Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Matching Questions
Use the following to answer questions 1-10: Choose the correct answer from the list below. Not all of the answers will be used. a) obligate anaerobes b) AMP c) Embden Meyerhof pathway d) NAD+ e) gluconeogenesis f) UDP-glucose g) GLUT5 h) facultative anaerobes i) ATP j) magnesium k) galactosemia l) biotin 1 ____________ This is the process by which noncarbohydrate precursor molecules are converted into glucose. Ans: e Section: Introduction 2 ____________ This is another name for glycolysis. Ans: c Section: Introduction 3 ____________ These organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. Ans: a Section: 16.1 4 ____________ This substance must be regenerated for glycolysis to proceed. Ans: d Section: 16.1 5 ____________ This intermediate is necessary for the conversion of galactose to glucose. Ans: f Section: 16.1 6 ____________ This molecule is an allosteric inhibitor of phosphofructokinase. Ans: i

Ans: 2.1 14 The catalytic mechanism of the isomerization of a ketose into an aldose proceeds through an _________________ intermediate. Ans: l Section: 16.1 15 The common structural domain of NAD+ binding dehydrogenases is often called a ___________________ after the scientist who first recognized it.1 2 Fill in the Blank Questions 11 Glycolysis produces a net of ________ moles of ATP per one mole of glucose. Ans: thiamine or B1 Section: 16. Ans: b Section: 16.1 9 ____________ This essential nutrient is required for the carboxylation of pyruvate in humans.3 10 ____________ This is an allosteric activator of glycolysis. two Section: 16. Ans: enediol Section:16.2 8 ____________ This condition is a result of a genetic deficiency of a single “transferase” enzyme. Ans: k Section: 16. Ans: α-amylase Section: Introduction 13 The key enzyme that regulates the pace of glycolysis is ____________________. the decarboxylation of pyruvate requires a coenzyme that contains the vitamin ______________.1 . Ans: g Section: 16.1 12 Pancreatic ______________ is the digestive enzyme primarily responsible for the hydrolysis of dietary plant starch. Ans: Rossmann fold Section: 16. Ans: phosphofructokinase Section: 16.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Section: 16.1 7 ____________ This transporter is responsible for fructose uptake in the intestine.1 16 In alcoholic fermentation.

b.2 18 In the absence of oxygen.2 19 The ________________ cycle refers to the metabolic reactions by which glucose is converted into lactate in skeletal muscle.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 17 A potent allosteric activator of liver phosphofructokinase is _____________________.3 3 Multiple Choice Questions 21 Which of the following are reasons that glucose is a common metabolic fuel used by living organisms? A) It has a stable ring structure and is unlikely to glycosylate proteins. and then lactate converted back into glucose in the liver. Ans: Cori Section: 16. . or hypoxia-inducible transcription factor Section: 16. B) Binding of substrate induces cleft closing. Ans: HIF-1. B) It has been found as one of the monosaccharides formed under prebiotic conditions. _____________________ increases the expression of most glycolytic enzymes and the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3. C) It is the only sugar used by the brain. Ans: carboxylation Section:16. and c Ans: D Section: Introduction 22 What is the purpose of phosphorylating glucose in cytosol? A) to trap glucose in the cell B) to destabilize glucose and facilitate the next series of metabolic steps C) to convert it to a more soluble form D) All of the above. D) All of the above. E) a and b Ans: E Section: 16. which is produced from fructose-6-phosphate by PFK2. E) None of the above.1 23 What two 3-carbon molecules are generated by the cleavage of fructose-1. C) All phosphorylate monosaccharides.6-bisphosphate Section:16. D) a and b E) a. Ans: fructose-2.1 24 What is a common mechanistic feature of kinases? A) Phosphoryl groups are transferred from AMP to an acceptor.6-bisphosphate? A) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate B) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate C) pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate D) enolase and 2-phosphoglycerate E) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate Ans: B Section: 16.4 20 The first step in gluconeogenesis is the ___________________ of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate.

C) The thioester allows the two-step reaction to be coupled so the second reaction.1 4 25 What reaction is catalyzed by aldolase? A) isomerization of DHAP to GAP B) ligation of GAP and DHAP C) reversible cleavage of F-1.1 30 What are the primary metabolic fates of pyruvate? A) ethanol D) B) lactate E) C) acetyl CoA Ans: D Section: 16.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Ans: B Section: 16. Ans: A Section: 16.1 All of the above.3-bisphosphoglycerate B) diacylglycerol E) 1. .1 26 What is the function of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase? A) oxidation by NAD+ and formation of acyl-phosphate B) oxidation of the alcohol to an aldehyde C) dehydration and dephosphorylation of GAP D) hydrolysis of GAP E) None of the above.1 28 What is substrate level phosphorylation? A) phosphorylation of AMP by ATP B) ATP synthesis when the phosphate donor is a substrate with high phosphoryl transfer potential C) phosphorylation of glycolytic intermediates D) phosphorylation of ATP coupled to an ion gradient E) ATP and AMP synthesis from two molecules of ADP Ans: B Section: 16. Ans: C Section: 16. the energetically unfavorable phosphorylation.1 27 What is the function of a thioester intermediate such as the one formed from GAP? A) It speeds up the actual reaction so that more product can be made. None of the above. can proceed. B) The thioester shifts the equilibrium of the first stage of the reaction. D) The thioester intermediate induces a conformational change that alters the enzyme specificity.6-BP to DHAP and GAP D) cleavage of DHAP to GAP E) irreversible aldol condensation of DHAP and GAP Ans: C Section: 16.1 29 What is the additional metabolite that is required for the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2phosphoglycerate? A) 1-phosphoglycerate D) 2. E) The thioester prevents the formation of metabolically unfavorable side products.3-bisphosphoglycerate C) NADH Ans: D Section: 16.

B) Fructose is converted to fructose-1-phosphate.3 Short-Answer Questions 36 What astounding discovery was made by the Buchners? Ans: They were the first to dispute Pasteur’s assertion that fermentation required intact cells when they demonstrated that fermentation can occur in yeast extracts. How is fructose metabolized in adipose tissue? A) Fructose is cleaved to two molecules of GAP. E) C) lactate and alanine. This lower binding affinity allows this enzyme to become more active at high glucose concentrations. Would you expect its Km to be higher or lower than hexokinase? Ans: Glucokinase must be responsive to elevated blood-glucose concentrations. 5 All of the above. which saturate hexokinase. D) Fructose is cleaved to GAP and DHAP. Section: Introduction 37 Why do muscles need to generate ATP under aerobic and anaerobic conditions? Ans: Muscles initially function aerobically. Ans: A Section: 16. lactose and lactate. which enters the pathway. Hexokinase serves to . In order to generate sufficient ATP for energy demands during periods of extreme activity.3 fructose and alanine. The function of glucokinase is to phosphorylate glucose in liver cells as a means to regulate blood-sugar levels. depending on the tissue. D) sucrase.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 31 Fructose can enter glycolysis at two distinct points. D) B) pyruvate and oxaloacetate. 34 The primary raw materials for gluconeogenesis are A) galactose and sucrose. thus it should have a higher Km. B) elastase. when bursts of energy are required. E) Fructose is converted to glucose.1 32 Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency of A) lactase. the muscle depends on activity-dependent anaerobiosis. However. None of the above.1 33 How are the glycolytic enzymes regulated? A) transcriptional control B) reversible phosphorylation C) allosteric control Ans: D Section: 16. C) lactose.2 D) E) E) none of the above. Section: Introduction 38 Both hexokinase and glucokinase phosphorylate glucose. Ans: C Section: 16. Ans: C Section: 16. 35 How many high-energy phosphate bonds are expended in gluconeogenesis? A) three B) six C) two D) four E) one Ans: B Section: 16. the oxygen supply does not meet the demand. C) Fructose is converted to fructose-6-phosphate.

Section: 16. and has higher affinity for glucose. it is isomerized into GAP. This genetic disease is referred to as galactosemia.3 44 How is glycolysis maintained under anaerobic conditions? Ans: Pyruvate can be reduced to either lactate or ethanol. which then allows phosphorylation at the number 1 carbon. Section: 16. there is far more DHAP than GAP. dihydroxyacetone-phosphate is converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.1 40 At equilibrium.2 39 What two isomerization reactions occur in glycolysis? Why are these steps necessary? Ans: Glucose-6-phosphate is isomerized to fructose-6-phosphate. Section: 16. galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase transfers a uridyl group from UDP-Glc to Gal-1P to produce UDP Gal.1 43 Give the reactions by which glycerol (from fats) can be metabolized into pyruvate or synthesized into glucose. utilizing both of the molecules formed from fructose-1.1 6 42 Describe the biochemical explanation for galactosemia.6-bisphosphate cleavage. which is due to the driving force of the tautamerization of the enol to the more stable ketone. which leads to elevated levels of galactose in the blood and urine. resulting in conversion of DHAP into GAP by the enzyme. Section: 16. Individuals deficient in galactose1-phosphate uridyl transferase activity cannot metabolize galactose. which can then either proceed down glycolysis to pyruvate or up gluconeogenesis to glucose. Section: 16. Ans: H+ CH2OH HO C H CH2OH glycerol ATP ADP CH2OH HO C H -2 NAD + NADH CH2OH O C CH2OPO3-2 dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glycerol kinase CH2OPO 3 glycerol phosphate Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase After the glycerol is converted into DHAP. Yet the conversion of DHAP by triose phosphate isomerase proceeds readily. Ans: Galactose is metabolized by conversion to Gal-1-P by galactokinase. Section: 16. Section: 16. Later in the pathway. Then UDP-Gal is epimerized to UDP-Glc.1 41 How is the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate accompanied by ATP formation? Ans: The enol phosphate possesses very high potential for phosphoryl transfer. UDP-galactose is a necessary intermediate in the metabolism of galactose.1 . converting an aldose to a ketose.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis phosphorylate glucose (and other hexoses) in the cytosol. and this reaction is accompanied by the oxidation of NADH to regenerate NAD+. Why? Ans: The GAP formed is immediately removed by subsequent reactions. or a lower Km value. The enzyme.

and the hydrolysis of glucose 6phosphate. citrate serves as a cell indicator. whereas ATP. alanine. M4 produces lactate so that glycolysis can continue under anaerobic conditions.28 in the text shows the glycolytic path activation by F-2. rather than hexokinase? Ans: Phosphofructokinase catalyzes the first committed step in the glycolytic pathway. if citrate levels are high. which is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. and fewer glucose molecules are metabolized. Gluconeogenesis is activated by citrate and acetyl CoA and inhibited by F-2.6-bisphosphate hydrolysis.6-BP. In contrast. the enzyme is inhibited. the molecule is committed to entering the glycolytic path. Section: 16. Section: 16. Figure 16. fructose 1.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 45 How does citrate influence glycolysis? Ans: Phosphofructokinase is inhibited by citrate. High levels of citrate in the cytoplasm means that biosynthetic precursors are abundant. The two forms differ in their sensitivity to pyruvate. and ADP. and protons inhibit glycolysis.4 48 Which metabolic steps differ from glycolysis in gluconeogenesis? Ans: There are three irreversible steps in glycolysis. citrate.6-BP.4 50 Describe the two isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase. but are similar in structure. Section: 16.4 . Ans: Two forms exist. called M and H.6-BP.2 7 46 Why is it more sensible for phosphofructokinase to be an important control step. Section: 16. AMP. which predominate in skeletal and heart muscle. respectively. H4 functions primarily to oxidize lactate to pyruvate. Thus. In contrast. In this sense. Thus. glycolytic control would not be maintained by tight regulation of hexokinase. and can form tetramers in various H:M ratios. Section: 16. and so there is no need to degrade additional glucose for this purpose. AMP. and F-1.2 47 What two functions are attributed to substrate cycles? Ans: The substrate cycles regulate glycolytic path flux by amplifying metabolic signals and they generate body heat produced by the hydrolysis of ATP. production of G6P is the first step in many different paths. At this point. which require four different steps in gluconeogenesis: pyruvate conversion to phosphoenolpyruvate via an oxaloacetate intermediate. which serves as a fuel for aerobic metabolism. The two forms are products of different genes. Section: 16.3 49 How are gluconeogenesis and glycolysis regulated reciprocally? Ans: The enzymes involved in two substrate cycles are control points.

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