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Human Resource Management 1. Define human relations. Ans.

1 Human relations is the skill or ability to work effectively through and with other people. Human relations includes a desire to understand others, their needs and weaknesses, and their talents and abilities. For anyone in a workplace setting, human relations also involves an understanding of how people work together in groups, satisfying both individual needs and group objectives. If an organization is to succeed, the relationships among the people in that organization must be monitored and maintained. 2. What is quality circle? Ans.2 Participative management technique within the framework of a companywide quality system in which small teams of (usually 6 to 12) employees voluntarily form to define and solve a quality or performance related problem. In Japan (where this practice originated) quality circles are an integral part of enterprise management and are called quality control circles. 3. Explain human resource planning. Ans.3 The on-going process of systematic planning to achieve optimum use of an organization's most valuable asset - its human resources. The objective of human resource (HR) planning is to ensure the best fit between employees and jobs, while avoiding manpower shortages or surpluses. The three key elements of the HR planning process are forecasting labour demand, analysing present labour supply, and balancing projected labour demand and supply. 4. What do you mean by job specifications? Ans.4 Nature of a job specification is a statement of knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job. It are minimum acceptable qualifications to perform a particular job. It is the same job criteria. A statement of employee characteristics and qualifications required for satisfactory performance of defined duties and tasks comprising a specific job or function. Job specification is derived from job analysis. 5. Define selection. Ans.5 Selection is the process of obtaining and using information about job applicants in order to determine who should be hired for long- or short- term positions. Selection is the process of picking individuals with requisite qualification and competence to fill jobs in organization. 6. What is career planning? Ans.6 The process of establishing career objectives and determining appropriate educational and developmental programs to further develop the skills required to achieve short- or long-term career objectives. 7. What is job- evaluation? Ans.7 An assessment of the relative worth of various jobs on the basis of a consistent set of job and personal factors, such as qualifications and skills required.

The objective of job evaluation is to determine which jobs should get more pay than others. Several methods such as job ranking, job grading, and factor comparison are employed in job evaluation. Research indicates, however, that each method is nearly as accurate and reliable as the other in ranking and pricing different jobs. Job evaluation forms the basis for wage and salary negotiations. Job evaluation is a systematic assessment of job content. It establishes the worth of a job in terms of salary or wage compared to other jobs. Many elaborate schemes have been developed and applied with varying degrees of success. While some structure is necessary on a project, pay is more likely to be governed by market conditions, scarcity, individual knowledge, performance or trade agreements. Job evaluation is the method of ordering jobs or positions with respect to their value or worth to the organization, and placing them into job families and zones. Job evaluation is the A formal process by which management creates a job worth hierarchy within an organization. The two basic approaches are the market data approach and the job content approach. 8. Explain salary administration. Ans.8 The establishment and management of an organization's compensation policy, including the maintenance of employment records and the setting of job classifications, wage brackets, overtime policy, and salary review plans. 9. Explain the nature of human resource management. Ans.9 Human Resource Management: Nature Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include: It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises. Its focus is on results rather than on rules. It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. It encourages employees to give their best to the organization. It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees. It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, economics, etc. 10. Explain the concept of international human resource management. Ans.10 international human resource management (IHRM) is the process of procuring, allocating, and effectively utilising human resources in a multinational corporation. If the MNC is simply exporting its products, with only a few small offices in foreign locations, then the task of the international HR manager is relatively simple. However, in global firms human resource managers must achieve two somewhat conflicting strategic objectives. First, they must integrate human resource policies and practices across a number of subsidiaries in different countries so that overall corporate objectives can be achieved. At the same time, the approach to HRM must be sufficiently

flexible to allow for significant differences in the type of HR policies and practices that are most effective in different business and cultural settings. 11. Describe the scope of human resource management. Ans.11 Human Resource Management: Scope The scope of HRM is very wide: 1. Personnel aspect-This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, layoff and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity etc. 2. Welfare aspect-It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, creches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc. 3. Industrial relations aspect-This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes, etc. 12. Describe the line and staff relationship. Ans.12 Line and staff managers are in an international and interdependent relationship with one another. Interactions are involved in their day-to-day relationships of staff advice, guidance and services to the line. The line managers are dependent on staff specialists for achieving their goals. A production manager cannot function effectively, if, for example, the materials manager does not provide him supplies, tools, spare parts, raw materials etc., the maintenance manager does not provide him repairing and maintenance services, quality control managers does not cooperate with him by providing guidance about quality specifications, and so forth. Similarly, staff managers will find themselves superfluous if line people do not need or reject their advice and services. Another aspect of line-staff relationship is based on their authority relations. The line managers have command authority over their departments. Similarly, staff managers have command authority over their own departments, but they dont have authority over other managers, line or staff, outside their own departments. Their function is to give advice and render service to the line departments as well as to other staff departments. This point in line-staff relationship is often missed, and can be clarified with an example. A personnel manager extends expert advice not only to line departments, i.e., production, sales and finance, but to other staff departments also such as materials, quality control, maintenance, etc. Thus, we find that a staff manager is in a line relationship with other employees in his own particular department, and in staff relationship with managers and employees in all the other departments. 13. Explain the objectives human resource planning. Ans.13 Objectives of Human Resources Planning The important objectives of manpower planning in an organization are 1. to recruit and retain the human resources of required quantity and quality. 2. to foresee the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling up of consequent vacancies 3. to meet the needs of the program of expansion, diversification etc.,

4. to foresee the impact of technology on work, existing employees and future human resources requirements 5. to improve the standards skill .knowledge,, ability, discipline etc., 6. to assess the surplus or shortage of human resources and take measures accordingly., 7. to maintain congenial industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resources; 8. to minimize imbalances caused due to non-availability of human resources of right kind ,right number in right time and right place; 9. to make the best use of its human resources; and 10. to estimate the cost of human resources. 14. Discuss the job design approaches. Ans.14 There are three important approaches to job design namely 1.Engineering approach 2.Human approach 3.The job characteristics approach Work simplification is the standardization and narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers. Job enlargement and job rotation involve increasing the number of tasks in a job and systematic shifting of workers from one task to another over time, respectively. Job enrichment designs jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them and increases the amount of responsibility in a job through vertical loading. The Job Characteristics Model focuses on five core job characteristics and three critical psychological states. 15. Describe various tests of selection. Ans.15 (a) Intelligence tests, (b) Aptitude tests, (c) Achievement tests, (d) Interest tests, (e) Knowledge tests (f) Projective tests, (g) Projective tests (h) Personality tests, (i) Judgement tests, (j) Performance tests, (k)Situational tests (l) Dexterity tests. 16. Explain various methods of training. Ans.16 Training Methods Most training takes place on the job. This can be attributed to the simplicity of such methods and their usually lower cost. However, on the job training can disrupt the workplace and result in an increase in errors as learning proceeds. In such cases off the job training methods are used. On the Job training: Popular training methods include job rotation and understudy assignments. Job rotation involves lateral transfers that enable employees to work at different jobs. Employees get to learn a wide variety of jobs and gain increased insight into the interdependency between jobs and a wider perspective on organizational activities. New employees frequently learn their jobs by understudying a seasoned veteran. On the job methods includes: Orientation training Job-instruction training Apprentice training Internships and assistantships

Job rotation Coaching Off the job training: There are a number of off the job training methods that managers may want to make available to employees. Vestibule Lecture Special study Films Television Conference and discussion Case study Role playing Simulation Programmed instruction Laboratory training. 17. Describe the various objectives of performance appraisal. Ans.17 Objectives of Performance Appraisal System :- Performance appraisal aims at attaining the different purposes. They are :

To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance. To contribute to the employee growth and development through training, self and management development programmes. Tata Power aims at employee development through performance appraisal. To help the superiors to have a proper understanding about their subordinates. To guide the job changes with the help to continuous ranking. To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance. To facilitate for testing and validating selection tests, interview techniques through comparing their scores with performance appraisal ranks. To provide information for making decisions regarding lay-off, retrenchment etc. as in the case of Hyundai Engineering.

i; To carry out a fair and impartial assessment of the quality, quantity and style of the work performance of the individuals working in the organisation. 2) To assess the extent of the various factors which influence the performance of the individuals. 3) To reward the capable and efficient employees. 4) To provide opportunity for improvement of their potentialities to those who are less capable and efficient.

5) To make optimum utilisation of the available human resources for the fulfilment of the organisational goals. 6) To help management in evolving and framing sound policies and programmes relating to selection, placement, promotion, training, discipline, control and man power planning, etc. 18. write a note on human resource audit. Ans.18 A Human Resources Audit is a comprehensive method (or means) to review current human resources policies, procedures, documentation and systems to identify needs for improvement and enhancement of the HR function as well as to ensure compliance with ever-changing rules and regulations. An Audit involves systematically reviewing all aspects of human resources, usually in a checklist fashion. Sections of review include:

Hiring and Orientation Benefits Compensation Performance evaluation process Termination process and exit interviews Job descriptions Form review Personnel file review

The purpose of an HR Audit is to recognize strengths and identify any needs for improvement in the human resources function. A properly executed Audit will reveal problem areas and provide recommendations and suggestions for the remedy of these problems. Some of the reasons to conduct such a review include:

Ensuring the effective utilization of the organizations human resources Reviewing compliance concerns with a myriad of administrative regulations Instilling a sense of confidence in management and the human resources function Maintaining or enhancing the organizations and the departments reputation in the community Performing due diligence review for shareholders or potential investors/owners Establishing a baseline for future improvement for the function 19. Explain the ethical issues of human resource.

Ans.19 whenever peoples actions affect one another, ethical issues arise, and business decisions are no exception. Ethics refers to fundamental principles of right and wrong; ethical behaviour is

behaviour that is consistent with those principles. Business decisions, including HRM decisions, should be ethical, but the evidence suggests that is not always what happens. Recent surveys indicate that the general public and managers do not have positive perceptions of the ethical conduct of U.S. businesses. For example, in a survey conducted by the Wall Street Journal, 4 out of 10 executives reported they had been asked to behave unethically. Many ethical issues in the workplace involve human resource management. Nationwide Insurance has a three-person ethics office that offers a confidential helpline for employees. About two-thirds of the calls to the help line involve issues related to human resource managementfor example, conflicts with co-workers or supervisors or complaints of sexual harassment. When employees raise these concerns, the human resource team investigates them and takes action when necessary. Other departments handle other issues, such as those involving security or legal matters. The goal of these efforts is to keep employees focused on living up to the companys values, rather than just staying out of legal trouble. 20. Differentiate the domestic and international human resource management. Ans.20 Domestic Human Resource Management Staffs are placed within the national boundaries. Less number of Rule and Regulations to be managed.- mostly employment and taxation rules of the home country. There is uniform policy in administration International Human Resource Management Staffs work outside their national boundaries. Very high number of rules and regulations which are related to taxation, employment rules, language translating services, work permit etc. Broader Perspective- Management has to be done according Host Country Nationals (HCNS) , Parent Country Nationals (PCNS) and Third Country Nationals.(TCNS) Special attention to personal life of expatriate employees- cultural training, schooling of children, employment opportunity for spouse. IHRM management has to be ready to face challenges like underperformance of expatriate employees, diplomatic relationships between host country and parent country, currency exchange rates which are variable and may impact the benefits of TCNS and PCNS. Special Training for expatriates so that they might not face unnecessary hassles in the alien socio cultural environment.

No special attention into the personal life. Confined to crche and cultural interactions.

Challenges are confined to the situation of a particular country.

Special Training is not required for Socio Cultural adaptation.

21. Critically evaluate the human resource management in India. Ans.21 Human resource management evaluation refers to the procedures and processes that measure, evaluate and communicate the value added of human resource management practices to the organization. HR measurement a practice that is central to the future growth and success of our profession. HR used to be the feel-good department. Now the focus is on value added. We are

in the midst of a fundamental shift from being a cost item on the balance sheet to being, if not a profit centre, then to at least being able to justify return on investment. HR must become bottomline valid. It must demonstrate its validity to the business, its ability to accomplish business objectives and its ability to speak of accomplishments in business language. The HR function must perform in a measurable and accountable way for the business to reach its objectives. Need for evaluation of HRM : organizational change flexibility and productivity improvements the adoption of HR strategies the increased importance of human capital increased accountability partnership relationships and the growing use of HR information systems. Evaluating human resource management systems Statistical and financial evaluations of the HR contribution are best suited to evaluating particular HR practices or programmes. When evaluating an entire HRM system, managers have used two methods in recent years. HRM auditing HRM benchmarking. HRM auditing The term HRM audit can be interpreted in different ways, but, as in a financial audit, there are a number of generally accepted elements of audit practice : 1. independence from the subject being audited. 2. technical work in the form of a systematic gathering and analysis of data. 3. an evaluation of HR activities, policies and systems based on the evidence. 4. a clearly defined object of the process. 5. action in response to audit findings.. HRM Benchmarking process : 1. Identify human resource 2. practice to benchmark 3. Establish a project team 4. Select the benchmarking partners 5. Collect the data 6. Analyse and interpret the data 7. Share information/ report results 8. Implement action plans 22. Explain the process of human resource planning. Ans.22 The human resource planning process, demands the HR manager to first understand the business requirement. Only if he comprehends the nature and scope of the business, will he be able to employ those who will deliver the required performance. When it comes to engaging the manpower, the manager should have a keen eye for spotting the talent. It ensures that the workforce is competent enough the meet the targets. Additionally, the existing 'talent pool' in the workplace should be taken into consideration, so that people with complimentary skills can be employed. The functions of the HR manager are varied, he has to assess the currently employed workforce and their shortcomings. Identifying these shortcomings goes a long way in choosing an efficient workforce. While recruiting the new employees, the HR manager must calculate the expected workload. This way the HR department can design an accurate job profile and job expectations. Once you have the

decided job descriptions, looking for candidates who fit the job will be easy. Don't be fooled by their qualifications, it is only the relevant experience that matters more. A good HR manager is one who has the zeal and passion to motivate his prospective employees to perform to their potential. Human resource planning process, thus, can be considered as one of the strategic steps for building the strong foundation of an efficient workforce in an organization! HRP is done by the HRD manager. He is supported by the HRD department. He takes following Steps in the process of Human Resource Planning HRP. 1. Review of Organisation's Objectives The HRD Manager first studies the objectives of the organisation. Then he prepares a list of all the activities (jobs) that are required to achieve the objectives. He also does Job's analysis. 2. Estimation of Manpower Requirements The HRD manager then estimates the manpower requirement of the organisation. That is, he finds out how many people (manager and employers) will be required to do all the jobs in the organisation. Estimation of manpower requirements must be made in terms of quantity and quality. 3. Estimation of Manpower Supply The HRD manager then estimates the manpower supply. That is, he finds out how many managers, and employers are available in the organisation. 4. Comparison of Manpower The HRD manager then compares the manpower requirements and manpower supply. 5. In case of no difference If there is no difference between the manpower requirements and the manpower supply, then the HRD manager does not take any action. This is because manpower requirements are equal to the manpower supply. 6. In case of difference If there is a difference between the manpower requirements and the manpower supply the HRD manager takes the following actions. 1. Manpower Surplus If the manpower requirements are less then the manpower supply then there is a surplus. During manpower surplus, the HRD manager takes the following actions :Termination i.e removal of staff. Lay-off. Voluntary retirement. 2. Manpower Shortage If the manpower requirements are greater than the manpower supply then there is manpower shortage. During manpower shortage, the HRD manager takes the following actions :-

Promotions Overtime Training to improve quality. Hire staff from outside, etc.

7. Motivation of Manpower HRP also motivates the employers and managers by providing, financial and non-financial incentives. 8. Monitoring Manpower Requirements The HRD manager must continuously monitor the manpower requirements. This is because many employees and managers leave the organisation by resignation, retirement, etc. and new work force must take their place fill the manpower gap. This helps in uninterruptible functioning of the organisation. Process of Human Resource Planning 1. Analysing the Corporate Level Strategies: Human Resource Planning should start with analysing corporate level strategies which include expansion, diversification, mergers, acquisitions, reduction in operations, technology to be used, method of production etc. Therefore Human Resource Planning should begin with analysing the corporate plans of the organisation before setting out on fulfilling its tasks. 2. Demand forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resource requirement in accordance with the organisational plans is one of the key aspects of demand forecasting. Forecasting of quality of human resources like skills, knowledge, values and capabilities needed in addition to quantity of human resources is done through the following methods: a. Executive or Managerial Judgement: Here the managers decide the number of employees in the future. They adopt one of the three approaches mentioned below: Bottom-Up approach: Here the concerned supervisors send their proposals to the top officials who compare these with the organisational plans, make necessary adjustments and finalise them. Top-Down approach: Here the management prepares the requirements and sends the information downwards to the supervisory level who finalises the draft and approves it. Participative Approach: Here the supervisors and the management sit together and projections are made after joint consultations. Drawbacks The chief drawback of these methods is that estimation of manpower is made using guesswork. b. Statistical Techniques: These methods use statistical methods and mathematical techniques to forecast and predict the supply and demand of Human Resources in the future. Ratio-Trend analysis: In this method depending on the past data regarding number of employees in each department, like production department, sales department, marketing department and workload level, etc ratios for manpower are estimated. Past values are plotted and extrapolated to get fairly accurate future projections. c. Work Study method: This technique is suitable to study the correlation between volume of work and labour i.e. demand for human resources is estimated based on the workload. Work study method is more appropriate for repetitive and manual jobs when it is possible to measure work and set standards. d. Delphi Technique: Delphi Technique is named after the Greek Oracle at the city of Delphi. In this method, the views of different experts related to the industry are taken into consideration and

then a consensus about the Human Resource requirement is arrived at. Delphi technique is used primarily to assess long-term needs of human resource. 3. Analysing Human Resource Supply: Every organisation has two sources of supply of Human Resources: Internal & External. Internally, human resources can be obtained for certain posts through promotions and transfers. In order to judge the internal supply of human resources in future human resource inventory or human resource audit is necessary. Human resource inventory helps in determining and evaluating the quantity of internal human resources available. Once the future internal supply is estimated, supply of external human resources is analysed. 4. Estimating manpower gaps: Manpower gaps can be identified by comparing demand and supply forecasts. Such comparison will reveal either deficit or surplus of Human Resources in the future. Deficit suggests the number of persons to be recruited from outside, whereas surplus implies redundant employees to be re-deployed or terminated. Employees estimated to be deficient can be trained while employees with higher, better skills may be given more enriched jobs. 5. Action Planning: Once the manpower gaps are identified, plans are prepared to bridge these gaps. Plans to meet the surplus manpower may be redeployment in other departments and retrenchment. People may be persuaded to quit voluntarily through a golden handshake. Deficit can be met through recruitment, selection, transfer and promotion. In view of shortage of certain skilled employees, the organisation has to take care not only of recruitment but also retention of existing employees. Hence, the organisation has to plan for retaining of existing employees. 6. Modify the Organisational plans: If future supply of human resources form all the external sources is estimated to be inadequate or less than the requirement, the manpower planner has to suggest to the management regarding the alterations or modifications in the organisational plans. 7. Controlling and Review: After the action plans are implemented, human resource structure and the processes should be controlled and reviewed with a view to keep them in accordance with action plans

23. How you will evaluate the training and development programme? Describe.

Ans.23 Evaluating Training Programs

A. Designing the Study The evaluation process of choice is controlled experimentation, which uses both a training group and a control group (that receives no training) to assess their before and after performance in order to determine the extent to which performance in the training group resulted from the training itself rather than some organization-wide change. B. Training Effects to Measure Four basic categories of training outcomes can be measured: 1) Reaction; 2) Learning; 3) Behavior, and 4) Results. The Five Step Training and Development Process 1) needs analysis; 2) instructional design; 3) validation; 4) implement the program; and 5) evaluation and followup. Management Development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. The general management development process consists of (1) assessing the companys strategic needs (2) appraising the managers current performance and (3) developing the managers. Succession planning is part of this process, and is the process through which a company plans for and fills senior level openings. A. Managerial On-The-Job Training methods include: job rotation; coaching/ understudy approach; and action learning.

1. Job Rotation moving management trainees from department to department to broaden their understanding of all parts of the business. 2. Mentoring/Coaching/Understudy Approach where a trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he/she is to replace, and the latter is responsible for coaching the trainee. 3. Action Learning programs give managers and others released time to work full-time on projects to analyze and solve problems in departments other than their own.

B. Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques 1. The Case Study Method presents a trainee with a written description of an organizational problem. 2. Management Games computerized management games allow for the trainees to be involved. 3. Seminars and conferences offered by many companies and universities. 4. University-Related Programs provide executive education and continuing education programs in leadership, supervision, and the like. 5. Role Playing is aimed at creating a realistic situation and then having the trainee assume the parts (roles) of specific persons in that situation. 6. Behavior Modeling involves showing the trainee the correct way to do something, letting the trainee practice the correct way, and giving the trainee feedback on his/her performance. 7. Corporate Universities and In-House Development Centers are being established by many companies to expose prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills. 8. Executive Coaches are being used by firms to improve their top managers effectiveness. An executive coach is an outside consultant who questions the executives boss, peers, subordinates, and sometimes, family, in order to identify strengths and weaknesses, and to counsel the executive so he or she can capitalize on those strengths and overcome the weaknesses. When Youre On Your Own, HR for Line Managers and Entrepreneurs: Creating Your Own Training Program several options are explored for different avenues for training and development such as outsourced learning and prepackaged training solutions.

24. Discuss the various techniques of performance appraisal. Ans.24 I. Performance appraisal methods (Tools of ) Performance appraisal methods include 11 appraisal methods / types as follows: 1. Critical incident method This format of performance appraisal is a method which is involved identifying and describing specific incidents where employees did something really well or that needs improving during their performance period. 2. Weighted checklist method

In this style, performance appraisal is made under a method where the jobs being evaluated based on descriptive statements about effective and ineffective behavior on jobs. 3. Paired comparison analysis This form of performance appraisal is a good way to make full use of the methods of options. There will be a list of relevant options. Each option is in comparison with the others in the list. The results will be calculated and then such option with highest score will be mostly chosen. 4. Graphic rating scales This format is considered the oldest and most popular method to assess the employees performance. In this style of performance appraisal, the management just simply does checks on the performance levels of their staff. 5. Essay Evaluation method In this style of performance appraisal, managers/ supervisors are required to figure out the strong and weak points of staffs behaviors. Essay evaluation method is a non-quantitative technique. It is often mixed with the method the graphic rating scale. 6. Behaviorally anchored rating scales This formatted performance appraisal is based on making rates on behaviors or sets of indicators to determine the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of working performance. The form is a mix of the rating scale and critical incident techniques to assess performance of the staff. 7. Performance ranking method The performance appraisal of ranking is used to assess the working performance of employees from the highest to lowest levels. Managers will make comparisons of an employee with the others, instead of making comparison of each employee with some certain standards. 8. Management By Objectives (MBO) method MBO is a method of performance appraisal in which managers or employers set a list of objectives and make assessments on their performance on a regular basis, and finally make rewards based on the results achieved. This method mostly cares about the results achieved (goals) but not to the way how employees can fulfil them. 9. 360 degree performance appraisal The style of 360 degree performance appraisal is a method that employees will give confidential and anonymous assessments on their colleagues. This post also information that can be used as references for such methods of performance assessments of 720, 540, 180 10.Forced ranking (forced distribution) In this style of performance appraisal, employees are ranked in terms of forced allocations. For instance, it is vital that the proportions be shared in the way that 10 or 20 % will be the highest levels of performances, while 70 or 80% will be in the middle level and the rest will be in the lowest one. 11. Behavioral Observation Scales The method based on the scales of observation on behaviours is the one in which important tasks that workers have performed during their working time will be assessed on a regular basis. 25. Explain the existing challenges at present as against of human resource management. Ans.25 21st Century Human Resources Current Issues Organizations continue to face HR issues including the following: Steady supply of talents and management Effective leadership development Globalized business environment requiring diversity management skills Good governance in order to build integrity and trust among managers and employees Effective demographic management.

The Challenge of Human Resource Management: The most significant resource of any organization is often said to be its people. Such claims appear in organizations annual reports and mission statements. Of course, an organization is nothing but a group of people whose activities have been planned and coordinated to meet organizational objectives. An organization that exists to produce goods and services has a good chance to survive and prosper if it consists of the Right People. This is true for all organizations. In a similar fashion, people need organizations. The vast majority of people must work to support themselves and their families. But people work for many reasons other than economic security. For example, many also work to keep busy and feel useful, to create and achieve something. They want to gain recognition and achieve status or to test and stretch their capabilities. To meet these multifarious needs, people and organizations join forces. Unfortunately, this union seldom approaches perfection. Organizations encounter several obstacles in meeting their goals and in a similar way all employees report some problems in their attempts to be productive and efficient in their jobs and to feel satisfied in their work lives. The challenge of human resource management is to minimize these obstacles and problems. The central challenge facing society is the continued improvement of our organizations, both private and public. Another important purpose of human resource management is to improve the contribution made by people to organizations, (Davis) through effective and efficient use of resources. Efficient means that it must use the minimum amount of resources needed to produce results. Effective means producing right things through right ways. The resultant productivity (ratio of output to input)gains obtained through HR efforts enable managers to reduce costs, save scarce resources, enhance profits and offer better pay, benefits and working conditions to employees. Pervasive force: HRM is pervasive in nature. It is present in all enterprises. It permeates all levels of management in an organization. Action oriented: HRM focuses attention an action, rather than on recordkeeping, written procedures or rules. The problems of employees at work are solved through rational policies. Individually oriented: It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. It encourages them to give out their best to the organization. It motivates employees through systematic process of recruitment, selection, training and development coupled with fair wage policies. People oriented: HRM is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. The resultant gains are used to reward people and motivate them toward further improvements in productivity. Development oriented: HRM intends to develop the full potential of employees. The reward structure is tuned to the needs of employees. Training is offered to sharpen and improve their skills. Employees are rotated on various jobs so that they gain experience and exposure. Every attempt is made to use their talents fully in the service of organizational goals. Integrating mechanism: HRM tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. In short, it tries to integrate human assets in the best possible manner in the service of an organization.

Comprehensive function : HRM is, to some extent, concerned with any organizational decision which has an impact on the, workforce or the potential workforce (Bernardin). The term workforce signifies people working at various levels, including workers, supervisors, middle and top managers. It is concerned with managing people at work. It covers all types of personnel. Personnel work may take different shapes and forms at each level in the organizational hierarchy but the basic objective of achieving organizational effectiveness through effective and efficient utilization of human resources, remains the same. It is basically a method of developing potentialities of employees so that they get maximum satisfaction out of their work and give their best efforts to the organization (Pigors and Myers). Auxiliary service : HR departments exist to assist and advise the line or operating managers to do their personnel work more effectively. HR manager is a specialist advisor. It is a staff function. Inter-disciplinary function : HRM is a multi-disciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, etc. To unravel the mystery surrounding the human brain, managers, need to understand the appreciate the contributions of all such soft disciplines. Continuous function : According to Terry, HRM is not a one short deal. It cannot be practiced only one hour each day or one day a week. It requires a constant alertness and awareness of human relations and their importance in every day operations. 26. What is meant by personnel Management? Ans.26 Administrative discipline of hiring and developing employees so that they become more valuable to the organization. It includes (1) conducting job analyses, (2) planning personnel needs, and recruitment, (3) selecting the right people for the job, (4) orienting and training, (5) determining and managing wages and salaries, (6) providing benefits and incentives, (7) appraising performance, (8) resolving disputes, (9) communicating with all employees at all levels. 27. Explain total quality management. Ans.27 Total quality management is a management system for a customer focused organization that involves all employees in continual improvement of all aspects of the organization. TQM uses strategy, data, and effective communication to integrate the quality principles into the culture and activities of the organization. Focus on customers' needs; Focus on problem prevention, not correction; Make continuous improvements: seek to meet customers' requirements on time, the first time, every time; Train employees in ways to improve quality; and, Apply the team approach to problem solving. 28. Discuss the main methods of job Analysis. Ans.28 Job analysis methods can be categorized into three basic types: (1) Observation Methods; (2) Interview; and (3) Questionnaire 1. Observation Method: Observation of work activities and worker behaviours is a method of job analysis which can be used independently or in combination with other methods of job analysis.

Three methods of job analysis based on observation are: (i) Direct Observation; (ii) Work Methods Analysis; and (iii) Critical Incidents Technique. (i) Direct Observation: Using direct observation, a person conducting the analysis simply observes employees in the performance of their duties. The observer either takes general notes or works from a form which has structured categories for comment. Everything is observed: what the worker accomplishes, what equipment is used etc. The limitation of this method is that it cannot capture the mental aspects of jobs, such as decision making or planning, since mental processes are not observable. (ii) Work Methods Analysis: This method is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as factory or assembly-line jobs. This method is used by industrial engineers to determine standard rates of production. (iii) Critical Incidents Technique: It involves observation and recording of examples of particularly effective or ineffective behaviours. Behaviours are judged to be effective or ineffective in terms of results produced by the behaviour. In this method a person using the critical incidents must describe behaviour in retrospect, or after the fact, rather than as the activity unfolds. Accurate recording of past observations is more difficult than recording the behaviours as they occur. 2. Interview: In this method, the Analyst interviews the employee, his supervisor and other concerned persons and record answers to relevant questions. The interviewer asks job related questions and a standard format is used to record the data. The limitation of this method is that it does not provide accurate information because the employee may not provide accurate information to protect his own interest. Success of this method depends upon the rapport between the analyst and the employee. 3. Questionnaire: In this method properly drafted questionnaires are sent to jobholders. Structured questionnaires on different aspects of a job are developed. Each task is described in terms of characteristics such as frequency, significance, difficulty and relationship to overall performance. The jobholders give their rating of these dimensions. The ratings obtained are analysed and a profile of actual job is developed. This method provides comprehensive information about a job. The limitation of this method is that it is time consuming and costly. 29. What do you understand by job description? Ans.29 Job descriptions are written statements that describe the: duties, responsibilities, most important contributions and outcomes needed from a position, required qualifications of candidates, and Reporting relationship and co-workers of a particular job. Job descriptions are based on objective information obtained through job analysis, an understanding of the competencies and skills required to accomplish needed tasks, and the needs of the organization to produce work. Job descriptions clearly identify and spell out the responsibilities of a specific job. Job descriptions also include information about working conditions, tools, equipment used, knowledge and skills needed, and relationships with other positions. 30.Name the internal sources of recruitment. Ans.30 Internal sources of recruitment: Present permanent employees (based on programs of career development). Present temporary / casual employees. Retired employees. Dependents of deceased disabled, retired and present employees.
Promotions and Transfers, Employee referrals, Former Employees, Internal notification (advertisement).

31.Why is training needed in Industry?

Ans.31 Trainings in an organization can be divided to two broad types. They are on-the-job trainings and off-the-job trainings. These on-the-job trainings are given to the employees while they are conducting their regular works at the same places. In this way they do not lose time while they are training or learning. After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed about the details. A time table should be establish with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job training techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships, assistantships, job rotation and coaching. 32. What is meant by Job Enlargement? Ans.32 A job design technique in which the number of tasks associated with a job is increased (and appropriate training provided) to add greater variety to activities, thus reducing monotony. Job enlargement is considered a horizontal restructuring method in that the job is enlarged by adding related tasks. Job enlargement may also result in greater workforce flexibility. 33. Explain in detail the functions of human resource management. Ans.33 Human Resource Management involves the development of a perfect blend between traditional administrative functions and the well-being of all employees within an organization. Employee retention ratio is directly proportionate to the manner in which the employees are treated, in return for their imparted skills and experience. A Human Resource Manager ideally empowers inter-departmental employee relationships and nurtures scope for down-the-rung employee communication at various levels. The field is a derivative of System Theory and Organizational Psychology. The Human Resource department has earned a number of related interpretations in time, but continues to defend the need to ensure employee well-being. Every organization now has an exclusive Human Resource Management Department to interact with representatives of all factors of production. The department is responsible for the development and application of on-going research on strategic advances while hiring, terminating and training staff. The Human Resource Management Department is responsible for: Understanding and relating to employees as individuals, thus identifying individual needs and career goals. Developing positive interactions between workers, to ensure collated and constructive enterprise productivity and development of a uniform organizational culture. Identify areas that suffer lack of knowledge and insufficient training, and accordingly provide remedial measures in the form of workshops and seminars. Generate a rostrum for all employees to express their goals and provide the necessary resources to accomplish professional and personal agendas, essentially in that order. Innovate new operating practices to minimize risk and generate an overall sense of belonging and accountability. Recruiting the required workforce and making provisions for expressed and promised payroll and benefits. Implementing resource strategies to subsequently create and sustain competitive advantage. Empowerment of the organization, to successfully meet strategic goals by managing staff effectively. The human resource department also maintains an open demeanour to employee grievances. Employees are free to approach the human resource team for any conceived query or any form of on-the-job stress that is bothering them. Performance of employees is also actively evaluated on a regular basis. These are checks conducted by the HR to verify and thereby confirm the validity of the employees actual performance matching the expected performance.

Promotions, Transfers or expulsion of services provided by the employee are some duties that are enforced by the human resource department. Promotions are conducted and are predominantly based on the overall performance of the individual, accompanied by the span or tenure he has served the organization. The Human resource department also looks at the possibilities of the employee migrating from one job to another, maintaining the hierarchy in the company and considering the stability of post and the salary obtained over a period of time.

Human Resource Management functions may be briefly described as: 1. Manpower Planning: The HR considers the actual requirement of the staff for the organization. Because the overstaffing is wasteful and expensive, and understaffing leads to loses of the organization economics and profits. 2. Employee selection: Selection of employees for the suitable job. 3. Employees motivating: Motivating employees and encourage them to give their best in work productivity. Providing financial rewards to the staff. 4. Employees relation: Keeping a healthy relationship with the employees and their problems are redressed. 5. Payroll module: Payment of salaries and wages to the workers at the proper time.

34. Explain the working of quality circle. Ans.34 A quality circle is a group of 6 to 12 members who meet regularly to discuss and solve problems affecting the quality of their work. At a set time during the workweek, the members meet, identify problems and try to find solutions. Circle members are free to collect data and take surveys. Companies train team members in team building, problem solving, and statistical quality control. During the QC process each problem will pass through various stages of the operation cycle. One by one, problems can be taken up and the cycle will continue. QC follows several sequential steps to identify, analyse and solve problems. The process runs thus: 1. Problem identification. 2. Problem selection. 3. Problem analysis. 4. Solution selection. 5. Presentation. 6. Solution revised. 7. Solution implemented. 35. Explain the significance of human resource management. Ans.35 Significance of HRM: Human resources are the most precious asset of an organization. They are the activators of nonhuman resources, means for developing competitive advantages and sources of creativity. Ghoshal outlines the role of HRM in managing an organization in the following lines. Indian Companies have spruced up their strategic thinking; they have even moved a generation ahead with their organisations. But they still have managers who have been shaped by old models. They are essentially a group of first generation managers whose definitions of roles and tasks, personal skills and competencies, ideas and beliefs about management have been shaped by an earlier model. You cannot manage third generation strategies with second generation organizations and first generation managers to meet the needs of second generation organisations and third generations strategic thinking. The above view indicates the role of HRM in Indian industry. Significance of HRM can be viewed in three contexts; organizational, social and professional.

Organisational significance Effective utilization of human resources to motivate them and to change their attitudes to work and the organization. To develop personnel to meet the demands of the work effectively; and To ensure proper recruitment and to retain personnel in the organization so that right people are available. Social significance This aspect aims in achieving the need satisfaction of personnel in the organisation. It is often said that a happy worker is not only happy in his work place but also at home and in society also. Hence HRM seeks to achieve the following: Maintaining balance between jobs and job-seekers, taking into consideration job requirements, job seekers abilities and aptitudes. Providing most productive employment from which socio-psychological satisfaction can be derived. Utilizing human capabilities effectively and matching with government rewards. Eliminating wasteful organizational and individual practices. Professional Significance This aspect involves in developing people and providing appropriate environment for effective utilization of their capabilities and involves the following. Developing people on continuous basis to meet the challenges of their jobs. Maintaining the dignity of personnel at the work place; Providing proper physical and social environment at the work place to make. 36. Explain the methods of human resource planning. Ans.36. Human resource planning uses methods within recruiting, development and employee retention to achieve organizational goals. Workforce analysis allows human resources to compare the current workforce to future employment needs. Determining future requirements allows for methods of attracting, training and retaining of quality employees to fulfill key roles within the organization. Workforce Analysis Human resources must consider what kind of future workforce is needed to satisfy the organization's strategic objectives. By analyzing the current workforce and comparing to future employment requirements, it can discover what gaps or surpluses exist. This information allows human resources to prepare plans that adjust the workforce as needed. An organization that plans to increase sales by 50 percent in the next three years may require the workforce to grow by 5 percent. After considering what employment changes are needed, human resources should prepare evaluation plans to ensure the future workforce meets objectives. Seminars and Job Fairs To achieve strategic objectives, human resources must plan for attracting and recruiting employees in quality and quantity. Seminars and job fairs offer employers an opportunity to introduce themselves, advertise and promote the company. Participating in fund-raising events and other social functions is another method for attracting and recruiting job candidates. Training Programs To improve its current and future workforce, human resource planning must focus on employee development or training. Training and development programs can improve general employee skills such as customer service and sales training or focus on specific work-related skills. Training and retraining programs can also reduce current and future liability with employee safety emphasis. Retention Programs Retaining employees is difficult because of the other employment opportunities that may attract them. But human resources can reduce the the likelihood of employee departures by planning retention programs. These programs can focus on employee recognition and benefits. They can also

include rewards, advancement or growth and work-life balancing. By showing a sincere interest in employees and valuing their contributions, the organization is able to further increase employee retention. In the unfortunate event an employee decides to leave, exit interviews provide valuable feedback that can assist the organization with employee loss prevention. 37. Training is the process of employee development. Explain . Ans.37 In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employees attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employees performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance Actual performance Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training, is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary.

To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that training is offered to operatives, whereas developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding. 38. What is wage and salary administration? Describe its objectives and importance. Ans.38 As money is the prime need for human beings to meet their basic needs, everyone tries to earn as much money as possible. Wage and Salary Administration is the group of activities involved in the development, implementation and maintenance of a pay system. It can also be called the ongoing process of managing a wage and salary structure. The main objective of wage and salary administration is to have a scientific, rational, and balanced wage & salary structure. In salary administration, the employer should not feel that the employees are paid more than they deserve and the employees should not feel that they are underpaid. Unless there is a scientific approach /method we cannot solve this common conflict between employers and employees. Wage and salary administration includes allowances, leave facilities, housing, travel, etc and noncost rewards such as recognition, privileges and symbols of status of employees. Any Pay System should create a feeling of equity in the minds of the employees. Otherwise it will demoralize and demotivate the employees.

Objective of wage and salary administration: Control of costs. Establishment of fair & equitable remuneration Employee motivation Maintenance of a satisfactory public relation image. To attract qualified and competent personnel. To retain the present employees. To ensure good performance, loyalty, acceptance of new responsibilities. To secure internal and external equity. To establish feasibility of the concern. To regulate labour and administrative costs. Importance of wage and salary administration : 1. Constitute greatest cost. 2. Economic survival. 3. Determines status in society. 4. Major function. 5. Motivational role. 6. Fulfilment of company goals. 7. Social justice and welfare. 8. Peaceful industrial relations. 39. Explain the need and importance of ethical issues of human resource. Ans.39

Cash and Compensation Plans There are ethical issues pertaining to the salaries, executive perquisites and the annual incentive plans etc. The HR manager is often under pressure to raise the band of base salaries. There is increased pressure upon the HR function to pay out more incentives to the top management and the justification for the same is put as the need to retain the latter. Further ethical issues crop in HR when long term compensation and incentive plans are designed in consultation with the CEO or an external consultant. While deciding upon the payout there is pressure on favouring the interests of the top management in comparison to that of other employees and stakeholders. Race, gender and Disability In many organisations till recently the employees were differentiated on the basis of their race, gender, origin and their disability. Not anymore ever since the evolution of laws and a regulatory

framework that has standardised employee behaviours towards each other. In good organisations the only differentiating factor is performance! In addition the power of filing litigation has made put organisations on the back foot. Managers are trained for aligning behaviour and avoiding discriminatory practices. Employment Issues Human resource practitioners face bigger dilemmas in employee hiring. One dilemma stems from the pressure of hiring someone who has been recommended by a friend, someone from your family or a top executive. Yet another dilemma arises when you have already hired someone and he/she is later found to have presented fake documents. Two cases may arise and both are critical. In the first case the person has been trained and the position is critical. In the second case the person has been highly appreciated for his work during his short stint or he/she has a unique blend of skills with the right kind of attitude. Both the situations are sufficiently dilemmatic to leave even a seasoned HR campaigner in a fix. Privacy Issues Any person working with any organisation is an individual and has a personal side to his existence which he demands should be respected and not intruded. The employee wants the organisation to protect his/her personal life. This personal life may encompass things like his religious, political and social beliefs etc. However certain situations may arise that mandate snooping behaviours on the part of the employer. For example, mail scanning is one of the activities used to track the activities of an employee who is believed to be engaged in activities that are not in the larger benefit of the organisation. Similarly there are ethical issues in HR that pertain to health and safety, restructuring and layoffs and employee responsibilities. There is still a debate going on whether such activities are ethically permitted or not. Layoffs, for example, are no more considered as unethical as they were thought of in the past. If you have integrity, nothing else matters. If you don't have integrity, nothing else matters. Ethics is very basic to mankind Values create credibility with the public Values create credibility with the employees Considered important for companies striving for long-term success and growth. Not only is ethical behaviour in business life the right thing to do in principle, we have shown that it pays off in financial returns.

40. Discuss the management activities of international human resource management. Ans.40 Human resource management is a contested field of study, with much controversy and many competing models. Reassuringly, however, there is less controversy about the content of human resource management. Virtually all writers assume that there is a set of core activities, and that there is a body of good practice associated with each of them (although there is some disagreement about the exact membership of the set, and about what good practice consists of in each activity). We now list the activities in addition to an important theme, culture, which we discuss in detail in this course. The activities include: Human resource planning Job analysis Recruitment and selection Performance management and appraisal Career development pay management Employee relations Training and development.

41. what is meant by job analysis? Explain its process and significance in the field of human resource management. Ans.41 A study of a specific job, or of all jobs, in an enterprise with respect to operations involved, working conditions, and qualifications required, etc. Organizations exist to accomplish some goal or objective. They are collectivities rather than individuals because achieving the goals requires the efforts (work) of a number of people (workers). The point at which the work and the worker come together is called a job it is the role played by the worker. We need to know a lot of information about these roles/jobs, including: What does or should the person do? What knowledge, skill, and abilities does it take to perform this job? What is the result of the person performing the job? How does this job fit in with other jobs in the organization? What is the job's contribution toward the organization's goals? The major steps to be followed in carrying out job analysis in an on-going organization are given below: 1. Organization Analysis: The first step is to get an overall view of various jobs in the organisation with a view to examine the linkages between jobs and the organisational objectives, interrelationships among the jobs, and the contribution of various jobs towards achieving organisational efficiency and effectiveness. The organisation chart and the work flow or process charts constitute an important source of information for the purpose. 2. Uses of Job Analysis Information: Depending on organisational priorities and constraints, it is desirable to develop clarity regarding the possible uses of the information pertaining to job analysis. In the previous pages it has been already indicated that such information could be utilised practically for all personnel functions. Nevertheless, it is important to focus on a few priority activities in which the job analysis information could be used. 3. Selection of Jobs for Analysis: Carrying out job- analysis is a time- consuming and costly process. It is, therefore, desirable to select a representative sample of jobs for purposes of analysis. 4. Collection of Data: Data will have to be collected on the characteristics of job, the required behaviour and personal attributes needed to do the job effectively. Several techniques for job analysis are available. Care needs to be taken to use only such techniques, which are acceptable and reliable in the existing situation within the organisation. 5. Preparation of Job Description: The information collected in the previous step is used in preparing a job description for the job highlighting major tasks, duties, and responsibilities for effective job performance. 6. Preparation of Job Specification: Likewise, the information gathered in step (4) is also used to prepare the job specification for a job highlighting the personal attributes required in terms of education, training, aptitude and experience to fulfil the job description. Job Analysis thus carried out provides basic inputs to the design of jobs so that it is able to meet the requirements of both the organization (in terms of efficiency and productivity) as well as the employees (in terms of job satisfaction and need fulfilment). Developing appropriate job design is then the outcome of the job analysis process. The most important use of job analysis is to produce a basic job description of what the job is to facilitate basic human resource problem solving. The second is to provide employees and supervisors with a basic description of jobs describing duties and characteristics in common with and different from other positions or jobs. When pay is closely associated with levels of difficulty these descriptions will help foster a feeling of organisational fairness related to pay issues. Other important uses of job analysis are given below: Indicate training needs Put together work groups or teams

Provide information to conduct salary surveys Provide a basis for determining a selection plan Provide a basis for putting together recruitment Describe the physical needs of various positions to determine the validity of discrimination complaints As part of an organisational analysis As part of strategic planning As a part of any human relations needs assessment As a basis for coordinating safety concerns Job analysis is indeed an essential part of any modern human resource management system. The kind of information gathered through job analysis varies considerably depending upon the specific uses to be made of it. Accordingly, job analysis Programmes are usually tailor-made for the specific purpose. 42.Discuss the process of guideline for enriching a job. State its limitations. Ans.42 Job Enrichment should be distinguished from enlargement job enlargement attempts to make a job more varied by removing the dullness associated with performing repetitive operations. In job enrichment, the attempt is to build in to jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievement. The accumulation of achievement must lead to a felling of personal growth accompanied by a sense of responsibility. How to enrich a job A job may be enriched by giving it Varity, and also may be enriched by : 1. Given worker more latitude in deciding about such things as work method, sequences and pace or by letting them make decisions about accepting or rejecting materials : 2. Giving workers a felling of personal responsibility for their tasks. 3. Taking steps to make sure that people can see how their tasks contribute to a finished products and the welfare of the enterprises. 4. Giving people feedback on their job performance preferable before their supervisors get in and 5. Involving workers in analysis and change of physical aspects of the worker environment such as lay out of office or plant, temperature, lighting and cleanliness. Limitations But even the strongest supporters of job enrichment readily admit that three are limitations in its application They can be analysed in the following manner. 1. Technology: There are some jobs, which are highly technical requiring skill it would be difficult to enrich such jobs. And with specialized machinery and assembly line techniques it may not be possible to make every job meaningful. 2. Cost: Thought a great many companies appear to be interested in job enrichment programs, the extra cost may seem high if a company is not convinced that the return will at least offset the increase expenditure. General Motors tried six man and three man teams in the assembly line but from that they found the work shoed and cost increased. At Saab & Volvo and motors India. It was found that increase cost is compensated by reduced absenteeism and labour turnover. Yet the cost of the programme is formidable factor.

3. Attitude of managers: Another problem is the tendency of top managers and personal specialist to apply their own scale peoples personalities. As a result a few companies have abandoned or modified their programs. M.Scott Myers believes that the failures have occurred because the manager were not really committed to theory Y and in most cases job enrichment is usually imposed on people . They are told about it rather than consulted. 4. Attitude of Workers: The attitude of some employers also represent obstacles. Various surveys of workers attitudes have shown that high percentages of workers attitude have shown that high percentages of workers are not interesting jobs. Some have complained that enriched jobs provide too many opportunities to commit mistakes. Some workers fears that the increased productivity sought may even mean loss of jobs. 5. Reaction of union Leaders: There has been little or no support of job enrichment by union Leaders. If job enrichment was so important to workers. It must have been translated in to united demand but it has never happened . Instead Leonard woodcock the President of united Automobile Worker has been quoted to have said about job enlargement that a lot academic writer are writing a lot of nonsense. 43. Explain in detail selection process. Ans.43 The selection procedure starts immediately after recruitment. It is a process of eliminating those candidates who appear unpromising. It consists of a series of steps. It is a series of successive hurdles of or barrier which an applicant must cross. The task of selection is to match the worth and merits of applicants with requirements of the job at every stage. Undesirable candidates are screened out and the qualified retained at every stage. The candidate will be selected after he clears all the steps laid down in selection process. 1. Reception of applicants. 2. Scrutiny of applications. 3. Preliminary interview 4. Application blank. 5. Employment tests. 6. Interview 7. Background investigation 8. Approval of the supervisors. 9. Physical examination. 10. Final employment decision. 44.why is training needed in industry? Describe its benefits. Ans.44 The ability to manage people well can have a huge financial impact on a company. Employee turnover rates, cost of talent retention, litigation experience, and employee tenure are just some of the metrics you should look at to try to gauge the effectiveness of your management staff. Most companies offer management training of some sort. But there is always room to enhance the programs so that managers feel better prepared to handle their day-to-day responsibilities in ways that minimize risk to the company while improving relationships in the workplace. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. It is a short-term educational process. In brief, it is a systematic procedure for transferring technical know-how to the employees. It aims at increasing the ability of the employees, so that they can do the job in an effective and efficient manner.

Needs and Object of Training : 1. Job requirements 2. Technological changes. 3. Organisational viability. 4. Increasing competition. 5. Change in job assignment. 6. Human relations approach. 7. Hiring misfits. 8. Contract training. 9. Motivation and creativity. 10. To increase productivity. Importance of training: 1. Higher productivity. 2. Better quality of work. 3. Low cost of production. 4. Reduced supervision. 5. Less learning time and cost. 6. Less accidents 7. High morale. 8. Personal growth. 9. Good organisational climate. 10. Adaptability. 11. Job satisfaction. 12. Healthy interpersonal relations. 45. Write a detailed note on human resource auditing. Ans.45 Human Resource Audit is a systematic assessment of the strengths, limitations, and developmental needs of its existing human resources in the context of organizational performance. NEED FOR H.R. AUDIT: Top Management saw solutions to their problems, issues and challenges in HRD to face business competition and to achieve organizational goals. PURPOSE OF H.R. AUDIT: 1. To examine and pinpoint strength and weaknesses related to H.R. areas and Skills and Competencies to enable an organization to achieve its long-term and short-term goals. 2. To increase the effectiveness of the design and implementation of human resource policies, planning and programs. 3. To help human resource planners develop and update employment and program plans. AUDITING PROCESS: STEPS IN H.R. AUDIT Auditing process varies from organizations to organizations. Generally involves following STEPS: STEP ONE: Briefing and Orientation: Key Staff Members meet: i. To discuss particular issues considered to be important. ii. To chart out audit procedures, and iii. To develop plans and program of audit.

STEP TWO: Scanning material information: Scrutiny of all available information pertaining to personnel, personnel handbooks and manuals, guides, appraisal forms, computer capabilities and any other related information. STEP THREE: Surveying employees: a. Interview with key managers, functional executives, Top functionaries in the organisation and employees Representatives, if necessary. b. The purpose is to pinpoint issues of concern, Present strengths, anticipated needs and managerial views on human resources.

STEP FOUR: Conducting interviews: I. What questions to be asked, are developed during scanning of information. II. It is better for H.R. Audit, if clarity about the key factors of H.R.M. selected for audit and the related questions that need to be examined. STEP FIVE: Synthesising: The data gathered is synthesized to present the a. Current Situation. b. Priorities. c. Staff pattern, and d. Issues identified. STEP SIX; Reporting: 1. The results of the audit are discussed with Managers and Staff Specialists, in several rounds. 2. Important issues are identified for inclusion in the formal Report. METHODS OF H.R. AUDIT: 1. INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW METHOD 2. GROUP INTERVIEW METHOD 3. WORKSHOP METHOD 4. QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD