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BULETINUL INSTITUTULUI POLITEHNIC DIN IAS I Publicat de Universitatea Tehnic a ,,Gheorghe Asachi din Ias i Tomul LV (LIX), Fasc. 1, 2009 Sect ia CONSTRUCT II. ARHITECTURA

BY

Abstract. A numerical simulation of plate loading test, in order to underlines the size effect on settlements and derived values of geotechnical parameters, is shown. The study is based on the comparison between the results obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM) using the Mohr-Coulomb soil model and by some observations from literature. The obtained numerical results revealed that the subgrade reaction coefcient is strictly dependent on parameters like size of the loaded area and loading magnitude, and thus completely general and generic, and not a fundamental material property of soil that can somehow be determined rationally, as often one claims to be. Key Words: Plate Loading Test; Finite Element Method; Winkler Model; Coefcient of Subgrade Reaction; Elastic Continuum Model.

1. Introduction The key aspect in the design of exible structural elements in contact with bearing soils is the way in which soil reaction, referred to qualitatively as p, is assumed or accounted for in analysis. A magnitude and distribution of p might be preliminary assumed, or some mathematical relationship could be incorporated into the analysis itself, so that p is calculated as part of the analysis. In common practice, a simple and relatively crude mathematical model for p, the well-known Winklers Hypothesis, is (still) routinely used to eliminate the bearing soil reaction as a variable in the problem solution. In its basic form, Winklers Hypothesis assumes that the soil medium is a system of identical, independent, closely spaced, discrete and linearly elastic springs and ratio between contact pressure, p, and settlement, w, produced by load application at an arbitrary point, i, on the contact surface, is given by the coefcient of subgrade reaction, ks (or spring stiffness). Mathematically, this is expressed as (1) ks = pressure . settlement

One critical shortcoming is the difculty in evaluating the coefcient of subgrade reaction, ks , on a rational base. ks is by no means an intrinsic property of

Corresponding

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the soil. Its value depends not only on soil stiffness, but also on various geometricmechanical factors (e.g. geometry and stiffness of structural element/soil).Typical ranges of subgrade reaction coefcient can be found in the literature [1], but great care is required owing to the problem-dependent nature of the parameter. For a given soil, appropriate values for beams, rafts, laterally loaded piles and exible walls are all different [2]. Another approach to eliminate p as a variable in the problem solution, is the elastic continuum idealization, were generally soil is assumed to be linearly elastic half space and isotropic for the sake of simplicity. This approach provides much more information on the stress and deformation within soil mass compared to Winkler model, and it has the important advantage of simplicity of the input parameters, the Youngs modulus (and Poissons ratio). Both approaches, Winkler and elastic continuum idealization, requires appropriate values for the input parameters, subgrade reaction coefcient and Youngs modulus (and Poissons ratio), ks and Es , , respectively. A direct method to estimate both Es and ks is plate loading test (PLT) that it is done with circular plates or equivalent rectangular plates. PLT provides a direct measurement af the compressibility and bearing capacity of soil and essentially consists in loading a rigid plate and determining the settlements corresponding to each load increment. The results of a PLT are presented as applied contact pressure versus settlement curves (Fig. 1). The interpretation of results (deformation properties) is usually made using isotropic elastic theory because of its convenience. Thus geotechnical parameters as Youngs modulus and coefcient of subgrade reaction, may be derived as follows.

pl Applied pressure, p wl

kp = pl wl

Settlement, y

p w

Using elastic theory, the settlement of a rigid surface plate of diameter D, with uniform load p applied on a semi-innite isotropic soil characterised by Youngs modulus Es and Poissons ratio , is given by [1], [3], . . . , [8] (2) wl =

pl D 1 2 , 4 Es

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pl D 1 2 . 4 wl

The coefcient of subgrade reaction, ks , is the initial slope of the curve (Fig. 1) until the limit pressure, pl , is reached. The following equation, which is produced by the theory of elasticity, comparaison of eqs. (1) and (2), may be used to determine the value of ks [1]: (4) ks = 4Es . D (1 2 )

Eq. (4) clearly demonstrates that the subgrade reaction coefcient is not a soil parameter and it depends, for the same soil, primarly on the size of the loaded area . Thus, if ones uses results from a PLT to evaluating ks for full sized footing, it is appropriate to adjust the ks value obtained from PLT. Terzaghi [2] proposed that ks , for full sized footings, could be obtained from PLT using the following equations: (5) ks = k p Bp , B for clayey soils;

2

(6)

ks = k p

B + Bp 2B

where B p is the plate diameter (or side dimension of the square plate) used in the PLT to produce k p (the value of ks for bearing plate) and B side dimension of full sized footing. In the present paper, according to these uncertainties, with use of nite element (FE) software, the effect of side dimension of loading plate on settlements and derived values of geotechnical parameters are investigated for diameters D = = (0.1, . . . , 3.0) m. The plate is assummed to be rigid and smooth. 2. Finite Element Model All FE analysis were performed with an axis-symmetric mesh, because of the problem symmetry. The domain radius and height are 5D [9], [10]. A total of 1, 015, 15-noded triangular elements with a fourth order interpolation for displacements and twelve Gauss points for the numerical integration were used to dene the nite element mesh shown in Fig. 2. Near the edges of a loaded area were stress concentrations are expected, mesh is rened by reducing the size of the elements [10]. Analysis is performed under displacement control by a prescribed vertical displacement boundary condition applied to the soil surface below the position of the loading plate [11], [12].

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In order to prevent any rigid body motions of the whole problem domain, it is assumed that both the displacement in the horizontal and vertical direction are zero for all nodes along the bottom boundary of the mesh. On the vertical side boundaries, the horizontal displacement have been assumed to be zero too [11], [12].

D/2 D/2 4D

4D

Each FE calculation is divided in two phases. The behaviour of the ground depends on the current stresses and strains. It is therefore essential to prescribe the stress conditions which exist in the ground prior to the start of the event to be analysed. Thus in the rst phase the initial soil stresses are generated [11]. In the second phase the displacement were set to zero and the loading begins. The loading is simulated by a prescribed displacement as described above. The soil behavior it is assumed to be described by the Mohr-Coulomb model, having Youngs modulus, Es = 30 MPa, Poissons ratio, = 0.3, cohesion, c = = 1 kPa and angle of shearing resistance, = 30 . 3. Results and Discussions Results from sixteen nite element analyses, using the mesh shown in Fig. 2 and with properties given above, are shown in Fig. 3. Dry condition were assumed and the soil had a bulk unit weight = 17 kN/m3 . The results from PLT can be used to directly estimate the settlement of a footing and some geotechnical parameters may be derived too. Among them the stressstrain modulus (Youngs modulus), Es , and the subgrade reaction

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coefcient ks , are of most interest. These values are commonly used in computing estimates of foundation settlements. Making the assumption that the plate settlement is the same of an elastic half-space, until the limit pressure is reached, the stressstrain modulus, Es , can be expressed from results of a plate load test in terms of the ratio of bearing pressure to plate settlement, as stated in eq. (3). This assimilation is not truly justied because under the edges of the loaded area a local punch failure may occur and thus no more being an elastic equilibrium in all points beneath plate. Therefore Boussinesqs solution may lead to erroneous outcomes especially in case of cohesionless soils with low punch strength.

Load, [kPa] 0 1 2 3 Settlement, [mm] 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

D = 10 cm D = 20 cm D = 40 cm D = 60 cm D = 80 cm D = 100 cm D = 120 cm D = 140 cm D = 160 cm D = 180 cm D = 200 cm D = 220 cm D = 240 cm D = 260 cm D = 280 cm D = 300 cm

To underline the foregoing, Fig. 4 shows the plastied zone by means of relative shearing stress, developed in bearing soil for the case of plate with diameter D = 100 cm that corresponds to an aapplied load by only 4.7 kPa (prescribed vertical displacement by 0.01 mm). The relative shear stress is dened as (7) rel = , max were is the maximum value of shear stress (i.e. the radius of the Mohr stress circle). The parameter max is the maximum value of shear stress for the case were

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the Mohrs circle is expanded to touch the Coulomb failure envelope keeping the intermediate principal stress constant.

D/2=5 cm D/2=50 cm 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0

1.000 0.900 0.800 0.700 0.600 0.500 0.400 0.300 0.200 0.100

-0.000

35 30 25 E , [MPa] 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 p/w, [MPa/m]

D = 10 cm D = 20 cm D = 40 cm D = 60 cm D = 80 cm D = 100 cm D = 120 cm D = 140 cm D = 160 cm D = 180 cm D = 200 cm D = 220 cm D = 240 cm D = 260 cm D = 280 cm D = 300 cm

Applying the relation (3) for each one load-settlement curve shown in Fig. 3, the results dependency vs. p/w ratio is shown in Fig. 5; one can easily observe that the error in evaluation of stressstrain modulus, Es , by PLT is larger for plates with diameter less than 100 cm. The explanation is that the bearing soil under the loaded area consume its elasic strain more quickly (almost instantaneously) then

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in case of the plates with larger diameter (D 100 cm) because of small contact area. For example, in case of plate with diameter D = 10 cm, to an applied load by 10 kPa (prescribed vertical displacement by only 0.05 mm), the soil beneath the plate is almost completely plasticized (Fig. 4).

7 6 Settlement, [mm] 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

70 kPa 60 kPa 50 kPa 40 kPa 30 kPa 20 kPa

Fig. 6. Relation between plate diameter and settlement under same load per unit area.

As it is known, the bearing capacity of cohesionless soils decreases with the increase in size of the loading area and thus is essentially depenedent of the size of the loading area. Therefore the scale effect is another explanation for the larger error in evaluation of stressstrain modulus, Es , by PLT with (relatively) small plates. In Fig. 6 this is illustrated by plotting the settlement versus plate diameter relationship for various loading magnitude. As it can be seen, only for large diametres (D 100 cm) the settlement increases proportional with the size of the loading surface.

45 40 ks , [MPa/m] 35 30 25 20 15 10 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 Plate diameter, [cm]

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As it shown forward, subgrade reaction coefcient, ks , can be obtained from PLT results by means of elastic half-space solution. Therefore, applying eq. (4), the derived values for subgrade reaction coefcient are plotted in Fig. 7 for plates having diameters D = 100, . . . , 300 cm. It is evident from Fig. 7 that the value of the coefcient of subgrade reaction, ks , varies according to the size of the plate used in PLT. Thus ks has no unique value and depends on the size of the loaded area, it decreases with increasing size of plate. The use of values for ks , usually recommended in literature (e.g. [3]), seems to be, therefore, meaningless. 4. Conclusions Results of an numerical analyses of plate loading test to evaluate settlements and derived values of geotechnical parameters are presented. A total of sixteen nite element analyses were performed using rigid and smooth circular plates having diameters D = (0.1, . . . , 3.0) m. Due to the fact that soils under loading exhibit elastoplastic behavior, the use of derived stressstrain modulus, Es , through the PLT, can lead to misleading outcomes. The obtained relation between plate diameter and settlement under same load per unit area is in good agreement with some observation presented in literature [1], [5], [8]. A common question asked by a structural engineer to a geotechnical engineer is What is the subgrade reaction coefcient (ks ) at this particular site?. Unfortunately, it has no direct, let alone a simple answer. As indicate the obtained results ks is not a intrinsic soil property. Is just a response to a given load over a given area and depends not only on the deformation characteristics of the soil but also on the size of contact area between plate and subgrade.

Received, March, 12, 2009

1 ,,Gheorghe

Asachi Technical University, Jassy, Department of Transportation Infrastructure and Foundations and 2 Department of Structural Mechanics

REFERENCES

1. Stanciu A., Lungu I., Fundat ii. Vol. 1. Edit. Tehnic a, Bucures ti, 2006. 2. Terzaghi K., Evaluation of Coeffcients of Subgrade Reaction. G eotechnique, 5, 4, 297326 (1955). 3. Bowles J.E., Foundation Analysis and Design. 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996. 4. Poulos H.G., Davis E.H., Elastic Solutions for Soil and Rock Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1974.

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5. Terzaghi K., Peck R.B., Mesri G., Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966. 6. Timoshenko S.P., Goodier J.N., Theory of Elasticity. 1st Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951. 7. Tsytovich N., Soil Mechanics. Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1976. 8. Caquot A., Kerisel J., Tratat de mecanica p am anturilor (transl. from French.). Edit. Tehnic a, Bucures ti, 1968. 9. Azizi F., Applied Analyses in Geotechnics. E & FN Spon, London, 2000. 10. Desai C.S., Christian J., Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering. McGrawHill, New York, 1977. 11. Potts D.M., Zdravkovic L., Finite Element Analysis In Geotechnical Engineering. Theory. Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 1999. 12. Potts D.M., Zdravkovic L., Finite Element Analysis In Geotechnical Engineering. Application. Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 2001.

A MODELAREA NUMERICA INCERCARII CU PLACA (Rezumat) Este prezentat a o simulare numeric aa ncerc arii cu placa, cu scopul evident ieirii inuent ei dimensiunilor asupra tas arilor s i parametrilor geotehnici derivat i. Studiul face comparat ie ntre rezultatele obt inute prin metoda elementului nit, utiliz and pentru teren modelul de comportare elasto-plastic a Mohr-Coulomb, s i unele observat ii din literatur a. Rezultatele numerice obt inute arat a c a valoarea coecientului de pat este strict dependent a de parametri ce tin de forma s i dimensiunile suprafet ei de nc arcare s i intensitatea nc arc arii. Astfel, coecientul de pat este o m arime generic as i nu o proprietate mecanic a a masivelor de p am ant, as a cum se pretinde adesea.

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