COST ESTIMATES The method of cost estimating varies with the steps of development of the project. 1.

BUDGETARY ESTIMATE This estimate is prepared in response to a demonstrated need. Accordingly, it should best be related to square meter to be built, number of people to be served, units to be produced, or functions to be accomplished. The best source is prior experience. 2. SCHEMATIC DESIGN ESTIMATE At the schematic and design phase the spatial design has been committed to a plan and few elevations. There should be a site plan available. To a large degree, this phase utilizes squaremeter costs, but parametric and modular costs can become much more practical. It is also possible to segregate certain areas and provide detailed cost-breakdown analyses. 3. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ESTIMATE The design development estimate is based upon drawings which are an evolution of the schematic design drawings. They are often a full size larger and therefore accurate quantity take-off is possible. The spatial solution for the buildings has been completed, and so the architectural and structural take-off is substantially accurate. At this stage, the mechanical, electrical, heating and ventilating systems are just coming into focus. The estimating approach is usually combined, since a quantity take-off is possible only for architectural and structural and parametric or square-meter costs must be used for the mechanical and electrical systems. 4. CONTRACT DOCUMENTS ESTIMATE At this stage of project development, a tremendous amount of detail work is in progress. Estimates can be made on a quantity take-off basis for all the areas. The designer will be doing a quantity take-off basis for all the areas. The designer will be doing a quantity survey type estimate, but once the drawings and specifications have been released to the contractors, one of the principal methods of developing a cost bid is to solicit firm price quotations from the subcontractor or suppliers. 5. CONSTRUCTION AND BIDDING DOCUMENTS Estimates during the construction are based on reality. The actual cost of work in place can be used as a guideline in estimating extra work or changes in scope. Quantity survey methods are used by contractors in estimating the projected savings in scope which would result from accepted value-incentive programs. GENERAL ESTIMATING GUIDELINES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Do not round-off quantities until the final summary. Mark drawings with different colors as items are taken off. Keep similar items together, different items separate. Identify location and drawing numbers to aid in future checking for completeness. Measure or list everything on the drawings or mentioned in the specifications. Use indicaed dimensions rather than dimensions measure off directly from drawings. It may be necessary to list items not called for to make the job complete.

Proceed from south to north or vice-versa. 13. Proceed from the main section of the building to the wings. for example: a. etc. repetitive wings.400 masonry LABOR Unit Total Cost Cost P16. Assigning unit cost in order to arrive at a component cost. Utilize design symmetry or repetition (repetitive floors. lay-outs. 12. exterior masonry QUANTITIES No. hten detail drawings. Defining the project component to which cost can be applied. Take-off floor quantities first. Do not convert unit until the final total is obtained. When adds and deducts are used.) 11. Example: DESCRIPTION OF WORK Excavation Painting.) NOTE: extreme caution is needed here so as not to omit or duplicate an area. individual floor. etc. similar room. 10. 9. it is best to total all items involved in the basic system. reduced size drawings.m SM b. gross floor area. Then total all items involved in the alternates.50 P165 P3. clockwise or counterclockwise. symmetrical design around the center line. exterior 100 SM P34 P3. Develop a consistent pattern of performing an estimate. When figuring alternates. For instance. ESTIMATING METHODS Estimating the cost of a project. discrepancies between the specifications and the drawings. take off itemized units according to bar size. Example: DESCRIPTION OF QUANTITY MATERIAL WORK No. Thus you work with the positive numbers in all cases. it is often confusing whether to add or subtract a portion of an item especially on a complicated or involved alternate. d. c. b. elevations next. Start the quantity take-off at the lower floor and move to the next higher floor.m manual Painting.8.of Units 10 100 UNIT Cu. List of all gross dimensions that can either be used again for different quantities or used as a rough check of other quantities for verification (exterior perimeter. areas. when estimating reinforcing bars. or a portion is basically a two-step process: a. then summarize and convert to kilos or tons. Be alert for noted plans such as not to scale: changes in scale throughout the drawings.80 P380 TOTAL P165 P3780 . of Units Unit Total Units Cost Cost Excavation 10 cu.

40 .50 7. An estimate on this type of data can be quiet accurate. ESTIMATING BY USER UNITS METHOD The facility to be designed or constructed is defined in terms of its capacity to serve.00 79. TABLE 1.AREA SQ. use P50.00 11. Public Hi-Rise Hospitals Hotels Motels Restaurants Schools.00 43. Elementary High School College Vocational Shooting Ranges Theaters and Movies UNIT Seat Unit Lane Seat Bed Car Unit Bed Rntl.30 80. Parking Housing. BUILDING TYPE Auditorium & Play Theaters Apartments Bowling Alleys Churches Dormitories Garages. The following is not all-inclusive but does not describe the basic well-known approaches. UNIT GROSS AREA REQUIREMENTS The figures in the table below indicate typical ranges in square meters as a function of the user unit.00 32.M 2.00 56. Unit Rntl. d.00 75.50 41. as using agency which builds the same types of structure many times has a welldeveloped historical file on cost and use requirements.000/bed.80 1. Number of patient beds Number of prison inmates Student population Number of parking spaces In some cases. Example: to come up with a ballpark estimate of a hotel.000/bed or for a hospital. use P100.00 11.Estimating procedures vary considerably form industry to industry and many special approaches have been developed. b.00 2. Unit Seat Pupil Student Student Student Point Seat AVE.00 33.00 87. This table is best used in the budgetary and schematic design phases to help determine the size requirement for the total project.60 20.00 12. Examples: a. c.

the building spaces and its appendages should be converted into their equivalent values in relation to the predominant enclosed space.60 1. This is the method most commonly used by Architects.25 1.50 m More than 1.00 0.35 0.00 b.000.50 m Open Terrace (no roof) SPACE FACTOR 1. The United Architects of the Philippines presents herewith the various factors that should be used in converting building spaces to their equivalent enclosed building area (EEBA).ESTIMATING BY SQUARE METER METHOD a.70 0.5 (Fig.45 1.55 0.30 .50 1.50 0. 1 EEBA) x P400/SM = P600.35 0.50 1.50 0. Square meter costs are found by multiplying the area of space times a cost factor.40 0.25 0. Space Factor to be Used in Estimating by Area In order to arrive at an accurate cost per square meter of a building.00 1. The cost factor is usually available from the historical cost file of past projects. AREA/SPACE Typically Floor (Fully enclosed space) Auditorium Balcony Canopy Entrance Lobby and Lofty Spaces Basement On-stilt Covered area (partially walled spaces) Stairs Toilets Kitchenettes Media-aguas AHU Rooms Deck terrace (with waterproofing) Interstitial space less than 1. Example: Lobby 100 SM x 1.70 0.

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