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**Review of Bode plots
**

Decibels

G

dB

Table 8.1. Expressing magnitudes in decibels Actual magnitude 1/2 Magnitude in dB – 6dB 0 dB 6 dB 20 dB – 6 dB = 14 dB 20dB 3 ⋅ 20dB = 60 dB

= 20 log 10 G

**Decibels of quantities having units (impedance example): normalize before taking log
**

Z

dB

1 2 5 = 10/2 10 1000 = 103

= 20 log 10

Z Rbase

5Ω is equivalent to 14dB with respect to a base impedance of Rbase = 1Ω, also known as 14dBΩ. 60dBµA is a current 60dB greater than a base current of 1µA, or 1mA.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

9

Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions

Bode plot of fn

Bode plots are effectively log-log plots, which cause functions which vary as fn to become linear plots. Given: f n G = f0 60dB 2

–40dB/decade

Magnitude in dB is

G

dB

40dB

f f0

= 20 log 10

f f0

n

= 20n log 10

f f0

20dB 0dB

–20dB/decade

n

=

2

n= 1

f f0

• Slope is 20n dB/decade • Magnitude is 1, or 0dB, at frequency f = f0

20 dB/decade –20dB

n=

–1

n

–40dB 40dB/decade –60dB

=

f f0 f f0

–1

–2

–2

0.1f0

f0

10f0

f

log scale

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

10

Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions

1. Single pole response Simple R-C example R + v1(s) + – C v2(s) – Transfer function is 1 v2(s) G(s) = = sC 1 +R v1(s) sC Express as rational fraction: G(s) = 1 1 + sRC This coincides with the normalized form 1 G(s) = s 1+ ω 0 with Fundamentals of Power Electronics 11 ω0 = 1 RC Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .8.1.

G(jω) and || G(jω) || Let s = jω: ω 1– j ω 0 1 G( jω) = = ω 2 ω 1+ ω 1+ j ω 0 0 Im(G(jω)) G(jω) G( jω) = = Re (G( jω)) + Im (G( jω)) 1 ω 2 1+ ω 0 2 2 Magnitude in dB: G( jω) = – 20 log 10 dB ω 1+ ω 0 2 dB Fundamentals of Power Electronics 12 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions || ∠G(jω) Re(G(jω)) G Magnitude is (jω )| | .

Asymptotic behavior: low frequency For small frequency.1f0 f0 10f0 f This is the low-frequency asymptote of || G(jω) || Fundamentals of Power Electronics 13 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions . ω << ω0 and f << f0 : ω ω0 << 1 || G(jω) ||dB 0dB –20dB G( jω) = 1 ω 1+ ω 0 2 Then || G(jω) || becomes G( jω) ≈ 1 = 1 1 0dB –20dB/decade –40dB –60dB f f0 –1 Or. in dB. G( jω) ≈ 0dB dB 0.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 14 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .1f0 f0 10f0 f The high-frequency asymptote of || G(jω) || varies as f-1. The asymptote has a value of 1 at f = f0 . and a straight-line asymptote having a slope of -20dB/decade is obtained.Asymptotic behavior: high frequency For high frequency. n = -1. ω >> ω0 and f >> f0 : ω ω0 >> 1 ω 1+ ω 0 2 G( jω) = || G(jω) ||dB 1 ω 1+ ω 0 2 ω ≈ ω 0 2 0dB –20dB 0dB Then || G(jω) || becomes G( jω) ≈ 1 ω ω0 2 –20dB/decade –40dB f f0 –1 f = f0 –1 –60dB 0. Hence.

Deviation of exact curve near f = f0 Evaluate exact magnitude: at f = f0: G( jω0) = 1 ω 1 + ω0 0 2 = 1 2 ω 1 + ω0 0 2 G( jω0) dB = – 20 log 10 ≈ – 3 dB at f = 0.5f0 and 2f0 : Similar arguments show that the exact curve lies 1dB below the asymptotes. Fundamentals of Power Electronics 15 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .

Summary: magnitude || G(jω) ||dB 0dB 1dB 3dB 0.5f0 –10dB f0 2f0 1dB –20dB –20dB/decade –30dB f Fundamentals of Power Electronics 16 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .

Phase of G(jω) Im(G(jω)) G(jω) (jω )| | ω 1– j ω 0 1 G( jω) = = ω 2 ω 1+ ω 1+ j ω 0 0 || G ∠G(jω) Re(G(jω)) ∠G( jω) = – tan – 1 ω ω0 ∠G( jω) = tan –1 Im G( jω) Re G( jω) Fundamentals of Power Electronics 17 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .

Phase of G(jω) ω ω0 0˚ 0˚ asymptote ∠G( jω) = – tan – 1 ∠G(jω) -15˚ -30˚ -45˚ -60˚ -75˚ –90˚ asymptote -90˚ 0.1f0 f0 10f0 100f0 -45˚ f0 ω 0 ω ∠G(jω) 0˚ –45˚ –90˚ 0 ∞ f Fundamentals of Power Electronics 18 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .01f0 0.

81 fb = f0 e π / 2 ≈ 4.Phase asymptotes Low frequency: 0˚ High frequency: –90˚ Low.81 f0 Fundamentals of Power Electronics 19 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions . need a midfrequency asymptote Try a midfrequency asymptote having slope identical to actual slope at the corner frequency f0.and high-frequency asymptotes do not intersect Hence. One can show that the asymptotes then intersect at the break frequencies fa = f0 e – π / 2 ≈ f0 / 4.

81 f0 –π/2 0.81 fb = f0 e π / 2 ≈ 4.1f0 f0 fb = 4.81 f0 100f0 f Fundamentals of Power Electronics 20 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .01f0 -45˚ f0 fa = f0 e ≈ f0 / 4.Phase asymptotes fa = f0 / 4.81 0˚ ∠G(jω) -15˚ -30˚ -45˚ -60˚ -75˚ -90˚ 0.

01f0 -45˚ f0 0.1f0 f0 fb = 10 f0 100f0 f Fundamentals of Power Electronics 21 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .Phase asymptotes: a simpler choice fa = f0 / 10 0˚ ∠G(jω) -15˚ -30˚ fa = f0 / 10 fb = 10 f0 -45˚ -60˚ -75˚ -90˚ 0.

5f0 f0 2f0 3dB 1dB G(s) = 1 s 1+ ω 0 –20dB/decade ∠G(jω) 0˚ f0 / 10 5.7˚ 10 f0 22 -90˚ Fundamentals of Power Electronics Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .7˚ -45˚/decade -45˚ f0 5.Summary: Bode plot of real pole || G(jω) ||dB 0dB 1dB 0.

Single zero response Normalized form: s G(s) = 1 + ω 0 Magnitude: G( jω) = ω 1+ ω 0 2 Use arguments similar to those used for the simple pole. to derive asymptotes: 0dB at low frequency. ω << ω0 +20dB/decade slope at high frequency.2. ω >> ω0 Phase: ∠G( jω) = tan – 1 ω ω0 —with the exception of a missing minus sign. same as simple pole Fundamentals of Power Electronics 23 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .8.1.

real zero s G(s) = 1 + ω 0 2f0 f0 0.7˚ 24 Fundamentals of Power Electronics Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .Summary: Bode plot.5f0 1dB 3dB +20dB/decade || G(jω) ||dB 0dB 1dB 10 f0 5.7˚ f0 45˚ +45˚/decade +90˚ ∠G(jω) 0˚ f0 / 10 5.

1. and the phase asymptotes of the pole Fundamentals of Power Electronics 25 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .3. Hence.8. magnitude asymptotes are identical to those of LHP zero. Phase: ∠G( jω) = – tan – 1 ω ω0 —same as real pole. Right half-plane zero Normalized form: s G(s) = 1 – ω 0 Magnitude: G( jω) = ω 1+ ω 0 2 —same as conventional (left half-plane) zero. The RHP zero exhibits the magnitude asymptotes of the LHP zero.

7˚ 10 f0 -90˚ Fundamentals of Power Electronics 26 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .7˚ -45˚/decade -45˚ f0 5.5f0 1dB 3dB +20dB/decade || G(jω) ||dB 0˚ 0dB 1dB ∠G(jω) f0 / 10 5.Summary: Bode plot. RHP zero s G(s) = 1 – ω 0 2f0 f0 0.

1. A useful form when describing mid. Normalized form.or high-frequency flat asymptotes.4.8. Fundamentals of Power Electronics 27 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions . inverted pole: 1 G(s) = ω 1 + s0 An algebraically equivalent form: G(s) = s ω0 s 1+ ω 0 The inverted-pole format emphasizes the high-frequency gain. Frequency inversion Reversal of frequency axis.

Asymptotes. inverted pole G(s) = 1 ω 1 + s0 3dB 1dB 0.7˚ -45˚/decade +45˚ f0 5.7˚ 10 f0 0˚ Fundamentals of Power Electronics 28 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .5f0 f0 2f0 1dB 0dB || G(jω) ||dB +20dB/decade ∠G(jω) +90˚ f0 / 10 5.

inverted zero: ω G(s) = 1 + s0 An algebraically equivalent form: s 1+ ω 0 G(s) = s ω0 Again.Inverted zero Normalized form. Fundamentals of Power Electronics 29 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions . the inverted-zero format emphasizes the high-frequency gain.

inverted zero ω G(s) = 1 + s0 0.Asymptotes.5f0 f0 1dB 3dB 2f0 1dB 0dB || G(jω) ||dB –20dB/decade 10 f0 5.7˚ f0 –45˚ +45˚/decade 0˚ ∠G(jω) –90˚ f0 / 10 5.7˚ 30 Fundamentals of Power Electronics Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .

It is desired to construct the Bode diagram of the product.1.5. Express the complex-valued functions in polar form: G1(ω) = R1(ω) e jθ 1(ω) G2(ω) = R2(ω) e jθ 2(ω) G3(ω) = R3(ω) e jθ 3(ω) The product G3(ω) can then be written G3(ω) = G1(ω) G2(ω) = R1(ω) e jθ 1(ω) R2(ω) e jθ 2(ω) G3(ω) = R1(ω) R2(ω) e j(θ 1(ω) + θ 2(ω)) Fundamentals of Power Electronics 31 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions . G3(ω) = G1(ω) G2(ω). Combinations Suppose that we have constructed the Bode diagrams of two complex-values functions of frequency. G1(ω) and G2(ω).8.

when expressed in dB.Combinations G3(ω) = R1(ω) R2(ω) e j(θ 1(ω) + θ 2(ω)) The composite phase is θ 3(ω) = θ 1(ω) + θ 2(ω) The composite magnitude is R3(ω) = R1(ω) R2(ω) R3(ω) dB = R1(ω) dB + R2(ω) dB Composite phase is sum of individual phases. is sum of individual magnitudes. Fundamentals of Power Electronics 32 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions . Composite magnitude.

Example 1: G(s) = G0 s 1+ ω 1 s 1+ ω 2 with G0 = 40 ⇒ 32 dB. f2 = ω2/2π = 2 kHz 40 dB || G || 20 dB 0 dB –20 dB –40 dB –60 dB G0 = 40 ⇒ 32 dB || G || 0 dB 0˚ f1 100 Hz –20 dB/decade ∠G f2 2 kHz f1/10 10 Hz f2/10 200 Hz –45˚/decade –90˚/decade 10f1 1 kHz ∠G –40 dB/decade 0˚ –45˚ –90˚ 10f2 20 kHz –45˚/decade 10 kHz –135˚ –180˚ 100 kHz 1 Hz 10 Hz 100 Hz 1 kHz f Fundamentals of Power Electronics 33 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions . f1 = ω1/2π = 100 Hz.

Example 2 Determine the transfer function A(s) corresponding to the following asymptotes: || A || || A0 ||dB f1 f2 || A∞ ||dB +20 dB/dec 10f1 f2 /10 –45˚/dec 0˚ ∠A 0˚ +45˚/dec –90˚ f1 /10 Fundamentals of Power Electronics 34 10f2 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .

Example 2. continued One solution: A(s) = A 0 s 1+ ω 1 s 1+ ω 2 Analytical expressions for asymptotes: For f < f1 A0 For f1 < f < f2 A0 s 1+➚ ω 1 s 1+➚ ω 2 = A0 1 = A0 1 s = jω s 1 +ω ➚ s 1+➚ ω 2 1 = A0 s = jω s ω1 1 s = jω ω =A f = A0 ω 0 f1 1 Fundamentals of Power Electronics 35 Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions .

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