Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle
Use the following to answer questions 1-10: Choose the correct answer from the list below. Not all of the answers will be used. a) cytosol b) phosphorylation c) anaplerotic d) mitochondria e) cis-aconitate f) arsenite g) metabolon h) oxaloacetate i) inner membrane j) flavoproteins k) carbon dioxide l) glyoxylate cycle 1 ____________ Where does the citric acid cycle take place in the cell? Ans: d Section: Introduction 2 ____________ These proteins are tightly associated with FAD or FMN. Ans: j Section: 17.1 3 ____________ This is the intermediate between citrate and isocitrate. Ans: e Section: 17.2 4 ____________ This is the location of succinate dehydrogenase. Ans: i Section: 17.2 5 ____________ This TCA intermediate is both at the beginning and at the end of the citric acid cycle. Ans: h Section: 17.2 6 ____________ This is one of the products of the citric acid cycle. Ans: k
Ans: glyoxylate Section: 17. Ans: acetyl CoA Section: Introduction 12 In the citric acid cycle. energy production.2 7 ____________ This is a name suggested for associated multienzyme complexes in metabolism.4 9 ____________ This type of enzyme regulation process inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Ans: lysine Section: 17. Ans: Aconitase or succinate dehydrogenase Section: 17.2 13 E1 of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex requires the coenzyme ________________ for proper activity. and biosynthesis.3 10 ____________ This is the name applied to metabolic reactions that replenish citric acid cycle intermediates that are depleted because they were used for biosynthesis. Ans: g Section: 17.1 14 E2 of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contains a lipoyl group that is covalently attached to a _______________ residue of the enzyme.4
Fill in the Blank Questions
11 Carbons from carbohydrate enter the citric acid cycle in the form of _______________.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle Section: 17.5
.1 15 _______________ is a citric acid cycle enzyme that is also an example of an iron-sulfur protein. Ans: b Section: 17. Ans: f Section: 17.2 8 ____________ This substance is toxic because it reacts with the neighboring sulfhydryl groups of dihydrolipoyl groups and blocks its reoxidation to lipoamide. the __________ is produced by a substrate-level phosphorylation. Ans: thiamine pyrophospate Section: 17. Ans: c Section: 17. Ans: GTP Section: 17.2 16 The ____________ cycle is a process by which plants and some bacteria can convert twocarbon acetyl units into four-carbon units (succinate) for glucose synthesis.
lipoic acid. and c C) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Ans: C Section: 17. and biotin D) thiamine. Ans: oxalosuccinate Section: 17.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle 17 During the oxidation of isocitrate. b. niacin. b. Ans: high Section: 17. B) acetyl CoA E) None of the above. Ans: Isocitrate Section: 17. oxidation C) oxidation. riboflavin. riboflavin. transfer to CoA D) oxidation.2 18 In general. C) oxaloacetate Ans: B Section: 17. niacin. C) tricarboxylic acid cycle.2 20 Beri-beri is caused by a deficiency of __________________.2 23 What enzyme(s) is (are) responsible for the following reaction? Pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ → acetyl CoA + NADH + H+ + CO2 A) acetyl CoA synthetase D) a and b B) pyruvate decarboxylase E) a. lipoic acid. decarboxylation.3 19 ________________ is the first citric acid cycle intermediate to be oxidized. B) Cori cycle. transfer to CoA. decarboxylation E) None of the above. and lipoic acid E) none of the above
. the citric acid cycle is inhibited under ________ (high. riboflavin. Ans: A Section: 17. oxidation.1 24 What are the steps involved (in order) in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA? A) decarboxylation. the intermediate that is decarboxylated to form αketoglutarate is ______________________.1 25 Which of the following vitamins are precursors to coenzymes that are necessary for the formation of acetyl CoA from pyruvate? A) thiamine. Ans: thiamine Section: 17. and biotin C) thiamine.
22 What molecule initiates the citric acid cycle by reacting with oxaloacetate? A) pyruvate D) All of the above. transfer to CoA. Ans: D Section: Introduction D) E) a and c. and pantothenic acid B) thiamine. transfer to CoA B) decarboxylation. pantothenic acid. low) energy conditions.4
Multiple Choice Questions
21 The citric acid cycle is also known as the A) Krebs cycle. niacin. a. and c. riboflavin.
A) oxidation D) ligation B) reduction E) None of the above.1
26 Which of the following functions as a “flexible swinging arm” when it transfers the reaction intermediate from one active site to the next? A) FAD B) NAD+ C) lipoamide D) thiamine pyrophosphate E) coenzyme A Ans: C Section: 17.1 and Table 17.2 29 In which reaction is GTP (or ATP) directly formed in the citric acid cycle? A) conversion of succinyl CoA to succinate B) decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate C) conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate D) All of the above.2 28 What is/are the chemical change(s) involved in the conversion of citrate into isocitrate? A) hydration followed by dehydration D) dehydration followed by hydration B) oxidation E) a and b C) oxidation followed by reduction Ans: D Section: 17. E) None of the above.2 31 Which of these compounds is oxidized by a multienzyme complex that requires five different coenzymes? A) D) OH H
C C H
O 2C O
CH2 CH CO2
CH2 CH2 C
. Ans: A Section: 17.2 30 In which step of the citric acid cycle is FADH 2 formed? A) the conversion of succinate to malate B) the conversion of succinate to oxaloacetate C) the conversion of succinate to fumarate D) the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate E) none of the above Ans: C Section: 17.1 27 Formation of citrate from acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate is a(n) _________ reaction.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle Ans: A Section: 17. C) condensation Ans: C Section: 17.
Ans: A Section: 17.2 37 Why is the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate a necessary step of the citric acid cycle? Ans: Citrate is a tertiary alcohol that cannot be oxidized. D) all of the above. Ans: Acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD+ + FAD + GDP + Pi → 2 CO2 + 3 NADH + 3 H+ + FADH2 + GTP + CoA Section: 17.4
36 Give the net equation of the citric acid cycle. Ans: 1. B) acetate.3 33 Approximately how many ATP or GTP equivalents are produced during one turn of the citric acid cycle? A) 10 B) 6 C) 9 D) 12 E) None of the above. thiamine pyrophosphate: thiamine. which is a 2° alcohol that can be oxidized.2 38 List the five coenzymes that are required for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and α– ketoglutarate and give the essential nutrient (vitamin) that is required for each. and c α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase C) citrate synthase (in bacteria) Ans: E Section: 17. b.2 34 In addition to pyruvate dehydrogenase.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle C)
O O 2C CH2 C CO 2Section: 17. lipoamide: lipoic acid
. C) oxaloacetate. vitamin B1 2. what other enzymes are key regulatory sites in the citric acid cycle? A) isocitrate dehydrogenase D) a and b B) E) a.2
32 Which of the following conditions will activate pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase which catalyzes the phorphorylation and inactivation of E1 in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A) elevated concentrations of NADH and ATP B) elevated concentrations of NAD+ and ADP C) Ca2+ D) insulin E) elevated concentrations of acetyl-CoA Ans: A Section: 17. The isomerization converts the 3° alcohol into isocitrate.3 35 The glyoxylate cycle enables plants to survive using only A) pyruvate. Section: 17. E) none of the above. Ans: B Section: 17.
The transfer is usually in the other direction. Ans: The enzyme nucleoside diphosphokinase reversibly transfers a phosphoryl group from GTP to ADP according the reaction: GTP + ADP GDP + ATP Conversly. 2. 1 FADH2 and one GTP. Give the name of the enzyme that catalyzes this reaction and give the structures of the reactants and products of this reaction. and the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase components are identical.1 43 What is the energy source that drives the condensation of oxaloacetate and and acetyl CoA to produce citrate? Ans: Citrate synthase catalyzes the condensation of acetyl CoA and oxalacetate to form citryl CoA.1 42 Why is the observed electron transfer from FADH 2 to NAD+ unusual? Ans: It is unusual because the electrons are passed to the NAD + from the FADH2. The hydrolysis of the high energy thioester drives the reaction toward citrate. This reaction is easily reversible.2 44 How does the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutatarate resemble that of pyruvate decarboxylation? Ans: Both are α-ketoacids.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle 3.2 + GDP + P i O2CCH2CH2CO2 succinate +
41 What reaction serves to link glycolysis and the citric acid cycle? Ans: Pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ → acetyl CoA + NADH + H++ CO2 Section: 17.1 & 17. a phosphoryl group can be transferred from ATP to a GDP forming GTP.5 ATP are produced when two electrons are transferred from NADH to oxygen by the electron transport chain. Section: 17. which are decarboxylated.1 & 17. which has high transfer potential. FAD: riboflavin. O succinyl-CoA synthetase Ans:
O2CCH2CH2C SCoA succinyl-CoA Section: 17. The enzymatic complexes and mechanisms are similar. Section: 17. coenzyme A: pantothenic acid Section: 17. Section: 17. 1. Section: 17.2 39 Explain why a GTP is energetically equivalent to an ATP in metabolism.2 40 Give the reaction in the citric acid cycle by which the energy is conserved in the formation of a phosphoanhydride bond by substrate level phosphorylation.2 45 How many ATP equivalents are produced from the total oxidation of one pyruvate to 3 CO 2. The hydrolysis of the thioester of citryl CoA forms citrate and regenerates the CoA.5 ATP are produced when two electrons are transferred from FADH 2 to oxygen by the electron
. Ans: The total oxidation of one pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle produces 4 NADH. and involve formation of a thioester with CoA. vitamin B2 5. NAD+: niacin 4.
5 ATP equivalents are produced. (4 × 2. Section: 17. The carbons that leave as CO 2 come from oxaloacetate that condensed with acetyl CoA.2 49 How does the term “mad as a hatter” realistically reflect the condition? Ans: Hatters used mercury in their craft. a GTP is equal to an ATP. Ans: No. and it is directly associated with the electron transport chain. However. the mercury would be absorbed and would react with sulfhydryls.7 kJ/mol for the reaction catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase. such as those on the dihydrolipoyl groups. So a total of 12. Section: 17. Both of these reactions involve the oxidation of a secondary alcohol. the loss of CO2 makes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate very favorable. Give an explanation as to why the oxidation of isocitrate is so exergonic. the carbons are different.5) Section: 17.2
.5 + 1 = 12. eventually all carbons are turned over. This resulted in neurological pathologies. + Ans: NAD+ NADH + H O O CoA CH3C SCoA CH3C CO2 OH CoASH CO2 O CCH CCH CO
2 2 2
O CH3C CO2 ATP ADP + Pi
48 Are the acetyl carbons that enter the citric acid cycle the exact same carbons that leave as CO 2? Briefly explain. since succinate is symmetrical.2 47 How is succinate dehydrogenase unique when compared to the other enzymes in the citric acid cycle? Ans: It is the only enzyme embedded in the mitochondrial membrane. which essentially eliminates the reverse reaction. The conversion of malate to oxaloacetate does not produce CO 2 and is endergonic. The decarboxylation of oxalosuccinate produces CO2 gas.1 & 17.2 46 The ΔG˚′ = −21 kJ/mol for the reaction catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase yet the ΔG˚′ = +29.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle transport chain. Ans: The oxidation of isocitrate produces oxalosuccinate. Section:17.5 + 1.3 50 Give a sequence of metabolic reactions by which all six carbons in citrate could be obtained from two pyruvate molecules. Frequently. Section: 17. Energetically. and the carbons randomize. In contrast.