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STUDY OF QUANTITY OF CAESIN PRESENT IN DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF MILK

Introduction Milk is a complete diet as it contains in its Minerals, Vitamins Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats And Water. Average composition of milk from different sources is given below: Source of milk Cow Human Goat Sheep Water (%) 87.1 87.4 87.0 82.6 Mineral s (%) 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.9 Protei ns(%) 3.4 1.4 3.3 5.5 Fats (%) 3.9 4.0 4.2 6.5 Carbohydra tes (%) 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.5

Caesin is a major protein constituent in milk & is a mixed phosphor-protein. Casein has isoelectric pH of about 4.7 and can be easily separated around this isoelectric pH. It readily dissolves in dilute acids and alkalies. Casein is present in milk as calcium caseinate in the form of micelles. These micelles have negative charge and on adding acid to milk the negative charges are neutralized. Ca2+-Caesinate + 2CH3COOH(aq)^Caesin+(CH3COO)2Ca

AIM To study the quantity of Casein in different samples of milk.

REQUIREMENTS > > > Glass rod Beakers (250 ml) Filter-paper

> > > > > > >

Weight box Filtration flask Test tubes Porcelain dish Different samples of milk 1 % acetic acid solution Ammonium sulphate solution

Theory Natural milk is an opaque white fluid Secreted by the mammary glands of Female mammal . The main constituents of natural milk are Protein, Carbohydrate, Mineral Vitamins,Fats and Water and is a complete balanced diet . Fresh milk is sweetish in taste. However , when it is kept for long time at a temperature of 5 degree it become sour because of bacteria present in air . These bacteria convert lactose of milk into lactic acid which is sour in taste. In acidic

condition casein of milk starts separating out as a precipitate. When the acidity in milk is sufficient and temperature is around 36 degree, it forms semi-solid mass, called curd. PROCEDURE 1. A clean dry beaker has been taken, followed by putting 20 ml of cow¶s milk into it and adding 20 ml of saturated ammonium sulphate solution slowly and with stirring. Fat along with Caesin was precipitate out. 2. The solution was filtered and transferred the precipitates in another beaker. Added about 30 ml of water to the precipitate. Only Caesin dissolves in water forming milky solution leaving fat undissolved.

3. The milky solution was heated to about 40oC and add 1% acetic acid solution drop-wise, when casein got precipitated. 1. 4. Filtered the precipitate, washed with water and the precipitate was allowed to dry. 2. 5. Weighed the dry solid mass in a previously weighed watch glass. 3. 6. The experiment was repeated with other samples of milk.

Determination of Contents of Cold Drinks
*Introduction* The era of cold drinks began in 1952 but the industrialization in India marked its beginning with launching of Limca and Goldspot by parley group of companies. Since, the beginning of cold drinks was highly profitable and luring, many multinational companies launched their brands in India like Pepsi and Coke. Now days, it is observed in general that majority of people viewed Sprite, Fanta and Limca to give feeling of lightness, while Pepsi and Thumps Up to activate pulse and brain.

*Theory* Cold drinks of different brands are composed of alcohol, carbohydrates, carbon dioxide, phosphate ions etc. These soft drinks give feeling of warmth, lightness and have a tangy taste which is liked by everyone. Carbon dioxide is responsible for the formation of froth on shaking the bottle. The carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid which is also responsible for the tangy taste. Carbohydrates are the naturally occurring organic compounds and are major source of energy to our body. General formula of carbohydrates is CX (H2O)Y. On the basis of their molecule size carbohydrates are classified as:Monosaccharide, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 .It occurs in Free State in the ripen grapes in bones and also in many sweet fruits. It is also present in human blood to the extent of about 0.1%. Sucrose is one of the most useful disaccharides in our daily life. It is widely distributed in nature in juices, seeds and also in flowers of many plants. The main source of sucrose is sugar cane juice which contain 15-20 % sucrose and sugar beet which has about 10-17 % sucrose. The molecular formula of sucrose is C12H22O11. It is produced by a mixture of glucose and fructose. It is non-reducing in nature whereas glucose is reducing. Cold drinks are a bit acidic in nature and their acidity can be measured by finding their pH value. The pH values also depend upon the acidic contents such as citric acid and phosphoric acid. *Aim* Comparitive Study and Qualitative Analysis of different brands of Cold Drinks available in market. *Apparatus*
y y y

Test Tubes Test Tube Holder Test Tube Stand

y y y y y y y y

Stop Watch Beaker Bunsen Burner pH Paper Tripod Stand China Dish Wire Gauge Water Bath

*Chemicals Required*
y y y y y y y y

Iodine Solution Potassium Iodide Sodium Hydroxide Lime Water Fehling͛s A & B Solution Concentrated Nitric Acid Benedict Solution Ammonium Molybdate

*Detection Of pH* Experiment Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and put on the pH paper. The change in colour of pH paper was noticed and was compared with standard pH scale. Observation
Sr. No. 1 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Colour Change Pinkish pH Value 2ʹ3

2 3 5

Sprite Limca Fanta

Dark Orange Light Orange Orange

3 4 3ʹ4

Inference Soft Drinks are generally acidic because of the presence of citric acid and phosphoric acid. pH values of cold drinks of different brand are different due to the variation in amount of acidic content. *Test For Carbon Dioxide* Experiment As soon as the bottles were opened, one by one the samples were passed through lime water. The lime water turned milky. Observation
Sr. No. Name Of The Drink Time Taken Conclusion

(sec)
1 2 3 4 Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta 28 20 38 36 CO2 IS PRESENT CO2 IS PRESENT CO2 IS PRESENT CO2 IS PRESENT

Inference All the soft drinks contain dissolved carbon dioxide in water. The carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in water to form carbonic acid, which is responsible for its tangy taste. Chemical Reaction Ca(OH)2 (s) + CO2 (g) ĺ CaCO3 (s) + H2O(l) *Test For Glucose*

Experiment Glucose is a reducing sugar acid. Its presence is detected by the following test:1.Benedict¶s Reagent Test Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a few drops of Benedict¶s reagent were added. The test tube was heated for few seconds. Formation of reddish color confirmed the presence of glucose in cold drinks. Observation
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta Observation Reddish Colour Precipitate Reddish Colour Precipitate Reddish Colour Precipitate Reddish Colour Precipitate Conclusion Glucose is Present Glucose is Present Glucose is Present Glucose is Present

Inference All the samples gave positive test for glucose with Benedict¶s reagent. Hence all the drinks contain glucose. 2. Fehling¶s Solution Test Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a few drops of Fehling¶s A solution and Fehling¶s B solution was added in equal amount. The test tube was heated in water bath for 10 minutes. Appearance of brown precipitate confirmed the presence of glucose in cold drinks. Observation
Sr. No. 1 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Observation Reddish Brown Precipitate Reddish Brown Precipitate Reddish Brown Conclusion Glucose is Present

2

Sprite

Glucose is Present

3

Limca

Glucose is Present

Precipitate 4 Fanta Reddish Brown Precipitate Glucose is Present

Inference All samples gave positive test for glucose with Fehling¶s (A & B) solutions. Hence all the cold drinks contain glucose. *Test For Phosphate* Experiment Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate test tubes and Ammonium Molybdate followed by concentrated Nitric Acid (HNO3) was added to it. The solution was heated. Appearance of canary-yellow precipitate confirmed the presence of phosphate ions in cold drinks. Observation
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta Observation Conclusion

Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present

Inference All the soft drinks samples gave positive test for phosphate ions. Hence all the cold drinks contain phosphate. *Test For Alcohol* Experiment Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate test tubes and Iodine followed by Potassium Iodide and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution was added to each test tube. Then the test tubes were heated in hot water bath for 30 minutes. Appearance of yellow coloured precipitate confirmed the presence of alcohol in cold drinks.

Observation
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta Observation Yellow Precipitate Yellow Precipitate Yellow Precipitate Yellow Precipitate Conclusion Alcohol is Present Alcohol is Present Alcohol is Present Alcohol is Present

Inference All the cold drinks samples gave positive test for alcohol. Hence all the cold drinks contain alcohol. Chemical Reaction CH3CH2OH + 4I2 + 6NaOH ĺ CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5H2O *Test for Sucrose* Experiment 5 ml samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate china dishes and were heated very strongly until changes occur. Black coloured residue left confirmed the presence of sucrose in cold drinks. Observation
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 Name Of The Drink Coca Cola Sprite Limca Fanta Observation Black Residue Black Residue Black Residue Black Residue Conclusion Sucrose is Present Sucrose is Present Sucrose is Present Sucrose is Present

Inference All the brands of cold drinks contain sucrose. But amount of sucrose varies in each brand of drink. Fanta contains highest amount of sucrose.

*Result* After conducting several tests, it was concluded that the different brands of cold drinks namely: 1. Coca Cola 2. Sprite 3. Limca 4. Fanta All contains glucose, alcohol, sucrose, phosphate and carbon dioxide. All cold drinks are acidic in nature. On comparing the pH value of different brands Coca Cola is the most acidic and Limca is least acidic of all the four brands taken. Among the four samples of cold drinks taken, Sprite has the maximum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide and Fanta has the minimum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide. *Precautions* Some of the precautions which need to be taken care of are ±
1. Concentrated solutions should be handled with immense care.

2. Hands should be washed thoroughly after performing each experiment. 3. If possible, one should wear hand gloves to prevent from any possible damage. 4. If chemicals come into contact with your skin or eyes, flush immediately with copious amounts of water. 5. Never leave burners unattended. Turn them off whenever you leave your workstation. 6. Never point a test tube or any vessel that you are heating at yourself or your neighbour. *Conclusion* DIS-ADVANTAGES OF COLD DRINKS 1. Soft drinks are little more harmful than sugar solution. As they contain sugar in large amount which cause problems in diabetes patients.

2. Soft drinks can cause weight gain as they interfere with the body¶s natural ability to suppress hunger feeling. 3. Soft drinks have ability to dissolve the calcium so they are also harmful for our bones. 4. Soft drinks contain ³phosphoric acid´ which has a pH of 2.8. So they can dissolve a nail in about 4 days. 5. For transportation of soft drinks syrup the commercial truck must use the hazardous matter place cards reserved for highly consive material. 6. Soft drinks have also ability to remove blood so they are very harmful to our body. USES OF COLD DRINKS 1. Cold drinks can be used as toilet cleaners. 2. They can remove rust spots from chrome car humpers. 3. They clean corrosion from car battery terminals. 4. Soft drinks are used as an excellent µdetergent¶ to remove grease from clothes. 5. They can loose a rusted bolt.

Adulterants in Food
TfflDRy The increasing number of food producers and the outstanding amount of import foodstuffs enables the producers to mislead and cheat consumers. To differentiate those who take advantage of legal rules from the ones who commit food adulteration is very difficult. The consciousness of consumers would be crucial. Ignorance and unfair market behavior may endanger consumer health and misleading can lead to poisoning. So we need simple screening, tests for their detection. In the past few decades, adulteration of food has become one of the serious problems. Consumption of adulterated food causes serious diseases like cancer, .diarrhoea., , .asthma., .ulcers., etc. Majority of fats, oils and butter are paraffin wax, castor oil and hydrocarbons. Red chilli powder is mixed with brick powder and pepper is mixed with dried papaya seeds. These adulterants can be easily identified by simple chemical tests. Several agencies .have been set up by the Government of India to remove adulterants from food stuffs. AGMARK ± acronym for agricultural marketing«.this organization certifies food products for their quality. Its objective is to promote the Grading and Standardization of agricultural and allied commodities. To detect the presence of adulterants in fat, oil and butter. REQUIREMENTS Test-tube, acetic anhydride, conc. H2SO4, acetic acid, conc. HNO3. PROCEDURE Common adulterants present in ghee and oil are paraffin wax, hydrocarbons, dyes and argemone oil. These are detected as follows : (i) Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicates the presence of wax or hydrocarbons. (ii) Adulteration of dyes in fat

Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. sulphuric acid and 4mL of acetic acid. Appearance of pink or red colour indicates presence of dye in fat. (iii) Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils

To small amount of oil in a test-tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 and shake. Appearance of red colour in the acid layer indicates presence of argemone oil. To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar REQUIREMENTS Test-tubes, dil. HCl. PROCEDURE Sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda and other insoluble substances which are detected as follows : (i) Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar

Take small amount of sugar in a test-tube and shake it with little water. Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not dissolve. (ii) Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda in sugar

To small amount of sugar in a test-tube, add few drops of dil. HCl. Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or washing soda in the given sample of sugar. To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper REQUIREMENTS Test-tubes, conc. HCl, dil. HNO3, KI solution PROCEDURE Common adulterants present in chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper are red coloured lead salts, yellow lead salts and dried papaya seeds respectively. They are detected as follows : (i) Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder

To a sample of chilli powder, add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of potassium iodide solution to the filtrate. Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of lead salts in chilli powder. (ii) Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder

To a sample of turmeric powder add conc. HCl. Appearance of magenta colour shows the presence of yellow oxides of lead in turmeric powder. (iii) Adulteration of brick powder in red chilli powder

Add small amount of given red chilli powder in beaker containing water. Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floats over water. (iv) Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper

Add small amount of sample of pepper to a beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles at the bottom. EXPERIMENT Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee II PROCEDURE Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicate the presence of wax or hydrocarbon. Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. H2SO4 and 4mL of acetic acid. To small amount of oil in a test tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 & shake. Take small amount of sugar in a test tube and shake it with little water. OBSERVATION Appearance of oil floating on the surface.

Adulteration of dyes in fat Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar

Appearance of pink colour. No red colour observed Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not dissolve. No brisk effervescence observed. Appearance of magenta colour No yellow ppt.

Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda in sugar Adeulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder Adulteration of brick powder in chilli powder Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper

To small amount of sugar in a test tube, add a few drops of dil. HCl. To sample of turmeric powder, add conc. HCl. To a sample of chilli powder, add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of KI solution to the filtrate. Add small amount of given red chilli powder in a beaker containing water. Add small amount of sample of pepper to beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod.

Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floats over water. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles at the bottom.

Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life to make sure that such foods do not cause any health hazard. It is not possible to ensure wholesome food only on visual examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ppm level. However, visual examination of the food before purchase makes sure to ensure absence of insects, visual fungus, foreign matters, etc. Therefore, due care taken by the consumer at the time of purchase of food after thoroughly examining can be of great help. Secondly, label declaration on packed food is very important for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value. It also helps in checking the freshness of the food and the period of best before use. The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place and food being prepared under unhygienic conditions. Such types of food may cause various diseases. Consumption of cut fruits being sold in unhygienic conditions should be avoided. It is always better to buy certified food from reputed shop.

Foaming Capacity Of Soaps
Lourdes Central School, Bejai, Mangalore Investigatory Project On Foaming Capacity Of Soaps Kenneth Lobo Class XII Contents Acknowledgements 3 Preface 4

Introduction 5 Commercial preparation 6 Introduction to experiment 9 Objective and theory 10 Procedure 11 Observation table 12 Result 13 Test for hardness 14 Bibliography 15 Acknowledgement I will treasure the knowledge imparted to me by Mrs. Anita Thomas, my grateful thanks to her for the able teaching and guidance. I thank Mr. Harsha Kumar, the Lab assistant for his cooperation. I also thank my parents and my friends for their constant support and cooperation. Preface Soaps and detergents remove dirt and grease from skin and clothes. But all soaps are not equally effective in their cleaning action. Soaps are the Na and K salts of higher fatty acids such as Palmitic acid, Stearic acid and Oleic acid. The cleansing action of soaps depends on the solubility of the long alkyl chain in grease and that of the -COONa or the -COOK part in water. Whenever soap is applied on a dirty wet cloth, the non polar alkyl group dissolves in grease while the polar -COONa part dissolves in water. In this manner, an emulsion is formed between grease and water which appears as foam. The washing ability of soap depends on foaming capacity, as well as the water used in cleaning. The salts of Ca and Mg disrupt the formation of micelle formation. The presence of such salts makes the water hard and the water is called hard water. These salts thus make the soap inefficient in its cleaning action.

Sodium Carbonate when added to hard water reacts with Ca and Mg and precipitates them out. Therefore sodium carbonate is used in the treatment of hard water. This project aims at finding the foaming capacity of various soaps and the action of Ca and Mg salts on their foaming capacity. Introduction Soap is an anionic surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning, which historically comes either in solid bars or in the form of a viscous liquid. Soap consists of sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids and is obtained by reacting common oils or fats with a strong alkaline in a process known as saponification. The fats are hydrolyzed by the base, yielding alkali salts of fatty acids (crude soap) and glycerol. The general formula of soap is Fatty end water soluble end
CH3-(CH2) n Ȃ COONa

Soaps are useful for cleaning because soap molecules have both a hydrophilic end, which dissolves in water, as well as a hydrophobic end, which is able to dissolve non polar grease molecules. Applied to a soiled surface, soapy water effectively holds particles in colloidal suspension so it can be rinsed off with clean water. The hydrophobic portion (made up of a long hydrocarbon chain) dissolves dirt and oils, while the ionic end dissolves in water. The resultant forms a round structure called micelle. Therefore, it allows water to remove normallyinsoluble matter by emulsification.
Commercial production of soap

The most popular soap making process today is the cold process method, where fats such as olive oil react with strong alkaline solution, while some soapers use the historical hot process. Handmade soap differs from industrial soap in that, usually, an excess of fat is sometimes used to consume the alkali (super fatting), and in that the glycerin is not removed, leaving a naturally moisturizing soap and not pure detergent. Often, emollients such as jojoba oil or Shea butter are added µat trace¶ (the point at which the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun to thicken), after most of the oils have saponified, so that they remain unreacted in the finished soap.
Fat in soap

Soap is derived from either vegetable or animal fats. Sodium Tallowate, a common ingredient in much soap, is derived from rendered beef fat. Soap can also be made of vegetable oils, such as palm oil, and the product is typically softer.

An array of saponifiable oils and fats are used in the process such as olive, coconut, palm, cocoa butter to provide different qualities. For example, olive oil provides mildness in soap; coconut oil provides lots of lather; while coconut and palm oils provide hardness. Sometimes castor oil can also be used as an ebullient. Smaller amounts of unsaponifable oils and fats that do not yield soap are sometimes added for further benefits.
Preparation of soap

In cold-process and hot-process soap making, heat may be required for saponification. Cold-process soap making takes place at a sufficient temperature to ensure the liquification of the fat being used. Unlike cold-processed soap, hot-processed soap can be used right away because the alkali and fat saponify more quickly at the higher temperatures used in hot-process soap making. Hot-process soap making was used when the purity of alkali was unreliable. Cold-process soap making requires exact measurements of alkali and fat amounts and computing their ratio, using saponification charts to ensure that the finished product is mild and skinfriendly. Hot process In the hot-process method, alkali and fat are boiled together at 80±100 °C until saponification occurs, which the soap maker can determine by taste or by eye. After saponification has occurred, the soap is sometimes precipitated from the solution by adding salt, and the excess liquid drained off. The hot, soft soap is then spooned into a mold. Cold process A cold-process soap maker first looks up the saponification value of the fats being used on a saponification chart, which is then used to calculate the appropriate amount of alkali. Excess unreacted alkali in the soap will result in a very high pH and can burn or irritate skin. Not enough alkali and the soap are greasy. The alkali is dissolved in water. Then oils are heated, or melted if they are solid at room temperature. Once both substances have cooled to approximately 100-110°F (37-43°C), and are no more than 10°F (~5.5°C) apart, they may be combined. This alkali-fat mixture is stirred until ³trace´. There are varying levels of trace. After much stirring, the mixture turns to the consistency of a thin pudding. ³Trace´ corresponds roughly to viscosity. Essential and fragrance oils are added at light trace. Introduction to the experiment

Soap samples of various brands are taken and their foaming capacity is noticed. Various soap samples are taken separately and their foaming capacity is observed. The soap with the maximum foaming capacity is thus, said to be having the best cleaning capacity. The test requires to be done with distilled water as well as with tap water. The test of soap on distilled water gives the actual strength of the soaps cleaning capacity. The second test with tap water tests the effect of Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts on their foaming capacities. Objective: To compare the foaming capacity of various soaps. Theory: The foaming capacity of soap depends upon the nature of the soap and its concentration. This may be compared by shaking equal volumes of solutions of different samples having the same concentration with same force for the same amount of time. The solutions are then allowed to stand when the foam produced during shaking disappears gradually. The time taken for the foam to disappear in each sample is determined. The longer the time taken for the disappearance of the foam for the given sample of soap, greater is its foaming capacity or cleansing action. Requirements: Five 100ml conical flasks, five test tubes, 100ml measuring cylinder, test tube stand, weighing machine, stop watch. Chemical Requirements: Five different soap samples, distilled water, tap water. Procedure: 1. Take five 100ml conical flasks and number them 1, and add 8 Gms of soap. 2. Warm the contents to get a solution. 3. Take five test tubes; add 1ml of soap solution to 3ml of water. Repeat the process for each soap solution in different test tubes. 4. Close the mouth of the test tube and shake vigorously for a minute. Do the same for all test tubes and with equal force. 5. Start the timer immediately and notice the rate of disappearance of 2mm of froth. Observations: The following outcomes were noticed at the end of the experiment
Test Tube no Vol. of soap solution Vol. of water added Time taken for disappearance of 2mm

2,3,4,5. Put 16ml of water in each flask

1. Dove 2. Lux 3. Tetmosol 4. Santoor 5. Cinthol

8ml 8ml 8ml 8ml 8ml

16ml 16ml 16ml 16ml 16ml

11͛42͟ 3͛28͟ 5͛10͟ 15͛32͟ 9͛40͟

Result The cleansing capacity of the soaps taken is in the order: Santoor > Dove > Cinthol > Tetmosol > Lux From this experiment, we can infer that Santoor has the highest foaming capacity, in other words, highest cleaning capacity. Lux, on the other hand is found to have taken the least amount of time for the disappearance of foam produced and thus is said to be having the least foaming capacity and cleansing capacity. Test for hardness in water Test for Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts in the water supplied Test for Ca2+ in water H2O +NH4Cl + NH4OH + (NH4)2CO3 No precipitate Test for Mg2+ in water H2O +NH4Cl + NH4OH + (NH4)3PO4 No precipitate The tests show negative results for the presence of the salts causing hardness in water. The water used does not contain salts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. The tap water provided is soft and thus, the experimental results and values hold good for distilled water and tap water.