourages them to give out their best to the organization. an organization is nothing but a group of people whose activities have been planned and coordinated to meet organizational objectives. enhance profits and offer better pay. Individually oriented: It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. The problems of employees at work are solved through rational policies. rather than on recordkeeping. They want to gain recognition and achieve status or to test and stretch their capabilities. (Davis) through effective and efficient use of resources. This is true for all organizations. It is present in all enterprises. to create and achieve something. Integrating mechanism: HRM tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. The resultant productivity (ratio of output to input)gains obtained through HR efforts enable managers to reduce costs. written procedures or rules.The Challenge of Human Resource Management: The most significant resource of any organization is often said to be its people. For example. Effective means producing right things through right ways. People oriented: HRM is all about people at work. Another important purpose of human resource management is to improve the contribution made by people to organizations. people and organizations join forces. In a similar fashion. benefits and working conditions to employees.
. anthropology. and recruitment. 26. and effective communication to integrate the quality principles into the culture and activities of the organization. It is concerned with managing people at work. Focus on problem prevention. (4) orienting and training. utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology. the first time. Make continuous improvements: seek to meet customers' requirements on time. HRM is not a one short deal. (9) communicating with all employees at all levels. HR manager is a specialist advisor. concerned with any organizational decision which has an impact on the. (5) determining and managing wages and salaries. 28. Ans. (3) selecting the right people for the job. and. To unravel the mystery surrounding the human brain. The term ‘workforce’ signifies people working at various levels. “It is basically a method of developing potentialities of employees so that they get maximum satisfaction out of their work and give their best efforts to the organization” (Pigors and Myers). (6) providing benefits and incentives. Observation Method: Observation of work activities and worker behaviours is a method of job analysis which can be used independently or in combination with other methods of job analysis. It covers all types of personnel. It includes (1) conducting job analyses. remains the same. (8) resolving disputes. economics. every time. It is a staff function. not correction. Continuous function : According to Terry. middle and top managers.Comprehensive function : HRM is. (7) appraising performance. (2) planning personnel needs.28 Job analysis methods can be categorized into three basic types: (1) Observation Methods. Discuss the main methods of job Analysis. sociology. Auxiliary service : HR departments exist to assist and advise the line or operating managers to do their personnel work more effectively. to some extent. Inter-disciplinary function : HRM is a multi-disciplinary activity. It requires a constant alertness and awareness of human relations and their importance in every day operations. It cannot be practiced only one hour each day or one day a week. Explain total quality management.26 Administrative discipline of hiring and developing employees so that they become more valuable to the organization. 27. supervisors.27 Total quality management is a management system for a customer focused organization that involves all employees in continual improvement of all aspects of the organization. What is meant by personnel Management? Ans. need to understand the appreciate the contributions of all such ‘soft ‘disciplines. Apply the team approach to problem solving. Ans. managers. and (3) Questionnaire 1. TQM uses strategy. etc. Train employees in ways to improve quality. Personnel work may take different shapes and forms at each level in the organizational hierarchy but the basic objective of achieving organizational effectiveness through effective and efficient utilization of human resources. workforce or the potential workforce (Bernardin). (2) Interview. including workers. Focus on customers' needs. data.
Each task is described in terms of characteristics such as frequency. and Reporting relationship and co-workers of a particular job.29 Job descriptions are written statements that describe the: duties. knowledge and skills needed. (ii) Work Methods Analysis: This method is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs.Three methods of job analysis based on observation are: (i) Direct Observation. Everything is observed: what the worker accomplishes. Ans. a person conducting the analysis simply observes employees in the performance of their duties. required qualifications of candidates. The limitation of this method is that it does not provide accurate information because the employee may not provide accurate information to protect his own interest. What do you understand by job description? Ans.
Promotions and Transfers. Structured questionnaires on different aspects of a job are developed. Accurate recording of past observations is more difficult than recording the behaviours as they occur. 3. 29. or after the fact. In this method a person using the critical incidents must describe behaviour in retrospect. This method is used by industrial engineers to determine standard rates of production. rather than as the activity unfolds.Name the internal sources of recruitment. The limitation of this method is that it is time consuming and costly. The ratings obtained are analysed and a profile of actual job is developed. Job descriptions clearly identify and spell out the responsibilities of a specific job. Employee referrals. such as factory or assembly-line jobs. and (iii) Critical Incidents Technique. (iii) Critical Incidents Technique: It involves observation and recording of examples of particularly effective or ineffective behaviours. Success of this method depends upon the rapport between the analyst and the employee. Internal notification (advertisement). what equipment is used etc. since mental processes are not observable. The observer either takes general notes or works from a form which has structured categories for comment. the Analyst interviews the employee.30 Internal sources of recruitment: • Present permanent employees (based on programs of career development). tools. equipment used. and relationships with other positions. retired and present employees. • Retired employees. his supervisor and other concerned persons and record answers to relevant questions. Questionnaire: In this method properly drafted questionnaires are sent to jobholders. Job descriptions are based on objective information obtained through job analysis. Former Employees. This method provides comprehensive information about a job. most important contributions and outcomes needed from a position. responsibilities. difficulty and relationship to overall performance. (ii) Work Methods Analysis. significance. Job descriptions also include information about working conditions. 30. (i) Direct Observation: Using direct observation. 2. and the needs of the organization to produce work. • Dependents of deceased disabled. Behaviours are judged to be “effective” or “ineffective” in terms of results produced by the behaviour. such as decision making or planning. an understanding of the competencies and skills required to accomplish needed tasks. The jobholders give their rating of these dimensions. • Present temporary / casual employees.
. The limitation of this method is that it cannot capture the mental aspects of jobs. Interview: In this method. The interviewer asks job related questions and a standard format is used to record the data.
internships.31. 33. The field is a derivative of System Theory and Organizational Psychology. but continues to defend the need to ensure employee well-being. These are checks conducted by the HR to verify and thereby confirm the validity of the employees actual performance matching the expected performance. in return for their imparted skills and experience. Recruiting the required workforce and making provisions for expressed and promised payroll and benefits. Innovate new operating practices to minimize risk and generate an overall sense of belonging and accountability. 32. Identify areas that suffer lack of knowledge and insufficient training. to ensure collated and constructive enterprise productivity and development of a uniform organizational culture. On-the-job training techniques include orientations. Generate a rostrum for all employees to express their goals and provide the necessary resources to accomplish professional and personal agendas. Developing positive interactions between workers.
. to successfully meet strategic goals by managing staff effectively. The Human Resource Management Department is responsible for: Understanding and relating to employees as individuals. Implementing resource strategies to subsequently create and sustain competitive advantage. After a plan is developed for what should be taught. Every organization now has an exclusive Human Resource Management Department to interact with representatives of all factors of production.32 A job design technique in which the number of tasks associated with a job is increased (and appropriate training provided) to add greater variety to activities.31 Trainings in an organization can be divided to two broad types.Why is training needed in Industry?
Ans. essentially in that order. A time table should be establish with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. Performance of employees is also actively evaluated on a regular basis. and accordingly provide remedial measures in the form of workshops and seminars. terminating and training staff. Job enlargement may also result in greater workforce flexibility. employees should be informed about the details. job instruction training. In this way they do not lose time while they are training or learning. The department is responsible for the development and application of on-going research on strategic advances while hiring. Explain in detail the functions of human resource management. Ans. thus reducing monotony. The human resource department also maintains an open demeanour to employee grievances. thus identifying individual needs and career goals. job rotation and coaching. Employee retention ratio is directly proportionate to the manner in which the employees are treated.33 Human Resource Management involves the development of a perfect blend between traditional administrative functions and the well-being of all employees within an organization. Empowerment of the organization. Employees are free to approach the human resource team for any conceived query or any form of on-the-job stress that is bothering them. The Human Resource department has earned a number of related interpretations in time. These on-the-job trainings are given to the employees while they are conducting their regular works at the same places. A Human Resource Manager ideally empowers inter-departmental employee relationships and nurtures scope for down-the-rung employee communication at various levels. They are on-the-job trainings and off-the-job trainings. assistantships. Job enlargement is considered a horizontal restructuring method in that the job is enlarged by adding related tasks. apprenticeships. What is meant by ‘Job Enlargement’? Ans.
ideas and beliefs about management have been shaped by an earlier model. Problem analysis. 4. and statistical quality control. Explain the significance of human resource management. Solution selection. 35. They are the activators of nonhuman resources. they have even moved a generation ahead with their organisations.
Promotions. Explain the working of quality circle. Providing financial rewards to the staff.
Human Resource Management functions may be briefly described as: 1. 6. Solution revised. identify problems and try to find solutions. problems can be taken up and the cycle will continue. Ans. Ghoshal outlines the role of HRM in managing an organization in the following lines. 2. Solution implemented. Promotions are conducted and are predominantly based on the overall performance of the individual. Employees relation: Keeping a healthy relationship with the employees and their problems are redressed.34 A quality circle is a group of 6 to 12 members who meet regularly to discuss and solve problems affecting the quality of their work. QC follows several sequential steps to identify. Significance of HRM can be viewed in three contexts. 3. One by one.
. Transfers or expulsion of services provided by the employee are some duties that are enforced by the human resource department. maintaining the hierarchy in the company and considering the stability of post and the salary obtained over a period of time. You cannot manage third generation strategies with second generation organizations and first generation managers to meet the needs of second generation organisations and third generations strategic thinking. Problem selection. Circle members are free to collect data and take surveys. personal skills and competencies. Problem identification. The Human resource department also looks at the possibilities of the employee migrating from one job to another. social and professional. Ans. Presentation. 5. accompanied by the span or tenure he has served the organization. Payroll module: Payment of salaries and wages to the workers at the proper time. 3. Because the overstaffing is wasteful and expensive. During the QC process each problem will pass through various stages of the operation cycle. The above view indicates the role of HRM in Indian industry. and understaffing leads to loses of the organization economics and profits.35 Significance of HRM: Human resources are the most precious asset of an organization. 5. the members meet. 7. organizational. At a set time during the workweek. 4. Companies train team members in team building. But they still have managers who have been shaped by old models.
34. Employee selection: Selection of employees for the suitable job. Employees motivating: Motivating employees and encourage them to give their best in work productivity. 2. Manpower Planning: The HR considers the actual requirement of the staff for the organization. The process runs thus: 1. They are essentially a group of first generation managers whose definitions of roles and tasks. problem solving. analyse and solve problems. means for developing competitive advantages and sources of creativity. “Indian Companies have spruced up their strategic thinking.
Training and retraining programs can also reduce current and future liability with employee safety emphasis. Workforce Analysis Human resources must consider what kind of future workforce is needed to satisfy the organization's strategic objectives. advertise and promote the company. Utilizing human capabilities effectively and matching with government rewards. Hence HRM seeks to achieve the following: Maintaining balance between jobs and job-seekers. Training and development programs can improve general employee skills such as customer service and sales training or focus on specific work-related skills. it can discover what gaps or surpluses exist. But human resources can reduce the the likelihood of employee departures by planning retention programs. Developing people on continuous basis to meet the challenges of their jobs. Determining future requirements allows for methods of attracting. human resources must plan for attracting and recruiting employees in quality and quantity. training and retaining of quality employees to fulfill key roles within the organization. Eliminating wasteful organizational and individual practices. Maintaining the dignity of personnel at the work place. Seminars and Job Fairs To achieve strategic objectives. To develop personnel to meet the demands of the work effectively. Providing proper physical and social environment at the work place to make.36. These programs can focus on employee recognition and benefits. Training Programs To improve its current and future workforce. Workforce analysis allows human resources to compare the current workforce to future employment needs. They can also
. Retention Programs Retaining employees is difficult because of the other employment opportunities that may attract them. Social significance This aspect aims in achieving the need satisfaction of personnel in the organisation. Professional Significance This aspect involves in developing people and providing appropriate environment for effective utilization of their capabilities and involves the following. Ans. It is often said that a happy worker is not only happy in his work place but also at home and in society also. Providing most productive employment from which socio-psychological satisfaction can be derived. taking into consideration job requirements. Participating in fund-raising events and other social functions is another method for attracting and recruiting job candidates. Explain the methods of human resource planning. 36.Organisational significance Effective utilization of human resources to motivate them and to change their attitudes to work and the organization. By analyzing the current workforce and comparing to future employment requirements. human resource planning must focus on employee development or training. human resources should prepare evaluation plans to ensure the future workforce meets objectives. This information allows human resources to prepare plans that adjust the workforce as needed. After considering what employment changes are needed. and To ensure proper recruitment and to retain personnel in the organization so that right people are available. Seminars and job fairs offer employers an opportunity to introduce themselves. development and employee retention to achieve organizational goals. job seekers’ abilities and aptitudes. Human resource planning uses methods within recruiting. An organization that plans to increase sales by 50 percent in the next three years may require the workforce to grow by 5 percent.
training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills. the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays.
. Instead. leave facilities. whereas “developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions”. privileges and symbols of status of employees. are generally voluntary. 37. implementation and maintenance of a pay system. By showing a sincere interest in employees and valuing their contributions. computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance Though training and education differ in nature and orientation. The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Education however is common to all the employees. An employee. Hence. What is wage and salary administration? Describe its objectives and importance. travel.38 As money is the prime need for human beings to meet their basic needs. they are complementary. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems.
To bring the distinction among training. employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. no training programme is complete without an element of education. the organization is able to further increase employee retention. Furthermore. The main objective of wage and salary administration is to have a scientific. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. In fact. for example. Unless there is a scientific approach /method we cannot solve this common conflict between employers and employees. Explain . training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. abilities and knowledge to an employee.37 In simple terms.include rewards. 38. is presumed to have had some formal education. etc and noncost rewards such as recognition. such as those supplied by management developmental programmes. everyone tries to earn as much money as possible. Wage and salary administration includes allowances. In the unfortunate event an employee decides to leave. housing. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning. it may be stated that “training is offered to operatives”. advancement or growth and work-life balancing. It can also be called the ongoing process of managing a wage and salary structure. usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. Development activities. Ans. who undergoes training. In salary administration. it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. exit interviews provide valuable feedback that can assist the organization with employee loss prevention. organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes. Otherwise it will demoralize and demotivate the employees. there grades notwithstanding. Ans. rational. education and development into sharp focus. Wage and Salary Administration is the group of activities involved in the development. Training is the process of employee development. For instance. the employer should not feel that the employees are paid more than they deserve and the employees should not feel that they are underpaid. and balanced wage & salary structure. Any Pay System should create a feeling of equity in the minds of the employees.
Objective of wage and salary administration: Control of costs. Importance of wage and salary administration : 1. 5. 8. origin and their disability. To retain the present employees. To regulate labour and administrative costs. To establish feasibility of the concern. Major function. 2. While deciding upon the payout there is pressure on favouring the interests of the top management in comparison to that of other employees and stakeholders. Further ethical issues crop in HR when long term compensation and incentive plans are designed in consultation with the CEO or an external consultant. Social justice and welfare. loyalty. Explain the need and importance of ethical issues of human resource. To attract qualified and competent personnel. 7. The HR manager is often under pressure to raise the band of base salaries.39
Cash and Compensation Plans There are ethical issues pertaining to the salaries. executive perquisites and the annual incentive plans etc. 39. Constitute greatest cost. Not anymore ever since the evolution of laws and a regulatory
. To secure internal and external equity. Motivational role. gender. Establishment of fair & equitable remuneration Employee motivation Maintenance of a satisfactory public relation image. 4. Determines status in society. 3. Race. There is increased pressure upon the HR function to pay out more incentives to the top management and the justification for the same is put as the need to retain the latter. acceptance of new responsibilities. gender and Disability In many organisations till recently the employees were differentiated on the basis of their race. To ensure good performance. 6. Fulfilment of company goals. Ans. Economic survival. Peaceful industrial relations.
and that there is a body of good practice associated with each of them (although there is some disagreement about the exact membership of the set. Both the situations are sufficiently dilemmatic to leave even a seasoned HR campaigner in a fix. there is less controversy about the content of human resource management. This personal life may encompass things like his religious. nothing else matters. For example. There is still a debate going on whether such activities are ethically permitted or not. Privacy Issues Any person working with any organisation is an individual and has a personal side to his existence which he demands should be respected and not intruded. The employee wants the organisation to protect his/her personal life. however. If you have integrity. The activities include: • Human resource planning • Job analysis • Recruitment and selection • Performance management and appraisal • Career development • pay management • Employee relations • Training and development.40 Human resource management is a contested field of study. We now list the activities in addition to an important theme. culture. Layoffs. In good organisations the only differentiating factor is performance! In addition the power of filing litigation has made put organisations on the back foot. Reassuringly. Discuss the management activities of international human resource management. One dilemma stems from the pressure of hiring someone who has been recommended by a friend. Managers are trained for aligning behaviour and avoiding discriminatory practices. with much controversy and many competing models.
. Similarly there are ethical issues in HR that pertain to health and safety. In the second case the person has been highly appreciated for his work during his short stint or he/she has a unique blend of skills with the right kind of attitude. are no more considered as unethical as they were thought of in the past. Virtually all writers assume that there is a set of core activities. for example. we have shown that it pays off in financial returns. nothing else matters. mail scanning is one of the activities used to track the activities of an employee who is believed to be engaged in activities that are not in the larger benefit of the organisation. political and social beliefs etc. which we discuss in detail in this course. Employment Issues Human resource practitioners face bigger dilemmas in employee hiring. In the first case the person has been trained and the position is critical. However certain situations may arise that mandate snooping behaviours on the part of the employer.
40. Ans. Two cases may arise and both are critical. If you don't have integrity. Ethics is very basic to mankind Values create credibility with the public Values create credibility with the employees Considered important for companies striving for long-term success and growth. someone from your family or a top executive. Not only is ethical behaviour in business life the right thing to do in principle. Yet another dilemma arises when you have already hired someone and he/she is later found to have presented fake documents. restructuring and layoffs and employee responsibilities. and about what good practice consists of in each activity).framework that has standardised employee behaviours towards each other.
Several techniques for job analysis are available. Other important uses of job analysis are given below: Indicate training needs Put together work groups or teams
.analysis is a time. what is meant by job analysis? Explain its process and significance in the field of human resource management. and qualifications required. Uses of Job Analysis Information: Depending on organisational priorities and constraints. or of all jobs. The point at which the work and the worker come together is called a job — it is the role played by the worker. Collection of Data: Data will have to be collected on the characteristics of job. therefore. it is desirable to develop clarity regarding the possible uses of the information pertaining to job analysis. 2. When pay is closely associated with levels of difficulty these descriptions will help foster a feeling of organisational fairness related to pay issues. Nevertheless. including: What does or should the person do? What knowledge. in an enterprise with respect to operations involved. 5. Preparation of Job Specification: Likewise. Care needs to be taken to use only such techniques. the required behaviour and personal attributes needed to do the job effectively. duties. Organization Analysis: The first step is to get an overall view of various jobs in the organisation with a view to examine the linkages between jobs and the organisational objectives. desirable to select a representative sample of jobs for purposes of analysis. The second is to provide employees and supervisors with a basic description of jobs describing duties and characteristics in common with and different from other positions or jobs. training.41. etc. 3. 6. which are acceptable and reliable in the existing situation within the organisation. Preparation of Job Description: The information collected in the previous step is used in preparing a job description for the job highlighting major tasks. and the contribution of various jobs towards achieving organisational efficiency and effectiveness.consuming and costly process. It is. Selection of Jobs for Analysis: Carrying out job. and abilities does it take to perform this job? What is the result of the person performing the job? How does this job fit in with other jobs in the organization? What is the job's contribution toward the organization's goals? The major steps to be followed in carrying out job analysis in an on-going organization are given below: 1.41 A study of a specific job. and responsibilities for effective job performance. Job Analysis thus carried out provides basic inputs to the design of jobs so that it is able to meet the requirements of both the organization (in terms of efficiency and productivity) as well as the employees (in terms of job satisfaction and need fulfilment). it is important to focus on a few priority activities in which the job analysis information could be used. They are collectivities rather than individuals because achieving the goals requires the efforts (work) of a number of people (workers). We need to know a lot of information about these roles/jobs. working conditions. The most important use of job analysis is to produce a basic job description of what the job is to facilitate basic human resource problem solving. skill. aptitude and experience to fulfil the job description. Organizations exist to accomplish some goal or objective. The organisation chart and the work flow or process charts constitute an important source of information for the purpose. Developing appropriate job design is then the outcome of the job analysis process. 4. interrelationships among the jobs. In the previous pages it has been already indicated that such information could be utilised practically for all personnel functions. the information gathered in step (4) is also used to prepare the job specification for a job highlighting the personal attributes required in terms of education. Ans.
which are highly technical requiring skill it would be difficult to enrich such jobs. and also may be enriched by : 1. Taking steps to make sure that people can see how their tasks contribute to a finished products and the welfare of the enterprises. job analysis Programmes are usually tailor-made for the specific purpose. In job enrichment. Involving workers in analysis and change of physical aspects of the worker environment such as lay out of office or plant.Discuss the process of guideline for enriching a job. sequences and pace or by letting them make decisions about accepting or rejecting materials : 2. General Motors tried six man and three man teams in the assembly line but from that they found the work shoed and cost increased. How to enrich a job A job may be enriched by giving it Varity. Ans. And with specialized machinery and assembly line techniques it may not be possible to make every job meaningful. Giving people feedback on their job performance preferable before their supervisors get in and 5.
. Yet the cost of the programme is formidable factor. Limitations But even the strongest supporters of job enrichment readily admit that three are limitations in its application They can be analysed in the following manner.Provide information to conduct salary surveys Provide a basis for determining a selection plan Provide a basis for putting together recruitment Describe the physical needs of various positions to determine the validity of discrimination complaints As part of an organisational analysis As part of strategic planning As a part of any human relations needs assessment As a basis for coordinating safety concerns Job analysis is indeed an essential part of any modern human resource management system.42 Job Enrichment should be distinguished from enlargement job enlargement attempts to make a job more varied by removing the dullness associated with performing repetitive operations. The kind of information gathered through job analysis varies considerably depending upon the specific uses to be made of it. Accordingly. 1. Technology: There are some jobs. State its limitations. the attempt is to build in to jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievement. Cost: Thought a great many companies appear to be interested in job enrichment programs. At Saab & Volvo and motors India. 3. The accumulation of achievement must lead to a felling of personal growth accompanied by a sense of responsibility. Given worker more latitude in deciding about such things as work method. 2. 4. lighting and cleanliness. the extra cost may seem high if a company is not convinced that the return will at least offset the increase expenditure. It was found that increase cost is compensated by reduced absenteeism and labour turnover. temperature. Giving workers a felling of personal responsibility for their tasks. 42.
Attitude of managers: Another problem is the tendency of top managers and personal specialist to apply their own scale people’s personalities. Application blank. Background investigation 8. 10. It is a series of successive hurdles of or barrier which an applicant must cross. Explain in detail selection process.44 The ability to manage people well can have a huge financial impact on a company. 9. cost of talent retention. litigation experience. It consists of a series of steps. Scrutiny of applications. 5.43 The selection procedure starts immediately after recruitment. Final employment decision. It is a process of eliminating those candidates who appear unpromising. The task of selection is to match the worth and merits of applicants with requirements of the job at every stage. 1. But there is always room to enhance the programs so that managers feel better prepared to handle their day-to-day responsibilities in ways that minimize risk to the company while improving relationships in the workplace. Employee turnover rates. Most companies offer management training of some sort. 5. so that they can do the job in an effective and efficient manner. Reaction of union Leaders: There has been little or no support of job enrichment by union Leaders. In brief. Physical examination. Interview 7. Attitude of Workers: The attitude of some employers also represent obstacles. M. Preliminary interview 4.3. If job enrichment was so important to workers. Various surveys of workers attitudes have shown that high percentages of workers attitude have shown that high percentages of workers are not interesting jobs. it is a systematic procedure for transferring technical know-how to the employees. 2. 3. Approval of the supervisors. Reception of applicants. It must have been translated in to united demand but it has never happened . Ans. 4. Undesirable candidates are screened out and the qualified retained at every stage. Instead Leonard woodcock the President of united Automobile Worker has been quoted to have said about job enlargement that “a” lot academic writer are writing a lot of nonsense’. The candidate will be selected after he clears all the steps laid down in selection process. It is a short-term educational process. 43.why is training needed in industry? Describe its benefits. 6. Some workers fears that the increased productivity sought may even mean loss of jobs. As a result a few companies have abandoned or modified their programs. 44. Some have complained that enriched jobs provide too many opportunities to commit mistakes. Ans.Scott Myers believes that the failures have occurred because the manager were not really committed to theory ‘Y’ and in most cases job enrichment is usually imposed on people . Employment tests. It aims at increasing the ability of the employees. and employee tenure are just some of the metrics you should look at to try to gauge the effectiveness of your management staff. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. They are told about it rather than consulted.
Adaptability.R. Job satisfaction. To chart out audit procedures. Hiring misfits. 4. 5. 9. 4. Importance of training: 1. Generally involves following STEPS: STEP ONE: Briefing and Orientation: Key Staff Members meet: i. Better quality of work. Write a detailed note on human resource auditing. Motivation and creativity. Organisational viability. 8. 5. Human relations approach. and iii. 10. Reduced supervision. 3. Higher productivity.R. To increase productivity.
. ii. Low cost of production. To discuss particular issues considered to be important. AUDIT: Top Management saw solutions to their problems. 11. areas and Skills and Competencies to enable an organization to achieve its long-term and short-term goals. Ans. Healthy interpersonal relations. PURPOSE OF H. 6.R. 10. limitations. 8. and developmental needs of its existing human resources in the context of organizational performance. Less accidents 7. 12. Good organisational climate. Technological changes. To examine and pinpoint strength and weaknesses related to H.R. High morale. 3. 6. AUDIT Auditing process varies from organizations to organizations. AUDITING PROCESS: STEPS IN H. 9. 45. To increase the effectiveness of the design and implementation of human resource policies. NEED FOR H. To help human resource planners develop and update employment and program plans. Increasing competition. Change in job assignment. Less learning time and cost.45 Human Resource Audit is a systematic assessment of the strengths. Job requirements 2. AUDIT: 1. 3. 2. issues and challenges in HRD to face business competition and to achieve organizational goals. 2. Contract training. To develop plans and program of audit. Personal growth. planning and programs. 7.Needs and Object of Training : 1.
Audit. computer capabilities and any other related information.R. Issues identified. Interview with key managers. Top functionaries in the organisation and employees Representatives. 2. guides.R. personnel handbooks and manuals. if necessary. METHODS OF H. Priorities. c. WORKSHOP METHOD 4. STEP THREE: Surveying employees: a.M. Reporting: 1. Important issues are identified for inclusion in the formal Report. anticipated needs and managerial views on human resources. QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD
. b.R. GROUP INTERVIEW METHOD 3. are developed during scanning of information.
STEP FOUR: Conducting interviews: I. if clarity about the key factors of H. Current Situation. selected for audit and the related questions that need to be examined. STEP FIVE: Synthesising: The data gathered is synthesized to present the a. in several rounds. and d. Present strengths. Staff pattern. b. The results of the audit are discussed with Managers and Staff Specialists. AUDIT: 1. STEP SIX.STEP TWO: Scanning material information: Scrutiny of all available information pertaining to personnel. II. What questions to be asked. INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW METHOD 2. The purpose is to pinpoint issues of concern. It is better for H. appraisal forms. functional executives.