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Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Foundation-Intermediate Courseware
Written by Kelvin MacDonald Published by Velsoft International Inc. Courseware Release Version 3.0
© 2006-2008 by Velsoft International, Inc. Notice of Rights
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Table of Contents
Part 1: Foundation Level............................................................................................................... 1 Section 1: Getting Started .............................................................................................................. 1
Lesson 1.1: Starting Out ........................................................................................................................ 2 Lesson 1.2: About Workbooks .............................................................................................................. 6 Lesson 1.3: Exploring your Workbook................................................................................................. 8
Section 2: The Office Excel 2007 Interface ................................................................................ 16
Lesson 2.1: The Home Tab .................................................................................................................. 17 Lesson 2.2: The Insert Tab .................................................................................................................. 26 Lesson 2.3: The Page Layout Tab ....................................................................................................... 32 Lesson 2.4: The Formulas Tab ............................................................................................................ 44 Lesson 2.5: The Data Tab .................................................................................................................... 49 Lesson 2.6: The Review Tab ................................................................................................................ 53
Section 3: Excel Basics ................................................................................................................ 56
Lesson 3.1: Working With Excel 2007 ................................................................................................ 57 Lesson 3.2: Basic Excel Features ......................................................................................................... 64 Lesson 3.3: Moving your Data ............................................................................................................. 71 Lesson 3.4: Smart Tags and Options Buttons .................................................................................... 83 Lesson 3.5: Editing Tools ..................................................................................................................... 88
Section 4: Editing Your Workbook ............................................................................................. 95
Lesson 4.1: Modifying Cells and Data ................................................................................................ 96 Lesson 4.2: Cell Formatting ............................................................................................................... 108 Lesson 4.3: Enhancing a Worksheet’s Appearance......................................................................... 119 Lesson 4.4: Working With Charts, Part 1 ........................................................................................ 130 Lesson 4.5: Working with Charts, Part 2 ......................................................................................... 163 Lesson 4.6: Using File Templates ...................................................................................................... 178
Section 5: Printing and Viewing your Workbook ..................................................................... 187
Lesson 5.1: Using the View Tab ........................................................................................................ 188 Lesson 5.2: Managing a Single Window ........................................................................................... 200 Lesson 5.3: Managing Multiple Windows ........................................................................................ 207 Lesson 5.4: Printing your Workbook................................................................................................ 214
Part 1: Foundation Level
Section 1: Getting Started
In this section you will learn: What Microsoft Excel 2007 is How to open Microsoft Excel How to interact with Excel How to close Excel How to create a new workbook How to open a workbook How to save a workbook How to close a workbook About Excel file types How to switch worksheets About the active cell How to select cells How to explore a worksheet How to use the zoom feature How to use the Help screen How to use Online Help How to use Offline Help
the extensive array of features and capabilities that it provides may seem daunting at first.Lesson 1. What is Microsoft Excel 2007? Microsoft Excel 2007 is the latest version of Microsoft’s famous spreadsheet application. and other institutions throughout the world. Excel’s functionality and popularity have made it an essential component on computers in countless organizations. sports statistics. and a solid foundation built on the basics. 2 . If you are new to Excel. or practically any other kind of information you need to work with. Although Excel is often used for managing financial information. practice. Excel is a very powerful and flexible tool for organizing and analyzing data. The keys to becoming proficient with Excel a re patience. businesses.1: Starting Out Microsoft Excel is one of the most powerful and widely used spreadsheet applications available today. it is just as well suited to scientific data. In a general sense. but don’t worry.
Excel 2007 also offers numerous formatting and presentation options that will help you create slick. from building basic spread sheets to performing advanced data analysis. mathematical. it won’t be difficult to learn and work with Excel at any level you want. and formulas accordingly. a means of evaluating complex formulas. and extract meaningful conclusions from your information. functions. With Excel you can perform a wide range of tasks. you should see an Excel screen (also called a user interface) like the one shown below.Excel 2007 provides a wealth of financial. You can use Excel as a database. When you change data in an Excel spreadsheet. Excel can help you process. The Excel Interface Once you open Excel 2007. professional looking reports. and as a way of sharing data and collaborating with others. Excel will recalculate your totals. and statistical functions that you can apply to your data. If you start at the beginning and work your way up. Tabs Excel Title Bar Spreadsheet Tabs Status Bar 3 . interpret. a graphing and charting tool. Excel 2007 is comprehensive enough to meet the needs of beginners and experienced users alike.
labels. This grid area is an extremely important part of the Excel program because it is where all of your data will be entered.The largest part of the Excel 2007 screen consists of a grid like pattern of cells. This means that there are more than 16000 X 1000000 = 16000000000 individual cells in a spreadsheet! Above the grid area of the Excel screen. When the Excel screen is first opened. the cell with the heavy black border in the following image could be called C7. Continuing on this note. Every cell in your spreadsheet has a name that can be formed by a letter-number combination. and other controls. you will see a region with several tabs. buttons. If you type numbers or letters at the keyboard. These cells are indexed by letters along the top of the grid and by numbers down the left side of the grid. because the cell’s column is C. you should notice a heavy black border around the cell in the upper left corner of the grid. If you hold the Ctrl key and press an arrow key. This very important concept is one of the keys to controlling how your data elements will relate and interact with each other. and the cell’s row is 7. according to what arrow you press. An individual cell is simply one of the small rectangles formed by the crossing grid lines. organized. An Excel 2007 spreadsheet contains 16000 columns and more than 1000000 rows. This combination of letter and number can serve as a kind of name for an individual cell. one of the major improvements in Excel 2007 is an increased number of cells in your spreadsheet. they will be entered into the cell that is surrounded by the heavy black border. You will also notice that as you move the heavy black border from cell to cell. you should see the heavy black border move from cell to cell in the direction of the arrow keys you are pressing. the black border will move to the extreme end of the row or column of cells you are in. the letter at the top of the grid above the cell and the number at the side of the grid to the left of the cell will be highlighted with an orange-brown color. and displayed. For example. 4 . If you press the arrow keys on your computer keyboard.
you will notice that the new user interface in Excel 2007 has some significant changes. View). This new interface is designed to be more intuitive to the user. Formulas. Data. functions. This part of the interface also gives you access to Excel’s automated features. providing even more functionality with less clutter and confusion. and edit the data stored in the Excel grid area of the spreadsheet. interpret. Page Layout. If you are familiar with older versions of Excel. In the image provided below.This part of the Excel interface is what allows you to control. If you left click one of the labeled tabs (Home. you can see an information box for conditional formatting. organize. Try viewing the different controls available by clicking on each word. This is also where the tools that help you analyze. This is another major innovation for Excel 2007. Insert. If you let your mouse pointer hover on a button or control in the new interface. format. Review. In older versions. you will see the buttons and controls in the tab change according to the word you click on. This information was displayed by letting the mouse pointer hover over the conditional formatting control. This panel of buttons and controls is called the ribbon interface. and other options. and present your data are found. Let your mouse pointer hover over the individual controls and buttons in a tab to see information about them. you will see a shaded box appear. the large number of menus and associated menu options made many Excel features difficult to find and remember. 5 . This box will show you the name and a brief description of the button or control in question.
but rather a workbook that contains three spreadsheets.2: About Workbooks In the previous lesson. when you open Excel 2007. a workbook is just a collection of individual spreadsheets. All of these concepts and more will be dealt with in greater detail as this manual proceeds. the names of these workbooks will be visible in the task bar. and the new Excel 2007 user interface. As you already know. When you create or open more than one workbook at a time. the next topic of discussion is Excel workbooks. normally located at the bottom of your desktop. you received a brief introduction to Excel spreadsheets. cells. Take a look at the three spreadsheet tabs at the bottom of the newly opened Excel screen. you are not opening a single spreadsheet. Essentially. For now. 6 . a spreadsheet (sometimes called a worksheet) consists mainly of a large grid-like array of cells that contain data or information. The following is an image of a task bar showing that there are three workbooks available.Lesson 1. As a matter of fact.
meaning that Book2 is the workbook that is currently active. you can specify Excel 97-2007 Workbook as the file type by using the Save As type drop list in the Save As dialog box. but is designed more for the communication of information rather than the presentation of information. XML has been incorporated into the Office 2007 file formatting system to facilitate communication of data between Microsoft Office programs and other applications. Book2 has darker shading than Book1 or Book3 in the task bar. When you are saving a workbook file with Excel 2007. In most computer systems. This extension signifies an Excel binary workbook. (Earlier versions used xlt. you may require a software patch available from Microsoft Office Online or Microsoft Update. for example. The following table summarizes some of the file types associated with Excel 2007. If you find that you can’t use Excel 2007 files with earlier versions of Office. is a Microsoft Word document named Abstract. An add-in is a type of program that adds extra features or functionality to Excel. About Excel File Types When you start working with Excel 2007. Abstract. This extension signifies an Excel add-in. Excel 2007 uses a new file format known as Microsoft Excel XML format. XML (extensible markup language) is a type of mark-up language that looks something like HTML. Because of this file format change.In this image. Earlier versions of Excel used the xls extension. 7 . This extension signifies an Excel 2007 template file. This Excel 2007 file extension signifies a macro enabled workbook. The three letter “doc” extension signifies that this file is a Microsoft Word document. a file is normally identified by a file name and a three or four letter file type extension. This can be helpful if you are worried about compatibility with earlier versions of Microsoft Office. You should have no problems using Excel 2007 to open and work with files created with earlier versions of Excel. like Office XP or Office 2007. Excel 2007 file types are different from the file types of previous versions of Excel. xlsx xlsm xltx xltm xlsb xlam This file extension signifies an Excel 2007 workbook file.) This extension indicates that the file is a macro enabled Excel 2007 template file. it is a good idea to get a feel for some basic Excel 2007 file types and extensions.doc.
how to select cells in a worksheet. and you will see a list of the worksheets available in your workbook. (just to the left of the sheet tabs). If you look near the bottom of the Excel screen you will see a group of worksheet tabs. Sheet2 is the worksheet that is currently being used. or MHTML associated with Excel files if they are being published as Web pages. Lesson 1. it is time to learn how to explore and navigate your workbooks in greater detail. In this lesson. Using Worksheets A workbook is just a collection of worksheets. You can easily switch between worksheets by left clicking on the tab of the worksheet that you want to view. and how to use Excel’s zoom feature. You can also use the worksheet navigation buttons just to the left of the worksheet tabs to switch between worksheets. It is always a good idea to keep your files organized by creating and naming appropriate folders to contain your files. Simply right click on one of the arrow buttons. 8 . These tabs are labeled with the names of worksheets (spreadsheets) belonging to the current workbook. and workbooks. or in help files that are to be viewed with a Web browser. You should also give your Excel files names that imply something about their content. how to use the active cell. This technique is especially useful if you have so many worksheets that the worksheet tabs cannot all be displayed. how to move around in a worksheet. and the tab itself will have slightly less shading. The name of the worksheet that you are presently working with will be in bold type.3: Exploring your Workbook Now that you are familiar with the basic concepts of spreadsheets. In the image shown here. These file types are most commonly used on the World Wide Web.You may also see file type extensions like HTML. HTM. like Budget03 or YearlyReport05. cells. you will learn how to switch between worksheets in a workbook.
or even rename a worksheet. by clicking the new sheet button. you will see a menu with several options. If you right click on any worksheet tab.You can then switch to a particular worksheet by clicking on its name in the list. You can also quickly add a new worksheet (spreadsheet) to the workbook. 9 . You can use these options to insert. delete.
The column letter and row number of the active cell are displayed in a text field near the upper left corner of the Excel grid. as well as the tab colors. Ctrl + Page Up will move to the next worksheet to the right. to change the contents (formatting or data) of any individual cell.If you display the sub menu for the Tab Color option. click on it to make it active. If you click one of the formatting buttons on the Home tab (such as bold. In summary. Here. You will also notice that the number at the far left of the cell row. the corresponding cell will become active. (relative to the worksheet tabs). the worksheet names have been changed. will be shaded differently. The Active Cell When you left click on a cell in an Excel worksheet. To quickly switch between workbooks using the keyboard. The cell you have chosen is now the active cell. it becomes enhanced with a thicker border. and then make your changes. 10 . If you enter a column letter and row number into this text field (a cell reference). cell G4 (the one with the thick border) is the active cell. use the Ctrl +Page Up and Ctrl + Page Down keyboard shortcuts. you can specify a color for the tab of the worksheet in question. while Ctrl + Page Down will move to the next worksheet to the left. the formatting option you choose will be applied to this data. and the letter at the top of the cell column. You can enter text or a number directly into the active cell. The active cell is G4 In this image. underline). and its name or reference is the cell column letter followed by the cell row number (the number and letter that are shaded differently). the formatting will be applied to the active cell. If there is already data in the active cell. italics.
11 . and then click on the last cell of your selection. A block of cells that you select will be highlighted in blue. the numbers at the left ends of the selected rows. If you keep pressing Enter. will be shaded differently. the data will also appear in the formula bar. To make the selection shown above. If you make a cell containing data the active cell. and the letters at the top of the selected columns. you will see the enhanced border move down the column from cell to cell. making it active. the cells B2 to B4 have been selected.If you enter text or numbers into the formula bar. and then click cell B4. As with the active cell. press Shift. you would click cell B2. You can even edit the contents of the active cell in the formula bar if you wish. press Shift. the text or number that you type will also be entered into the active cell. Simply click on the first cell of your selection. In this image. You can also select cells by using the Shift key. Selecting Cells To select a group of cells. pressing the Enter key will make the cell immediately below it active. Exploring a Worksheet It is not difficult to move around in an Excel spreadsheet. When the pointer turns into a thick white shaded cross. and surrounded by a heavy black border. If you click a cell to make it active. hold the left mouse button down and drag the pointer across the row or down the column of cells you want to select. place your mouse pointer in the center of a cell. You can also drag the thick cross pointer diagonally across a block of cells to select multiple columns and rows.
Pressing the Ctrl + Home keys you will move to the top left of the spreadsheet grid.If you use the Up arrow key you can move to the cell just above. By default. If the spreadsheet is empty. The Zoom Feature A single Excel 2007 spreadsheet can contain more than 1000000 rows and 16000 columns. top. a workbook opens at 100% zoom. Ctrl + Up Arrow will move you to the top of the data block. and bottom of the spreadsheet grid respectively. 12 . Alt + Page Up and Alt +Page Down move you one full screen left and right respectively. the menu option will be activated. you will see the first letter in a menu option underlined. The Down arrow key will move you to the cell just bellow. Using the Page Up key will move you up one full screen (grid of cells). How can you possibly get a big picture of your work if it is spread over a large number of cells? By using Excel’s Zoom feature. and Ctrl + Down arrow will move you to the bottom. right. This means that there can be as many as 16 billion cells in a spreadsheet. pressing Ctrl + Left arrow will move you to the left side (beginning) of the block while the Ctrl + Right arrow will move you to the right side (end) of the block. If you have a block of cells that contain data. these same shortcuts will move you to the extreme left. If your spread sheet contains data. Similarly. you can change the viewing scale of a work sheet. You may also notice that on some Excel menus. This simply indicates that if you press Ctrl + the underlined letter on your keyboard. pressing Ctrl + End will move you to the bottom right of the data area. The Right arrow key will move one cell to the right. and the Left arrow key will move one cell to the left. This poses a problem for viewing large spreadsheets. Using the Page Down key will move you down one full screen.
You can drag the slider with your mouse toward the negative (-) sign to decrease the zoom level. Zoom slider You could use the scroll bars at the right side and the bottom of the grid area to view all of the data. you cannot see the entire block of data.In the image that follows. or toward the (+) sign to increase the zoom level. 13 . (100%). you can see that at the current zoom level. or you could use the zoom slider switch in the lower right corner of the screen.
14 . You can use these options to choose from a preset zoom value. This image above shows the Excel spread sheet zoomed out to 20%. When you have made your selection. or you can select a custom value by entering it in the small text field provided. clicking the OK button will implement your choice. or to enter your own custom level of magnification.You can also left click on the current zoom amount (100% in the following image) to display preset magnification options.
15 .The following image is of the same spreadsheet zoomed in to 320%.
Section 2: The Office Excel 2007 Interface In this section you will learn about: The Home tab The Insert tab The Page Layout tab The Formula tab The Data tab The Review tab 16 .
cell selections. and more. Items on the clipboard can be text. This group of buttons relates to the tasks of cutting. numbers. and pasting items from one location to another. copying. 17 . you will learn about the Home tab and the different groupings that it contains: The Clipboard group The Font group The Alignment group The Number group The Style group The Cells group The Editing group This tab contains the most frequently used buttons and features that Excel has to offer. The clipboard is the place where copied items are stored until they are needed.Lesson 2. (Shortcut key: Ctrl + V) The bottom paste button (with the small down pointing arrow) will display a menu of paste options when clicked.1: The Home Tab In this lesson. The following table describes the functions of these buttons. The clipboard can store up to 24 copied items. Clipboard The Clipboard group is at the far left of the Home tab. Paste The top paste button (looks like a clipboard) will paste the most recently copied item from the clipboard to the location starting at the active cell.
the copied format will be applied (painted) to them. copy will not remove the selection or item from its original location in the spreadsheet. you can select a group of cells and then click the Format Painter button to copy their format. you will be presented with an option to delete the item. Clicking this button will display a task pane showing all of the items currently stored on the Office Clipboard. You will then see a small paint brush next to your mouse pointer. When you select another different group of cells. Unlike cut. which can then be applied to another area. For example. 18 . If you let your mouse pointer hover over an item on the clipboard. Format Painter Office Clipboard If you click on any particular item in the Office Clipboard pane.Cut This button will remove the selected item from its original location and place it on the clipboard for future use. There is also an options button on the bottom of the clipboard task pane that will allow you to control some of the Office Clipboard features. it will be pasted to the location starting at the active cell. (Shortcut key: Ctrl + X) Copy This button will copy a selection or other item from the spreadsheet to the clipboard. (Shortcut key: Ctrl + C) This button will copy a specific format from one area.
Font Size Use this button and its associated list of sizes to change the font size. Font Face This button allows you to change the type of font. Clicking the small down pointing arrow will allow you to select from a large list of available fonts.Font The Font group is next to the Clipboard group on the Home tab. You can also enter a size directly by clicking on the area that displays the current size and then entering a new number. size. The following table provides a brief description of the functions of these buttons. and style. The scroll bar at the side of the font list will allow you to view all of the fonts available. 19 . color. Each individual item in the list is depicted in its own font. These buttons allow you to change a font’s type.
The arrow next to the button displays a palette of color options. Font Group Button Clicking the small arrow at the right of this button will display the font tab of the Format Cells dialog box. 20 . Alignment The buttons in the alignment group control how data (text or numbers) appears in spreadsheet cells. or underlined effects to a cell or selection of cells. Bold. The font color button (letter A) will color the text in a cell or selection of cells with the color that is specified. and Underline These buttons will apply bold. Fill Color and Font Color The fill color button (paint bucket) will fill a cell or selection of cells with the specified color.Increase/Decrease Font Size These buttons will increase and decrease the font size of a selected cell or cells by increments of one. which provides numerous options related to cell formatting. Borders Clicking the small arrow on this button will display a list of borders that you can apply to a cell or selection of cells. The arrow will display a palette of color options. italicized. Italic.
These buttons will increase or decrease the amount of indent for the data in a cell or group of cells. The button with the left pointing arrow decreases the indent. Decrease and Increase Indent Vertical Alignment Text Orientation This button will rotate the text in a cell to various positions. Data in the new large cell will be centered. Wrap Text If there is too much data for the length of a cell. These buttons align your data relative to the top. Merge and Center This button will merge multiple selected (empty) cells into one larger cell. The Align Center button will align cell data in the center of the cells. and bottom of the cells. the Wrap Text button will display the data on multiple lines so that it is visible. while the button with the right pointing arrow increases the indent. middle.The following table provides brief descriptions of the alignment buttons. The Align Right button will align cell data to the right edge of the cells. Horizontal Alignment The Align Left button will align the data in a cell or a selection of cells to the left edge of the cells. Alignment Group Clicking the small arrow in the bottom right-hand corner of the command group will display the Alignment tab of the Format Cells dialog box. 21 .
In Excel. fraction. a percent. accounting. date. Increase/Decrease Decimal Places These buttons will increase or decrease the amount of decimal places shown for a cell or selection of cells. number. or a comma separated number format for a cell or group of cells. Percent.Number The Number command group controls how numerical values are displayed in cells. 22 . percentage. Number Group Clicking the small arrow at the right of this group will display the Number tab of the Format Cells dialog box. scientific. and Comma Use these buttons to select a type of currency. Currency. numbers can have different formats including normal. Let’s take a look at each command in this group. and time. Number Format List Use this list to choose what format will be applied to a cell or selection of cells.
you can ask Excel to automatically color a cell red if the value in a cell is less than or equal to a certain number. deleting. Conditional Formatting This button allows you to create formatting rules based on conditions of your choice. There is also a conditional formatting control which allows you to quickly apply special color coding and other rules to cells conditionally (based on particular aspects or qualities of the data). Format as Table Clicking this button allows you to quickly format a selection of cells with one of several preset table styles. For example.Style The Style group allows you to quickly apply table styles to groups of cells and individual styles to individual cells. Cells The Cells group gives you control over inserting. Format Cell Clicking this button allows you to quickly format a cell or selection of cells with any one of a number of preset cell formats. 23 . and adjusting the size of a cell or group of cells.
delete. the Insert button drop down menu allows you to insert cells. rows. or columns. columns. rows. filtering and sorting features. as well as options for organizing and protecting your worksheets. Editing The Editing group provides quick access to some useful arithmetic features. rows. or sheets. and a convenient search and replace feature. or format). As you might expect. 24 . It also provides options for hiding sheets. columns. while the Delete button drop down menu allows you to delete cells. The Format button drop down menu allows you to change the height and the width of cells. or sheets.Clicking the small arrow on each button displays a menu of options corresponding to the button in question (insert.
the Find and Select button’s drop menu allows you to quickly find cells with formulas. there are also options that will display the Find and Replace dialog box. as well as the Go To dialog box. cells with comments. If you let your mouse pointer hover over a button. Don’t be alarmed if you don’t know what all of these features do. Finally. Moreover. You can also try using the help features to look up information on some of the features you find particularly interesting. as well as options for applying filters to selections of data. The button immediately below this (with a thick blue arrow) provides a menu of options for continuing a pattern of data into another adjacent selection of cells. 25 . an information box will appear with a description of the button’s function. For now. explore the Home tab and the other tabs by clicking on the words above the commands.The small arrow next to the summation symbol (∑) will display a menu of simple but useful mathematical formulas. The Sort and Filter button provides options for sorting in ascending or descending order. The functions of these tools will become clearer as you progress through the manual. or cells with conditional formatting or data validation rules.
The buttons on this tab are used for inserting a variety of different objects into your spreadsheets. sort. you can specify the cell ranges that your table will apply to. a Create Table or Create Pivot Table dialog box will appear (depending on which button you click). Tables You can use the Tables group to apply table functionality and formatting to a selection of data. and filter data based on criteria that you create. A PivotTable lets you investigate relationships and dependencies in your data. The Table button will allow you to apply a standard table to your data.Lesson 2. You can create professional looking charts and insert numerous eye catching graphics with this tab.2: The Insert Tab The next interface component that we will explore is the Insert tab. The Pivot Table button will allow you to apply a PivotTable to a selection of data. 26 . When you click these buttons. In these dialog boxes. These tables can help you organize.
line charts. The subject of charts will be dealt with in greater detail in lessons 4. There are a number of different charts that you can choose from. a dialog box containing choices from dozens of different chart types will appear. area charts.4 and 4. Each button in the Chart group will display a menu of possible charts belonging to the chart type represented by the button.Charts Excel has always been known for its extensive charting features. and other charts. bar charts. This legacy is certainly continued with Excel 2007. pie charts.5. If you click the small arrow in the lower right of the Charts group. including. 27 .
The Picture button (first on the left) allows you to insert a picture that is saved on your computer or an image from a scanner or camera. and Clip Art to your spreadsheet. When you click on this button. The Clip Art button allows you to add Clip Art graphics to your spreadsheets. 28 . Clicking the button will display the Clip Art task pane. You can also refine your search by specifying the type of media to search for in the Results should be field. an Insert Picture dialog will appear allowing you to navigate to and select images from the folder of your choice. With the Clip Art Task pane you can search for Clip Art in the locations of your choice (online or locally) by choosing from the Search In list. SmartArt.Illustrations The Illustrations group allows you to quickly add pictures.
Shapes At the left of the Insert tab. To insert a shape into your worksheet. just click on an individual shape icon in the shape group and use your mouse to drag the shape into place on your worksheet as you require.The SmartArt button allows you to select diagram and flow charting designs from a broad array of options displayed in a SmartArt window. you will see a Shapes group. 29 .
This feature can link to a Web page.You can add multiple shapes to a workbook and you can add text to the shapes if you wish. This dialog box lets you navigate to a file on your computer. 30 . If you click the Hyperlink button. Links The Hyperlink button allows you to add a hyperlink to your spreadsheet. a file. an e-mail address. or browse the web to find a target for your hyperlink. When you add a shape to a workbook. or another location in the same spreadsheet or workbook. a place in the current document. you will see the Insert Hyperlink dialog box. a Format tab will be available with even more options for modifying the shape.
Once you’ve entered your information. There are also buttons for inserting WordArt. 31 . Text Finally. signature lines. and symbols that can’t be found on your keyboard (such as mathematical symbols or characters from other languages). This image shows an example of some WordArt and a text box inserted into a spread sheet. Remember that you can let your mouse pointer hover over a button to get a brief description of its function. click OK to see the link in your spreadsheet. objects from other applications. You can also use Excel’s help feature to investigate any of the tools mentioned here. the Text group provides buttons for adding text boxes and headers and footers that will be visible on printed documents.
and other visual effects associated with a given Excel 2007 theme. 32 . the Scale to Fit group. arrange the layout of objects in your document. the Page Setup group. and printouts. and the Arrange group.Lesson 2. tables. the Sheet Options group. fonts. The Page Layout tab is a great help when it comes to enhancing the visual effectiveness of charts. In this lesson you will learn about the Themes group.3: The Page Layout Tab The Page Layout tab allows you to change the theme of your Excel document. and prepare your document for printing. Themes The Themes group allows you to change the colors.
and headings. and a visual style or effect. tables. Clicking any one of these preset themes will apply it to your document. 33 . a font.The Themes button will display a menu of preset themes when you click it. affecting the color and style of charts. These individual theme components can be accessed with the other three buttons in this group. The theme in the upper left of the menu (Office) is the default theme. Each preset theme is a combination of a color scheme.
The colors and fonts buttons open menus with preset styles. Colors Fonts 34 .
35 .The Effects button will display a menu of visual styles that can be applied to your theme. The following image shows a spreadsheet with the Civic preset theme applied to it.
This next image shows the same spreadsheet and theme with a grayscale color scheme applied to it. Narrow. Sometimes this can help fit more data on one printed page. The Size button lets you select the appropriate paper size for your print out. or Custom margins for your print out. Wide. (This was applied with the Colors button menu). 36 . Page Setup The Page Setup group is for laying out your workbook pages for printing. The Orientation button will switch the printed pages from portrait (vertically oriented) to landscape (horizontally oriented). depending on the layout of your spreadsheet. The Margins button will display a menu that allows you to select Normal.
The Breaks button allows you to insert or remove page breaks. legal. executive. or add to a print area. You can use this button if you want to print only a specific section or area of a spreadsheet. 37 . clear a print area. choose Set Print Area from the button’s menu.The menu under this button allows you to select letter. Simply select the cells that you want to print. You can use the Print Titles button to specify column headings and row headings that will be repeated on successive pages as you print a spreadsheet. and other preset sizes. which you can use to insert an image as a background for your spreadsheet. These will define the boundaries of your printed pages and are especially useful when your spreadsheet is so large that it requires several pages to print it all. envelope. The Print Area button allows you to set a print area. The Background button displays the Sheet Background dialog box. and then click the Print button on the Quick Access Toolbar.
This button actually invokes the Sheet tab of the Page Setup dialog box. 38 . Clicking the small arrow will display the Page tab of the Page Setup dialog box.
Scale to Fit The Scale to Fit group of controls will let you shrink or scale your printed output to fit on a specified number of pages. The Width control will allow you to choose a specific number of pages for your printout. except that in this case. 39 . the height of the output will be adjusted to fit the specified number of pages. This means the width of the information being printed will be adjusted so that it prints on the number of pages you specify.This dialog is the central location for your page settings. The Height control performs the same task as the width button.
) 40 . and then type in a new value. Sheet Options The Sheet Options group will let you add or remove the gridlines and/or headings from a printout or from the Excel screen. Clicking the Custom Views button will display a dialog box that you can use to save the current display and print settings.Finally. the Scale control allows you to increase or decrease the scale of your printed output directly. You can click the small up and down arrows at the right of the button to change the scale incrementally. Finally. (These saved settings are called custom views. if you click the small arrow at the bottom right of the group you will display the Page tab of the Page Setup dialog box. or you can double click on the actual scale value.
and adjust the positions of the objects in your spread sheet to obtain the look or effect you that you want. center. or other graphic elements) in your spreadsheet. 41 . You can use the arrange controls to align. The image on the next page shows three shape objects that have been inserted into in a spreadsheet. images.Clicking Add will display a second dialog box in which you can enter a name for your saved settings and specify what will be included in your custom view. Arrange The Arrange group is used to arrange various objects (such as shapes.
you would select it by clicking on it and then click the Send to Back button. 42 .You will notice that the cylinder shape has been selected. If you wanted to put it behind the other shapes again. If you now click the Bring to Front button. the cylinder will be placed in front of the other shapes. If you select all three shapes (by pressing the Ctrl button when you click on each shape) you can then click the Align button to display a menu of alignment options for the selected objects. we did this simply by clicking the shape. Here are the shapes after they have been aligned middle (from top to bottom) and aligned center (from left to right).
and then rotated. the objects will be combined together as a group. or by clicking on its name in the selection pane. You can select an item by clicking directly on it in the spreadsheet. or by dragging the green ball on the shape with the mouse pointer.If you click the Group button (just beneath the Align button). the shapes have been selected together with the Group button. The highlighted items are items that are currently selected in the spreadsheet. 43 . Clicking the Selection Pane button will display a pane that lists all of the objects that have been inserted into the spreadsheet. In this image. You can also rotate an object or group of objects with the options under the Rotate button.
or cell references at this point. In addition. Don’t be alarmed if you know very little about formulas. This is the part of Excel that provides access to Excel 2007’s preset functions and to Excel’s formula auditing tools. This is where the Defined Names section will come in handy. This button will open a dialog allowing you to search for and insert hundreds of functions. These tools are available in the Function Library group. You may also have to audit (find errors in) a complex formula that you create. You will understand these topics more and more as you progress in Excel.Lesson 2. you can create your own custom formulas in Excel. and we will be looking at it very closely in the sections to come. the Formulas tab presents a Formula Auditing group. The first section of the Formulas tab is the Functions library. The Function Library As mentioned above. The purpose of this lesson is to show you how and where you can access some of these features. The first and largest button is Insert Function. Excel 2007 provides a large library of functions designed to solve a variety of problems. Getting a little familiarity with these buttons and concepts now will help you later on when it is time to work with them in depth. which may involve features like functions or range names. The Formulas tab contains a number of important features designed to help you access Excel’s formula and function tools. Functions are preset mathematical formulas or algorithms designed to perform a specific task. Excel 2007 contains an extensive library of functions that you can call upon to help you solve problems.4: The Formulas Tab When you reach the point where you are doing advanced work with Excel. the Formulas tab will become very important to you. To help with this. This feature is a key part of Excel’s powerful mathematical functions. 44 . functions.
as well as elapsed times between specified points. Clicking the Financial button will display a lengthy menu of wide ranging financial functions for you to choose from. If you click the small arrow at the bottom of the AutoSum button. or in a row of adjacent cells immediately to the left of. This feature will add together the numbers that are in a column of adjacent cells immediately above. These include: Sum Average Count Numbers Max Min Compute the sum of a group of numbers Compute the average of a group of numbers Find the total number of numbers in a group Find the largest number Find the smallest number Clicking the Recently Used button will reveal a menu of your most recently used functions. Text functions deal with analyzing and arranging strings of characters (text). Finally. true. 45 . not. Date and Time functions provide current times and dates. (You will have to scroll through the list of financial functions to see all of them.) You can use these functions to calculate future values. and much more. loan payments. Clicking the top part of the AutoSum button will implement the AutoSum feature. the active cell. and Date & Time buttons will display menus of functions relating to these subjects.The next button is AutoSum. you will display a menu of basic automated arithmetical features. The Logical. false. present values. Logical functions deal with formal logic operators like and. Text.
you can give names to individual cells or groups of cells. This dialog box will allow you to create additional names for a range. rather than some abstract cell reference like A6:B12 (meaning all of the cells from A6 to B12). Engineering. and delete a range name. In many cases it is easier to refer to a group of cells by a name you give them. The Name Manager button will display the Name Manager dialog box. you can select a cell or group of cells. you will find even more functions. and retrieving data elements in your spreadsheet. Defined Names In Excel. Last but not least. edit the name of a range. Under each of these additional categories. or Information. referencing. When you click this button. you will display a dialog box that has a field in which you can enter a name for your range and select a scope (the part of the workbook where the name will be valid) for your named cells. The Math & Trig button will provide an extensive menu of math functions useful in science and engineering. 46 . To create a range name. the More Functions button will display a list of additional function categories.The Lookup & Reference button will display a menu of functions for finding. and then click the Define Name button. such as Statistical.
The Use in Formula button will insert the name of a range in your spreadsheet into the formula that you are currently building. The Create from Selection button will help you come up with a name by automatically generating one based on your row or column labels.
The formula auditing group can help you track chains of cell references and find formula errors. These buttons are useful for correcting complex formulas that have hard to find errors.
Trace Precedents Trace Dependents Remove Arrows Show Formulas Error Checking Evaluate Formula Watch Window
Shows all of the cells that feed data to a given cell. Shows all of the cells that are dependent on the results of a given cell. Will remove the arrows drawn by the trace buttons. Will toggle formula display or result display in the entire spreadsheet. Will find formula errors in the spreadsheet. Will calculate formulas. Will display a window that you can use to watch cells in one area of the work book, while you change data in another area. This is useful if changes to the data affect cells in another sheet or that are off screen in a very large spreadsheet.
The main part of the Calculation Tab is the Calculation Options button.
If you click this button, you will see a menu with options for how Excel 2007 will calculate the data in a workbook.
This menu allows you to specify automatic calculation, automatic except for data tables, and manual. If you select Automatic (the default), the spreadsheet will be recalculated automatically every time you change data. If you select Automatic Except for Data Tables, all data except that in tables will be recalculated If you specify Manual, you must perform an action to have Excel recalculate the spreadsheet. This is where the other two buttons on the Calculation Tab come in handy. Calculate Now Calculate Sheet Will calculate the entire workbook. Will calculate just the current worksheet.
Lesson 2.5: The Data Tab
The Data tab is the part of the user interface that gives you access to Excel’s data controls. These buttons will allow you to import data from external sources, manage your data connections, merge and organize data, and more.
The groups on the Data tab are: Get External Data Connections Sort & Filter Data Tools Outline
Get External Data
The Get External Data group provides tools for importing data into Excel from other sources such as a database, a web page, or a text file.
To get data from a Microsoft Access database, click the From Access button. This button will display the Select Data Source dialog box. To get data from a web page, click the From Web button. This button will display the New Web Query dialog box. To get data from a text file, click the From Text button. This button will display the Import Text File dialog box. If you click the From Other Sources button, you will display a list of menu items that can serve as possible data sources. These sources include: From SQL server From Analysis Services From XML Data Import From Microsoft Query From Data Connection Wizard 49
The Existing Connections button will show a list of the commonly used data sources in the current worksheet, or on your computer. These external data features are often required for advanced Excel users, who use Excel to manage and tabulate data from external databases and other sources.
When your spreadsheet depends on data from external sources, you may periodically have to update or refresh the data so the data in your spreadsheet reflects any changes to the data in the external sources. The Connections group can help you do this.
If you click the Refresh All button, the data that is based on connections to external sources will be refreshed (updated so that any changes in the external data since the last time it was refreshed will be implemented in the spreadsheet). If your workbook maintains connections to external data sources, this action will keep your spreadsheet data current. If you click the Connections button, you will display all of the connections to external data sources contained in the workbook. The Properties button will allow you to manage how the cells that receive data from external sources behave (i.e. what happens if the external data source grows or if data is removed from it). The Edit Links button will allow you to edit the source for a particular connection.
Sort and Filter
The Sort and Filter group gives you finer control over how your spreadsheet data is sorted or filtered. Sorting is the process of ordering data based on some criteria, while filtering is the process of extracting data from a larger group based on some criteria.
Clicking the Sort button displays a dialog box that will let you apply multiple sort levels and other criteria to be used when sorting your data. The sorting and filtering tools are especially useful for advanced Excel users who may use Excel as a simple database. The Text to Columns button can arrange a large uninterrupted block of text into individual data elements stored properly in columns. The Filter buttons can help you extract certain data from a much larger list or group of data based on criteria that you can choose or create. 51 .The two buttons to the left of the main Sort button will allow you to perform simple ascending or descending sorts. This can be a useful feature if you are trying to cut and paste data into Excel from another program. Data Tools The Data Tools group provides even more features for controlling and manipulating your spreadsheet data.
52 . The Subtotal button will also impose groupings on the selected data that correspond to the totals. The Group button will make a specified selection of rows or columns a collapsible group. Clicking on the button will display a dialog box that allows you to specify which columns are searched for duplicate information. or for reducing the size of a printout when only certain data elements are required. The Data Validation button will allow you to specify what kind of data will be permitted in a particular cell or group of cells. You can also create an error message that will be displayed to the user if the information entered into a cell is invalid. the Subtotal button will automatically generate totals and subtotals for a specified selection of cells.The Remove Duplicates button will attempt to remove redundant rows of data from your spreadsheet. The two buttons to the right of the block will collapse or hide groupings. This is useful for large spreadsheets where you may want to temporarily hide data that is not important. The Consolidate button can help you merge spreadsheet data from different regions into one new area. while the Ungroup button will remove a grouping structure from a specified selection of rows or columns. Outline The Outline group will let you organize your rows and columns of data into groups that can be collapsed or expanded. These features can help you explore what kinds of values are required to achieve a desired outcome in the context of your data and formulas. The What-If Analysis button will display a menu with options for building scenarios using goal seek or using a data table. Finally.
Moreover. the Comments group. thesaurus. and Translate buttons. Research. and research task pane are all available on the review Tab. and then click the arrow button to search for information related to what you typed.6: The Review Tab The Review tab gives you access to the tools you need to proof and review your spreadsheets. If you click the Research button. as well as the Thesaurus. You can type a term or phrase to search for. or Spanish thesaurus to find just the word you are looking for. To check the text on your spreadsheet for spelling errors. Perhaps most importantly. French. Like the spelling features in other Office programs. and then specify the languages to translate to and from with the respective drop menus. The Thesaurus button will also display the Research task pane. Proofing The proofing group contains the Spelling button. 53 . allowing you to translate a word or phrase from one language to another. the Research task pane will appear again. the Review tab provides features for annotating your spreadsheets with comments. and the Changes group. Excel’s spell check will offer a list of suggested spellings for any misspelled word that is found. where you can take advantage of an English. The spell checker. You can specify the word or term in the Search For text field. the Research task pane will appear. The Review tab is composed of three main groups: the Proofing group. just click the Spelling button. the Review tab contains a group that can be used to tighten the security of your spreadsheet.Lesson 2. If you click the Translate button.
54 . Your notes will help the people you share your spreadsheet with understand what is going on. Annotating a spreadsheet is a good idea if you intend on sharing it with other users.Research Thesaurus Translate Comments There may be times when certain data elements or formulas in your spreadsheet need some explanation.
(If you wish. The Show/Hide Comment button will show or hide the comment associated with the currently selected cell. Changes The Changes group is used to help guard against unwanted data modification and to track changes made to a workbook that is shared with others. Will allow you to share your workbook and also add password protection so the tracking of changes cannot be turned off. or move between comments with the Previous and Next buttons. Allows you to manage the change tracking options for a shared workbook. You can delete a selected comment with the Delete button. you can set a password that will be required for full change permissions.The Comments group allows you to add comments and explanations to your spreadsheet as you see fit. Protect Sheet Will allow you to specify what actions can or cannot be performed on the worksheet in question.) Will allow multiple users to view and collaborate on a workbook at the same time. you can set a password that will be required for full change permissions. 55 Protect Workbook Share Workbook Protect and Share Track Changes . The Show Ink button will show only those comments that have been added via an ink device (such as a handwriting tool). (If you wish. The New Comment button can be used to add a comment to your spreadsheet. The Show All Comments button will show all of the comments that have been added to the spreadsheet.) Will allow you to guard against unwanted changes to the structure of the workbook.
cells. and repeat Use Smart Tags Use the error option button Use the AutoFill option button Use the Paste Option button Use AutoCorrect Use Spell check Use Find and Replace Document a worksheet with comments 56 . and paste cells Copy and paste multiple items Use paste special Insert and delete cells.Section 3: Excel Basics In this section you will learn how to: Work with columns. and ranges Create worksheet labels Enter and delete data Print your worksheet Use the AutoFill feature Use the AutoSum feature Use AutoComplete Work with basic formulas Drag and drop cells Cut. rows. rows. copy. and columns Use undo. redo.
cells. Finally. Since there are only 26 letters. Cells. rows. A row is a horizontal series of cells from left to right. and so on until the last column (XFD). AB. You must also be able to enter and group your data according to different categories so your worksheet has meaning. You will learn about worksheet labels and you will learn how to enter and remove data in a worksheet. There is a letter or combination of letters at the top of every column. and Ranges Columns. In this lesson you will learn about the basic building blocks of worksheets: columns. and ranges. Columns. A basic cell is an individual rectangle anywhere in the grid area of a worksheet. and cells are the most fundamental components of a work sheet. rows. Rows. AC. 57 . you must learn to work with the basic structures found in every worksheet. the next columns after column Z are indexed by the letters AA. you will learn how to print a worksheet.Lesson 3. and far more than 26 columns on a spreadsheet. A column is a vertical series of adjacent cells from top to bottom. To accomplish this.1: Working With Excel 2007 The main purpose of an Excel 2007 worksheet is to organize and analyze data.
and drag your pointer to select a range. (A selected range will be highlighted in blue. The rows are numbered. staring at the top. hold the left mouse button down.) 58 . This is why there are over a million rows down the sheet and only about 16000 columns. The top left cell in the worksheet is indexed by the letter number combination A1. A range can be a very useful tool because it allows you to make changes (such as applying formatting) to multiple cells at once. When you see the thick cross. Cell C7 The Active Cell Column F Row 9 Excel is designed to have data organized down the sheet under column headings more so than across the sheet in rows. a range can be described as a series or block of adjacent cells.At the far left of a row you will see an index number. To select a range. let your pointer hover over the center of a cell. 1 through to 1048576. In Excel.
located near the bottom of your screen. Cell name field You can also select a range by clicking on the first cell in a block that you want to select. the count. and the sum of the data in only the cells that you have selected. Still another way to select a range is to enter it directly into the Cell Name field. Excel will use the empty cells adjacent to the data-filled cells as boundaries to the range. tell you the average. When you make a selection of cells. 59 . This will select the block of data as a range. and click on the last cell in the block you want to select. If you enter the range A1:A7 into the cell name field. It would be extremely difficult to make sense of multiple rows and columns of unidentified numerical data. Creating Worksheet Labels It is always a good idea to label or identify your data so that your worksheet can be understood by whoever uses it. the range shown below will be selected.If you have a block of data in a worksheet. you should notice some numbers that appear on the Excel status bar. you can click on any data cell in the block. then press Shift. These numbers. and press the Ctrl + Shift +8 keys. Basically a label is a simple text description of the data it represents.
right click on the cell to display the drop down menu. 60 . or formulas in the formula bar and press Enter. height. If you click the X (cancel). it is time to start working with data. When you enter data in the formula bar. Clicking the Clear Contents option will remove the cell data. the words age. To delete data from a cell. One way to enter data into an Excel worksheet is to click on the cell you want to use (making it the active cell) and enter the information directly into it. the data in the formula bar will be cleared. numbers. if your worksheet contains information about the age. and weight of a group of people. Formula Bar Cell C2 is the active cell If you type text. ranges. and weight. but not the cell formatting.For example. and labels. Label Label Entering and Deleting Data Now that you understand the basics of columns. height. Clicking the check mark will enter the data just like the Enter key. When you type something in the active cell. rows. would make ideal labels for the data. you will see an X and a check mark next to the data entry field. what you type will also be displayed into the formula bar. the data or formula you typed will be entered into the active cell.
If you click the Delete option. the Shift cells left radio button is selected. a Delete dialog box will be displayed as shown. and the data from the cell to the immediate right will be shifted left into the now vacant cell. You can also delete rows and columns by clicking the Delete button on the Home tab. 61 .New data entered into the cell will be formatted like the previous data. If you click OK both the data and formatting will be removed. If the Shift Cells Up radio button had been selected. Clicking Cancel will cancel the delete operation. Note that in the sample below. the data in the cell immediately below would be shifted up into the vacant cell.
delete rows. click the Delete Button Arrow to display the delete menu. while deleting removes data and formatting. In the print preview screen you can zoom in on your data if you need a closer look. first select a row or rows. The columns to the right of the deleted data will be shifted left. It is important to keep in mind that Excel treats text and numbers differently. A number is seen as a value in Excel.Clicking the small arrow at the right of the delete button will display a menu with options to delete cells. You will learn more about printing workbooks and the Print Preview screen in Section 5. which will print your worksheet using the default settings. To delete columns. This is done by clicking the print preview with the magnifying glass mouse pointer. put an apostrophe (‘) in front of it. Remember. click on the Office menu and select Print from the menu items. and then click the Delete Sheet Rows option. In addition. clearing contents only removes the data. or delete columns. Then. If you want to enter a number as text (use a number as a label). To delete rows. select the column or columns you want removed. This will delete the row. Text is often used as labels or identifiers. something that can be used in mathematical operations. 62 . Printing Your Worksheet To print your worksheet. and then choose the Delete Sheet Columns option. and shift the below cells up. you will also see an option for Print Preview. If you let your mouse pointer hover over the small right pointing arrow (just to the right of the printer icon on the Office menu) you will see an option for Quick Print.
the Print dialog box will be displayed. 63 . or a selection. an active sheet or sheets. From this dialog box you can choose whether to print an entire workbook.If you click directly on the Print option in the Office menu. Pressing the Ctrl + P keys is another way to display the Print dialog box.
you can enter the year 1990 in cell A2 (under the Year label) and 1991 just below in cell A3. AutoSum. it is often the case that you must repeat data in a large number of cells. for example. Rather than typing each year into a cell manually. By dragging your pointer down a column. Excel helps you do this efficiently by automating some basic and repetitive tasks for you. that you have to enter all of the years from 1990-2010 in a worksheet. In addition to covering these automated features. What is AutoFill? Excel’s AutoFill feature can help you enter repeated or incremental text or numbers quickly. 64 . Say. In this lesson we will discuss some of the most fundamental and useful Excel features: AutoFill. you will learn another key concept: how to work with basic formulas. you can make AutoFill enter consecutively increasing or decreasing values in adjacent cells by whatever increment is defined between the first two selected cells.Lesson 3.2: Basic Excel Features When working with spreadsheets. you can take advantage of the AutoFill feature to enter the data quickly and easily. and AutoComplete. If you wanted to enter all of the years from 1990 to 2010 into the sample worksheet shown above.
and place your mouse pointer over the small black square in the lower right corner of the selection. 65 . your mouse pointer will turn into a thin cross. a small comment box will appear telling you what AutoFill is putting in each cell. If you hold down the left mouse button and drag the + pointer down column A.If you select both cells.
however. AutoFill would enter 1990 into every cell. If you selected only 1990 and dragged down the column. 66 . and they have to change incrementally for AutoFill to enter the correct consecutive values. if you select a single cell and drag the corner with the + pointer. this can work to your advantage. For example. The worksheet will now contain the years 1990-2010. stop dragging. Note that you have to select two adjacent data items.When you see 2010 in the comment box. Depending on what you want to do. AutoFill will fill the cells you drag over with the value in the original cell.
The column or row of data to be summed will now be enhanced by an animated border. 67 . First. click the Formulas tab and then click the AutoSum button.What is AutoSum? It is often useful to have totals or sums for the rows and columns of numbers in your worksheet. Next. AutoSum can easily add all of the numerical data in a column or row. make the cell immediately below the column of data (or immediately beside the row of data) the active cell.
AutoComplete will wait until you type a second letter to discern the most likely match to complete the entry. You simply need to press Enter to accept the substitution. 68 . will be displayed in the cell. and then type the letter J in the cell immediately below it. What is AutoComplete? AutoComplete will help you enter data by completing what you type. Press Enter and the total. 68.Notice that you can see the range to be summed in the active cell (C2:C9). If you have two words with the same first letter in a column of adjacent cells. based on similar data in adjacent cells in the same column. John and Jack for example. AutoComplete will fill in the letters ohn completing the word John. If you enter the name John in a cell. and you type a J.
like adding two cell values. When cells contain numerical data. you can add. and then clear the check box next to words Enable AutoComplete for cell values. 69 . When you see the options screen. multiply. or quite complex. subtract. Working with Basic Formulas Formulas are mathematical expressions that operate on cell contents. involving multiple mathematical operations. The results of these operations will be shown in the cell that contains the formula. When you click the OK button. AutoComplete will be turned off. click the Advanced option in the panel on the left. and divide the cell contents as your worksheet requires. display the Office menu and click the Excel Options button at the bottom of the menu.If you want to turn the AutoComplete feature off. Formulas can be simple.
so =B2*C2 means. and that cell reference itself contains a second formula. Formulas can contain cell references (like A1) or raw numbers (like 23) or even functions (like Sum (B2:B9)). 70 . or even references from different worksheets or workbooks. =A1+23. In this worksheet. cell D2 will show the result. the formula should be preceded by an equals sign (=). and =B10+B11-C6 are all valid formulas. When you enter the formula =B2*C2 in the formula bar. we want to multiply Quantity by Price to get total sales. the second formula will be evaluated and the result will be used in the first formula. If there is a formula in the active cell. When Enter is pressed. In Excel the * symbol is the multiplication operator. what you type can also be seen in the active cell (D2). the contents of cell B2 multiplied by the contents of cell C2. You can tell if a cell contains a formula by making it active. If you include a cell reference in a formula. it will be shown in the formula bar. Cell Formula bar When entering formulas.You can enter a formula directly into a cell or by using the formula bar. Formulas can contain multiple cell references from a single worksheet. = D2-C2.
and paste single and multiple items.Lesson 3. hold your left mouse button down and drag the cell contents to a new location. Now. You will see your pointer turn into a four-headed arrow. You should also know how to drag and drop cells. and understand how to use paste special. First. select a cell by clicking on it. copy. making it the active cell. and columns. 71 . To work with your data efficiently. In this lesson. redo.3: Moving your Data The ability to manipulate your data is crucial to building worksheets and workbooks. and as a practice exercise. move your mouse pointer over one edge of the border. you should know how to cut. You should also know how to insert and delete cells. In this example. and be familiar with Excel’s undo. and repeat features. you will learn all of the concepts listed above. Dragging and Dropping Cells It is a simple matter to drag and drop cells. When you see the thick black border around the cell. the value 200 was dragged from position A3 to position C3. you will copy and paste single and multiple cells. rows.
select the Cut option. and Paste Cells To be able to move your data effectively. and then point and click or use the arrow keys to move to your destination. When you select a destination cell. If you drag a cell with a formula. If you drag a cell that is referenced in a formula (a single cell. you can drag the cell to another location. and paste cells. right click on the cell and select Cut from the drop down menu. How to Cut. You can drag and drop cells pretty much anywhere in the worksheet. or a selection of cells) all formulas that reference the cell will be adjusted to reference the new location. Copy. right click it. You can also right click on a cell. copy. The cell will be surrounded by a dark and light flashing border. When you see this flashing border. just as you dragged a single cell. It is easy to drag and drop cells by mistake when trying to perform other operations. and select 72 . You will notice that the data has been removed (cut) from its original location (C3) and relocated in the place where it was dropped (D3). You can mouse drag a selection by grabbing this border. the formula will move to the place you drop it. you must know how cut.If you select a group of cells. Be careful when dragging and dropping in a worksheet. move your mouse pointer to one of the border’s edges and when it turns into a cross arrow. To cut and paste a cell. the selection will be surrounded by a thick black border.
data needs to be duplicated in another area of the worksheet without disturbing the original cells. To achieve this goal. and clicking. The data will be pasted to its new location. The data will be relocated in the destination cell and removed from its original location. Often. once again right click on a data cell. To use Copy. Copy. The important difference is that you must select a range of cells first. and Paste Multiple Cells and Items Cutting copying and pasting multiple cells is a lot like cutting copying and pasting single cells. The cell will once again have a dark and light flashing border. It is also important to remember that cutting and copying moves formatting information to the destination as well as the data. 73 .Paste from the drop down menu. Now move to a new location as before. use the Copy feature. but this time select Copy from the drop down menu. How to Cut. by dragging. and the original cell and data will remain unchanged. Notice that as long as the flashing dark and light border is around the source cell. or by using the arrow buttons. you will be able to paste data that you copied from it. pointing.
or with the arrow keys. and choose Cut or Copy from the drop-down menu. or using the arrow keys.To begin. select a range of cells by dragging the thick cross pointer. pointing and clicking. the selected block of cells will be copied so that the destination cell is in the upper left corner of the new block. 74 . When you have made your selection. The selected range will have a light and dark flashing border. The next step is to select a destination area by dragging and dropping. If you choose a destination cell by pointing and clicking the mouse. right click on any cell in the selected range.
and paste them to another program like Word. How to Use Paste Special Paste Special is a very interesting and useful Excel feature.If you cut a selection of data. You can do this by clicking the Home tab. (up to 24 items) will be saved on this clipboard. they are saved to the clipboard. 75 . it is just like cutting a single cell in the sense that the cell information in the original selected area will be removed (cut) from the worksheet. You can also copy items to the clipboard from Excel. When you cut or copy items. Any items copied from other Microsoft Office applications like Power Point. or you can paste all of the items on the clipboard by using the Paste All button. You can view the items on your clipboard at any time by accessing the Clipboard task pane. It allows you to use the values you will paste to perform operations on the destination cells. You can paste items to your Excel worksheet (at the location of the active cell). Word. and then clicking the small arrow at the bottom right of the Clipboard group. You can clear all the items from the Office clipboard by clicking the Clear All button. or Access. You can use Paste Special to perform a lot of operations that might be awkward and tedious to perform using other Excel tools. Paste Special does more than just paste data.
You can manually enter the new prices. a column labeled price. Suppose that all prices are to be raised by 20%. or you can use paste special.2 (the numerical equivalent of 20%) in cell D1.In this worksheet we have a column labeled quantity. 76 . Next. and a column labeled sales which is calculated with the formula (quantity * price). use a formula in a new column to calculate the prices. giving the cell a flashing border. then right click on cell D1 and choose Copy. we would enter the value 1. select the column of prices by dragging the thick cross pointer. To use paste special for this situation.
right click on the selected area. and choose Paste Special from the drop down menu.When the selection is highlighted in blue. There are a number of options In the Paste Special dialog box that you can choose from. 77 .2 (the value that we copied). This will display the Paste Special dialog box. Since we want to increase the prices in the selected range by 20%. To do this we would select the Multiply radio button and then click the OK button. we want to multiply each price in the selected range by 1.
and remember. How to Insert and Delete Cells. By using paste special. Rows. It could also be the case that a row or column of data is unnecessary or contains multiple errors and must be removed. 78 . and Columns Suppose you are building a worksheet with Excel 2007. and then select the cell or range that you want to paste to. You can also choose to paste only values. you must copy the value or values that you want to paste.2 in cell D1 to the selected range.Notice that the prices have now been increased by 20%. you can use single or multiple items with Paste Special. Take a look at the options available to you in the dialog box. Excel provides a simple way for you to delete or insert columns or rows if you have to. so a formula will not be copied but its result will. With Paste Special you can choose to add the copied value. and you realize that you forgot to include a row or column of important data. taking the new prices into account. or divide by selecting the appropriate radio button. subtract it. we have used the value to perform a multiplication operation on the values in the selected range. multiply it. You can copy and Paste Special a single item to a single cell. and multiple items to multiple cells. the default setting under the Paste heading is All. Instead. and Sales have increased as well. a single item to multiple cells. creating a flashing light and dark border around the cell or range. we have not copied the value 1. Remember. Like the regular copy and paste operation. before invoking the Paste Special dialog.
To insert a column in a worksheet. Now. first right click on the letter at the top of the column. 79 . the data in column B will now be shifted to column C. Click the Insert option from the menu. will be shifted one column to the right. In this example. and so on. and including the highlighted column. the data in column C to column D. all of the data to the right of. A drop down menu will be displayed.
will be shifted down one row. 80 . just right click on the row number and choose Insert from the menu. This will leave an empty row where you can enter new data. This is a worksheet just after inserting a row at position 8. All of the data in the row you selected as your insertion point. and the data in the rows beneath it. To insert a row. This procedure is essentially the same for inserting rows.Now there is an empty column where you can enter a new label and data.
and the old information will be replaced with the data that was in the row directly beneath. leaving cell A1 empty. the existing data must be relocated. For example. The Insert dialog box will appear. right click on it and click Insert. leaving a blank cell at the original location. and the data in B1 would move to C1 and so on. All of the data to the right of the column will be shifted one row to the left. Selecting Shift Cells Right and clicking OK will move the item in the active cell. but in the direction of the bottom of the worksheet. and so on. right click on the row number and choose Delete from the drop down menu. 81 . right click on the letter at the top of the column and choose Delete from the drop down menu. All of the data below the column will be shifted up one row.It is also easy to delete rows and columns. To delete a row. and all the items to the right of it. The Entire Row or Entire Column options allow you to insert a row or a column as previously discussed. For example. the data in B1 would shift to B2 and the Data in B2 would shift to B3. To insert a cell. Selecting Shift Cells Down will perform a similar operation. You can click the radio buttons in the dialog box to specify how the data will be moved. if you inserted a cell at location B1. When you insert a cell. the data in cell A1 would move to B1. one cell further to the right. To delete a column. and the old information will be replaced with the data that was in the column to the immediate right. leaving B1 empty.
Let’s look at an example. Here is our worksheet before inserting a cell at C5: After inserting a cell at C5 (shifting cells right): 82 .
After covering these concepts. 83 . If you let your mouse pointer hover over the triangle a small button will appear. You will also learn about the Error option button. In this lesson you will learn what Smart Tags are and how to use them. you will practice using the AutoFill option button to modify date entries in a worksheet. buttons will sometimes appear based on the context of your current actions. the AutoFill option button. a small purple triangle will appear in the lower right corner of the cell. XRX happens to be the stock exchange symbol for Xerox Corporation. What Are Smart Tags? When working in Excel. A Smart Tag is a button that appears in response to information you enter in a worksheet. and the Paste option button. and how they can make tasks easier.4: Smart Tags and Options Buttons Excel’s Smart Tags and Option Buttons can provide you with information and actions based on the context of what you are currently doing with your worksheet.Lesson 3. As an example. In this case. if you are working in Excel 2007. These buttons will provide a menu of options related to the information you are entering or the action you are performing. and you enter the letters XRX in a cell. This indicates the presence of a smart tag.
If you move your mouse pointer over the button. The Error Option Button Let’s say you are building an Excel worksheet like the one shown here. the formula =A2/B2 causes an error (division by zero is mathematically undefined). Because cell B2 has the value 0. Notice that there is a small green triangle in the upper left of the cell. If you have an Internet connection. a drop down list will become available. you can click one of the Smart Tag options and receive online information about this company and you can insert information about the company’s stock into your worksheet. and you enter the formula =A2/B2 into cell C2. 84 . If you click on this triangle. you will see the Error option button. Click the downward pointing triangle (list indicator) and a menu of options will appear.
the AutoFill option button will appear. Once again. This is a good example of how Smart Tags and Option Buttons can provide context sensitive help. The AutoFill Option Button After using AutoFill to complete a row or column. options are provided that are dependent on the context of your actions. the choices on the option button’s menu would change to reflect this error.This button has a drop down menu that offers options to help resolve the error. If you made another type of error (other than division by zero). 85 .
or if the cells should be linked. Setting Smart Tag Options You can configure Smart Tags by displaying the Office menu and then clicking the Excel Options button near the bottom of the menu. You will see this button appear after you perform the Paste command.If you use AutoFill to complete dates. a menu will drop down with options regarding whether the source or destination format will be retained. The Paste Option Button Another option button provided with Excel is the Paste option button. If you click the menu indicator on the button (small downward pointing triangle). 86 . the AutoFill option button provides a set of options that will pertain to dates. whether the cell widths will be adjusted. for example.
click the OK button to activate the changes. If you change the Smart Tag settings. click the Smart Tags tab to see those options. you should put a check in the “Label Data with Smart Tags” check box. To make Smart Tags available in your worksheets. When the AutoCorrect Dialog box appears. select Proofing from the panel on the left. 87 . and then click the AutoCorrect Options button.When the Excel Options screen appears.
a great tool for finding and fixing mistakes. If you type a misspelling that is in the AutoCorrect list. Finally. capitalizing the names of days.Lesson 3.5: Editing Tools Excel 2007 offers a variety of editing tools to help ensure that your worksheets are accurate. Excel keeps a list of common misspellings called AutoCorrect entries. You will also learn how to use Find and Replace. and correcting two successive capital letters. and well documented. In this lesson you will learn about AutoCorrect and Spell Check. You can modify the AutoCorrect options by clicking the AutoCorrect Options button from the Excel Options screen under the Office menu. 88 . two features that can help you fix typing and spelling errors. you will learn how to add comments to a worksheet in order to clarify and explain your data. This action will display the AutoCorrect dialog box. Excel will replace the mistake with the correct word when you press Enter or hit the space bar. Using AutoCorrect AutoCorrect can help you avoid common spelling mistakes and typographical errors as you type. free from spelling errors. AutoCorrect also enforces rules such as capitalizing the first word in a sentence.
89 . When you invoke spell check. and entering the text to replace it with. just select a range by dragging the thick cross over the cells you want. You can also see a list of common symbols and misspellings.You can configure a number of AutoCorrect behaviors by checking or clearing the various options in the dialog box.) If you want to spell check a selection of cells. Using Spell Check Spell check is an Excel editing feature that you can use to check your worksheets for spelling mistakes. Excel will compare the words in your worksheet against a dictionary. If a word is not found in the dictionary. common typos. (You can also use the F7 keyboard shortcut. It is much more comprehensive than the AutoCorrect feature. which is designed to quickly correct simple. To spell check a worksheet. and then clicking on the With field. you can choose a substitute to replace it or add it to the dictionary so it will no longer be a spelling error. entering the text to be replaced. You can also click on a single cell and click the Spelling button to check that cell. along with the symbols and words that AutoCorrect will use to replace them. You can add your own replacement combinations to this list by clicking on the Replace Text field. and then click the Spelling button. click cell A1 to get to the beginning of the sheet and left click the Spelling button in the left corner of the Review tab.
90 . replace it from a list of other words. You can choose to ignore what has been found. You can also click the AutoCorrect button to enter the mistake and replacement word into the AutoCorrect list. it will display the Spelling dialog box. You can also click the Find and Select button on the far right of the Home tab. The dictionary you choose will be the one that the spell checker compares words against.If the spell checker finds a word that is not in the dictionary. you will find several dictionaries that you can choose from. or add it to the dictionary so it will not be interpreted as a mistake. Using Find and Replace You can search a selection or a worksheet for a particular word or number by using Excel ’s Find and Replace feature. To use Find and Replace. press Ctrl + F at the same time. If you display the dictionary language list.
Either action will display the Find and Replace dialog box.
Type what you want to find in the text field (note that the drop down list contains recently used search terms that you can select from) and click the Find All button or the Find Next button. If you click the Find All button, Excel will provide a list of cell references that contain the text or number that you are looking for. Clicking Find Next will take you to the next cell that contains the text or number you are looking for. If you click the Options button, the dialog box will present options for refining your search.
You can now choose to search within a sheet or workbook, or by rows or columns, by making selections in the drop down lists.
If you click the Replace tab, you will be presented with the option to enter a replacement term for the one you are finding. (You can jump directly to this tab by pressing Ctrl + H.)
If you enter a term in the Replace With field, Excel 2007 will search for the word or number entered in the Find What field. If any instances of this word or number are found, they can be replaced with the replacement term. All that you have to do is click the Replace button each time Excel finds something. If you click the Replace All button, Excel will replace every instance of the word or number it finds with the replacement term, without waiting for you to click Replace for each one. You can use Find and Replace on a selection of cells as well. Just select the block of cells you want to search through, and then while the selection is still highlighted press Ctrl + H. If you right click on the worksheet tabs near the bottom of the Excel screen, you will see a popup menu. If you click the Select All Sheets option from this menu, and then use find and replace, the Find and Replace feature will search the entire workbook (every worksheet).
Sometimes it is necessary to include explanations for data or formulas, especially if your spreadsheet is very complex. Comments allow you to place explanations or definitions where ever you need them in your spreadsheet. If a cell contains a comment, there will be a small red triangle in the upper right corner.
If you let your mouse pointer hover over the cell, the comment will be displayed in a light yellow box.
It’s easy to insert comments into your Excel 2007 worksheet. Just choose the cell that you want to add a comment to and click on it, making it the active cell. Next, click the New Comment button on the Review tab, or right click on the cell in question, and select Insert Comment from the drop down menu.
A comment box will appear with a name (normally the computer’s owner) and a flashing cursor.
You can resize the comment box by moving your mouse pointer to one of the small circles on the outside edge of the box. When your pointer turns into a short double headed arrow, you can hold the left mouse button and drag to increase or decrease the size of the box. You can change the name to whatever you want by clicking on it and typing a new name. You can also click in the main body of the box and type the comment or explanation that you need. When you are finished, left click outside the comment box and the comment will disappear, leaving a small red triangle in the upper right corner of the cell.
If you ever need to edit a comment, just select the cell with the comment you want to change and right click on it. A menu will appear with options to Edit Comment and Delete Comment. Clicking the Edit Comment option will open the comment box for editing, while clicking the Delete option will remove the comment and the small red triangle from the cell.
Section 4: Editing Your Workbook In this section you will learn how to: Change the size of rows or columns Adjust cell alignment Rotate text Create custom number or date formats Use conditional formatting Use the Format Painter Merge cells Use AutoFit Find and replace formatting Add patterns and colors Add borders Work with styles Create charts Format charts Enhance charts with drawing tools Change the chart type Change the source data for a chart Work with chart axes and data series Create a chart template 95 .
you may want to change the size of a row or column just for the change in appearance. For example. In either case. if you wanted to change the size of column B. place your mouse pointer on the line that divides the column letters at the top of the column you want to change. Your mouse pointer will turn into a vertical line with a small arrow on either side. changing the size of a row or column is quite easy. 96 .Lesson 4. you would place your mouse pointer on the line separating B and C. In this lesson you will learn about changing the size of rows and columns. When you see this pointer you can change the column size by holding the left mouse button and dragging the column edge to the left or right. Changing the Size of Rows or Columns Sometimes it will be necessary to change the size of a row or column to fit the data contained in it. and rotating text. To change the size of a column. you should understand the many ways that you can modify cells and data in Excel.1: Modifying Cells and Data To make the most out of your worksheets. Or. adjusting cell alignment. creating custom formats.
place your pointer on the line separating the row numbers at the left of the worksheet. You can also change the size of rows or columns by clicking the small arrow at the right of the Format button in the Cell group on the Home tab. the size of row 6 has been changed by dragging the column edge between the numbers 6 and 7 downward. In this instance. drag the edge of the row to change the size.Now the size of column B has been changed. When you see the pointer with a vertical line and an arrow on either side. 97 . To change the size of a row.
If you click the Row Height option. First. 98 . you would see a Row eight dialog box like this. just follow these simple steps.This will display a menu where you can choose a height or width option. for example. select the cell with the data you want to align. Adjusting Cell Alignment To align data within a cell. Changing the value in this box will change the height of the selected rows.
Rotating text can also make viewing or printing a large worksheet easier because the column widths do not have to accommodate the length of your text descriptions. In this instance the left alignment button was clicked. The data will now be aligned the way you want it. and improve readability. click the alignment button of your choice on the formatting toolbar. In this case the data was centered in the cell by clicking the center button on the formatting toolbar. To align multiple items. Rotating Text Rotated text can make your worksheets look better. 99 . Note: Using the indent buttons may change the width of the column that contains the data. aligning all the data in the selected range to the left walls of the cells. select a range of cell by dragging the thick cross mouse pointer. improve organization. You can also align single or multiple items using the indent buttons in the alignment group. and then click the indent buttons to adjust the alignment in increments.Click on the alignment button of your choice in the Alignment group on the Home tab. Once the range of cells is selected. Just select the cell or range of cells with the data you want to align.
100 .To rotate text. When the menu is displayed. Once you have selected a cell or range. click the Orientation button in the Alignment group on the Home tab. You can also right click on any cell in the selected range and click on Format Cells in the drop down menu. click the option that represents the type of alignment that you want. first select the cell or range of cells you want to rotate.
This action will invoke the Format Cells dialog box.
To rotate the text in the selected cells, put your mouse pointer on the red diamond in the orientation field. Hold your left mouse button down and drag the diamond to the degree that you need.
For example, if you want the text to be vertical in the cells, drag the diamond 90 degrees to the bottom of the orientation field.
You can, of course, also set additional options on the left hand side of the dialog.
Click the OK button after you make your adjustments to implement them.
Creating Custom Number and Date Formats
Excel 2007 provides a variety of number and date formats for you to choose from, but it may be the case that you require something different. You can create your own custom number and date formats in Excel, to present your data exactly as you wish. To create a custom number format, select a cell that contains a number you want to format and invoke the Format Cells dialog box. You can do this by right clicking on the cell and choosing Format Cells from the drop down menu, or by clicking the small arrows in the lower right corner of the Font, Alignment, or Number groups on the Home tab.
When you see the dialog box, click the Number tab.
You can see the number you are formatting in the Sample area of the box.
you will see a text window containing a list of symbolic formatting codes underneath the heading Type. 105 . Once you click on Custom.To create a custom format. If you click on a symbolic formatting code. you will see what your number will look like with this formatting applied to it in the sample area above the formatting code list. you must select Custom from the bottom of the category list at the left of the dialog box.
Click OK to format the cell or range of cells with this new custom format. To achieve this. The format code for your custom number format will be saved at the bottom of the format code list in the Format cells dialog box. 106 . click on the #. Let’s say that you want to format your number so there are two places after the decimal. and look at your number in the sample field. and a dollar sign at the right side of the number. ##0.00 format code from the list. Now add a $ directly to the right side of the format code where it is displayed directly beneath the Type heading.Try clicking on different format codes until you find one that formats your number close to the way you want it.
107 .Here is the new custom number format applied to the cell.
and Find and Replace Formatting. This is called conditional formatting.Lesson 4. 108 . letting you create practical worksheets with a professional look and feel. Excel puts an extensive array of formatting features at your disposal. This spreadsheet is conditionally formatted to highlight cells in different colors depending on the cell values. based on the values the data assume at any given time. layout and appearance play a major role. You will also learn about cell merging. AutoFit. In this lesson you will cover conditional formatting and the Format Painter. This lesson deals with some of the cell formatting tools that can help you present your data in a polished and meaningful way. Conditional Formatting In Excel 2007 you can design a worksheet in such a way that data is formatted differently.2: Cell Formatting When it comes to the quality and clarity of a workbook.
The next step is to click on the Conditional Formatting button on the Home tab. Will use sets of similar icons that will visually indicate a cell’s value. From this menu. This is what is used in the image above. first select a range of data that you want to apply the formatting to. This will display a menu of conditional formatting options. This option will allow you to highlight the top or bottom numbers or percent in the selected cells. you can choose: Highlight Cells Rules Top/Bottom Rules Data Bars Color Scales Icon Sets This will highlight cells that are greater than. from low to high. less than. 109 . between or equal to values that you can specify.To use conditional formatting. Will use different shades of color to represent different values. Will display colored bars that are indicative of the value in the cell.
As you let your mouse pointer hover over an option in the sub menu. In the image on the previous page. You can apply multiple conditional formatting rules to a group of cells by simply re-selecting the group. for clearing rules. The following image shows a group of cells with a data bar conditional format and an icon set conditional format. while the yellow and green icons represent higher values. you will see a preview of the type of conditional formatting that your pointer is on applied to the cells that you selected. and for managing rules. 110 . You can also see that the size of the data bar in each cell corresponds to the given cell’s value. just click the submenu option of your choice. Each one of the conditional formatting menu options will display either a sub menu or a dialog box. To implement the conditional formatting.You will also notice options at the bottom of the menu for creating a new rule. you can see the sub menu for the Data Bars option. and then adding another conditional format by using the menu system discussed previously. The black and red circle icons represent low values.
you will display the following New Formatting Rule dialog box.If you click the New Rule option near the bottom of the conditional formatting menu. 111 . The options in the Edit the Rule Description panel will change as you clicking the different items in the Select a Rule Type panel. In this dialog box you can configure more precise and specific conditional formatting rules.
As an example. 112 .” Notice how the options in the Edit the Rule Description panel have changed. here is a rule set up for cells that contain text starting with “budget.
If you click the Format button. allowing you to specify exactly what format you want for cells that meet the criteria you designed. Remember to click the OK button when you are finished specifying your format. the Format Cells dialog box will appear. 113 .
114 .If you want to remove conditional formatting rules. simply use the Clear Rules option from the menu. edit. The Manage Rules option will allow you to delete. This option will let you clear rules for selected cells or for an entire spreadsheet. or add new conditional formatting rules.
First. select a cell by clicking on it. and then click the paint brush button on the Clipboard section of the Home tab. Let’s say we’ve formatted the Month cell a certain way. you paint your selection with the format from the original cell. and we now want to copy that format to the Sales cell. To use the Format Painter. Let’s look at a sample. With the Format Painter you can format a cell or selection of cells with an existing format from another cell. The cell that you selected will be enhanced with a flashing dark and light border and your mouse pointer will turn into a thick cross with a paint brush beside it. 115 . In other words. When this happens. any cell or range you select with the cross and paint brush pointer will assume the format of the cell that you selected your format from.The Format Painter The Format Painter is a very useful feature that can be accessed from the Home tab. we’ll select the Month cell and click the Format Painter.
Now. we’ll click the Sales cell. both cells are formatted the same way.Then. 116 .
The merged cell can still be referenced in formulas by the column letter and row number of the cell in the upper left corner of the group that the new cell was merged from. 117 . or you may need to resize your columns or rows so that long items can be displayed. With merge you can select a group of cells. but the cell is too small to contain it. rows. For example. use the merge feature. Data entered into the cell will have a center alignment. either across a row or down a column. You may need an extra long cell for a heading. or columns. when you see a string of number signs (########) in a cell. you know that the data is too long for the column width. and combine them to form one big cell. select a group of adjacent cells and click the Merge button in the Alignment group on the Home tab ( ) These rows: Become: Now the group of cells you selected is merged together into one big cell. Excel makes it easy to handle both of these situations with cell merging and AutoFit. You can also use AutoFit to ensure that your columns and rows will accommodate data that may be longer than expected.Cell Merging and AutoFit Cell Merging and AutoFit are two Excel features that help you change the dimensions of your cells. To do this. If you need to put some text or a value into a cell.
just below the row you want to adjust.In this case. The column will automatically adjust to fit the longest data present. You can also adjust rows with AutoFit by clicking on the line between row numbers. double click the separator line to use AutoFit. 118 .
Adding Patterns and Colors To add colors to a worksheet. 119 . and fill effects.3: Enhancing a Worksheet’s Appearance Up until now.Lesson 4. patterns. borders. first select the range of cells you want to add color to. You will also learn what styles are and how to use them. In this lesson you will learn how to further enhance your worksheet’s appearance by applying colors. you have been dealing with formatting individual values or ranges of cells.
click on the Fill Color button in the Font group on the Home tab to display your color choices. You can choose shades of colors from the theme you are currently using (theme colors) or you can choose from a selection of standard colors. As you let your mouse hover over each color in color menu. click on the color of your choice from the color menu and the color will be applied to the selected cells. The range will now be shaded with the color you selected. 120 . the selected cells will be previewed in that color.Then. When you are ready.
When the Format Cells dialog box appears click the Fill tab.The procedure to add patterns to a range is almost the same as for adding color. First. right click and choose Format Cells from the menu. 121 . select a color. and choose a pattern from the drop down palette. Then. select a range of cells.
You can see what the pattern will look like in the sample bar at the bottom of the dialog. 122 . Here is the spreadsheet with the fill pattern applied to the selected cells.
123 . and the borders will be added. select a range of data and display the borders option menu from the Borders button (on the Home tab) by clicking on the small down pointing arrow. From the menu.Adding Borders Borders can help to separate and distinguish selected data within a worksheet. or give a worksheet a more polished overall appearance. click on the type of border you wish to apply to the range. To add a border to your worksheet.
124 . This will once again display the Format Cells dialog box. When you are finished building a custom border. this time with the Border tab activated. Customize line position Customize line thickness Here you can customize a border by choosing line thickness and the line position in and around the cell.You can gain more control over the borders by clicking the More Borders option on the border drop down Menu. Here is the selected data after borders have been applied. click OK to implement it on the selected cells. You can also display this dialog box by clicking directly on the Borders button.
Next. and a shade of blue for the cell color. and so on) that you want to include in the new style. saved. and then click the New Cell Style option near the bottom of the menu. fill color. and applied to a cell or a range of cells. font size. Excel 2007 even provides a large menu of preset styles that you can choose to apply to your cells. a grey font color. You can create a style or modify an existing style to build the formatting options you need for your worksheets. bold. 125 . To create a style. and selected bold. Here.Working with Styles A style is a set of formats that can be given a name. we have entered the word Hello. italic. a font size of 12. display the cell style options by clicking the Cell Styles button. first enter some data in a cell and apply the formats (font color.
In the image on the next page. If you just click the OK button. you will display the Format Cells dialog box. This will allow you to add pretty much any kind of formatting you want to the new style. the formatting you added to the selected cell will be saved as a style.When you perform this action. If you click the Format button. You can also select or deselect elements to include in your style with the various checkboxes. notice that the new cell style that was created is now available in the Custom section of the style menu. the Cell Style dialog will be displayed. 126 .
and then click on your new style or the preset style of your choice from the Style menu.Applying your new style (or any of the preset styles) to a selection of cells is easy. the Merge Styles button will allow you to bring in the styles you need. If you want to use a style from another workbook. 127 . Just select the cells you want to modify. Styles are saved with the workbook they are created in.
activate the workbook you want to bring styles to. Then. you must have two workbooks open. select the workbook with the style you want and click the OK button. and click the Merge Styles command in the Cell Styles menu. That command will open this dialog: In the Merge Styles box. Excel will copy all of the styles from the workbook you selected into the workbook you want to 128 .To do this.
To remove a Style from the Style menu. just right click on the particular style in the menu and choose Delete from the list of options that appears. Once again. select a cell or range of cells and choose the style you want from the Cell Styles menu shown previously. If it is a new style that you created.bring styles to. 129 . to use a style. it will appear in the Custom region of the Style menu. You will be asked if you want to merge styles if there are styles in both workbooks that have matching names.
In Excel 2007. Excel 2007’s powerful chart tools can help you create a more meaningful representation of your data. You will also learn how to enhance your chart with Excel’s drawing tools and how to add titles and tables. In this lesson you will learn how to create. by making it easy to build professional looking charts. first consider the type of chart that you require. Pie charts and bar charts are good for showing comparisons. charts were often created with the chart wizard.Lesson 4. Excel 2007 provides a series of chart buttons and controls on the Insert tab. Instead of a chart wizard. Part 1 Sometimes it can be hard to discern patterns or relationships in your data from basic tables of numerical entries. step by step. a new approach is taken in hopes that a professional looking chart can be created in just a few clicks. Creating a Chart One of the major changes in Excel 2007 is the way that charts are created and handled. In previous versions of Excel. format. Before you create a chart.4: Working With Charts. In the practice exercise you will create and modify a chart. Line graphs can be useful for showing trends and 130 . and manipulate a chart.
On the Insert tab. 131 .plotting relationships between variables. If you want a really visually interesting chart. you can proceed by clicking the Insert tab to display the Insert Tab. click the Pie Charts button to display a menu of possible pie charts. consider a three dimensional type. we will click on the Exploding 3-D Pie Chart option. To do this. Our aim here is to create a pie chart. we have selected the region labels and the sales data. The region labels will give us category headings for our chart and the sales figures will comprise the actual data for our chart. For this example. To create a chart. Once you select the data. first select the data that you want to base your chart on.
you will see the words Chart Tools appear in the Excel title bar. Formatting a Chart Even after you create a chart. The easiest way to do this is to single click inside the box (chart area) that surrounds the chart. For now. you will see the Design tab appear. you can still alter its appearance. we will only worry about changing the general format of the chart. showing comparative slices for the sales per region.This action creates an exploding 3-D chart in the spreadsheet. there is a button to completely change the chart type if you wish. 132 . This tab provides you with a variety of quick and easy chart reformatting options. When you do this. If you click on the words Chart Tools. At the far left of the tab.
Chart legend In this dialog box. you can select any one of the legend position radio buttons to place the legend in the position specified. if you right click on the chart legend and choose Format Legend from the pop-up menu. you will see a box appear around it.To begin. you will see options pertaining to the legend background fill color. and you will see a Format Legend dialog box on your Excel screen. 133 . If you click the Fill option on the panel on the left.
you will see options for fill gradients.As an example. if you select the Gradient Fill radio button. 134 .
you will display a Format Plot area dialog box. you can see a thin line forming a box that is inside the heavy outer box. Here you can see the results of selecting the top radio button for the legend position. you will see a second inner box surround the chart. you can choose a fill gradient for the legend background from a drop menu. This box defines the plot area of the chart. 135 .) If you right click inside the plot area and select Format Plot Area from the pop-up menu. If you click in the area of the box that is close to the chart itself. (In the image above.If you click the Presets arrow. and a gradient fill for the legend background.
if you right click on the blank white area of the chart (around the sales heading and legend) and then select Format Chart Area from the pop-up menu. or No fill. you will display the Format Chart Area dialog box. and then choose from the available options. Just as in the previous two examples for the legend and plot area. Finally. 136 . Here is the same chart with the plot area formatted as a parchment gradient. Just select a radio button for Gradient fill. Solid fill.You can use the options in this dialog in the same way as the Format Legend dialog. you can use this dialog box to format the Chart Area.
With these style buttons. It is most often the case that a quick style will produce a better looking chart than manual formatting. you will see a Chart Styles group that is fantastic for reformatting your chart. and with less time and effort! You can cycle through the quick styles by clicking the buttons and watching your chart’s formatting change. In the Design tab. As mentioned at the beginning of this formatting discussion.The following image shows the pie chart from above with a solid fill color added to the chart area. 137 . You can use the scroll bar at the right of the group to display several more style options. Excel 2007 can provide professional looking charts in just a few clicks. clicking inside the box (chart area) around a chart will allow you to display the Design tab. The styles available in the Chart Styles group have been carefully composed to use complementary colors. shading. and formatting.
Here is the same chart that we have been using.More often than not. after being formatted with a quick style. 138 . the quick styles buttons will provide a formatting option that you will find quite satisfying.
a box with a thin border will form around the title. Click the word Layout to see this tab’s options. italicize it. Modifying Charts with the Layout Tab As you already know. 139 . You can use these options to align your title. when you create a chart in Excel 2007. You can use the buttons on the Design tab to quickly change the overall appearance and style of your chart. you should see a Layout tab near the top of the Excel 2007 screen. and the Analysis group. and more. the Background group. the Design tab (discussed previously) becomes available when you select the chart. Another tab that can be very helpful when working with charts is the Layout tab. If you then double click on the title. there will be new tabs introduced on the user interface. The most important sections of the Layout tab (in terms of charts) are the Labels group. bold your title. and select it by clicking on it. change the font color. formatting options will be displayed.If you single click on the title of the chart. For example. the Axes group. When you create a chart.
so there are two options on this title menu that we can use. we can then click the Layout tab to see what layout options we have for this chart.To see how these tools work. 140 . take the following Excel chart as an example. You can display a title above the chart by clicking the Above Chart option. if you click on the Chart Title Button (In the Labels group). If we click on the chart to select it. you will reveal a small menu of title options. In the Layout tab. or you can place a title over the chart by clicking the Centered Overlay option. Currently the chart in this example has no title.
Let’s use the Centered Overlay title. a Format Chart Title dialog box will appear. If you click this item. you can type whatever text you want for your chart title. You may have noticed a More Title Options item at the bottom of the title menu. we can easily switch to the Above Chart option. When the cursor appears. you can click on the words Chart Title to display a cursor. 141 . Once you have chosen a title option. If we decide we don’t like that one.
This will allow you to change virtually every aspect of your title. Clicking on any of these options will implement the particular style of legend described. a series of options for modifying the chart legend will appear. If you click the Legend button on the Layout tab. 142 . You should notice that each legend option has a small icon showing the location of the legend in relation to the chart.
Here is the chart without data labels.If you want to apply labels directly to the data in the chart. click the Data Labels button. the small images that accompany each option will give you a rough idea of what the results of the given option will look like. 143 . Once again.
144 . Each of these two main options contains a submenu of modification options. Notice that there are two main options labeled Primary Horizontal Axis and Primary Vertical Axis. The chart was also resized by dragging with the mouse in order to make the data labels legible.Here is the same chart after adding a title and data labels. The Axes button will provide you with several options for modifying the chart axes.
These submenus allow you to change the scale and numerical values used on the axis to coordinate the data. with minor horizontal gridlines added. 145 . vertical gridlines. or both if you wish. You can add horizontal gridlines. The Gridlines button (also found in the Axes group) will allow you to add or remove Minor and Major Gridlines to and from your chart. Here is the same chart as before. The gridlines will represent the axis units on the chart to give you a clearer picture of the specific value of the data at a given place in the chart.
146 . A data table will help to clarify the meaning of your chart by displaying the data groupings in your chart in tabular form.You can also add a data table to your chart by using the Data Table button on the Labels group in the Layout tab. The Trendline button in the Analysis group can be useful for pointing out a specific behavior or trend in your chart’s data.
147 . the image accompanying a given option shows a preview of what the option may look like when implemented.Under this button. Once again. If you want to add error bars to your chart data (to show a range around the values depicted in the chart that the data may or may not assume) just click on the Error Bars button. you will see a number of options.
148 . The error bars show the values that the data columns could assume. If you are working with 3-D charts. Let’s take the following 3-D chart as an example. the Background group has some useful and convenient options. if we have an estimate of 5% error.Here is the same chart as before with 5% error bars added to it.
This was done with the Chart Floor button. you will see options for showing or clearing the chart wall. where the data labels are shown.) The chart floor. 149 . Here is the same chart with the wall fill color added and the floor fill color cleared. These areas show the units that the chart data is measured by.If you click the Chart Wall button on the Layout tab in the Background group. The following image shows the same chart as above. just the fill color will be removed. As you can see. represents the bottom or side plane of the chart. the data units and gridlines will remain. with the chart wall cleared. the chart wall represents the back plane and bottom plane of the chart. on the other hand. (If you clear the chart wall.
The orientation of the chart floor and chart wall may depend on the type of chart that you create. the orientation of the floor and wall of the chart differs from the chart in the previous example. 150 . Here is a 3-D chart with the floor removed. As you can see. Here is the same chart with the floor added.
Remember. you can also use all of the options in the Labels group and the Axes group. The buttons and menus work with 3-D charts in a similar way. the results you get when you use the buttons on the Layout tab may vary between chart types. and between 2-D and 3-D charts.When you are working with 3-D charts. different sized charts. Here is a 3-D chart that has been modified with the Layout tab and Design tab. 151 . This Labels group was discussed previously in the context of 2-D charts. It is usually fairly easy to undo a change that you make to a chart. so don’t be afraid to experiment with the Layout tab.
To do this.Manipulating a Chart Sometimes it may be necessary to resize or even move your chart around in your spreadsheet. first single click in the chart area to display the chart area border. If you place your mouse pointer on the corner of the chart border and let it hover. you will see your pointer turn into a double headed arrow. 152 .
153 . Finally. Dragging your mouse vertically will resize the height of the chart. If you look carefully at the sides of the chart border. Dragging your mouse horizontally will resize the length of the chart. you will see a series of four dots.If you drag the chart corner with your mouse. you will see a double headed arrow. dragging your mouse diagonally will resize both dimensions of the chart. you can resize the chart. If you let your mouse pointer hover over these dots.
You can drag theses side edges (with the double headed arrow pointer) to increase the length or height of your chart. 154 .
155 .If you drag the corner of the chart inwards toward the center. or over the top or bottom edge of the border. To move the chart. you will make the chart smaller. let your mouse pointer hover over the one of the sides of the border.
you will be able to move the chart around your screen by mouse dragging.When you see your mouse pointer turn into two crossed arrows. Here. 156 . the chart has been resized (smaller) and relocated (dragged) underneath the data.
(You can enter whatever name you like for the new sheet. do the following.If you want to make a chart an object in another worksheet. In this example. This will display the Move Chart dialog box. the New Sheet radio button has been selected.) 157 . First. right click on the chart and choose Move Chart from the drop down menu. or move the chart to a sheet of its own. which will place the chart in a new sheet called Chart1.
The chart has been now been moved to a sheet of its own. In this case. we will use Sheet2.After you are ready. Note that you can also click the Move Chart button in the Design tab to display the Move Chart dialog box. you can specify an existing sheet to place the chart in. 158 . if you select the Object In radio button. This time. click the OK button to move the chart.
As soon as you are ready. to point out and explain important features. the chart has been embedded as an object into the worksheet. and press the Backspace or Delete key on your keyboard. To remove a chart from your worksheet. Now. click the OK button to move the chart. click in the chart area. 159 . such as arrows or callouts. Enhancing a Chart with Shapes and Graphics There are times when you may want to add additional graphic elements to a chart.
you may want to point out that cone number 4 shows the greatest percentage of profits. To add a callout to the chart.In a chart like the following. click the lowest down pointing arrow beside the Shapes group on the Insert Tab. 160 .
This action will display a large menu of preset shape options. 161 .
162 .Find and select a callout from the bottom of the shapes menu. we’ll use the cloud callout. You can use this procedure to add as many shapes or graphic elements to your chart as you think are necessary. and then draw it out by dragging with the mouse over the chart. (For our purposes.) You can enter text into the callout by right clicking on it and selecting Edit Text from the drop down menu.
If you click this button. Now. first display the Design tab by clicking on the chart area and then click the Design tab. Changing the Type of Chart What do you do if you create a chart based on your spreadsheet data and you find that it just isn’t quite what you were hoping for? If you are using Excel 2007.Lesson 4. You will also learn how to create chart templates and how to work with the chart axis and data series. In this lesson you will learn how to apply a new chart type to your source data and how to change the source data while maintaining the same chart type. 163 . Part 2 This lesson will expand on the concepts covered in the previous lesson. you will display the Change Chart Type dialog box. look for the Change Chart Type button. To change the chart type.5: Working with Charts. it is a quick and simple matter to apply a new chart type to your data.
Your chart will be automatically changed according to the selections you make. to change this chart to a clustered pyramid column chart. click the OK button to change the chart type. simply select Column from the panel on the left. you can select a new chart type or variation based on the data in the existing chart. After you make your choices. 164 .With this box. For example. and then click the clustered pyramid chart type from the column chart options that are displayed.
Here is an example of the new chart type. You can also display the Change Chart Type dialog box by right clicking on the chart area and selecting Change Chart Type from the drop down menu that appears. 165 .
The great thing is that Excel 2007 also makes it easy to change the source data for your chart while retaining the original chart type. you would have to change the source data of the chart from the sales data (cells B2 through to B5). 166 . The first step in doing this is to right click on the chart area and click Select Data from the menu that appears. to the expenses data (cells D2 through to D5). In this example. If you wanted the chart to depict Expenses per Region.Changing the Source Data As you have just seen. the pie chart above is based on sales data per region. Excel 2007 makes it easy to change the chart type for a given set of chart data.
use your mouse to select the new data range from the spreadsheet. you will see the new range entered into the data source field. As you do this. 167 . This will show the range of cells that serve as the current data source for the chart. To change the data source. you will see a long text field labeled Chart Data Range. At the top of the dialog box.This action will display the Edit Data dialog box.
168 . Now. you will see the new data range in the Edit Data Source dialog box. The next step is to click the OK button in the lower right of the box. you can see that the size of the pie slices have changed to reflect the new data.When you complete your data selection.
the axes are the horizontal and vertical scales that you use to coordinate your data. the chart itself will be updated automatically to represent the changes. To change the title. data is charted with respect to its numerical position along an axis. Working with the Chart Axis and Data Series In a typical chart.) Keep in mind that if you enter new data directly into the spreadsheet cells that serve as the data source for the chart. 169 . the appropriate title choice is Expenses. right click on it and select the Edit Text option from the drop down menu. right click on the chart and click Select Data from the menu that appears.You may notice that now. You can now edit the text to change the title to whatever you wish. Basically. You can have more than one series represented in a chart to show how the different series (selections of data) compare to each other. You do not have to do anything special to update direct modifications to the source data cells. A series is a group of data (normally a selection of cells) that is to be charted against an axis. having changed the source data. (In this case. the title of the chart (Sales) is not accurate. To add more than one series to a chart.
(In this example. After you select the appropriate data. This will display an Edit Series box where you can enter a name for the series in the name field that is provided. you can enter a range of data for the series by dragging your mouse pointer to select a range from your spreadsheet.This will display the Edit Data dialog box.) You can enter data sources and series by typing a range directly into its field in a dialog box. In this dialog box you will see buttons for adding and removing a series. To add a new series to the chart click the Add button. Next. we are adding the sales data to a column graph that shows expense data. but selecting with the mouse is usually simpler. click the OK button on the Edit Series dialog and then on the Edit Data Source dialog. 170 .
You can select either one of these series and click Remove to remove it from the chart. You can also click the Add button to add even more data series to the chart if you wish.Here you can see that two series (Expenses and Sales) are represented in the chart. 171 . If you display the Edit Data Series dialog. you will see two names in the series section of the dialog box.
From this menu. you will display a drop down menu. If you right click on one of the dollar amounts on the Y axis.In the following stacked line chart. you can choose a Format Axis option. the Sales data and Profit data are represented against a Y axis consisting of dollar amounts. 172 .
tick mark. In this box. If you select a different heading from the panel on the left of the box (the heading highlighted in this image is Axis Options) you can change the line style of the axis. 173 . and other aspects of its format. the shadow. and position of the Axis labels.This will display a Format Axis dialog box. you will find controls to specify the units and adjust the scale.
If you want to change the labels on an axis. and you will be able to select the labels you want from the spreadsheet. an Axis Labels box will appear. If you click the Edit button. invoke the Select Data dialog box. Just drag your mouse to select the appropriate cells or manually type the cell range into the box provided. You can see an edit button in the Axis Labels area (on the left) of the dialog box. 174 .
With these buttons. You can also use the scroll bar at the right of the group to view more layout types. you can quickly apply numerous layouts to your chart by clicking. A more convenient way to quickly select a chart layout is to use the Chart Layouts available on the Design tab. with its axis and labels changed.Here is the same chart that was shown previously. 175 .
176 .Here are a couple of different layouts for the chart. Both were chosen with the chart layout buttons.
just select a data range for the new chart from whatever spreadsheet you are working on and then click the small arrow at the lower right of the Charts group. To save this chart as a template. display the Design tab by clicking on the chart area. the templates will be saved in an Excel chart folder. you can save the chart type. click the Save as Template button. Assume that this image represents a chart style and format that we are happy with and that we would like to use in the future. On the Design tab. 177 . Just enter an appropriate name for your chart template and then click the Save button. By default. When you want to use the template. it’s virtually identical to the regular Save dialog. colors. and formatting as a template that can be reused to make on future charts.Saving a Chart as a Template Once you get your chart looking just the way you like it. This will display a Save Chart Template dialog box.
If you select Templates in the pane on the left of the box. you will see the chart template that you saved displayed on the right side. This is an example of an Excel template. worksheet names. labels. fill effects.This will display the Create Chart dialog box.6: Using File Templates A template is a workbook design or layout that can be saved and reused for any number of workbooks. formats. Just click the template icon to apply the template to the selected data. borders. and a host of other Excel features that will be applied to each new workbook that uses the template. 178 . Lesson 4. A template can have formulas.
a workbook will open based on the selected template. When you click on a category option. When you do this. If you double click on a template icon in the main viewing area. you will display the New Workbook Dialog. you can select a template grouping from the categories listed in the panel on the left. and then choose the New option from the Office menu. In the New Workbook dialog. 180 .Opening a File Template To open a workbook using a template. the large viewing pane will display the templates available in the chosen category. start Excel 2007.
If you double click one of the template icons in the My Templates view. a workbook will open based on the template. 181 . you will display a New dialog box that contains templates stored locally on your computer.If you click the My Templates option.
182 . Once you find an appropriate source for your new workbook. this dialog box will allow you to navigate to a location on your computer and use an existing template (or an existing workbook) to base your new workbook on. Basically. double click the icon in the viewing pane to open it.If you click the New from Existing option in the New Workbook dialog. you will display a New from Existing workbook dialog. The New from Existing Workbook dialog has the same controls as the Open dialog and the Save as dialog.
183 . finance and accounting templates. specialty papers. calendars. you can click on one of the subcategory options to see a preview list of downloadable templates. You can choose from business templates. If you do not have an Internet connection. If you do have an Internet connection. When you select one of these online options. you will not be able to download any templates. This list of subcategories is actually downloaded from the Microsoft Office Online Web site. you will not see the list of subcategories and moreover. you will often see a list of template subcategories in the viewing pane on the right.Downloading a File Template When you display the New Workbook window (by clicking the New option under the Office menu) you will see a variety of options listed under the From Microsoft Office Online heading in the panel on the left. and more.
the formatting and organization of your data will all be in place based on the template. The next step is to just enter the data into the spreadsheet as required. select it by single clicking on it. When you see a template that you like. Excel will automatically open a workbook based on the template. Once the template is downloaded. (Refer to the preceding concepts in this lesson. 184 . You can also simply double click on the template icon to download the template and create a workbook.) Once the workbook is open. To use a template. and then click the Download button to download the template. Using a File Template Probably the easiest thing you can do with an Excel template is use it.The image that follows shows some of the downloadable templates under the Budget subcategory. That is the reason why templates exist in the first place: to make it easy to build nicely formatted spreadsheets and workbooks. start Excel 2007 and use the New window to open a workbook based on the template of your choice.
you can create any number of workbooks based on the same template. open Excel 2007and design your worksheet or workbook layout to meet any specifications you require. color. In the dialog. By doing this. Keep this in mind when creating a template. you can even create layouts on different sheets in the workbook. 185 . organization. labels. When you save your work. Creating a File Template To create your own template. choose Save As from the Office menu to display the Save As dialog box. borders. If need be. Remember. formatting.Here is a sports template after some data has been entered. display the Save As Type drop list near the bottom of the dialog box and select the Excel template option. as a template can contain as many worksheets as you need. Next. and style for your workbooks. The whole purpose of the template is to provide a boiler plate format. enter a name for your template in the File Name text field. You can add labels. the main purpose of a template is for repeated use of a workbook layout. and formulas. (You may have to scroll through the list of options to find it). Plan your layout. and formats to make your templates comprehensive and complete. When you have completed your design.xltx. make sure that you save it as a workbook. All that you have to do is enter the data as required. This will save the file as filename.
it will be available under the My Templates option in the New window.When you choose the Excel Template option from the Save As Type drop list. Once you save the file as a template in the Templates folder. Simply remember to save it as a template rather than a workbook. they will not be available when you click the My Templates option in the New Workbook window). save it under the Excel 97-2003 Template option for backwards compatibility. save it with a new name in your templates folder as described above. 186 . the Save In text field will automatically be filled in with the word Templates. If you have a macro or macros in your template. Rather than create a template from scratch. This means that your new template will be automatically saved in the Excel Templates folder. After you finish customizing the template. save it under the Excel Macro-Enabled Template option. you can always download a template that is close to what you are looking for and modify it in Excel to make it suit your needs exactly. (You can choose another folder to save your templates in if you wish. If you intend to use the template with earlier versions of Excel. but if you do.
Section 5: Printing and Viewing your Workbook In this section you will learn how to: Use normal view Use the Page Break Preview Use the Page Layout view Use the Full Screen view Manage a single window Create a window Hide a window Freeze a pane Manage multiple windows Switch between open workbooks Arrange windows Compare workbooks side by side Reset windows Save a workspace Use Print Preview Use the Print dialog Use the Page Setup dialog Use Quick Print 187 .
The normal view displays the user interface tab. for example. you will learn about the normal view. the normal view is the view that Excel 2007 will open with by default. the tabs. If you do. the page break view. and the full screen view. 188 . you may want to view a larger section of the grid area. If you are ready to print. In this lesson. These different views are designed to make certain tasks easier. you probably don’t want to view your workbook as a normal spreadsheet. the Quick Access Toolbar. and a reasonably large part of the Excel cell grid. the page layout view.Lesson 5. Basically. The options for the different Excel 2007 views can be found on the View tab. Using Normal View The first of the different views that we will discuss is the normal view. the status bar at the bottom. Sometimes. or you may want to view several spreadsheet pages at once.1: Using the View Tab In Excel 2007 there are a few different ways to view your workbook. it will be hard to tell exactly where your printed pages will begin and end.
as well as the working area (grid). You will notice though. You will also see several other options for different views. you can see that the Normal view is currently selected. In the View tab. To overcome this. The chart beneath the data area is partially hidden. 189 . click the View tab near the top of the screen. that in the image above you cannot see all of the information in the spreadsheet without scrolling. because it provides easy access to many controls and features.This view is best suited for general work in Excel.
You will also see checkboxes for Gridlines and for the Formula Bar on the View tab. the one you will probably use the most is the Normal view. The second button will switch to Page Layout view. and the third button will switch to Page Break Preview. Clearing these check marks will cause the formula bar and gridlines to disappear from your Excel screen. click the Full Screen button in the Workbook Views group on the View tab. These buttons are useful because they will be available on the status bar regardless of the tab that is currently displayed at the top of your Excel 2007 screen. You can use these buttons to quickly switch between workbook views. You can get them back by placing checks back in the appropriate boxes. Using Full Screen View As pointed out for the spreadsheet shown previously. You may notice a group of buttons in the lower right of your screen on the status bar. the first button will switch to Normal view. This View tab is the key to finding the Excel 2007 display that is most appropriate for your work. 190 . Starting at left. To see a larger view of the working area of the spreadsheet without having to scroll or navigate with the arrow keys. Of all of the views available on the View tab. the normal view does not necessarily show as much of the spreadsheet work area as you would sometimes like.
This will reveal a larger view of the working (grid) area. That is. you can enter and modify data in the cells. and perform cutting copying and pasting actions. In full screen view. It is important to note that this is a functional view. you can see the data and the entire chart. 191 .
use paste special. a menu of options will be displayed just as in normal view. This view will clearly show you the boundaries of your printed pages. enter and delete data.If you right click on a cell in full screen view. all from within this view. To return back to normal view from full screen. you can still insert comments. and do pretty much anything else. format. You can edit. and work with other options through the drop down menu. Using Page Layout View Another great feature of Excel 2007 is the Page Layout view. This menu allows you to choose formatting options from the small formatting bar. even though the Home tab is not available. almost like a print preview. 192 . The difference is that this view provides all of the Excel functionality that is available in any other view. As you can see. just press your Escape key. add charts. even though the tabs are hidden.
the Office menu. 193 . The Quick Access Toolbar.To get to Page Layout view. you can see the breaks between pages that would occur if the document was printed. and the status bar are all available in page layout view. This will display your spreadsheet in page layout view. In page layout view. click the Page Layout button in the Workbook Views group on the View tab. the tabs.
you will see even more of your spreadsheet. 194 . broken into pages.If you adjust the zoom control toward the minus sign.
If you click on the very edge of a page. orientation. In the images shown above and on the previous page.5 by 11. the paper size is the default letter size of 8. the pages in the Page Layout view will be adjusted accordingly. any changes you make with respect to page margins. You can navigate between the pages by using your arrow keys to move amongst the cells. (You can adjust paper size with the Size button on the Page Layout tab. 195 . If you change the size to any other size. you can use the page layout view to add headers and footers to your printed pages. and page size. will be reflected in the page layout view. showing the dimensions of the pages. you can hide the margins.) As a matter of fact. This makes the page layout view ideal for preparing a worksheet or workbook for printing. You can also see rulers at the top and left side of the screen. When it comes to printing your document.
just click on the page right it says “Click to add header. The situation is the same for footers.To do this. 196 .” Once you click on this area. you will be able to enter a header for your printed pages.
To print a large worksheet. you have to break up the data into manageable sections. Excel will define page breaks for you based on the size of the cells. The point where one contiguous sheet of data is broken into separate pages is called a page break. If you print an Excel worksheet that is too big for a single page. This is why it is a good idea to learn how to manage page breaks on your own. If you click the Page Break Preview button on the View tab. and a header added. In fact. most real worksheets contain too much data to fit on one printed page. Excel doesn’t care very much about the meaning or interpretation of your data when it sets up page breaks. and the print scale you choose. the data can be broken into pages in awkward. the margins set to wide. the size of the paper that your pages will be printed on.5 by 14. Remember. illogical ways. On a large worksheet. However. the page layout view still retains all of the Excel functionality! Page Break Preview Excel worksheets can get very large. you will display an Excel view that shows page breaks in your spreadsheet as blue dotted lines.Here is a page layout view with the page size increased to 8. 197 .
though not great for actually working with your data. you can still edit. and choose from menus in this view. copy. does provide functionality. That is. 198 . remove data. The Page Break view.The solid blue lines indicate the boundaries of the printed page.
If you use print preview (which we will discuss in lesson 5.4). you can get a better idea of what this page will look like when printed.This view is designed to help you organize your spreadsheets for printing. now that the page breaks have been adjusted. 199 . If you find that your data overlaps onto another page. you can drag the blue dotted lines with your mouse to adjust where one page ends and another begins. but you would like to keep it on a single page.
you will learn how to create a new window. hide a window. this working area is bounded by a border and can be minimized.2: Managing a Single Window When you open a workbook in Excel. That is to say. This self contained working area can be referred to as a window. 200 . or resized independently of the Excel program itself. or multiple windows representing completely different workbooks open at the same time. In this image. closed. unhide a window. and how to freeze panes in a window. In Excel 2007 you can have multiple windows for the same workbook open at the same time. the actual working area (grid area with column letters and row numbers). you can see a workbook represented as a window within the larger Excel screen. is defined as its own region. In this lesson.Lesson 5.
Creating a New Window In Excel 2007. though the window has to be active for these buttons to be visible. 201 . (Excel will attach a :number to the name of the workbook for each new window you create for the same workbook. just display the View tab. restore. it is easy to create a new window. This allows you to minimize. This will create a new. additional window for the same workbook. and close buttons in the upper right. In the following image you can see two task bar elements. restore. If you have a workbook open. one for the original workbook window called newtemp:1. and then click the New Window button. This is Excel’s default naming convention.) Each new window you create will have its own minimize. and close each window individually. and another for the new window called newtemp:2.
Hiding a Window To hide a window from view. the windows can be individually resized by dragging their respective borders. click the Hide button on the View tab. All traces of the currently active window will disappear from your Excel 2007 screen. 202 . and you want to put a window (or a few windows) aside for a moment for less clutter. If you have two or more windows open for the same workbook and you change or modify data in one window. the data will be changed in all of the other windows as well. or perhaps to prevent accidental modifications or closure.In addition. Any hidden windows can be brought back to the Excel screen at your convenience. The hide feature is great if you have multiple windows open. but it is not really gone.
To use Freeze. you can segment your Excel 2007 screen into more than one viewing area by using Excel’s Freeze feature. Freezing a Pane It is sometimes convenient to be able to keep an eye on one part of a spreadsheet while simultaneously viewing other parts of the same spreadsheet (for example. an Unhide box will appear showing any windows that have been hidden. the Unhide button on the View tab will become accessible.Unhiding a Window When you hide a window in Excel 2007. keeping cells with headings in place while scrolling through the data). select it in the unhide box and click the OK button. To display the window. When you click this button. and click the Freeze Panes button on the View tab. open a workbook window. If you want to see multiple parts of your worksheet at the same time. 203 .
or the first column (the second and third options). The highlighted area of cells was selected and the Freeze Panes button was then clicked. With this command. This is useful as it will allow you to keep your column or row labels in place.Clicking this button will display a menu of freeze options that you can choose from. The other option in the View menu that is related to the Freeze command is Split. You can also choose to freeze the top row. you can choose to break your window into four parts that you can scroll through independently. You can freeze part of your window based on a cell selection you make prior to freezing (the first option). This image shows a window that has been frozen based on a selection. while scrolling through your data. Using the scroll bars on the 204 .
but not the one that has been frozen (the one with the highlighted cells). you will break the window into four panes around the selected cell. This window was split around cell J10. If you want to split your window into four equal sections. To return your window to normal after a split. click the Remove Split button. This button will appear whenever you split your screen. 205 . If you select a single cell and click the Split button. select cell A1 as the active cell before you click Split.left and bottom will scroll through the bottom two panes and the pane in the upper right. The four scroll bars will now let you view each pane independently.
) 206 .To restore your window from a freeze. (This menu item will only appear whenever you freeze your windows. use the Unfreeze Panes option that appears on the Freeze Panes menu.
clicking on newtemp in the task bar in the above image will make it the currently active workbook in Excel. you can click on a name to activate the corresponding workbook. and how to reset a window. it is easy to switch between them. this workbook will become the currently active workbook. Excel 2007 has some useful features that may help you manage your windows and workbooks better.Lesson 5. how to arrange workbooks. 207 . First. For example. In this lesson. Switching Between Open Workbooks When you have multiple workbooks open in Excel 2007.3: Managing Multiple Windows If you find that you frequently open a number of workbooks at the same time. how to compare workbooks side by side. If you click on the word othertemp in the task bar. you will learn how to switch between open workbooks. if you can locate the names of your open workbooks in the status bar.
it will become the active workbook. you can use Excel 2007’s Switch Windows button to switch between workbooks. you can resize the workbooks as required by dragging their side and bottom edges. clicking on the title bar of a given workbook will make it active. When you click this button. When you click the title bar of a workbook in this way.If you can see two or more workbooks side by side in your Excel 2007 screen. If you click on any workbook in the Switch Windows menu. You can also move them 208 . it will become the currently active workbook and take the foreground of the Excel 2007 screen. The checkmark in the menu indicates which workbook is currently active. Finally. First. This is especially useful when all workbooks are maximized and cannot be seen. Arranging Workbooks There is more than one way to arrange open workbooks in Excel. you will display a menu listing all of the open workbooks.
Workbooks will be arranged lengthways up and down your screen. Workbooks will be layered one in front of the other. you will see a box appear with a list of options for arranging your windows. with the title bar of each workbook visible. rather than across. 209 . Tiled Horizontal Vertical Cascade Workbooks will be arranged adjacently over the screen area (like tiles).around the Excel screen by dragging them by their title bars. Excel also provides a means of automatically arranging your workbook windows. Resizing and repositioning the workbook windows by dragging with your mouse can be a useful technique. but if you tire of this. If you click the Arrange All button on the View tab. Workbook windows will be arranged lengthways (like long strips) across the screen.
Tiled Horizontal 210 .
Vertical Cascade 211 .
(Note that this command will only be available if you have two or more workbooks open.Comparing Workbooks Side by Side You can easily compare workbooks side by side with Excel 2007. the scrollbars are used to scroll through both workbooks simultaneously. This allows you to compare the same areas in each different workbook at the same time. click on the Compare Side By Side button on the View tab. To do this. they will be compared side by side like this: When workbooks are compared side by side.) If there are only two workbooks open. 212 .
213 . The workbook you select from the list will be compared side by side to the current workbook when you click the OK button. clicking the Side by Side button will display a box with a list of the open workbooks for you to choose from.If there is more than one workbook open. just click the Side by Side button again to return to your previous view. When you are finished comparing workbooks.
In this lesson. You will review the concept of quick printing and you will learn how to open and use the Page Setup dialog box. Beyond this. knowing how to print data from your workbook is essential. This is especially true for the workplace. you will learn how to open Print Preview and how to use the print preview toolbar to set up print options.Lesson 5. there are a few other Excel 2007 features that can be a great help when it comes to printing your documents. You have already seen how the Page Layout view can help you view your spreadsheet as separate pages in preparation for printing.4: Printing your Workbook It is often the case that printouts of your workbook (or parts of your workbook) will be required for one purpose or another. where hard copies of data are often requested. Needless to say. 214 .
or any other special print set up details. margins.Opening Print Preview To open Excel 2007’s Print Preview screen. 215 . The Quick Print option will print a quick copy of your spreadsheets. without regard to page content. first expand the Office menu and click on the small arrow to the right of the Print menu item. This will display a Quick Print option (like the print option on the Quick Access Toolbar) and a Print Preview option.
216 . or press the Ctrl + P keys. click the Print Preview icon to open the Print Preview screen. If you click directly on the Print button in the Office menu. you will display the Print dialog box.For more control over your printing.
The Print Preview screen will display whatever page of your spreadsheet/workbook you are currently at. a Zoom button. Using the Print Preview Tab Along the top of the Print Preview screen.Here. The Page Setup button will display the Page Setup dialog box. The Print button will print the document as it is shown in the Print Preview screen. Next and Previous Page buttons. 217 . you can click the Preview button in the lower left to invoke the Print Preview screen. a Show Margins button. On this tab you can find a Print button. you can see the Print Preview tab. a Page Setup button. and a Close Print Preview button. If your spreadsheet has multiple pages to print. which you can use to further refine your printed copies. you can advance or go back through these pages using the Next and Previous page buttons.
the margins will disappear. (You will see a magnifying glass mouse pointer when you do this). Clicking the Margins button will display the page margins on the print preview.At any time the preview page is zoomed out. However. If you click again. clicking on it will zoom out. be careful when dragging margins. Clicking the Close Print Preview button will close the Print Preview screen. Of course. You can also place your mouse pointer on these margins and drag to reposition them. 218 . Keep in mind that repositioning the margins in this way may change the appearance of your printed page. you can also use the Zoom icon on the tab. clicking on it will zoom in. If the page is zoomed in.
219 . It is now once again zoomed out.Here is a print preview page after clicking on it to zoom in. Here is the same page after clicking on it again.
margins. or headers and footers. Quick printing is also quite appropriate for small selections or ranges from a larger spreadsheet. To do this. 220 . It may be the case that you have an expansive spreadsheet and only need to print a few columns from it. you may not be happy with the look of your printed pages. quick print is best suited for small spreadsheets with a relatively small number of rows and columns. with no special formatting or page setup.Quick Printing If you click the Quick Print item under the Print option in the Office menu. only the region you selected will be printed. you will immediately send your workbook to the printer. When you do this. just select a print region (a selection of cells) by dragging your mouse and then click Quick Print. With this in mind. Because quick printing does not allow you to set up page breaks.
) Basically.Using Page Setup If you click the Page Setup button in the upper left of the Print Preview screen you will see the Page Setup dialog box. you can select page orientation. for a printed document. Under the Page tab. (Print quality is a kind of resolution. Here’s what the Page Setup dialog looks like. print scale. 221 . You can also open the Page Setup dialog by clicking the small arrow in the bottom left hand corner of the Page Setup group on the Layout tab. paper size and print quality settings. more dots per inch will mean more print quality. in dots per inch.
Under the Margins tab, you can specify how to center your page (horizontally or vertically) and you can directly enter values for the margins in the fields provided. You can even click on a margin data field to place your cursor in it and then enter a margin value of your choice (as measured in inches). Another option is to use the arrow buttons at the side of the data fields to change the margin values incrementally. As you may remember, Excel 2007’s Margins button on the Page Layout tab also let you change the margin to preset sizes. Under the Header/Footer tab, you can choose headers and footers that will be visible on the top (header) and bottom (footer) of each printed page. You can select preset headers and footers by clicking on them in drop lists located beneath the header, and above the footer, preview fields.
If you click the Custom Header or Custom Footer buttons, you will see a dialog box like the one shown below.
You can use this box to design a custom header by entering text in the provided fields. You can also format the text and enter page numbers, dates, and times by using the buttons above the text fields. As you can probably remember, Excel 2007’s Page Layout view (Lesson 5.1) also allowed you to add footers and headers to your printed pages. Under the Page Layout tab you will find a control that will let you define a Print Area (a selection of cells from your workbook). You will also see controls to Specify Print Titles (row or column headings from your spreadsheet to repeat on each printed page). You can specify print areas or print titles by clicking in the appropriate field in the dialog box (to give it focus) and then selecting the cells you want with your mouse from the spreadsheet in question.
When you do this, the cell ranges will be entered into the dialog box fields automatically.
You can also place checkmarks in the Gridlines box so that the gridlines will be included in your printout. If you place a check in the Row and Column Headings checkbox, the row numbers and column letters will be included on your printed pages as well. Finally, you can specify the Page Order for a large workbook or spreadsheet. “Down then over” will print pages from top to bottom and then move over in your spreadsheet one page width to start printing at the top again. “Over then down” will print pages in a row from left to right, move down one page length, and start printing at the next row of pages. When you are finished adjusting you print settings, click the OK button in the lower right of the dialog to save your changes and close the dialog. When you are ready, you can then print your pages.
Upgrading a Workbook
If you have workbooks that were created with an earlier version of Excel (Excel 97 to Excel 2003) you can easily upgrade them to an Excel 2007 workbook. First, start Excel 2007 and use the Open dialog to open the earlier (file extension .xls) workbook file. Excel 2007 should have no problems opening files from earlier versions of Excel. Then, click the Office menu and click Convert.
You can. This will save the workbook as an Excel 2007 workbook (file extension xlsx) regardless of what version of Excel the workbook was created with. If you click OK. 226 . use the Office menu or the Ctrl + S shortcut to invoke the Save As dialog box. Although converting workbooks is recommended (as it allows you to use the new features of Excel 2007). use the Save As dialog to convert your workbook. you will be alerted when the operation completes. of course. select the Excel Workbook option. we also recommend that you make a backup copy of the workbook before you attempt the conversion.Excel will then warn you of the operation you’re about to perform. Once the file is open. In the Save As Type drop list.
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