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COMBINED CYCLE GAS TURBINE CMEPI

Evaluation report of the project processed under Act No. 24/2006 on Considering of Environmental Impacts as amended

Bratislava January 2010

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI

TABLE OF CONTENT
PREFACE .................................................................................................................................................. 10 Abbreviation list....................................................................................................................................... 12 A I BASIC DATA ................................................................................................................................... 14 IDENTIFICATION DATA OF THE PROPOSER ............................................................................. 14

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
II

NAME .................................................................................................................... 14 IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ......................................................................................... 14 REGISTERED OFFICE ............................................................................................... 14 LEGAL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE PROPOSER ............................................................. 14 CONTACT PERSON .................................................................................................. 14
Basic project data .......................................................................................................................... 15

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

NAME .................................................................................................................... 15 PURPOSE ............................................................................................................... 15 THE USER .............................................................................................................. 16 LOCATION .............................................................................................................. 16 SITUATION OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY LOCATION ..................................... 16 REASONS FOR LOCATION IN THE TERRITORY IN QUESTION .......................................... 16 CONSTRUCTION START AND END DATES AND OPERATION START DATE ......................... 17 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION ..................... 17
8.1 THE ZERO OPTION .............................................................................................................................. 17 8.1.1 Production in SLOVNAFT, a.s ...................................................................................................... 17 8.1.2 Petrochemical production in SPC ................................................................................................... 18 8.1.3 Facilities of the Refinery to be used by the CCGT block .............................................................. 19 8.2 Projected condition - combined cycle gas turbine CCGT block ........................................................... 19 8.2.1 Technological principle of combined cycle gas turbine ................................................................. 19 8.2.2 Two parts of the combined cycle .................................................................................................... 20 8.2.3 Main components, auxiliary systems and structures of the designed CCGT block ...................... 21 8.2.4 Auxiliary systems and structures of the proposed CCGT block ..................................................... 24 8.2.5 Main construction objects and premises ......................................................................................... 24 8.2.6 Layout of the Objects and built-up area ......................................................................................... 25 8.2.7 Connection to roads, suppliers and consumers networks ............................................................. 26 8.3 COOPERATION WITH THE REFINERY .................................................................................................... 28 8.4 DOMESTIC PRODUCTION AND IMPORT OF PRODUCTION APPLIANCES ....................................... 28 8.5 EXPECTED INDUCED INVESTMENTS ............................................................................................... 28

9.

OPTIONS OF THE PROJECTED OPERATION ................................................................. 28


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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 9.1 9.2 Operating modes of the CCGT block ............................................................................................ 31 Specification of technologically feasible options ........................................................................... 31

10. TOTAL COSTS ......................................................................................................... 32 11. AFFECTED MUNICIPALITY ......................................................................................... 32 12. THE AFFECTED SELF-GOVERNING REGION ................................................................. 32 13. THE AFFECTED AUTHORITIES ................................................................................... 32 14. THE LICENSING AUTHORITY ................................................................................. 32 15. THE COMPETENT AUTHORITY ................................................................................... 32 16. STATEMENT ON ASSUMED INFLUENCES OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY BEYOND NATIONAL BOUNDARIES .......................................................................................................... 33
B I

Direct impacts of the Proposed activity on the environment including health ...................... 34
Requirements concerning inputs................................................................................................. 34

1.

SOIL ...................................................................................................................... 34
1.1 1.2

Soil confiscation..................................................................................................................................... 34 Soil confiscation for protection zones .................................................................................................... 34

2.

WATER .................................................................................................................. 35
2.1 Water sources ........................................................................................................................................ 35 2.2 Water intake .......................................................................................................................................... 35 2.3 Water consumption................................................................................................................................ 37 2.4 Fire-fighting water demand ......................................................................................................................... 38

3. 4. 5.

RAW MATERIALS ..................................................................................................... 39


3.1

Raw material resources ......................................................................................................................... 39

SOURCES OF ENERGY ............................................................................................. 39 REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSPORT AND INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................... 40


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

Transportation and storage of materials ............................................................................................... 40 Connection to road and railway communications ................................................................................. 41 Transport of raw materials via pipelines ............................................................................................... 42
Electric POWER distribution ................................................................................................................ 43 Natural and heating gas distribution networks ...................................................................................... 43 Implementation of requirements for heat supply .................................................................................... 43 Implementation of requirements for water supply and sewerage ........................................................... 44 Requirements for BUILT-over areas and other requirements ................................................................ 44

6.
II

LABOR FORCE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................. 46


Facts concerning outputs ............................................................................................................. 47

1.

ATMOSPHERE ......................................................................................................... 47
1.1. Main sources of air pollution and their emissions ................................................................................. 47 3/162

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 1.2 Evaluation of the atmospherIC quality (imission situation) ................................................................... 51

2.

WASTE WATER ....................................................................................................... 56


2.1 Types and volumes of discharged waste water ....................................................................................... 56 2.2 The technological process giving rise to waste water ............................................................................ 59 2.3 Type, design capacity and efficiency of the waste water treatment plant in the decisive pollution factors 59 2.4 Characterization of the recipient ............................................................................................................ 61 2.5 Discharged pollutants in respective units............................................................................................... 61 2.6 Other characteristic sensorY and organic water quality indicators....................................................... 63 2.7 Influence on the flow and mode of surface and underground water ...................................................... 63

3.

WASTE .................................................................................................................. 64
3.1 3.2 3.3 Types and categories of waste ................................................................................................................ 64 The Technological process generatING waste ....................................................................................... 67 Waste disposal Facilities ....................................................................................................................... 67

4. 5. 6.

NOISE AND VIBRATIONS ........................................................................................... 68 RADIATION AND OTHER PHYSICAL FIELDS .................................................................. 70 ODOR AND OTHER OUTPUTS .................................................................................... 71
6.1. 6.2 6.3 ODORS ................................................................................................................................................... 71 Waste heat .............................................................................................................................................. 71 Other influences ..................................................................................................................................... 72

7.

COMPLEMENTARY FACTS ......................................................................................... 72

C. Comprehensive characterization and evaluation of the ENVIRONMENTAL impacts including health ........................................................................................................................................................ 73 I. II. Delineation of the area in question .............................................................................................. 73 Characterization of the ENVIRONMENTAL status quo in the area in question ...................... 73

1. 2.

GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS ........................................................................... 73 GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS ....................................................................................... 74


2.1. 2.2 2.3 2.3.1. 2.4 2.5 Geological structure of the evaluated area ............................................................................................ 74 Geological structure THE SLOVNAFT a.s. premises .......................................................................... 75 Engineering-geological conditions......................................................................................................... 75 Load Capacity of Foundation Soil and Proposal of Foundation Mode in Blocks 94 and 95 .......... 75 Geodynamic phenomena and the radon risk .......................................................................................... 76 Deposits of mineral resources ................................................................................................................ 76

3.

SOIL CONDITIONS .................................................................................................... 76


3.1. 3.2 Soil types and their quality ..................................................................................................................... 76 Mechanical and chemical soil degradation ............................................................................................ 77

4. 5.

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ............................................................................................. 77 ATMOSPHERE ......................................................................................................... 77


5.1 5.2 5.3 Precipitation ........................................................................................................................................... 77 Temperatures .......................................................................................................................................... 77 Windiness............................................................................................................................................... 78

6.

HYDRO-GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS: .......................................................................... 79


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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Water streams ........................................................................................................................................ 79 Water pools............................................................................................................................................. 79 Springs and spring areas ........................................................................................................................ 79 Thermal and mineral springs ................................................................................................................. 79 Protected water management areas ....................................................................................................... 79 Hydro-geological conditions .................................................................................................................. 79

7.

FAUNA AND FLORA .................................................................................................. 80


7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Fauna ..................................................................................................................................................... 80 Flora ....................................................................................................................................................... 82 Protected, Scarce and Endangered species and biotopes ...................................................................... 84 Significant migration corridors of animals ............................................................................................ 84

8.

LAND ..................................................................................................................... 85
8.1 8.2 8.3 Type of land ............................................................................................................................................ 85 Landscape structure ............................................................................................................................... 85 Landscape scenery.................................................................................................................................. 85

9.

PROTECTED AREAS ACCORDING TO SPECIAL REGULATIONS AND THEIR PROTECTION ZONES ................................................................................................................... 86
9.1. 9.2 Protected areas....................................................................................................................................... 86 Protection zones ..................................................................................................................................... 86

10. TERRITORIAL ECOLOGICAL STABILITY SYSTEM ........................................................... 87 11. POPULATION .......................................................................................................... 87


11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Number of inhabitants in the involved municipalities: ........................................................................... 87 Population age structure in the involved municipalities ........................................................................ 88 Economic activity of population ............................................................................................................. 88 Health of the population ......................................................................................................................... 88 Cultural traditions, environmental consciousness and environmental attitudes of the population ........ 89 Infrastructure of the territory ................................................................................................................. 89 Basic data on residential structures in the involved area....................................................................... 89

12. CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND THEIR UNIQUENESS .............................. 92 13. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES ......................................................................................... 92 14. PALAEONTOLOGICAL SITES AND SIGNIFICANT GEOLOGICAL LOCALITIES ........................ 92 15. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EXISTING SOURCES OF
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

........ 92

15.1 Contamination, vulnerability and SUSTAINABILITY OF the environment ......................................... 93 15.1.1 Air pollution ........................................................................................................................................ 93 15.2. Water pollution ................................................................................................................................... 94 15.2.1 Surface water pollution ........................................................................................................................ 94 15.2.2 Underground water pollution ............................................................................................................... 95 15.3 Soil contamination .................................................................................................................................. 96 15.4 Rock subbase pollution ........................................................................................................................... 96 15.5 Waste ...................................................................................................................................................... 97 15.6 Noise and vibrations ............................................................................................................................... 97 15.7 Sources of radiation and other physical fields ....................................................................................... 98 15.8 Other sources of pollution ...................................................................................................................... 98 15.9 Vegetation damages due to imissions ..................................................................................................... 98 15.10 Endangered fauna biotopes ................................................................................................................ 99

16. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS .............. 99


16.1 Synthesis of the evaluation of the current environmental problems ...................................................... 99 5/162
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 16.2 Ecological sustainability and vulnerability of the environment ....................................................... 100 16.2.1 Vulnerability of rock subbase ....................................................................................................... 101 16.2.2 Relief vulnerability ....................................................................................................................... 102 16.3 Vulnerability of surface and underground water ................................................................................. 102 16.4 Vulnerability of soil .............................................................................................................................. 103 16.5 Vulnerability of the atmosphere ........................................................................................................... 103 16.6 Vulnerability of vegetation, fauna and their biotopes .......................................................................... 104 16.7 Vulnerability of the comfort and human life quality factors ................................................................. 104

17. OVERALL QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT SYNTHESIS OF THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE FACTORS .............................................................................................................. 105 18. EVALUATION OF THE ASSUMED DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA IF THE PROJECT WOULD NOT BE REALIZED ......................................................................................................... 106 19. COMPLIANCE OF THE PROJECTED ACTIVITY WITH THE VALID ZONING DOCUMENTATION 106
III. Evaluation of the estimated influences of the projected activity on the environment including health, and estimation of their significance ...................................................................... 107

1.

INFLUENCES ON THE POPULATION .......................................................................... 107


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Factors Affecting the population health in the affected area ............................................................... 107 Impairment of welfare and quality of life ............................................................................................. 108 Health risks for employees ................................................................................................................... 109 Health risks for the population in the involved area ............................................................................ 110 Acceptability of the project for the population in the involved area .................................................... 110 The number of residents affected by the impacts of the activities ......................................................... 111

2.

INFLUENCES ON THE ROCK ENVIRONMENT: .............................................................. 111


2.1 Influences on the rock subbase, mineral resources, geomorphological phenomena and geomorphological conditions ........................................................................................................................... 111

3. 4. 5.

INFLUENCES ON CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ................................................................... 112 INFLUENCES ON THE ATMOSPHERE ......................................................................... 112 INFLUENCES ON WATER CONDITIONS ...................................................................... 117

6. INFLUENCES ON SOIL ................................................................................................. 119 7. 8. INFLUENCES ON THE FAUNA, FLORA AND THEIR BIOTOPES ......................................... 119 INFLUENCES ON THE LANDSCAPE............................................................................ 120
8.1 8.2 Influences on the structure and use of the landscape ........................................................................... 120 Influences on the landscape scenery..................................................................................................... 120

9.

INFLUENCES ON PROTECTED AREAS AND THEIR PROTECTION ZONES ......................... 121


9.1 9.2 Influences on protected areas and protection zones ............................................................................. 121 Influences on protected areas of european importance (Natura 2000) ................................................ 121
STABILITY ...................... 121

10. INFLUENCES ON THE TERRITORIAL SYSTEM OF ECOLOGICAL

11. INFLUENCES ON THE URBAN SITE AND USE OF THE LAND: .......................................... 122
11.1 11.2 Influences on the structure of settlements, housing, architecture and Buildings ................................ 122 Influences on industrial production ...................................................................................................... 122 6/162

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6. 11.7 Influences on agricultural production and the forestry ........................................................................ 123 Influences on services, sport, recreation and tourism .......................................................................... 123 Influences on transportation ................................................................................................................. 123 Influences on the technical INFRASTRUCTURE of the area ........................................................... 125 Influences of related constructions, activities and infrastructure......................................................... 125

12. INFLUENCES ON CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS: ....................................... 125 13. INFLUENCES ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES ................................................................ 125 14. INFLUENCES ON PALAEONTOLOGICAL SITES AND ON SIGNIFICANT 125
GEOLOGICAL LOCALITIES

15. INFLUENCES ON IMMATERIAL CULTURAL VALUES ...................................................... 126 16. OTHER INFLUENCES .............................................................................................. 126 17. SPATIAL SYNTHESIS OF THE INFLUENCES OF THE ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE AREA ........... 126 18. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF THE ASSUMED EFFECTS WITH REGARD TO THEIR SIGNIFICANCE AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH THE VALID LEGAL RULES ....................... 127 19. OPERATION RISKS AND THEIR POSSIBLE INFLUENCE ON THE AREA ............................. 128
19.1 19.2. 19.3 19.4 19.5 Risks of the existing production technology in the refinery and SPc .................................................... 128 Risks of a danger related to operation of current technologies in slovnaft, a.s., site ..................... 129 Possibilities and risks of dangers from external influences.................................................................. 131 Danger for the population .................................................................................................................... 131 Environmental risks .............................................................................................................................. 131

IV. Measures suggested for prevention, elimination, minimization and compensation of influences of the proposed activity on the environment and health ............................................... 132

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
V.

ZONING MEASURES ............................................................................................... 132 TECHNICAL MEASURES .......................................................................................... 132 TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES .................................................................................. 133 ORGANIZATIONAL AND OPERATIONAL MEASURES ..................................................... 134 OTHER MEASURES ................................................................................................ 134 STATEMENT ON TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL VIABILITY OF THE MEASURES ............... 134
Comparison of the proposed activity options and proposal OF the OPTIMUM option ........ 135

1. 2. 3.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRITERIA SET AND SPECIFICATION OF THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR SELECTION OF THE OPTIMUM OPTION ...................................................................... 135 SELECTION OF THE OPTIMUM OPTION OR DETERMINATION OF THE ORDER OF SUITABILITY FOR THE EVALUATED OPTIONS................................................................................ 136 PROPOSAL OF THE MANNER OF CHECKING THE OBSERVANCE OF THE GIVEN CONDITIONS 137
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI VI. Proposal of monitoring and post-project analysis................................................................... 137

1.

PROPOSAL OF MONITORING FROM THE

CONSTRUCTION START, DURING THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION AND AFTER THE TERMINATION OF OPERATION OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY.............................................................................................. 137

1.1

Provisions for production monitoring in slovnaft, a.s. and Spc ........................................................... 137
THE SPECIFIED CONDITIONS............ 139

2.

PROPOSAL FOR CHECKING THE OBSERVANCE OF

VII. METHODS USED IN THE PROCESS OF EVALUATION OF INFLUENCES OF THE PROPOSED


ACTIVITY ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE MANNER AND RESOURCES FOR COLLECTION OF THE DATA ON THE CURRENT CONDITION OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE AREA OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY ........................................................ 140

VIII. DEFICIENCIES AND UNCERTAINTIES IN THE KNOWLEDGE WHICH HAVE EMERGED DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EVALUATION REPORT ............................................... 140 IX. ANNEXES TO THE EVALUATION REPORT. .................................................................. 142
1.1 1.2 1.3 X. List of figures ........................................................................................................................................ 142 List of graphical annexes...................................................................................................................... 142 List of textual annexes .......................................................................................................................... 142

Generally comprehensible final summary ................................................................................ 143

CCGT CMEPI .......................................................................................................................................... 143

1.

BASIC DATA .......................................................................................................... 143

2. THE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY ................................................................................ 143 3. INPUT REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................... 145

4. FACTS ABOUT OUTPUTS ............................................................................................. 147 5. FACTS ON THE ESTIMATED DIRECT AND INDIRECT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS .............. 151
5.1 INFLUENCES ON THE COMPONENTS OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT ............................... 151 5.2 Influences on the landscape.................................................................................................................. 152 5.3 Influences on the urban site and on use of land ................................................................................... 153 5.4 Evaluation of the impacts on the population health ............................................................................. 154 5.4.1 Evaluation of health risks ............................................................................................................. 154

6. 7. 8. 9.

INFLUENCES ON PROTECTED AREAS AND PROTECTION ZONES ................................... 154 EVALUATION OF EXPECTED INFLUENCES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THEIR SIGNIFICANCE AND TIME PROGRESS OF THEIR IMPACT ................................................................... 155 ESTIMATED INFLUENCES EXCEEDING THE STATE BORDERS ....................................... 155 POSSIBLE INDUCED EFFECTS OF THE INFLUENCES WITH REGARD TO THE CURRENT SITUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE INVOLVED AREA.......................................... 155

10. POSSIBLE RISKS RELATED TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY ........................ 156 11. MEASURES TO REDUCE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF THE ACTIVITY .................................... 156
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI

12. EVALUATION OF THE EXPECTED DEVELOPMENT OF THE AREA IN CASE THE PROJECT WOULD NOT BE NOT IMPLEMENTED ......................................................................... 156 13. EVALUATION OF ACCORDANCE OF THE PROJECT WITH THE ZONING DOCUMENTATION .. 157 14. SELECTION OF THE OPTIMAL OPTION OR DETERMINATION OF THE ORDER OF SUITABILITY
FOR THE EVALUATED OPTIONS AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROPOSED OPTIMAL OPTION

157 XI. LST OF THE RESOLVERS AND ORGANIZATIONS PARTICIPATING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EVALUATION REPORT ...................................................................................... 158

XII. LIST OF COMPLEMENTARY ANALYTICAL REPORTS AND STUDIES AVAILABLE AT THE


PROPOSER WHICH REPRESENT THE BACKGROUND DOCUMENTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE EVALUATION REPORT ...................................................................................... 159

XIII. AFFIRMATIVE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE ABOVE FACTS BY SIGNATURE OF AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE PROPOSER ...................................................................... 161

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI

PREFACE
Generating blocks of the combined cycle gas turbine are ranked among the economically effective and environmentally friendly equipment used for heat production and electricity generation. Their efficiency and wariness are in high utilization of the chemical energy of natural gas and in multiple utilization of the heat acquired by combustion of the gas. In the generating blocks of the combined cycle gas turbine chemical energy of natural gas is used in two stages. During the first stage, expansion of combustion gases revs up the gas-turbine. During the second stage, thermal energy of combustion gases is used (their temperature exceeds 500 C) in a combustion gas boiler (HRSG) for the steam production. The produced steam drives the steam turbine. Thus, in the generating block gas power plant and typical thermal power plant are combined. The combined cycle gas turbine enables achievement of 60 % efficiency regarding the utilization of energy bond in natural gas. Residual energy of combustion gases and steam leaving steam turbine may be used for the remote heating by heat and hot water in case of demand. The high heating effect of high-capacity steam-gas blocks, which has been the driving power of the fast development in the field of combustion-turbines for the last twenty years, is based on the improvement of strength of the material which is used for guide and mowing blades of turbines in case of increasing temperature of combustion gases (>1000 C). It is also based on improved cooling of blades and on their protective coating. During historical development, combustion turbine efficiency has been continuously rising mainly due to the above-mentioned increase of the inlet temperature of combustion gases upon passage from the combustion chamber to the gas turbine. In terms of environmental protection the present combustion turbines use so-called Dry Low NO x method in which the production of nitrogen dioxide for natural gas combustion is reduced. Contemporary producers of combustion turbines usually warrant 25 ppmv (15 %-O2, in dry combustion gas at 0 C 3 and 101,325 Pa) of Nox, what corresponds to approximately 50 mg/Nm NOx with the combustion turbine power ranging from 40 to 60% up to 100 %. In practice the achieved emission levels are usually better than guaranteed. The above-mentioned limit of NOx is defined at minimum power of the combustion turbine at which the equipment can be operated without problems. A distinct advantage of combined cycle energetic blocks compared to coal-fired power stations is in significantly lower emissions (limited CO2 achieves only one half), no solid combustion waste, small built-up area, fast construction, lower installation costs, relatively good power regulation (40-100 %) and simpler control. Higher operation costs especially due to high price of natural gas are the main disadvantage. The project proposer - CM European Power International, s.r.o. CMEPI, with head office LAKESIDE PARK, Tomikova 64, 831 03 Bratislava, Slovakia was established as a joint venture between the MOL business group (Hungary), which is carrying business primarily in production of engine fuels and petrochemistry, and EZ (Czech Republic), focused on business in power engineering and electric power production. The joint venture has been established with the aim of making use of the experience, knowhow and technologies of both partners in the realization of the "CCGT CMEPI" project, i.e. during construction and operation of the above-mentioned power plant on the basis of combustion turbines and classical thermal power plant. Within the project, the new CMEPI company intends to build an approx. 880 MWe combined steam-gas cycle power block at the SLOVNAFT site in Bratislava-Vlie hrdlo. The block will make use of technological infrastructure of the SLOVNAFT refinery. Its production is intended primarily for commercial consumers; if necessary, it can serve as backup power source for the SLOVNAFT site. The block will be connected to 400 kV switchhouse of SEPS, a.s. in Podunajsk Biskupice, and alternatively to LDN of the refinery in case of connection of the refinery's 110 kV system to 400 kV CCGT switchhouse. The proposers business project comes out of the present and future market requirements; a lack of electric power and thence its importation from abroad is expected also in Slovakia in the future. Construction of the plant will result in the advantage of an alternative selection of suppliers for electric power purchasers in the given area, possibly also in utilization of pricing competition as a result of short transfer routes. Concerning the implementation, the project is based on suitable natural conditions (ample water, good conditions for emission scattering) and the already created technical infrastructure in the area (the existing SPP DN500 gas line reaches basically up to the construction locality; proximity of the distribution point belonging to SEPS, a.s. in Podunajsk Biskupice; good traffic infrastructure; possible access to
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI long distance heating network in case of sufficient demand, etc.). Simultaneously, the project allows making use of the premises of numerous technological facilities and distribution systems in the Refinery which became partially vacant due to the modernization process of the production technologies. This significantly decreases the necessity for investments and makes the construction of the steam-gas turbine plant more effective. The steam-gas turbine cycle utilization belongs to the worlds most environment-friendly forms of electric power and heat production. In comparison with other types of power and heating plants, the steam-gas turbine plants show high efficiency of utilizing latent energy of the fuel used i.e. natural gas. On the other hand, they have low emission and liquid and solid technological waste rates compared to the amount of produced energy.

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ABBREVIATION LIST
Abbreviation AIS AD5 AVD6 BOC5 BAT, a.s. BVS, a.s CCGT CHP CHS EZ WWT ANPFP OHE FCC EPC WHF GIS GT HGWP HPP HFR HRSG CHOC CHWT CHC KCHOV FLR JV MaR Meaning of the abbreviation Air Insulated Switchgear, switching device Atmospheric distillation 5 Atmospheric vacuum distillation 6 Biological oxygen consumption in 5 days waste water quality indicator Bratislavsk teplrensk, a.s. Bratislavsk vodrensk spolonos, a.s. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Combined Heat and Power Central heating supply Power-producing company EZ Waste water treatment unit Apollo non-polluting fuels project heavy oil fractions processing Operational hours equivalent Fluid catalytic cracker Engineering, Procurement and Construction Working hours fund Gas Insulated Switchgear, switching device Gas Turbine Hydraulic ground water protection Hydrogen production Hydrogenation fuel refining Heat Recovery Steam Generator Exhaust heat boiler Chemical oxygen consumption - waste water quality indicator Chemical water treatment Catalytic hydrocracker Chemical waste-water canal Forest land resources joint venture Measuring and regulation

MCHB WWT
MOL MS ME NPEM IM NOx OEM OLO pH AD10 WS WES ALR

Mechanical, chemical and biological waste water treatment


Strategic partner of SLOVNAFT, a.s. MS (multi shaft) - multi shaft unit where air compressor, gas turbine and first generator are at one shaft and gas turbine and second generator are at second shaft Ministry of Environment Non-polar extractable substances (oil substances) - waste water quality indicator Insoluble substances Nitrogen oxides Original Equipment Manufacturer Slovak disposal company Acidity /Alkalinity degree Air Dust Works standard Waste economy Schedule Agricultural land resources 12/162

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Pressure switched adsorption Catalytic hydrocrack Quantitative Risk Asessment Heavy residues cracking Oil substances Selective Catalytic Reduction Slovensk elektrizan prenosov sstava, a.s. Sustainable Development &Health, Safety, Environment Slovensk hydrometeorologick stav Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction Sulphur dioxide Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o. Slovak Republic SS (single shaft) - one shaft assembly where air compressor, gas turbine, generator and steam turbine are on one shaft IP Intermediate pressure ST Steam Turbine STN Slovensk technick norma Slovak engineering standard S-VRUP / S- SLOVNAFT- Vskumn stav ropy a uhovodkovch plynov Oil and hydrocarbon gases OHGRI research institute TG Turbogenerator TOC Total organic carbon TPP Thermal power plant SP Soild pollutants air pollution indicator HOR Heavy oil residues CCS Central Cargo Station VDH Vacuum distillate hydrogenation PU Production unit VOS Volatile organic substances air pollution indicator EFP Engine fuels production HV High-voltage HG Heating gas HP High-pressure WS Water source ZSE, a.s Zpadoslovensk energetika, a.s. NG Natural gas E Environment APS Air pollution sources PSA-CHC QRA HRC OS SCR SEPS SD&HSE SHM SNCR SO2 SPC SR SS

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A I 1.

BASIC DATA IDENTIFICATION DATA OF THE PROPOSER NAME


CM European Power International, s.r.o. registered in business register of District Court Bratislava I Section Sro Entry number 55757/B

2.

IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
Company Registration Number: 44525133

3.

REGISTERED OFFICE
LAKESIDE PARK Tomikova 64 831 03 Bratislava

4.

LEGAL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE PROPOSER


Csaba Bende Managing Director phone : mobile : +36 703 732 110 Mojmr alkovsk Managing Director phone : mobile : +421 725 707 589 e-mail: buchan@cmep.eu

5.

CONTACT PERSON
Gallo Marek Licensing and permitting manager mobile: +421 948 524 176 e-mail: gallo@cmep.eu place for consultations: CM European Power International s.r.o. LAKESIDE PARK Tomikova 64 831 03 Bratislava

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II 1.

BASIC PROJECT DATA NAME


CCGT CMEPI"

Evaluation report of the project processed under Act No. 24/2006 on considering environmental impacts, as amended

2.

PURPOSE

The purpose of the business project proposer, CM European Power International, s.r.o. (hereinafter CMEPI), business project is to build a generating block using Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (hereinafter CCGT) with a capacity approx. 880 MW e with approx. 880 MW capacity in the premises of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. refinery (hereinafter the Refinery). The proposed block will use technical infrastructure of the Refinery and of the concerned territory. If necessary, it will constitute a backup generating source for the Refinery, but during normal operation electric current and heat supply to the Refinery is not planned. Electric current for the Refinery will be supplied from the existing CMEPS heating plant which will be reconstructed to 160 MWe of its generated capacity. This source is sufficient for the needs of the existing infrastructure of the Refinery. Its production, with regard to a worse power production and distribution situation in the SR for future periods, is intended for wholesale customers. The generating block will be connected by a 110 kV connection and a 2x400 kV air line to 400 kV switchhouse of SEPS, a.s. in Podunajsk Biskupice (alternatively, it may be connected to the Refinerys LDN by a 110 kV connection). Assumed power production of the CCGT block will be as follows: Table 1 Assumed power production of the CCGT block Power production total power production; thereof: - for home consumption - for distribution to customers Maximum capacity 3,000 GWhe/y 64,33 GWhe/y 2936 GWhe/y 880 MW e

The concept solution of the CCGT project does not consider any economical use of the heat energy which will be a secondary product of CCGT. Alternatively, however (if agreed with heat distributor or purchasers), it considers the possibility of using the heat energy from the combined cycle gas turbine for the central heating supply (CHS) is considered as well. Therefore the technical solution counts with an additional use of outgoing exhaust gases heat in heat exchanger and steam generator, with an exchanger station and blind flanges for steam off take. The proposed technical solution has been presented to the most significant heat distributor in the region, the Bratislavsk Teplrensk a.s. company, whose representatives have confirmed that such a technical solution is acceptable. In case of such alternative the expected heat production would be as follows: Table 2 Heat outlet from CCGT block and its assumed parameters Heat production for heating and preparation of warm water heat production for heating and preparation of warm water o - for distribution to customers in April-September (70/50 C) o - for distribution to customers in October-March (130/65 C)

max. 200 MW t 35 MW t 165 MW t

Note: Heat supply for own consumption (preparation of warm water, heating of sanitary and selected working premises) will be covered by the project documentation.

Currently the proposed technology of power production by combined cycle gas turbine represents one of the most efficient and environmentally most suitable ways of natural gas utilization as a power source.

Upon the request of the proposer, on 18/5/2009 the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic issued a statement confirming that the planned construction is not in conflict with the energetic policy of the SR or
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI with the aims of Energetic Safety Strategy of the SR. The statement of the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic is given in Annex 1 hereto. In accordance with Act No. 656/2004 Coll. on power supply and on amendment of some Acts as amended, the proposer shall ask the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic to issue a certificate confirming the conformity of this planned construction project with the long-term power supply policy of the SR.

3.

THE USER
CM European Power International, s.r.o. LAKESIDE PARK Tomikova 64 831 03 Bratislava The power plants operation place: Vlie hrdlo 1/A 824 12 Bratislava Slovak Republic

4.

LOCATION

The facility will be placed at the Slovnaft premises in Vlie hrdlo, Bratislava. The premises are situated in the cadastral territory of Bratislava Ruinov (Land Registry No. 805 556). Individual objects are, or will be, situated at the following blocks of the premises. block 94 block 95 block 63 block 64 New switch house to be connected with existing 110 kV switch house of Slovnaft, a.s. and with existing 400 kV switch house in Podunajsk Biskupice, Combined cycle gas turbine equipment of the proposed generating block Cooling water treatment. Current encased 110 kV electric power switchgear

building plots No. 5063/94, No. 5063/95, No. 5063/63, No. 5063/64.

5.

SITUATION OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY LOCATION

Situation overview of the proposed activity location is shown in graphical annex No. 1 of the evaluation report.

6.

REASONS FOR LOCATION IN THE TERRITORY IN QUESTION

Central Europe represents a region with the increasing demands for electric energy consumption along with inadequate power plant capacities. Both factors increase electric energy prices, and this trend is further escalated by EU requirements concerning carbon dioxide regulation and by the need of flexible taxation of energy due to mass construction of wind power plants. Marketing analyses show Central Europe as a region suitable for construction of new low-carbon-dioxide-emission power plants such as combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). A sufficiently high price along with an extraordinarily adjustable carbon dioxide regulation offers the investors a guarantee (promise) of a positive recoverability of their investment. A lack of electric power and thence the need of its importation from abroad is expected also in Slovakia in the future. Due to the construction of the plant, the advantage of alternative selection of the suppliers will emerge for the electricity purchasers in the area, possibly also the use of pricing competition will arise as a result of short transmission routes. On the other hand, the business project is based on good environmental conditions (enough water, good conditions for emission dispersion) and regional perspective from the point of existing technical infrastructure (constructed gas line SPP Distribcia 2 x DN500 actually up to the building locality, proximity of the switch house of SEPS, a.s. in Podunajsk Biskupice, good road access, or possible connection to long distance heating network in case of sufficient demand, etc.). At the same time, the project enables using of built-up facilities of some technological equipment and distribution systems of the Refinery which

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI have become partly available under the influence of its upgraded production technologies. This decreases the necessity of investments significantly and makes the generating block construction more effective. Utilization of the CCGT is currently and globally considered as one of the most environment-friendly forms of power and heat production. In comparison with other types of power plants, or thermal power plants, combined cycles prove high efficiency of used fuel natural gas latent power. On the other hand, in proportion to the produced power capacity they have low rates of emissions and of liquid and solid technological waste. From the point of environmental impacts on the affected territory, the proposed location of the premises on the edge of industrial zone in south-east Bratislava creates a sufficient distance of the generating block from the closest residential zones and minimizes the CCGT block construction and operation impacts on the population living in the territory. The proposed CCGT block investment project has nationwide positive effect, while its environmental impacts will not exceed legal parameters, and the particular affected territory either.

7.

CONSTRUCTION START AND END DATES AND OPERATION START DATE


investment preparation, including EIA process contractor selection procedure and contract signing project preparation and investment approval process equipment production and supply and CCGT construction commissioning 09/2008-06/2010 03/2009-04/2010 01/2009-11/2010 06/2011-04/2012 10/2013

Assumed CCGT preparation and construction progress is as follows:

Assumed operating life of new technological equipment of the CCGT block is 30 years.

8.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION

For further and more detailed evaluation of the impact of the planned operation CCGT CMEPI" the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic has, in the extent of evaluation report, determined the zero option (a situation which would emerge if the planned activity would not take place) and the option recommended in the submitted project (MS power plant configuration). 8.1 THE ZERO OPTION

Since its foundation and construction in 1959-1970, SLOVNAFT, a.s. has been operating in the sphere of refinery and petrochemical industry. In 2006, the subsidiary Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o. has separated from SLOVNAFT, a.s., focused on production of polymers - polyethylene and polypropylene, while SLOVNAFT, a.s. produces refinery products - mainly engine fuels and lubricants. 8.1.1 PRODUCTION IN SLOVNAFT, A.S

Currently the Refinery and its production and technological units focus on complex oil processing. The processing starts with distillation of the input material - oil (PU AD5, AVD6) where gas and liquid fractions, including heavy oil residues (HOR), are separated and bitumen is produced. The production continues with modification and processing of the separated fractions, namely: - division, desulphurization and modification of gases (PU Gases I and II), to intermediates to be used for next processing (methane, ethane), or for commercial purposes (propane-butane), - processing of liquid fractions by cracking, hydrogenation and other technological procedures (production units RHC, VGH, FCC, KHK, HRP, Extraction and division of aromatics, redistillation of reformate, redistillation of pyropetrol, N-alkanes, etc.) mainly to intermediates for engine fuels production, that is petrol and engine diesel oil (PU VMP), or for production of intermediates for other petrochemical productions (PU Phenol, Ethylene oxide and glycols), while intermediates from liquid fractions processing can be directed to division, desulphurization and modification of gases, to other PUs for engine fuels production, but also to petrochemical products PU. The above-mentioned production units are linked with storage and dispatch units Gas storage and dispatching, Engine fuels storage and dispatching, as well as with other smaller storage and dispatching facilities focused on the Refinery products distribution.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI The Refinery's production units also include facilities to prepare auxiliary production media such as Central waterworks to prepare service water, Chemical water treatment plant to prepare technological water, Circulation centers to circulate cooling water, Compressor room to prepare technological and instrumentation air, and hydrogen for technological use (PU HPP). Separate operation units comprise power distribution switchgear, gas distribution, water networks and sewerage, as well as MCHB WWT and WWT plants at blocks 11, 17 and 18 and Sludge incineration plant. The Refinery has its own administrative, commercial and security divisions, as well as fire fighting, civil protection and environmental protection facilities The Refinery processes approx. 5.5 million tons of oil per year. It produces and markets a complex line of refinery products, more than 66 % of the production is exported. Since 1993, SLOVNAFT a.s, regarding preserving its markets and expanding its product sales, gradually updates its production and individual production units. Regarding the environment, it focuses on reducing environmental pollution by improving engine fuels in the countries of sales and in the SR. Production updates are also made to reduce environmental pollution in Bratislava resulting from the companys production facilities. Within the conception mentioned above, in relation to with increasing demands on composition and quality of engine fuels and in connection with environmental standards development, EFPA - Environmental Fuel Project Apollo started its operation in 2000, processing heavy oil residues. Its realization without any demands on higher material inputs resulted in increased finer fuels production - lead-free and lowsulphur automobile petrol, low-sulphur diesel oils and heating oils. A similar goal was also realized in the project Hydrogenation refining of fuels No. 7 and Euro Diesel production 2005 for production of zero sulphur diesel oil (lower than 10 ppm w.). 8.1.2 PETROCHEMICAL PRODUCTION IN SPC

Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o. is carrying business of petrochemical industry as a producer of strategic plastics in central Europe. It produces and markets several types of polyethylene and polypropylene, with most of its production (approx. 85 %) exported. After the division, production units of the subsidiary SPC comprise Ethylene unit, PU Polyethylene 1-3 and Polypropylene 3. SPC takes raw materials (ethylene, methane and other) as well as other auxiliary substances and energies from production and operation units of the Refinery. It also uses networks and distributions, waste water treatment units, divisions and facilities of the Refinery for firefighting (FF) and civil protection (CP). It also has its own SD&HSE (Sustainable Development & Health, Safety, Environment) unit. SPCs annual production consists of approx. 200 kt of polyethylene and approx. 200 kt of polypropylene. Similarly to SLOVNAFT, other production units of the subsidiary Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o. have been upgraded as well. In recent years, the project Polypropylene 3 - new polypropylene production has been realized and currently reconstruction and modernization of Ethylene unit and construction of a new polyethylene production unit LDPE4 are being prepared. The industrial site SLOVNAFT, a.s. (The Refinery and SPC) represents a complex technological site with permanent need to renew and upgrade production, storage and distribution facilities, both due to their physical wear and tear and obsolescence, and to the need to upgrade and rationalize the production from the point of maintaining competitive strength of the company. The significant innovations and investment plans, which are currently being prepared within the site include CMEPS thermal power plant reconstruction (including construction of a new gas desulphurization unit enabling to decrease the rate of SO2 in the company's emissions by more than 50 %), Ethylene unit Reconstruction, including construction of a new LDPE4 ethylene storage and construction of a new polyethylene production unit and other investments. With regard to the extent of knowledge of the issue The "CCGT CMEPI" activity assessed in the report and to be situated at the SLOVNAFT refinery site also takes into account possible alterations and impacts of these upcoming constructions on the construction of the CCGT block.

The CMEPS heat plant has separated from Slovnaft, a.s. in 2008 as an autonomous legal subject situated in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 8.1.3 FACILITIES OF THE REFINERY TO BE USED BY THE CCGT BLOCK

Out of above mentioned PUs and operating units in the Refinery, the CCGT block will make use of Central waterworks to supply Danube water, while technological water (modified water for steam production and circulating cooling water for the block will be taken from the existing Chemical water treatment under contracts. Instrumentation air supply will be provided from the Refinery's distribution system under contracts, too. The second group of facilities and operating units in the Refinery, whose services will be used by the CCGT generating block under contracts, include potable water distribution, sewerage system, MCHB WWT to treat industrial waste water and WWT in the blocks 17-18 through which surface water will be drained off. The CCGT block will use the Refinerys infrastructure un particular for: taking demineralized water from the existing chemical water treatment plant (after the appliance will be modified to reach the necessary level of conductivity for the CCGT) taking of (technological and instrumental) compressed air taking of fire-fighting water connection to water supply connection to sewerage system connection to the Refinery's 6 kV distribution network connection to raw water for water-softening appliance.

Reverse use of the appliances installed in the CCGT for the SLOVNAFT site is not assumed. 8.2 PROJECTED CONDITION - COMBINED CYCLE GAS TURBINE CCGT BLOCK

In addition to preparation of the construction site (object redevelopment and deforestation) provided by SLOVNAFT, a.s., as an individual project, implementation of the projected operation includes: construction of the block with relevant equipment connection of the CCGT to natural gas distribution network connection to water supply system and to the Refinery's sewerage system connection to the 400 kV SEPS switchhouse potential connection to the Refinery's 110 kV and 6 kV distribution network. The CCGT block is projected in such a manner that its construction respects construction sites part icularities, the SR and EU legislation, as well as development trends in construction of combined cycle gas turbines. The project is elaborated with respect to business cooperation between the JV and SLOVNAFT, a.s. Natural gas only will be used in the CCGT operation; no other fuel will be used. Note: In the following part of the description of technical and technological solution of the CCGT, data from Feasibility Study Combined Cycle Power Plant at the Slovnaft Refinery, Slovakia, elaborated by F-Consult Ltd (AFC), Finland 10/2009, were used. In addition, materials provided by the representatives of SLOVNAFT, a.s., and SES Energoprojekt, a.s., were used. 8.2.1 TECHNOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE OF COMBINED CYCLE GAS TURBINE

In the generating blocks of CCGT, chemical energy of natural gas is utilized in two stages. During the first cycle, exhaust gases expansion revs up the gas turbine. During the second cycle, exhaust gases o thermal energy (their temperature exceeds 500 C) is used to produce steam in Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The produced steam then drives the steam turbine. Thus, the combined cycle gas turbine is a combination of a steam power plant and classical thermal power plant. Combined cycle power source allows to achieve up to 60 % efficiency of utilization of the energy bound in natural gas. A significant advantage of the combined cycle is in considerably lower emission rates in comparison with coal power plants (the limited CO2 achieves only one half), no solid combustion waste, small built-up area, quick construction, lower procurement costs, relatively good performance control (20-100 %) and easier operation. The disadvantages are in higher operation costs, mainly due to high prices of natural gas. With respect to the decision of the investor, in the sequel the block in the Multi Shaft (MS) Configuration is described and evaluated with the following parameters:
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI - unit size (ISO) - concept 880 MWe, 2-2-1 Multi-shaft, cooling towers (wet mechanical current) for indirect cooling, heat exchanger with an economizer connected to the pipeline of medium-pressure steam of the gas turbine.

- cooling system

- CZT configuration (alt.) 8.2.2

TWO PARTS OF THE COMBINED CYCLE

Gas power source: Uses chemically bound thermal energy in natural gas to produce electric power and heat. The basic technological equipment of this part of cycle is as follows: - Gas Measuring Station equipped with a measuring device, separating garniture, filters and appropriate input-output pipelines and garnitures. NG is fed to the measuring station by two DN500 pipelines, which will be connected from two DN 500 pipelines of SPP Distribcia gas distribution pipe which runs approx. 50 m away from the southern boundary of Slovnaft, a.s. - Natural Gas Compressor is used to achieve the required pressure level of natural gas for combustion turbines. Gas will be led to the NG Compressor Station from the natural gas measuring station. . From the compressor station, NG will be led by DN 1200 piping to natural gas treatment station for combustion turbines. The DN 1200 piping will serve as pressure impact buffer while starting and shutting down combustion turbines. - Natural Gas Treatment Station is used to treat NG for combustion turbines, i.e. to control pressure and temperature with necessary performance control device for combustion turbines. - Combustion turbine - GT: The turbine consists of: a) combustion turbine air compressor equipped with intake piping regulating the temperature of intake air (protection against icing), b) combustion chamber equipped with burners and necessary control device for starting and regulation during operation and shut-down of GT, c) gas turbine equipped with control as well as with necessary cooling and lubrication d) three-phase f electric current alternator equipped with regulation, necessary lubrication and cooling. Alternatively, generator cooling by hydrogen (H2) is considered. The generator cooling 3 3 space volume is approx. 65 m (i.e. 160 Nm ) and the operating pressure is about 250 kPa 3 (abs). To complement the daily leakage about 15 Nm is needed. To empty and fill the H2 cooling circuit (during repairs or emergencies of the generator) CO2 will be available at least in the same volume. Emergency blowout will be led out to the building roof. The equipment situated in close vicinity of the generator will be operating as Eex; the engine room will be equipped with H2 sensors in addition to natural gas sensors. . - Step-up transformer 15/400 kV with own consumption 15/6 kV. Oil filling is assumed approx. 82 t of transformer oil. In case of oil tank breakage oil will be drained off through gravel bed to common catching pit with no outlet outside the transformer area which is dangerous as to fire. - Automatic fire extinguishing CO2 system for each GT, gas leakage detectors, fume detectors and thermal detectors. - Oil management of turbine lubricating and hydraulic oil with common tank for approx. 25 t of oil (stationary fire extinguishing device will also be provided - Electric power switchhouse of own consumption. Description of the cycle function: The input media for combustion turbine are air and natural gas. Air is blown into the combustion chamber by a compressor; in the chamber air is mixed with fuel and then the fuel is burned in the combustion chamber. Subsequently, combustion gases expand in gas turbine. Natural gas is led by piping through a set of quick-shutting valves into combustion turbine natural gas distributor, and then to burners of individual combustion chambers, where it is burned after being mixed with incoming air from the compressor. The stream of combustion gases with temperature approx. 1350 - 1400C is led through gas turbine distribution stator grid to gas turbine rotor vanes by which the whole turbine aggregate, including comEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI pressor and generator, starts to rotate. After expansion in the turbine, the outgoing combustion gases are led into the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (hereinafter: HRSG), where a significant part of their thermal potential is used to produce heat in form of steam for the steam power source. Steam section of the combined cycle uses the heat from combusion gases (temperature at gas turbine outlet >500C) to produce overheated steam which can be used to produce electric power. Basic technological equipment of this part of the cycle is as follows: - Heat recovery steam generator HRSG; - Three-stage steam turbine ST; - Feeding water tank FWT; - Steam condenser - C - Cooling towers - CT - Electric power generator steam turbine generator STG. Generator cooling by hydrogen (H2) is 3 considered alternatively. The generator cooling space volume is approx. 65 m , operating pressure 3 3 is about 250 kPa (abs), i.e. 160 Nm . To compensate daily leakage, about 15 Nm is needed. To discharge and fill the H2 cooling circuit (during repairs or emergency) at least the same volume of CO2 will be available. Emergency blow out will be led to the building roof. The equipment in close vicininty of the generator will be realized as Eex, in addition the natural gas sensors the engine room will be equipped with H2 sensors as well. . - Step-up transformer 15/400 kV with own consumption 15/6 kV. Oil filling approx. 82 t of transformer oil is assumed. In case of oil tank breakage the oil will be discharged through gravel bed to a common catching pit with no outlet and outside of the transformer area which is dangerous as to fire. - Oil management of turbine lubricating and hydraulic oil with common tank with approx. 16 t of oil (stationary fire extinguishing device will also be provided). - Electric power switchhouse. Exhaust gases from combustion turbine give heat to heat-exchanging surfaces in the HRSG, where water evaporates at three pressure levels - high pressure (HP), intermediate pressure (IP) and low pressure (LP). HP steam is led via piping interconnection to the steam turbine where it expands in the steam turbine HP unit and is led to HRSG again where it is heated up together with IP steam. Heated IP steam is led via piping interconnection back to the steam turbine where it expands in the of steam turbine IP unit. The IP and LP turbine units are interconnected by a piping into which LP steam from the HRSG is connected, too. The steam expanded in the LP steam turbine unit is led through outlet turbine branch into condenser where it condenses. The condensate is fed back to produce input water for the HRSG. The condenser is cooled by a closed water circulation. The circulating water heated in the condenser is cooled in cooling towers with mechanical draft. A part of thermal energy in the steam is used for mechanical work to be utilized to drive the steam turbine which then drives the power generator. Electric power produced by combustion and steam turbines is transformed to required voltage and supplied to the transmission system via the switchhouse. Note: Oil, lubricant and cooling media replacement will be made by direct supplies from the producer into the equipment. Disposal of used oils and lubricants will be made by direct take-off from the equipment by companies specialized for processing of this kind of waste; this will be based on a contract on disposal of respective waste. The power plants appliances will be designed so that leakage of oils, lubricants, VOS and/or cooling media into the environment will be avoided as much as possible. All seals, fillings, valve doublings, etc. will be adjusted to meet this condition. For case of accident, a system for safe capture of the whole volume of leaked OS or other cooling media will be created. 8.2.3 MAIN COMPONENTS, AUXILIARY SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURES OF THE DESIGNED CCGT BLOCK The main components and auxiliary systems and structures necessary for operation of the CCGT block consist of: Combustion turbines: Gas combustion turbines shall be the latest, high-performance, single-fuel commercial types (F-class) with built-in multi-stage axial compressor and multi-stage gas turbine. The gas
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI turbines shall be equipped with natural gas burners with low production of NO x. They shall feature automatic start synchronized with electrical system, and can reach 100% of the capacity in the automatic increasing mode of operation from the checkpoint. They shall be capable of automatic reduction from full load, of safe disconnection from the network and of automatic shut-down. The air intake system shall be equipped with a necessary expansion space, reinforcement, filter modules, shock absorbers and an antihoarfrost pre-heating system. The air intake filters shall be equipped with an adequate surface (weatherresistant) providing protection of the filters against rain water and snow. Table 3 Parameters of the considered types of combustion turbines Type of combustion turbine Power, ISO* MW Efficiency ISO*; % Mass flow of combustion gases kg/s ISO* o Temperature of comb. gases C ISO* Pressure compression ratio ISO* Natural gas pressure at the turbine, bar(g) PG9371FB 287.4 38.0 % 659 639 18.3 34.5 SGT5-4000F 286.6 39.5 690 577 17.9 30

*ISO the terms specified by the International Organization for Standardization defining basic parameters of combustion turbines. These parameters are as follows: barometric pressure 101 325 Pa(abs) ambient temperature 15C relative humidity 60 % absolute altitude 0.0 m above sea level

Heat Recovery Steam Generator - HRSG: Combustion gases from gas turbines are led to horizontal type exhaust heat boiler (HRSG) where they will be cooled down. Inside the HRSG there are heat exchanging surfaces with three pressure levels; each of them (HP, IP, LP) contains pre-heater, vaporizer and economizer. Every HRSG will be thermo-insulated and connected to an independent approx. 65 m high steel chimney. Shall the planned operation mode of the block CCGT count with certain amount of periodical starts and shut-downs (shut-down to the state of warm back-up), it will be important to equip the HRSG with stack valve to minimize heat losses during the regular shut-down, at nights and on weekends. Typical steam parameters are as follows: Table 4 Typical parameters of the steam cycle Parameter o Ambient temperature ( C) HP steam pressure (bar)/Temperature o ( C) IP steam pressure (bar)/Temperature o ( C) LP steam pressure (bar)/Temperature o ( C) o Feeding water temperature ( C) PG9371FB SGTS-4000F 10 10 128 / 564 133 / 567 31 / 562 5 / 234 147 27 / 566 5 / 301 156

Steam turbines: Condensation steam turbine with steam reheater and triple-pressure steam intake. Plans for the MS configuration count with two-casing turbine. In this configuration one casing will be the combined HP/IP stage and the other will consist of double-flow LP stage. The steam turbine will be capable of operation:
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI - in a steady pressure mode, or - in a fluctuating pressure mode. In a normal operation steam turbine works without throttling the main steam flow (fluctuating pressure mode). The power of the turbine is regulated by the power of boilers by the amounts of steam taken from boilers. Terms (requirements) of overcharging specified in the IEC60045 regulation will be taken into account in the calculation. Main turbine valves (flaps) will be resistant (secured) against power outage, i.e. there will be safety valves. Turbines will be equipped with fully automated stuffing, sealing system with all the necessary and relevant equipment. Feeding water system: The MS block has typically the following composition of pumps: 3 x 50% or 2 x 2 x 50% of necessary output. Pumps for CCGT are typical by having variable regulation of revolution speed by means of frequency converter. Deaeration of the feeding water will be mounted (depending on its arrangement chosen by the supplier) in the gas turbine condenser in external deaerator or in autonomous deaerators at the feeding water tanks. Feeding water tank may be either with a partition or with a spray (injection) deaerator (Sork type spray deaerator). The de-aerator design will allow to reach maximum oxygen volume of 0.01 mg/kg without oxygen exhaustion. The inner part of the de-aerator shall be made of stainless erosion-resistant steel. Steam for the heater for de-aeration of the feeding water tank may be supplied from the Intermediate Pressure part of the turbine, or from the HRSG economizer by means of hot water recirculation. External steam system: External steam system supplies external steam produced outside the CCGT and is used in the time of start of the system, as well as for the de-aerator and for the steam system sealing in the steam turbine. External steam can be used during a pause to keep the HRSG overpressurized, for the gas turbine stuffing, to maintain vacuum in the gas turbine condenser and for thermal emergency of the CCGT. During block shut-downs external steam shall be used for heating of buildings. Gas turbine condensation system: Steam condenser is a cylindrical, surface, wall heat exchanger. Saturated steam condenses on the surface of cooling pipes with cooling water running inside. Depending on the supplier, the arrangement of the condenser may be axial with either lateral or bottom condensate discharge. The cooling water section has to be divided into two separate parts to allow to open one part of the condenser even under load. When only one gas turbine is operating, it is not necessary to shut down the block or the gas turbine. Cooling of the condenser is based on closed cooling circuit. Heated cooling water from the condenser is then cooled in open cooling towers with forced draft. The draft is provided by fans. Gas turbine condenser will be equipped with continuous condenser cleaning system CCC. Main condensation system: The main condensation system usually consists of 3x50% in MS configuration. The condensate pumps are equipped with back-flaps, minimum-flow control and suction filters. Condensate pumps are driven by electric engines with constant revolution speed. The main condensation system will be equipped with purification system consisting of cell filters to remove mechanical dirt from the condensate. The dirt usually comes from corrosion of the construction materials used in the steam-and-water cycle. In order to get the maximum cleanliness of the condensate, a purification unit a Condensate polisher will be installed. Switchhouse: For the purpose of CCGT, a new 400kV switchhouse is to be built at block No. 94. The switchhouse station will consist of 3 fields for turbine generators, 2 fields for conducting out the output, 1 field for connectors hub and 2 fields for connection with the Refinery. Altogether, the switch house will consist of 6-8 fields. For this type of design, 400 kV AIS (potentially GIS) switchhouse is considered, with approximately 250 m x 130 m of built-over area at block 94. Cooling towers (wet mechanical current) for indirect cooling: The selection of cooling equipment is based on the characteristics of the chosen area, its technical infrastructure and existing structure of the Refinerys facilities. The recommendation to use cooling fan towers (wet mechanical stream) emerged from the evaluation of all possible options, where the recommended way of cooling proved to be the most favorable one. Cooling towers feature forced draft in the drenched cooling chambers. The expected number of cooling towers for the whole CCGT project is 18. The cooling water system provides cooling water for gas turbine condenser, as well as for various secondary coolers, via separate heat exchanger (i.e. mainly for EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 23/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI oil coolers of combustion turbines generator, generator coolers, gas turbine coolers, cooling for boiler feeding pumps, sampler coolers, natural gas compressor coolers, etc.). Cooling towers with chimney effect based on natural air flow principle cannot be deemed as a feasible cooling solution for the CCGT power source, because the generating block would require either one natural draft cooling tower with approx. 500 MW th thermal cooling capacity and with up to 145 m height, or two smaller 250 MW th towers about 100 meters high, while the maximum height of all premises in the power plant area is limited to 100 meters due to the request of the Bratislava airport. 8.2.4 AUXILIARY SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURES OF THE PROPOSED CCGT BLOCK

Technology of cleaning the water for refilling the indirect cooling system: The method of cleaning the water for refilling the indirect cooling system is based on water clarification. A new clarification station for refilling water will be built next to the existing chemical water treatment plant (CSW, block 63). The method uses Multiflo type clarification apparatus a product of Veolia Water company. Water obtained from the Danube by the Refinerys facilities will be further treated in the new clarification station. Clarified water will then be led to the cooling system of the CCGT via 1xDN450 piping. The water treatment system will consist of: - water clarification system, e.g. the Multiflo VEOLIA WATER type with 800 t/h capacity; - pumping station for clarified water with of 800 t/h capacity; - 1xDN450 distribution pipe for clarified water. Technology for treatment of feeding water for the HRSG: The existing water treatment plant (CSW) in the Refinery is capable of covering the requested volume of 25t/h of demineralized water for the needs of the CCGT. This eliminates the need of building a new capacity including new pumps. It is only needed to build a new 1xDN100 piping route on existing pipeline bridges. For the purpose of ST condensate purification, a new Condensate polisher unit will be installed on the CCGT. Connection of gas including connection of filter, gauging and regulating plant: The design of the plant, as well as its location and technical solution depend on the solution of pressure increase in the input piping system and on corresponding extension of the protection zone. Technical solution, location, and operation procedures are governed by the governmental statutory order No. 656/2004 Coll. (Act on Power Engineering), Section 2, Article 50 Intake structures, Article 51 terms of connection, and Article 54 supply and measurement of gas. Compressed air supply: Compressed and purified air will be provided by the existing Refinery's compressor station. The compressor station produces dry compressed air with 4.5 5.9 bar(g) output pressure; dew point below minus 25C (< -25C). The distribution of compressed air in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises is ensured via pipeline bridges. The connection point to the existing compressed air piping would be on the PB pipeline bridge. The existing pipe dimension is DN150. Slag from HRSG: Slag from HRSG (max. 36t/h) cooled down to 40C will be fed to input cooling water for cooling towers. Waste water from cooling towers: Waste water max. 160t/h (44,44 l/s) from the indirect cooling system will be fed through newly-built pressure piping to the MCHB WWT. If the quality of waste water from the cooling system is satisfactory, the waste water will be possibly redirected straight to the terminal tank of the MCHB WWT which is equipped with 8 pieces of surface aerators for waste water aeration before its release into the recipient. Connection to chemical sewage: Chemically polluted and soil water will be fed to existing DN500 chemical sewage pressure piping of the Refinery, which runs along the pipeline bridge (PB). Chemical sewage goes to the mechanical, chemical and biological waste-water treatment plant and after the treatment it is discharged to the Danube river. 8.2.5 MAIN CONSTRUCTION OBJECTS AND PREMISES

The main construction objects and operational facilities of the CCGT block include: - refill water clarification station at block 63 - natural gas compressor station
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI natural gas regulation and gauging station, 2xGT gas turbine object with a space reserved for gas and electrical equipment, 2 chimneys 65 m high, common object of HRSG and gas turbine, cooling water pumping station, cooling towers (18), 5 transformers, control room, 110 kV switchhouse 2x400 kV switchhouse connected to SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice waste water pumping station 3 demi-water tank 500 1000 m storage rooms and workshops gate house office building.

The CCGT project also counts with a space reserve for an alternative erection of heat exchanger with possible perspective of supplying heat to the Central heating system. The construction of the objects will make use of standard construction systems and elements. The grounding will be made of concrete, reinforced where necessary. Foundations for generators and turbines (or for other rotating machines) will be constructed with regard to their vibration impacts on the subsoil or on surrounding objects. Vertical structures, supporting elements and systems and roof structures with rather long spans will be made from steel and prefabricated reinforced concrete elements. Vertical and horizontal structures with shorter spans will be made either from bricks or from reinforced concrete monoliths. In the areas with noise sources, peripheral and partition structures will be provided to provide for compliance with the noise reduction requirements specified by relevant standards. Pipelines will be either buried or will run via pipeline bridges. Besides the objects of construction that constitute the generating block CCGT at blocks 94 and 95 itself, the block construction counts with: pipes for indirect cooling, DN450 clean water piping, length: 1400 m sewage structures for rain water and cooling tower waste water, chemical sewage structures for soil water and industrial waste water, potable water piping, fire fighting water piping.

Connecting points to the existing SLOVNAFT, a.s. infrastructure are located next to blocks 94 and 95. 8.2.6 LAYOUT OF THE OBJECTS AND BUILT-UP AREA

Preparation of the construction site To vacate the building site, demolition of existing buildings will be 2 necessary. The buildings are made from bricks, concrete or steel, and cover approx. 100,250 m of builtup area (approx. 55,000 tons of debris). It will also be necessary to cut the existing trees. Dendrological and entomological surveys, elaboration of a redevelopment scheme and a plan of deforestation at the building site are covered by a separate project under the responsibility of SLOVNAFT a.s. SLOVNAFT a.s. will also be responsible for execution of this project before the building site will be handed over to the investor. Evaluation of the survey is in textual annex No. 2 hereto. Location of the objects: Scheme of the proposed generating block (the MS configuration) with connections is shown in graphic annex No. 2. The switchhouse will be paled. The protective zone (area) is 25 m for 400 kV of the upper power lines and 30 m from the switchhouse fencing, pursuant to Act No. 656/2004. Around the natural gas reception station, two protective zones are assumed: 8 m protective zone (area) in which construction of any objects is prohibited and actions are allowed only if approved by the gas appliance operator. 50 m protective zone (area) in which construction of any above-ground appliances is prohibited. Underground objects, roads, siding rails, etc. are allowed.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI These zones are defined in Act No. 656/2004 (Act on Power Engineering) which does not include their detailed description. The final decision will result from negotiation between the gas reception system designers and SPP. Temporary occupation of land (plant depot): Temporary construction facilities will be placed at vacant areas of future generating block and at the areas provided by SLOVNAFT, a.s., mainly at those of block 94. The construction site will be accessible by external public roads and railroads leading along its northern and southern edges. 8.2.7 CONNECTION TO ROADS, SUPPLIERS AND CONSUMERS NETWORKS

Access roads including temporary roads and transport conditions: No temporary roads are considered to be built. Existing public communications (roads) and railways will be used to transport the materials to the building site. Existing sidetracks are available right at the construction site at the northern boundary of blocks 94 and 95 and on the eastern side of block 95. The heaviest units (transformer, generator) require checking of real loading capacity of the bridge over the Little Danube river. Connection to natural gas network: The CCGT block will only use natural gas as fuel. The generating block will be connected to existing 2xDN500 SPP piping which runs along the southern edge of Slovnaft, a.s. Gas will be supplied to combustion turbines through input measuring and regulating station located within the CCGT area. The station will also include a compressor station for natural gas pressure regulation. The boundary and consumption measuring points: Location of this station must allow control and maintenance by SPP Distribcia a.s.; therefore it will be located at or near to the southern fence of SLOVNAFT. The measuring equipment type will be defined by the SPP company. The internal gas line route between the measuring station and combustion turbines must be approved by technical inspection in consideration of absence of the required security zone. Raw water supply: The CCGT block will not use raw water drawn right from the Danube. This water is drawn and led to Slovnafts premises through existing inlet device into Central waterworks (CW), from where it is distributed to other waterworks equipment of the Refinery (chemical water treatment station, , circulation centers, fire fighting distribution lines, etc.), where it is treated according to relevant use. Water for the CCGT will be led through existing waterworks pumps to the newly designed clarification station where it will be modified to the required quality and as additive water added to cooling circuit of the cooling towers. Demineralized water supply: Demineralized water (25t/h, max. 70 t/h at startup)) for the HRSG is prepared within the Refinery in the chemical water treatment station from the water taken from the CW. Demineralized water will be led by DN 100 piping via existing piping bridges. Purified water supply for indirect cooling additional water: The new clarification station will be built at block 63 next to Central waterworks and chemical water treatment station. The clarification concept is based on Multiflo clarification equipment a product of Veolia Water company. Clarified water will be used as additional water for the circuit of cooling towers. The water will be supplied from block 63 to the CCGT via a new 1x DN450piping. Potable water supply: Potable water supply will be provided from the existing potable water system of the Refinery. The connecting point will be in the A83-4 pit. Fire-fighting water: Fire-fighting water will be taken from the Refinery's fire-protection distribution lines. Fire-fighting water distribution is situated on the boundary around units 94 and 95 and has sufficient capacity for the CCGT requirements. The exact point of connection will be defined following an agreement with the Refinery. Sewage water drain and sewerage and liquid waste treatment: Blowdown water from the HRSG (approx. 36t/h) cooled down to 40C will be fed to input cooling water for the cooling towers. Waste water from the cooling towers (160t/h, 44.44 l/s) from the indirect cooling system will be fed by the newly built pressure piping directly to block 126 to the MCHBWWT plant. In case of good quality of waste water from cooling, re-direction straight to the final tank of the MCHBWWT plant will be possible; the water treatment pant has eight surface aerators for aeration of purified waste water prior to discharge to the recipient. Chemically contaminated soil water will be fed to existing DN 500 overpressure piping of Slovnaft chemical sewer running along the PB bridge. The chemical sewer runs to the MCHBWWT station where the soil water is purified and discharged to the Danube.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI In the Extent of Evaluation on Environmental Impacts for the Project Combined Cycle Gas Turbine in the Refinery SLOVNAFT, a.s., Slovakia, elaborated by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic, No. 5060/2009-3.4/ak dated September 2, 2009 (clause 2.2.6), the requirement was made to evaluate the possibility of making harmless the industrial and sewer waste water from the CCGT in the MCHB WWT SLOVNAFT, a.s. This request is based on the standpoint of the Slovak Environmental Inspectorate (SIP) in Bratislava (letter No. 6538-17432/37/2009/Bal dated May 27, 2009) and its aim is to suggest a solution. The standpoint of SDIP with respect to realization of the subject in question states that produced industrial and sewage waste water from operation of the CCGT block must not, in the current situation (limited capacity of the MCHB WWT) be discharged via chemical sewer system through the MCHB WWT into the recipient (Danube River); the standpoint also requires to complete the arrangement of conducting and cleaning of industrial and sewage waste water from the CCGT block before the territorial actions 3 begin with respect to the restricted capacity of the MCHB WWT (1800 m /h) belonging to SLOVNAFT, a.s., Bratislava which will be, after completion of the reconstruction of the Heat Plant, used for 100 % of its capacity. On the basis of the given requirements, the Refinerys department Z-4 Power engineering and ecology has evaluated the possibilities of disposal of industrial and sewage waste water from the CCGT in the SLOVNAFT premises in the MCHB WWT and with respect to the existing production units as well as to the upcoming investments, and came to the following conclusions: Hydraulic capacity of the MCHB WWT is in accordance with the original project - 1800 m /h + 20 % of 3 short-term overload, i.e. 2160 m /h. Currently, the flow rate of purified waste water in the MCHB WWT is 3 approx. 1150 1200 m /h. After the start of operation of the Reverse Osmosis chemical water treatment (in 2010) and reconstruction of the CMEPS Heat Plant in 2013, waste water will be produced in the 3 volume of approx. 380 m /h. The expected flow rate in the MCHB WWT will be approx. 1530 1580 3 m /h, i.e. 88 % utilization of its hydraulic capacity. Low-load chemical waste water from both operation units will cause increased flow rate, i.e. hydraulic load of the WWT; however, this will not have a significant impact on biological level activation. During 2010-2011, diversion of condensate water from the condensate collectors will be performed ( approx. 100 150 t/h). The hydraulic load by the purified waste water in the MCHB WWT will be decreased by this volume. The low-load CCGT cooling waste water from indirect circulation in the expected amount of 160 m /h, conducted directly into the biological level activation, will increase the waste water flow rate at the biological stage of the MCHB WWT plant. The waste water flow rate, increased due to purification of low-load waste water from the above3 3 mentioned operation units (approx. 450 575 m /h), will reach approx. 1600 1775 m /h. The above volume will cause increased hydraulic load of activation of the MCHB WWT biological stage; however, the reconstructed system of the fine bubble aeration is, as far as the capacity is concerned, able to provide for purification of the assumed amount and quality of waste water at the required level. If necessary, it is possible to make the following technological precautions, increasing the operational reliability of the MCHB WWT: 1.) There is an option of dosing on a flocculant in order to improve the settling characteristics of biological sediment after its output from the activation. 2.) If necessary, it is possible to extend the period of sedimentation in the installation tank through division of the stream of refined waste water flowing out of the aeration tank and 3 to operate two installation tanks, each with the 1800 m /h capacity. In case of long-term precipitation and of a flow rate to the MCHB WWT exceeding 2150 3 m /h, there is an option to use rain holder tanks on blocks 50 and 92 with overall capaci3 ty of 10 000 m each.
3 3

3.)

Using the existing activation technology and the a technological precautions, the SLOVNAFT, a.s. MCHB WWT is able to ensure the treatment of the above amount of waste water from the operation of the CCGT at such a level so that the given limits of treated discharged waste water from SLOVNAFT, a.s., into the recipient (the Danube River) are met.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Note: Evaluation of the possibilities of disposal of industrial and sewage waste water from the CCGT of SLOVNAFT in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. MCHB WWT is in textual Annex No. 3 of this Report on evaluation. The issue of waste water from the CCGT block is also described in Section B II 2 Waste Water.

Connection to SEPS transmission system: The CCGT block will be connected to 400 kV switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice. The connection will be realized by an over-head line (OHL) consisting of two 2x400 kV lines. In case of choosing the MS configuration the CCGT 400 kV switchhouse will consist of 3 fields for generators, 2 fields for outlet of the resulting power, 1 field for connecting bar coupling and, alternatively, 2 fields for interconnection via 110 kV with the Refinery's LDN, i.e. the total of 8 fields. Internal electric power connection to the Refinery's LDN : Alternatively, power connection to the Refinery's LDN may be realized by two connections at 110 kV level. To cover the Refinerys total consumption (160MW), the connection requires two 200 MVA 400kV/110 kV transformers, two 110 kV fields and appropriate cable connections between the CCGT 400 kV switchhouse and the Refinery's 110 kV system. Jumper cables will be connected to the existing 110 kV GIS at block 64. Supply from the Refinery's 6 kV system to CCGT 6 kV additional system is recommended. This connection can be used in future during a construction period, as well as during generating block maintenance shutdown. Note: The project and technological solution of the generating block consider a possibility of an additional thermal performance outlet with connection to the existing system CHS 2xDN700, which is currently operated by the BAT, a.s. company. This connection is not covered by the current project. 8.3 COOPERATION WITH THE REFINERY The Proposer's cooperation and contractual relations with the Refinery are determined by technological interdependence upon the Refinery's equipment, especially concerning technological water supply, and waste-water discharge and treatment. Contractual cooperation of CCGT with the Refinery is also assumed in case of possible heat supply to the CHS system, or in case of performance failure of the Thermal power plant (power supply for the Refinery). With regard to the interconnectedness of the Slovnaft Refinery with the MOL Company, no complications during the construction and operation of the power plant block are expected. 8.4 DOMESTIC PRODUCTION AND IMPORT OF PRODUCTION APPLIANCES In the current stage of project documentation elaboration, it is not possible to quantify the share of domestic or international suppliers in the production of some appliances and metal structures. It is assumed that the building activities will be made by domestic suppliers of construction works. We assume import of specific machinery, electrical equipment and appliances for the control system and for MaR. 8.5 EXPECTED INDUCED INVESTMENTS

Construction of the CCGT generating block requires to make a connection branch to SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice. The generating block construction will not require any other induced investments.

9.

OPTIONS OF THE PROJECTED OPERATION


the zero option (i.e. a situation which would emerge if the project did not take place) the option recommended in the project (i.e. CCGT power plant in the MultiShaft configuration).

The options considered in this evaluation report of environmental impacts of the project consist of:

The suggested option (MS configuration of the block CCGT) was chosen due to the following reasons: High efficiency of the CCGT is achieved by feeding hot combustion gases (temperature > 530C) from combustion turbines to the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), where their heat is used to produce overheated steam for the steam power source. In CCGT applications, so called three-pressure steam
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI cycles are used to take off maximum thermal performance from exhaust combustion gases of combustion turbines, and thus also for maximum production of overheated steam from HRSG and of achievable power performance from steam turbines. In the three-pressure steam cycle the HRSG produces steam at three pressure levels (high-pressure / intermediate-pressure / low-pressure steam). The HRSG also includes intermediate heat-up of intermediate-pressure steam and exchanger for condensate heating. As a rule, the current well-proven CCGT facilities in the required electric power production and in the projected CCGT size (880 MWe) are feasible as compound multi-shaft configuration (MS), supplied by the original equipment manufacturers (OEM), or within the engineering-providing construction work by contractor(s) (EPC). In the conventional MS-CCGT appliance there are two combustion turbines with generators and with separate HRSGs which work for one common gas turbine which, in turn, drives one generator. A schematic process diagram for one combustion turbine and one gas turbine in MS configuration is shown in the following figure:

LEGEND: Gas turbine = plynov turbna, Steam turbine = plynov turbna, Flue gas to HRSG = spaliny idce do tepelnho vmennka, HP = vysokotlak stupe, IP = strednotlak stupe, LP = nzkotlak stupe, Flue gas to stock = spaliny idce do komna

Fig. 1 Schematic process diagram 880 MWCCGT MS block The diagram (Fig. 3) shows that in the MS configuration the ST unit is separated from the GT process. The projected performance of the 880 MW CCGT block in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. Refinery will be provided by configuration of two separate combustion turbines with two HRSGs and a common gas turbine. The ST unit of the 880 MW MS-CCGT block is shown in Figure 2.

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Fig. 2. ST unit of the 880 MW MS-CCGT block The CCGT block assembly and variants have been selected within Feasibility Study Slovnaft CCGT. To evaluate the technical options within the feasibility study, the following technical aspects and main technical options were identified (indicated in brackets): - unit capacity - MS 1x880 MW, - shafts - multi shaft (MS) system, - cooling system - indirect circulation cooling, mechanical cooling forced by pumps, in cooling towers, - switchhouse type - AIS (Air Insulated Switchhouse), connecting device (alternatively: GIS). Although the main operation mode of the CCGT power station is 100% basic load, the 1xMS CCGT power plants are rather flexible with respect to operation load, and also capable to maintain high efficiency of partial load. On the basis of the above criteria, the CCGT 880 MW MS (2GT+ST) generating block has been selected as the most appropriate for CCGT CMEPI i.e. the generating block with two combustion turbines and one steam turbine, with indirect cooling in cooling towers with mechanical draft and with AIS type switchhouse. An example of a similar generating block is shown in Figure 3.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Fig. 3. Standard 880 MW MS-CCGT system The selected generating block belongs to basic and most frequently used CCGT assemblies with 880 MW capacity and to most frequently used combinations of gas and steam turbines. The projected output is just slightly different with individual original equipment manufacturers (within few per cent), and also the efficiency rates are similar due to similar thermal design of gas turbines with CCGT applications. With respect to the Investor's decision, as well as to local conditions, the power of the CCGT block has been modified to 880 MW e in the following configuration (Figure 4):

Fig. 4 Configuration of the projected 880 MWe CCGT block 9.1 OPERATING MODES OF THE CCGT BLOCK

The proposed operation mode assumes average annual performance of 4160 hours/year, and includes 260 starts (Note: In consequence, actual annual performance time is determined by planned and forced outage hours). Maximum technological labor time fund is 8200 hours/year. Actual labor time fund depends on actual economic conditions on the market and is scheduled for 4,160 hours/year in the project. 9.2 SPECIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICALLY FEASIBLE OPTIONS

On the basis of evaluation of the main technical options, the following technologically feasible options have been taken into consideration for deeper and economic analyses; for the evaluation thereof, the following above mentioned criteria have been chosen: 1. Unit size, number of shafts, and the capacity of heat production in the form of steam (the CCGT concept: From this viewpoint, the MS 1x880 MW e option has been recommended as technologically feasible and corresponding to the proposer's intention. The option can produce the required volume of heat with the required maximum thermal performance of 200 MW t (in case central heat supply will be required). The MS option is less-compact, and therefore it is more suitable for steam offtake (alt. heat supply to the CHS system). 2. Cooling: Recommendation: indirect cooling, i.e. mechanical cooling towers. This option has lower investment costs which are not balanced with operating costs (in comparison both to direct cooling and to chimney-effect cooling towers). The option represents a technologically easier solution, and it is not necessary to build a new water pumping station (in comparison to direct coolEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 31/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI ing). In comparison to direct cooling, this option has much lower environmental impact (the direct cooling alternative requires a large water feeding equipment; in turn, the cooling towers have significantly negative visual impact).

10.

TOTAL COSTS

Total investment costs of the realization of the project are assumed within EUR 700 mil.

11.

AFFECTED MUNICIPALITY
Bratislava, the capital of the SR Town Council of Bratislava, the capital of the SR Primacilne nm. 1, Bratislava City district Bratislava - Ruinov Mierov 21, Bratislava City district Bratislava - Podunajsk Biskupice Trojin nm. 1, Bratislava City district Bratislava - Vrakua ravsk 7, Bratislava City district Bratislava - Petralka Kutlkova 17, Bratislava Municipality of Rovinka Municipal office Rovinka 900 41 Rovinka

12.

THE AFFECTED SELF-GOVERNING REGION


Bratislava Self-governing Region The Office, Sabinovsk 12, Bratislava

13.

THE AFFECTED AUTHORITIES


District Office of Environment, Bratislava II. Karlovesk 2, Bratislava Regional Office of Public Health Care Ruinovsk 8, Bratislava

14.

THE LICENSING AUTHORITY


Slovak Environmental Inspection (Slovensk inpekcia ivotnho prostredia) - the Bratislava Inspectorate Prievozsk 30, Bratislava

15.

THE COMPETENT AUTHORITY


Ministry of Economy of the SR Mierov 19, Bratislava The reviewing authority is the Ministry of Environment of the SR, nm. . tra 1, Bratislava

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16.

STATEMENT ON ASSUMED INFLUENCES OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY BEYOND NATIONAL BOUNDARIES

The proposed construction will not have considerable adverse environmental influence beyond national boundaries; it does not fulfill the conditions of Article 40 of Act no. 24/2006 Coll. and the criteria listed in Annex No.13 of the quoted Act.

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B I 1.
1.1

DIRECT IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY ON THE ENVIRONMENT INCLUDING HEALTH REQUIREMENTS CONCERNING INPUTS SOIL
SOIL CONFISCATION A) The zero option

The zero option does not require any new soil confiscation. B) The proposed option Construction of the CCGT block does not assume any occupation of farm or forest land. The area allocated for the construction is situated in the southern part of SLOVNAFT, a.s. in the following blocks: block 94: new switchhouse, block 95: objects and facilities of the proposed CCGT block, block 63: existing Chemical water treatment (CHWT) facility and new cooling water clarification plant, block 64: existing 110 kV electric switchhouse. The land is owned by SLOVNAFT a.s., it is located in the cadastral area of the Ruinov city district - plots No. 5063/63, 5063/64, 5063/94 and 5063/95 within the own ers site.. The plots belonging to blocks 94 and 95 (No. 5063/94), as well as a part of plot No. 5063/63 selected for construction of the 880 MW CCGT block will be rented for the proposer during the CCGT block service 2 2 life. Plot No. 5063/94 has the area of 50,609 m , plot No. 5063/95 has the area of 80,270 m (total: 2 130,879 m ). This land is built-up, containing structures created as subcontractor construction-site facilities during the construction of SLOVNAFT, a.s. (office buildings, warehouses, workshops, mortar and concrete production facilities, as well as facilities for production of prefabricated elements. Above-ground structures comprise mostly halls consisting of concrete frame and cellular concrete cladding. These are mostly owned by SLOVNAFT, a.s. The structures have diverse legal status (built-up areas, vegetation cover, etc.). Redevelopment of the areas belonging to blocks 94 and 95 (including demolition of structures and removal of vegetation) and their preparation as the construction site for the CCGT block will be provided by SLOVNAFT, a.s. within a separate project, to be realized before the hand-over of the construction site to the proposer. Thus, the proposer's intention does not include any facts concerning on demolition of the objects, deforestation and the methods for disposal of the waste generated during preparation of the site for the proposed construction. Within the EIA process, the technical report Hodnotenie drevn v lokalite zmeru Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko v Bratislave (Evaluation of wood species in the location of the plan "CCGT block in the Slovnaft, a.s. refinery, Slovakia in Bratislava) was elaborated by TILIANA RNDr. Jana Ruikov, Bratislava in November 2009; this report will be the background document for development of the project documentation required for deforestation and for the site preparation (textual annex No. 2). All transport routes will run outside the premises of Slovnaft, a.s., making use of public transport routes. The main access route has been determined to run along Slovnaftsk ulica and Ulica svornosti to the crossroads next to the Baumax store, turning to Lieskovsk cesta and to the road along the southern border of the premises toward its southern gatehouse. Another access to the plots of blocks 94 and 95, after turning off Slovnaftsk cesta behind the bridge over the Little Danube River, is provided via the public routes running along the northern, western and southern edge of the Slovnaft, a.s. premises towards its southern gatehouse. 1.2 SOIL CONFISCATION FOR PROTECTION ZONES

The proposed construction will constitute a part of the Slovnaft production site, with declared hygienic st nd protection zone and 1 and 2 degree security protection zones, which have been adjusted in the northeastern part in 2000. Pursuant to Act No. 656/2004, a protection zone will have to be declared for the constructed 2x400 kV electricity connection line in the area between the southern fence of SLOVNAFTs block 95 to the SEPS switchhouse, as follows:

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI in case of aerial lines for voltages ranging from 250 to 400 kV inclusive, 25 m on both sides of the power lines, defined by vertical planes on both sides of the power lines in horizontal distance measured from the outermost line perpendicularly to the electricity lines, Note. Protected areas, protected natural formations and monuments, as well as protection zones situated within the area in question, including protection zones within the Refinery site, are described in more detail in Section C II 9 of the Report on evaluation.

2.

WATER

The facts concerning water offtake and water management of SLOVNAFT a.s. have been processed according to the background documents provided to the project developers by the SD&HSE Refinery. According thereto (in long-term surveys of service water offtake and consumption), decreasing trend is obvious due to saving measures and overall modernization of the production focused on increasing the production efficiency reducing waste in this company. 2.1 WATER SOURCES

The main source of service water for the Refinery is represented by the Danube river. Water is taken in from the so-called Olejrsky pool. Water is pumped into a 1,300 m long open supply channel (feeding station the site's fencing). The open Danube water channel leads from the western fencing of the site eastwards up to the Central waterworks (approx. 1,000 m). Another source of service (cooling) water is represented by underground water used within the HGWP system. Pumping is primarily used for underground water protection; secondarily, pumped water can only be used for machinery cooling, and cannot come into direct contact with the processed media. The source of drinking water is the BVS, a.s. Bratislava water line. The above sources are currently also used for the purposes of the SPC, for the CMEPS heat plant, as well as for other users within the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site. 2.2 WATER INTAKE A) The zero option Service water supply for users within the entire site is provided within the extent of 500 10,000 l.s . The total volume supplied to production- and non-production facilities is provided by the SLOVNAFT, a.s. Central waterworks in the following projected quantities: -1 Cooling water distribution: 2 x 730 l.s -1 5 x 1,150 l.s -1 4 x 1,500 l.s TG cooling at CMEPS heat plant Cemical water treatment plant common water distribution pipeline shared with other units -1 2 x 67 l.s -1 1x 19.5 l.s -1 Fire fighting water 2 x 67 l.s -1 Total capacity of Central waterworks: 99.14 l.s This capacity is currently utilized at approximately 20 %. Total volumes of taken-in Danube water (excluding the Biskupice distributary) for 2000 2008 are given in the following table: Tab. 5. Taken-in Danube water in 20002007 Period 2000 2001 2005 2006 2007 2008
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Taken-in Danube 3 surface water in m 71,701,021 64,500,748 * 34,852,708 38,441,617 44,065,212 46 932 424

l.s

-1

2312,93 2045,31 1105,17 1218,98 1397,30 1488,22 35/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI * Average for 20022004 The decrease in Danube water intake after 1990 was caused by a gradual modernization of facilities and production units in the Refinery and SPC plants, by transition from flow-through cooling to circulation cooling, as well as by better utilization of HGWP water. This downward trend has stabilized in the recent years, and the last three seasons (2006- 2008) saw a slight increase (in 2007 by 14.6 %, in 2008 by 6.5 %). The increase in Danube water intake is also ascribed to the installation of a new and more precise measurement of Danube water input. Another source for the intake of service water is represented by the above-mentioned HGWP. In 2000 2007, the stipulated limits and intake volumes were as follows: Table 6. Volume of HGWP water taken in during 2000- 2008 Period HGWP pumped water excluding IInd water source 3 -1 in m .year 29 235 431 27 955 521 28 446 366 29 016 214 29 785 314 28 957 626 l.s
-1

Difference with respect to the preceding year in %

Intake limit as per the decision

Limit %

2000 2001 2005 2006 2007 2008

927,05 886,46 902,03 920,10 944,49 918,24

-4,3 0,01* 2,0 2,7 -2,8

39 420 000 31 536 000 31 536 000 31 536 000 36 300 000 36 300 000

83,50 79,80 81,28 82,90 85,10 79,77

Thereof, for cooling purposes in % approx.30 approx. 30 26,69 % 23,97 % 25,39 % 25,25 %

* Average increase during 20022004 In 2006 the total volume of used HGWP water increased by 2.0 % when compared to 2005, while utilization of underground cooling water decreased by 8.4 %. In comparison with 2006, the total volume of HGWP water used in 2007 increased by 2.7 %. Consumption of underground cooling water increased by 8.8 %. In comparison with 2007, in 2008 the total volume of used HGWP water decreased by 2.8 %. The use of pumped-out underground water for cooling decreased by 0.6 %. The volume of pumped-out OS decreased by 39.1 %. Drinking water, which is also partly used for laboratory and technological purposes (e.g. for the production of demineralized water) comes from the Refinery's distribution lines. Offtake for 2000-2008 is given in the table below. Table 7. Offtake of drinking water in 2000-2008 Period 2000 2001 2005 2006 2007 2008 m .year 1755250 1510177 1325539 1451935 1023007 973 525
3 -1

l.s -1 55,66 l.s -1 47,89 l.s -1 42,03 l.s -1 46,04 l.s -1 32,44 l.s -1 30,87 l.s

-1

In general, the offtake of drinking water has had a falling tendency, with the exception of 2005 and 2006: in 2006 drinking water offtake increased by 9.5% in comparison with 2005, while in comparison with 2006, it decreased by 29.5 % in 2007. In 2008, the drinking water offtake decreased by 4.8%. B) The proposed option The generating block will utilize the same water resources as the Refinery, sharing the same facilities. Offtake of Danube water for technological processes via these facilities is expected to reach the volume 3 of approx. 33280000 m /year. The taken-off water will be partly used for preparation of demineralized water and partly for cooling and/or for other technological purposes.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Demineralized water for the CCGT block will be taken from the existing Chemical water treatment plant of the Refinery, which will be capable of sufficiently covering the maximum demineralized water con3 sumption demands in the volume of 25 t/hr (6,94 l/s, approx. 104000 m /year) within the main operation mode. The maximum at start-up amounts to 70 t/h (19.44 l/s). The requirred quality of this water at output for the CCGT block is given in the following table. Table 8. Demineralized / mixbed water from the existing chemical water treatment plant output Parameter alkalinity p alkalinity m total pollution total Fe max. copper content SiO2 max conductivity at 25C max. Parameter value -1 0.00 mmol.l -1 0.00 mmol.l -1 0.0000 mmol.l -1 5 g.l -1 2 g.l -1 0.015 mg.l -1 0.3 S.cm

According to the Feasibility Study Combined Cycle Power Plant at the Slovnaft Refinery, Slovakia developed by F-Consult Ltd (AFC), Finland, utilization of demineralized water supplied from the CHWT plant to the CCGT block will be included in the requirements for its supply, as the maximum level of conductivity at 0.2 S /cm will only be achievable through a modific ation of the recovery process. Demineralized water will be supplied from the existing water facilities to the CCGT by a 1x DN100 pipeline, mounted on a pipeline bridge. Cooling water used in cooling towers (alternative to indirect cooling) will be supplied to the block from the Refinery's Central waterworks. The maximum volume of clarified cooling water required for cooling tower operation (800 t/h) cannot be provided by the existing Water treatment facility of the Refinery due to its insufficient capacity. It is therefore necessary to build a new water clarification plant for the required vo3 lume of 800 t/h (222,22 l/s, approx. 3328000 m /year in the main operational mode) in the vicinity of the chemical water treatment plant (block 63). The concept of the developers of the above study is based on a Multiflo-type purification facility, manufactured by Veolia Water company. Water will be pumped from the Danube and then treated in the new purification plant. Clean water will be supplied to the CCGT cooling system by a 1xDN450 pipeline. The CCGT block will receive sanitary water from the Refinery's water line. The expected volume of ap3 prox. 605 m /year (in the average 0,02 l/s) is based on the assumed number of CCGT power plant employees (33 workers). The offtake will be carried out via a branch pipe from the Refinery's drinking water distribution pipeline. 2.3 WATER CONSUMPTION A) The zero option Service water is used for technological purposes and cooling. Consumption of Danube water matches its 3 intake volumes (in 2007, 44.932 mil. m ). It is partly used for flow-through cooling. The remaining portion of the taken-in Danube water is used for technological purposes and to replenish the losses in circulation cooling systems. Cooling also uses a part of pumped HGWP underground water. Technological water consists of the following water sources: Danube water, underground water (a part from HGCW), and re-circulated water from Heating plant turbo-generator cooling. All of these sources are pumped through the Central waterworks' pumping facility. Partial re-circulation of cooling water for the purposes of CMEPS heat plant's turbo-generators (with the exception of summer months) results in higher efficiency of utilization of taken-in Danube water. Danube water is used for cooling (approx. 45-65 %) along with a part of underground water (approx. 2530 % of the water pumped-out within the HGWP). The figure concerning flow-through cooling water represents a balanced volume of flow-through cooling water consumed by the production units, which constitutes a substantial part of waste water discharged through the WWT block No. 11 and WWT blocks No. 17-18. This balance does not include Danube water used for turbo-generator cooling, which is re3 circulated into Central waterworks (approx. 30 mil. m per year). The following table shows individual
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI sources of surface and underground water calculated form measurement data reflecting the volume of waste water discharged through the WWT plants in blocks 11 and 17-18.

Table 9. Balance of water used for flow-through cooling broken down according to the water source
Year Water discharged from WWT in blocks 11, 17-18 3 m 85274762 74153404 60618302 59365365 57876874 Discharged rainwater HGWP excluding the nd 2 water source m 29 235 431 27 955 521 29 016 214 29 785 314 28 957 626
3

Danube water used for flowthrough cooling

Underground water used for cooling

Water used for flowthrough cooling m 65115354 55430729 38406176 35642660 33306443
3

2000 2001 2006 2007 2008

m 1500000 1500000 1500000 1500000 1500000

m 54539331 44697884 31452088 28080051 25785606

% 63.9 60,02 51,9 47,3 44,55

m 10576023 10732845 6954088 7562609 7520837

% cca 30 cca 30 23,97 25,39 25,96

Drinking water is used for sanitary and hygienic purposes (drinking, washing, toilets), as well as for other purposes under an exception granted by the company's water management technician (e.g. as a solvent within technological processes, in air-conditioning units, in pressure cleaning facilities, in automatic analyzers). Out of the total volume of drinking water, only approx. 10 % is used for sanitary and hygienic purposes and the most of its consumption is related to the utilization of drinking water for technological and/or other purposes (e.g. in laboratories). According to the monitored balances, consumption of drinking water in SLOVNAFT a.s. has a falling tendency. From 1998, when water consumption in SLOVNAFT 3 3 a.s. reached the level of 2,094,300 m , this figure dropped to 1,510,117 m /year in 2001. Currently 3 (2008) it reaches 973 525 m /year. In comparison with 2007, the intake of surface Danube water increased by 6.5% in 2008. This increased intake of Danube water is caused by installation of a new and more precise measurement device. The intake of drinking water decreased by 4.8%. In 2008, the total volume of HGWP water decreased by 2.8%. Utilization of pumped-out underground water for cooling decreased by 0.6%. The volume of pumped-out OS decreased by 39.1%. Both Intake and consumption of technological water in SPC are approximately ten times lower (2 790 3 3 410 m in 2008). Drinking water intake in 2008 represented 11 765 m . B) The proposed option Consumption of demineralized, cooling and drinking water will reach their intake level. Consumption of 3 cooling water is primarily represented by evaporation and blowdown from the cooling towers (800 m /hr) and/or by other technological losses. 2.4 FIRE-FIGHTING WATER DEMAND A) The zero option SLOVNAFT, a.s. has a functional and comprehensive fire-fighting water distribution system, which covers virtually the entire Refinery site. Total demand of fire-fighting water in SLOVNAFT a.s. at the level of its expected intake is given above. B) The proposed option Fire-fighting water necessary for fire-fighting purposes within the CCGT block will be provided by a pumping station with an output of 7x70 l/s, and a pressure of 16 bar. There is a possible connection to the Slovnaft, a.s. fire-fighting water distribution pipeline running along the southern side of blocks 94 and 95 and along the border of neighboring blocks 84 and 85. The demand of fire-fighting water for the proposed construction will be calculated within the fire protection project, whereas the fire protection system will respect the specific features of the generating block.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI

3.
3.1

RAW MATERIALS
RAW MATERIAL RESOURCES A) The zero option:

The basic production raw material used in the Refinery is oil. The assumed volume of total processed oil for the following period is 5.5 million tons per year. Most of this volume will be used for production of engine fuels, while a part will be utilized for production of polymers and other refined petrochemical industry products; this increases production efficiency and simultaneously covers the needs and requirements of Slovak and foreign markets. Description of raw materials, chemicals and auxiliary substances used in the Refinery is beyond the scope of this project and is irrelevant to the evaluation of the proposed activities; thus, they are not detailed in this report. B) The proposed option Preliminary material balance for the CCGT block given an operation time of 2080 hrs in summer, 2080 hrs in winter and estimated heat supply for the CHS system in the volume of 3.1PJ/year is as follows: Natural gas and combustion air requirements 1. - natural gas consumption - combustion air consumption Water requirements - water for technological processes (Danube water) - drinking water for sanitary purposes Oil consumption - combustion turbine oil charge - steam turbine oil charge - transformer oil charge - lubricating and hydraulic oils - lubricating grease - compressor oil Consumption of chemicals - hydrochloric acid (HCl) - sodium hydroxide (NaOH) - other water treatment chemicals (softeners, purification chemicals) - cooling water treatment chemicals (inhibitors, biocides, FeCl3, organic flocculant, calcic hydrate, etc.)

22604,09 TJ/year 0,461 mil. t/year 18,72 mil. mil.t/year 229905142 m /year 3 605 550 m /year 25 30 20 25 approx. 300 0,5 35-45 75 8-10 8-10 2-3 2-3 m 3 m 3 m 3 m /year kg/year l/ year t/ year t/year t/ year t/ year
3 3

Note: It will only be possible to specify the balance of raw materials and chemicals consumption after the conclusion of contracts with individual suppliers of technological parts of the CCGT block.

4.

SOURCES OF ENERGY
A) The zero option

The supply of electric energy for the Refinery's LDN provided by the ZSE, a.s. network via a separate HV connection line leading from the parent 400/110 kV SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice. The Refinery's LDN has its own electric energy sources for cases of emergency (ZSE network power outage). The most important one is the CMEPS heat plant, which uses reduction of produced steam also for electric energy production. Minor backup sources within the production unit include diesel generators and accumulators. These are used, for example, during startup of technological facilities or in case of a sudden malfunction of the company's distribution network. Thermal energy used in production- and non-production facilities in the form of technological steam, as well as for heating purposes and for preparation of hot water, is supplied to the Refinery's distribution system by the CMEPS heat plant and from the Refinery's and SPCs production units. Most of the fuels
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI necessary for production of thermal energy are provided by SLOVNAFT s own sources created during oil processing (heating oil, heating gas). Partially, natural gas supplied by the SPP distribution network is used as a complementary source for thermal energy production. SLOVNAFT a.s. also uses its own sources to provide for technological and machine air (the central compressor plant and hydrogen (the HPP facility). B) The proposed option The CCGT block has been designed to achieve an output in the order of 880 MW. According to the submitted material and energy balance (2080 hrs. of operating time in summer, 2080 hrs. in winter, and assumed heat supply of up to 100 MWh), the reported electric energy production reaches the volume of 3000 GWh/year, out of which own consumption represents 64,33 GWh/year and net electric energy production for network supplies constitutes approximately 2936 GWh/year. According to the Feasibility Study, an MS (2GT11ST) with one operational GT cannot achieve 50-percent of the total output, but only 48.5%. It is, however, suitable from the point of view of total operational flexibility. The CCGT block will utilize process steam from own HRSG sources. In case of heat supplies from the CHS system, the CHS heat exchanger plant will be fed with steam from the regulated steam turbine offtake. The CCGT energy block will utilize machine air from the Refinery's distribution system. It will only be possible to specify the consumed amounts in the final stages of project preparation and during the facilitys trial operation (alternatively, compressed air source is available). Note: It will only be possible to specify the energy consumption balance after the conclusion of contracts with individual suppliers of technological parts of the CCGT block.

5.

REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSPORT AND INFRASTRUCTURE

The basic solution of requirements for transport and other infrastructure, as well as for the construction and operation of the CCGT energy block is as follows: 5.1 TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS A) The zero option External mass transport of persons to SLOVNAFT, a.s. will be provided by Bratislava mass transportation lines and current intercity bus transport lines. Transportation within the refinery site is provided by external contractor. Its schedule corresponds to the beginning of individual shifts and internal needs of the company. Transport of oil, the fundamental raw material, into the refinery (approx. 5,000 5,500 kt per year) is provided by Druba and Adria pipelines. Their capacity greatly exceeds the needs of the Refinery. Ships are also considered as a possible alternative due to diversification of resources. Pipelines mounted on pipe bridges are used for internal transportation of oil. Larger volumes of other raw materials and substances are transported into the refinery site by rail. Liquid raw materials are transported in railway tanks, transferred in existing transfer points, and filled into storage tanks. Other materials are transported into the refinery site in common or specially modified railway cars. Inside the refinery, large volumes of liquid materials are transported in pipelines mounted on pipe bridges. Freight of other materials is provided by road or railway transport. Fine chemicals, auxiliary substances, catalysts, etc. are transported primarily by road haulage in special containers or road tank cars. These are either brought directly to their point of destination or (in most cases) they are stored in individual existing storage facilities (Central chemical warehouse). At present, a portion of SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC products (approx. 20% of gasoline and 15% of diesel oil) is transported into the Klaany storage by pipeline, and another portion (approx. 20% of motor oil and 15% of heating oil), destined for foreign markets, is transported by pipeline to the Bratislava harbor and subsequently transferred to river boats. The rest of the production of these organizations is freighted by railroads (55-70%) or by road haulage (10-40%). The highest portion of road haulage, as much as

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 40%, is used in case of polymers. In the future, overall utilization of the above forms of product transport and their proportions is expected to be retained. Within the refinery site, extensive roofed warehouses are available for storage of machinery and materials. There are also hard surfaces with a sufficient capacity to store building materials, as well as storage rooms and surfaces available for temporary storage of produced waste. These warehouses and storage surfaces are accessible by the existing internal road network and/or have siding track connections. B) The proposed option During the construction of the CCGT block, requirements for transport of persons will not exceed 800 employees. Their transportation will be mostly provided by construction and installation subcontractors, city public transport or other regional companies specializing in mass transport of persons. Within the Refinery site, transport of persons will be provided by subcontractors or by the company transport system. Implementation of the project will require transportation of construction materials, substances and structural elements, as well as transport of technological facilities in a greater extent than during the reconstruction of the CMEPS heating plant. This transport will use the existing railway and road connections, as well as internal routes. At the same time, the implementation of the project will require certain clearage and demolition works. Removal of the produced waste will also use existing railway and road connections, as well as internal routes. In both cases, the volumes will be specified within the construction project and the means of transport will be defined during the conclusion of subcontracts. Similarly, subcontracts will also include the manner of waste water disposal. Construction of the CCGT block will also include installation of branch connections from existing networks and distribution systems to the planned structures and facilities. With respect to the type of solution of this option, the supply of raw materials, chemical and auxiliary substances for the energy block will have only a slight impact on the total freight balance of the refinery and its surroundings. The construction of the CCGT block will increase the requirements and demands concerning mass transport of persons (external and internal) in a short period of time only, namely during the main stages of the construction process. During the operation, basic raw materials natural gas, demineralized and cooling water will be transported by pipelines in the manner described above. Fine materials will be delivered by road haulage directly to their destination point or to the designated warehouse. From there, the materials will be supplied periodically or when needed. The main product of the power block will be electricity supplied to the SEPS distribution network by 2 x 400 kV connections leading to the Podunajsk Biskupice switch house. Connections will comprise 2 x 400 kV aerial lines with a 25 m protection zone on both sides of the power lines, defined by the plane of the outermost line perpendicularly to the ground. Following an agreement with the subcontractor, the second product alternative heat supplies for the CHS Bratislava-east heat line can be provided by a 2x DN700 heat ine leading from the CCGT block through the Refinery site into an existing 2x DN700 heat line coming from the Bratislava-south heating plant. The investment plan does not consider heat supplies. This activity represents an alternative in case of commercial agreements with the heat purchaser and distributor in Bratislava and therefore the investor has not paid more detailed attention to this activity while preparing the submitted documentation. According to a statement of the most significant heat distributor, Bratislavsk Teplrensk, a.s., the proposed technical solution of the project is acceptable if adequately connected to the heat distribution network (minutes from the negotiation are given in textual annex No. 4). . Waste water will be drained by the Refinery sewage system. Other liquid and solid waste will be disposed of according to contracts concluded with licensed organizations and generally removed by road haulage. 5.2 CONNECTION TO ROAD AND RAILWAY COMMUNICATIONS A) The zero option The Refinery sites road connection with Slovnaftsk street is provided by the main gate leading from the forefield in the northern part of the site. Secondary entrance is located in the southern part of the site and leads to an access road tracing the site's perimeter. Virtually all production units, plants, structures and facilities are interconnected by internal roads.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI The refinery includes its own railway terminal connected to the central freight station. In the past, all railway and road traffic structures and facilities were built to support oil processing capacity reaching 8.0 mil. -1 t.year . Connection of the refinery site to the central freight station and its terminal is provided by a single track siding leading through a gate in the western part of the site. Connection to the Podunajsk Biskupice railway station, provided by a siding track leading through a gate in the eastern part of the site fencing, is currently not used. B) The proposed option From the perspective of road transport, the main access routes during the construction as well as operation of the CCGT block will be via the routes of the main communication circuit of the city - Slovnaftsk cesta and Ulica svornosti. If transit through the Slovnaft, a.s., premises in order to access the CCGT premises is ruled out, two following road routes are available: from Slovnaftsk cesta by turning to the right after the bridge over the Little Danube River and following public communications further around the Slovnaft, a.s., premises from the northern, western and southern sides up to the entrance to the CCGT premises; from Ulica svornosti by turning to the right via the intersection with traffic lights of Ulica svornosti with Lieskoveck cesta, following the eastern side of the Slovnaft, a.s., premises and then tur ning off to road communication along the southern side of the Slovnaft premises up to the entrance to the CCGT premises.

With respect to the load factor of the route of the main communication circuit of the city the capacity of Slovnaftsk cesta and Ulica svornosti is overloaded during morning and afternoon peak traffic, often with restricted capacity. Their load factor during the daily working hours resides in the upper part of their capacity. Lieskovsk cesta and other public communications around the Slovnaft, a.s. premises are overloaded sporadically, at the most in the lower half of their capacity. Within the CCGT premises, access road communications are built on the southern part and around the perimeter of blocks 94 and 95. On the basis of the project solution, it will be necessary to finish constructing access communications to individual objects and devices of the energy blocks within the construction. For railway transport during the construction as well as operation of the CCGT energy block, a railroad both on and off the Slovnaft premises will be used; one line of the railroad leads also along the northern edge of blocks 94 and 95 and along the north-eastern part of block 95. Alternative connections to the CCGT equipment will be subject to project solution if necessary. 5.3 TRANSPORT OF RAW MATERIALS VIA PIPELINES A) The zero option Connection of the Refinery site to external oil and product pipelines, as well as to internal forms of transport of raw materials, substances, energy and products is described above. B) The proposed option During construction of the CCGT block, the following structures will be built: - pipeline for demineralized water from CHWWT plant, block 63, - new waste water pipeline will be built leading from the cooling towers to MCHBWWT plant in block 126, connected to the biological stage, with the option to re-direct the water to the MCHBWWT input lagoon, - cleared water pipeline for the CCGT cooling circuit (DN450), leading form the new clearing station located in block 63. In addition, other technological materials from Refinery sources will be supplied to the energy block by pipelines mounted on pipe bridges.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 5.4 ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION A) The zero option Three 110 kV power cable lines lead to the Refinery site from the Podunajsk Biskupice 400/110 kV TR. Distribution of electric energy within the site is provided by underground cables (doubled) or by cables mounted on bridge constructions, which have been built in accordance with the respective STN and safety regulations. B) The proposed option A 6 kV connection from local distribution network - Slovnaft , a.s. LDN, will be built within the construction of the CCGT power block; it will be used during the construction and later during the operation of the CCGT energy block when it will not be possible to use own sources of electric power. If needed, it is alternatively possible to provide interconnection between the CCGT power block and the Refinery's LDN via the 110 kV switchhouses in block 64. The construction of a 2 x 400 kV branch connection to the SEPS switching station in Podunajsk Biskupice is subject to a separate project. In accordance with Act No. 24/2006 as amended by more recent amendments of Annex No. 8, clause 2, item 15 B, due to its length (less than 5 km) the branch connection is not subject to EIA approval. However, on the basis of an instruction of the Ministry of Environment of the SR in the extent of report evaluation, examination of the impacts of this line on the environment and proposal of precautions in order to eliminate adverse impacts on avifauna are part of this Evaluation Report. 5.5 NATURAL AND HEATING GAS DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS A) The zero option Natural gas for SLOVNAFT, a.s. is supplied from the SPP-distribcia, a.s. network, through a supply and measurement station situated in block 93. Natural gas distribution networks within the Refinery's site are mounted on pipe bridges and lead along the outer surface of buildings. They are installed, operated and marked in accordance with the respective STN standards. Heating gas supplied by respective production units of the Refinery is transported via pipe bridges into H1 and H2 mixing plants, where it is mixed with natural gas and then used in the Refinery's processes and/or for heat production. B) The proposed option Natural gas for the CCGT block will be supplied by a 2x 500DN SPP gas pipeline, which leads along the southern fencing of the Refinery. During its construction, a connection branch and an input measuring station will be built. 5.6 IMPLEMENTATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR HEAT SUPPLY A) The zero option Technological steam distribution networks, heat lines, as well as hot water distribution pipelines for Refinery heating and consumption purposes consist of pipelines mounted on pipe bridges (and/or pipelines located in underground heat lines) leading to heat installations, which they take off heat from heat carriers. After the take-off of heat, and/or after condensation, they are in general returned into the circulation system (except warm water). B) The proposed option The CCGT block will utilize its own heat sources and will have its own technological steam distribution network, as well as its own hot water distribution network for heating and consumption purposes. During shutdowns of own heat source (weekends, holidays, etc.), heat will be supplied from the resources of the Refinery. If heat supply for the CHS system is possible (implementation depends on agreement with the purchaser and distributor [BAT, a.s.]), necessary exchanger station will be built and connected to the existing BAT, a.s. heat carrier via 2xDN700interconnecting pipeline (textual annex No. 4).

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 5.7 IMPLEMENTATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE A) The zero option For the purposes of service water supplies, the Refinery has its own systems for offtake, supply, treatment and distribution of Danube water.. Similar systems are available for the utilization of HGWT water. There is a separate distribution network for drinking water supply, connected to the BVS, a.s. water pipeline. The Refinery has a divided sewerage system (separate for industrial waste water and sanitary sewage and separate for flow-through cooling and surface water), as well as safety and purification facilities, designed to match the character and needs of individual production units. The system is also partly used by external organizations. It is described in greater detail in the following sections of this chapter. B) The proposed option The CCGT power block will be connected to the Refinery's water and sewerage system. During the construction, only feeds and connections to the individual newly proposed structures and facilities will be built, bearing in mind the different types of supplied water. From the point of view of specific requirements concerning the quality of service water (demineralized and cooling water), the necessary water purification and secondary treatment facilities will be built within the power block. In the sewerage system, the safety and/or treatment facilities connected to the individual sewerage types of the Refinery will be modified as per the type of waste water and further requirements. A separate brand-new pipeline will be built for waste water coming from the cooling towers, from cooling towers up to MCHBWWT plant in block 126, connected to the biological stage with the option to re-direct the water to MCHBWWT input lagoon. 5.8 REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILT-OVER AREAS AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS A) The zero option The zero option (i.e. a situation where the proposed activities would not be executed) does not create new requirements concerning built-over areas, induced investments, land indemnification requirements, vegetation substitution requirements, or other requirements provoking a conflict of interests in the area in question, conflicts in the solution of ownership relations or conflicts in the functional exploitation of land. B) The proposed option Construction of the CCGT block within the Refinery site does not create any claims as to built-over areas, confiscation or indemnification of land (agricultural and forest land resources Given the fact that the construction will take place in a prepared construction site, the construction of the power block will not create any induced investment requirements (possible construction of replacement structures), which could provoke a conflict of interests within the given area. Construction works within the Refinery site do not give us any reasons to expect conflicts concerning solution of ownership relations or any conflicts regarding functional exploitation of land. With regard to the fact that the site preparation is provided by Slovnaft, a.s., in a separate project (section B I 1.1 of the report), requirements concerning cutting down and re-planting of vegetation will be discussed within this project in accordance with the requirements of the city part Bratislava-Ruinov. The solution of this claim is based on the study Hodnotenie drevn v lokalite zmeru Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko v Bratislave (Evaluation of wood species in the location of the project "CCGT power block in the Slovnaft, a.s. refinery, Slovakia in Bratislava) which was elaborated by TILIANA RNDr. Jana Ruikov, Bratislava in November 2009 and will be used as a background document for elaboration of the project documentation necessary for deforestation and preparation of the construction site (textual and graphical annex No. 2; the conclusions thereof are as follows: Characterization of the examined wood species: The wood species cover of the examined area on the premises of the projected construction of the CCGT block has various characteristics. Along the access communication, concrete fence and nearby buildings, there are wood species whose primary purpose is that of insulation and decoration. Along the fence, there are hardwood species and long strips of bushes; in front of buildings, there are, inter alia, also softwood species for decorative purposes, such as Norway Spruce and Blue Spruce. In this area, there are also young planted trees of the Smalland Large-leaved Lime, still supported by sticks. The wood species in other parts of the examined area are very often self-seeded ones in deserted parts of the premises. There are species characteristic for
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI the potentially natural vegetation of willow-poplar floodplain forests, dominated by Black Poplar, White Poplar, White Willow and European Ash. Invasive wood species, such as Boxelder Maple, are often found here as well. The structure of wood species: In the wood covers, the total of 29 wood species have been recorded, thereof 21 species of trees, 6 species of bushes and 2 species of lianas. With regard to the range of species, domestic hardwood species prevail in the area and represent 87.11% of the wood covers. Domestic softwood species are represented by Norway Spruce 0.28%;the introduced species represent 1.4% (Blue Spruce, American Ash), fruit trees represent 0.56% (apple tree), and invasive species (Boxelder Maple, Black Locust) represent 10.64%. Numerically the most represented species among the individually examined trees is a domestic species Black Poplar (151 pcs), followed by White Willow (28 pcs), White Poplar (22 pcs) and an invasive species Boxelder Maple (18 pcs). Among the bushes in the wood cover, Swida sanguinea prevailed (24 localities); Black Elder was also abundant (13 localities). The structure of wood species shown in Table 10. Table 10. The recorded wood species in the examined locality No. English name Latin name Range of species Individual examination (pcs) Areal examination (number of localities) 10

Trees 1 Black Locust 2 Smooth-leaved Elm 3 Silver Birch 4 Padus avium 5 Apple tree 6 American Ash 7 European Ash 8 Norway Maple 9 Field Maple 10 Boxelder Maple 11 Small-leaved Lime 12 Large-leaved Lime 13 White Mulberry 14 Norway Spruce 15 Blue Spruce 16 White Poplar 17 Black Poplar 18 Grey Poplar 19 White Willow 20 Purple Willow 21 Goat Willow Bushes 5 Black Elder 1 Common Hawthorn 3 Chinese Wolfberry 4 Dog rose 6 Swida sanguinea 2 Wild Privet Lianas 1 Common Hop 2 Travellers Joy
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Robinia pseudoacacia Ulmus minor Betula pendula Padus avium Malus domestica Fraxinus americana Fraxinus excelsior Acer platanoides Acer campestre Negundo aceroides Tilia cordata Tilia platyphyllos Morus alba Picea abies Picea pungens Populus alba Populus nigra Populus x canescens Salix alba Salix purpurea Salix caprea Sambucus nigra Crataegus monogyna Lycium barbarum Rosa canina Swida sanguinea Ligustrum vulgare Humulus lupulus Clematis vitalba

I D, H D, H D, H FT INT D, H D, H D, H I D, H D, H FT D, S INT D, H D, H D, H D, H D, H D, H D, H D, H D, H D, H I D, H D, H D, H

5 5 1 8 1 9 1 18 4 2 1 3 22 151 1 28 4

3 1 4

16 7 4 5 1 13 3 1 5 24 1 4 8 45/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Chart legend : D, H domestic hardwood species , D, S domestic softwood species, INT introduced species, FT fruit trees, I invasive species Evaluation of the wood species with regard to their age: With regard to the criterion of relatively attainable age, specimens prevail among the examined woods which are classified as medium-lived woods (73.38%; especially Black Poplar, White Poplar, Black Locust and European Ash) and short-lived species (22.43%; e.g. White Willow, Boxelder Maple, Silver Birch and other, including all bushes). Longlived wood species have the lowest representation among the examined species (4.18%; Smooth-leaved Elm, Maple, Small- and Large-leaved Lime belong here). 7 specimens have been classified as wood species older than 100 years with trunk perimeter of 252-470 cm. The largest trunk perimeter has the examined tree No. 195 White Willow, followed by a Black Poplar, tree No. 27 with trunk perimeter of 324 cm. Damage index: Altogether, the health of the woods may be evaluated as average. Most of the examined trees are slightly to moderately damaged (88.98%). Only 9.13% of the examined wood species are almost with no damage; 60.84% of the wood species have a slight damage, 28.14% have medium damage and 1.90% have severe damage. Numerous wood species have multiple trunk, often they are broken; self-seeded wood species grow obliquely, often between fences and pipes. Decorative wood species are truncated on purpose and inappropriately. The most severely damaged specimens include 5 willows and poplars, e.g. the wood species No. 97 White Willow with trunk perimeter of 260 cm. Trunk perimeters: The measured trunk perimeter values have been analyzed within the chosen spectrum of 10 categories. Wood species with trunk perimeters (measured in the height of 130 cm) of 41-100 cm and 101-160 cm are the most numerous in the wood covers. Wood species with trunk perimeter over 280 cm appear only sporadically; very common are double- and multi-trunk trees, mostly self-seeded (textual annex No. 2). Social value of the wood covers: In accordance with Regulation of the Ministry of the Environment of the SR No. 492/2006 Coll. as amended, total social value of the wood covers in the locality of the plan CCGT power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, Slovakia has been calculated as follows: Wood species (individually): Wood species (broadly): Lianas: Total 242 876,08 22 256,34 338,26 266 470,68

Conclusion and recommendations of the study: The examined woods in the designated and maintained premises are part of decorative verdure and have a significant esthetic purpose. During the construction works, it is necessary to avoid damage of the trees, especially of those which are located next to the construction site. The affected specimens will have their trunks wrapped in a special wooden c. Protection wooden cover shall also be provided on the ground within the radius of 1.5 m from the trunk of a tree, to protect the soil from compaction by the construction machinery. After the construction works are finished, the study recommends to replace removed wood species with new plantings, primarily for recreation and esthetic purposes. The study further recommends to treat the preserved wood species according to proposed planting measures. It will be necessary to remove inappropriate branches and branches hazardous with regard to operational safety, as well as trunk, treetop and stump sprouts; to treat and cover cavities remaining after old specimens; and to make tuning cuts of the wood species. The cut shall be during the growth phase. These measures can be only performed by a person qualified in the field of arboriculture or gardening.

6.

LABOR FORCE REQUIREMENTS


A) The zero option

SLOVNAFT, a.s. is one of the major employers within the Slovak Republic. In its Refinery and subsidiaries SLOVNAFT, a.s. currently creates job opportunities for approx. 3500 permanent employees. In addition to that, SLOVNAFT, a.s. creates job opportunities for further groups of experts and external emEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI ployees performing permanent, periodically repeating, or one-time activities. available due to SLOVNAFTs outsourced services and economic cooperation with other organizations. B) The proposed option The construction of the CCGT block will, in the short term, create a maximum of 800 new job opportunities, and its operation will create permanent employment for 33 workers.

II 1.
1.1.

FACTS CONCERNING OUTPUTS ATMOSPHERE


MAIN SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION AND THEIR EMISSIONS A) The zero option

Regarding the nature of its production and existence period, SLOVNAFT, a.s. belongs to heavy t air pollution producers in Slovakia and in the capital - Bratislava. By help of production innovation and technological equipment improvement the company has been constantly reducing the quantity of emissions into the air for more then ten years. Current degree of pollution caused by the Refinery (in the monitored period, for the zero option the CMEPS Heat power plant was a part of the Refinery) and of the SPC is as follows: Main point sources of air pollution: There are 68 sources of air pollution registered in the Refinery, CMEPS and SPC. Big and selected emission sources have AMS installed and 89 % of basic pollutants (solid pollutants, SO2, NOx, CO) are continually monitored (data from 2007). Protocols of monitoring are available on the Internet. Harmful pollutants emitted include mainly SO2, NOx, CO, solid pollutants, VOC, andH2S. More detailed description of refinery production influence, including evaluation of continuous emission measurement in SLOVNAFT, a.s., in Podunajsk Biskupice and in Rovinka, is given in section C III. 4 The influence upon air. Overall total quantities of the basic pollutants emitted to the air from SLOVNAFT a.s. and SPC sources decrease every year due to modernization and ecologization of production. These trends are obvious primarily during 1998-2007, when their volume was decreased considerably. Assumptions of further decrease of overall pollutants after reconstruction of the CMEPS heat plant (under preparation) result from production and environmental development programs of the Refinery, CMEPS and SPC; they are shown in the following graph (Figure 5).
SLOVNAFT, a.s. - bilancia emisi ZL v rokoch 1998 -2007 a celkov emisie ZL po Rekontrukcii Teplrne
25 000 20 000

ton/rok

15 000 10 000 5 000 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 pe Rek TP

Oxid siriit

Oxidy duska

Oxid uhonat

Tuh zne. ltky

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Figure 5. Balance of pollutants from emission resources in Slovnaft, a.s. in 1998-2007 and after reconstruction of the CMEPS heat plant Legend: ton/rok tons/year; oxid siriit sulphur dioxide; oxidy duska nitrogen oxides; oxid uhonat carbon monoxide; tuh zneis. ltky solid pollutants

Pollutant emissions from technological processes in 1998-2008: Realistic development of pollutant emissions released to the air from technological processes of the Refinery (the Refinery also included the heat plant present CMEPS) in 19982001, in 2005 and in 2006-2008 (after the separation of SPC on 1.7.2006) is shown in the following table. Emissions of basic pollutants in 2008 are presented in the chart in Figure 6. Table 11.
Druh emisie
Sulphur dioxide Nitrogen oxides Carbon monoxide Solid pollutants Heavy metals Total organic nitrogen Chlorine, fluorine, hydrogen sulphide

Comparison of the quantity of emitted basic pollutants


Mnostvo (t/r) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2005 20 230,46 20 128,52 12 915,91 13 682,46 9 083.01 4 330,48 4 387.98 697,80 0,156 12,81 701,75 0,175 87,83 13,64 1 206,72 1 161,21 4 755,88 779,29 646,33 1,03 112 11,90 3 465,08 592,65 202 1,94 107,90 1,73 3228 604 294 3,97 101 6,56 2006* 11541 2812 491 240 3,05 81 4,95 2007* 8435 2513 456 175 1,23 87 0,91 2008*

8 101 2 5555 418,71 159,56


2,11 97,79 0,635

* without SPC emissions

Emissions of standard pollutants - 2008


1 000 800 t/month 600 400 200 0 Jan Feb Ma Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Sulphur dioxide

Nitrogen oxides gases

Carbon monoxide Solid pollutants

Fig.6 Emissions of standard pollutants from the Refinery (including the heat plant) in 2007 In 2007, only desulphurized fuel was burned in the heat plant. Lower quantity of emissions is due to shutdown of the Waste incineration plant, to reconstruction of Sludge incineration plant, to shutdown of N-alkane plant, as well as to, mild winter and reduction of power demand of production. In December there was a slight increase of sulphur dioxide emissions due to winter season, and increase of sulphur content in heavy oil residues. The assigned emission quota for sulphur dioxide was 15 490 ton in 2007. Emissions from the sources subject to the limit amounted to 8 306.83 tons. Since 2008, Slovnaft, a.s., 3 has been implementing the average emission limit of 1000 mg/Nm for sulphur dioxide in the Refinery and in the CMEPS heat plant. The assigned emission quota for sulphur dioxide is 12 321 tons in 2008. Decrease of CO emissions was up to SRU.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Table 12 Emission ceiling of Slovakia and emissions of SLOVNAFT a.s.*
2002 Emission ceiling SR Emission quota - BA II Emission quota for SLOVNAFT , a.s. SO2 emissions - SLOVNAFT 2003 23 400 23 355 11 088 21 500 12 047 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 203 600 192 700 177 500 157 900 125 200 109 900 104 900 20 200 19 200 17 600 15 700 12 400 18 887 9 672 18 006 9 083 17 491 11 541 15 490 8 307 12 321 8121 11721

* According to Regulations No. 60/2003 Coll. and No. 131/2006 Coll. SPC : The sources of the air pollutants are technological and storage devices. Air polluting substances include SO2, NOx, CO, solid pollutants and Corg. In 2008, the SPC plant released 20,749 t of SO2, 367,536 t of NOx, 50.478 t of CO, 17,501 t of solid pollutants, 61,296 t of TOC and 760,355 t of VOC. No target (limit) value was exceeded. Carbon dioxide emissions: The Refinery's sources classified into national allocation plan for 20052007 (NAP1) were specified by the Ministry of environment of the Slovak Republic. The assigned quota of sulphur oxide emissions for the Refinery classified under NAP1 (2005-2007) amounted to 6 733 473 tons. The volume of emissions was verified by authorized independent person. In the NAP1 period there was surplus of carbon dioxide quotas in the Refinery (138 192 ton), which became invalid on 30.04.2008. Emissions from the petrochemical part of production, mainly from the ethylene unit which is currently administered by the SPC company, were not included to the fulfillment of the assigned quota. For the NAP2period (2008-2012), pursuant to implementation of uniform procedure in the EU for classification of sources which are governed by the Act on trading CO2 emissions the sources from the petrochemical part of production and field burners were included into NAP2 as well. . Verified Attested CO2 emissions from the Refinery's sources included into NAP1 are given in Table 13. Table 13. Carbon dioxide emissions in 2007 and during NAP1 period (2005-2007), in tons Year CO2 quota in 2007 CO2 emissions in 2007 2292788 2 190 190 2 250 495 2 231 168 Emission quota in the year Emission quota for 2005-2008 98132 138192 357029 CO2 emissions other sources 102909 418900* 353 915* Total CO2 emissions 2293099 2610225* 2585083*

2005 2006 2007 2008

2 290 555 2 290 555 2 290 555 2 450 005

-2 233 86692 39960 218 837

* Thereof, SPC 359730 t in 2007 and 353915 t in 2008. In 2008, the limit for SPC was 456 760 t.
Rafinria - emisie CO2 v roku 2008
250 000 200 000 150 000
t/mesiac

44 869

27 667

23 943

24 219

24 031

-13 678

8 763

14 330

22 457

100 000 50 000 0

37 597

7 505

Janur -50 000

Februr

Marec

Aprl

Mj

Jn

Jl

Aug

Sep

Okt

Nov

Dec

Kvta CO2 v 2008

Emisie CO2 v 2008

Kvta - emisie v 2008

Figure 7. CO2 emissions from the Refinerys sources in 2008


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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Legend: Rafinria- emisie CO2 v roku 2008 The Refinery - CO2 emissions in 2008; t/mesiac tons/month; janur January; februr February; marec March; mj May; jn June; jl Juty; Kvta CO2 v 2008 CO2 quota in 2008; Emisie CO2 v 2008 CO2 emissions in 2008; Kvta emisie v 2008 Quota emissions in 2008 Main surface air pollution sources of the Refinery and SPC: The main surface air pollution source in the Refinery plant were oil traps of chemical waste water waste water treatment plant, block 50 and 92, and mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant). Oil traps are used to separate the oil layer from waste water, in which rather volatile hydrophobic and lipophile substances are concentrated. Hydrophilic substances with low volatility concentrate in the bottom layer. The oil layer is removed from oil trap by collecting device, and passed to operation tanks; from there it is pumped for further processing. Vapors of volatile substances (VOC) escape from the surface oil layer. In 2006, open surfaces of the MCHB WWT were covered, and measurements of quantity and composition of escape gases necessary for the design of the equipment for their disposal have started. In November 2007 the test operation of the recovery combustion equipment Envitherm 50/3/WBH for disposal of the air exhausted from under the covered surfaces of the mechanical and chemical stages of the MCHB WWT plant has started. Another potential surface source of air pollution is the waste dump in block 126, being used as a reserve in case of emergency shut-down of slag silos of the reconstructed sludge incineration plant. Concrete tanks equipped with draining system emptied into the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant. The above-mentioned steps (burning of the air exhausted from under covered areas in the mechanical and chemical stage of the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant , shutdown of the waste incineration plant and reconstruction of the sludge incineration plant) resulted in elimination of surface sources of air pollution in SLOVNAFT, a.s. (The ash dump has been permanently flooded; in our opinion, this is not a potential air pollution source.) The above surface sources do not and will not be directly related to the power block units. Their operation will not influence the situation related to surface sources of air pollution. These sources wont be in relation to the proposed construction of the CCGT block and its further operation either. The Refinery's equipment for absorption and disposal of hydrocarbons and measures taken 2006 and 2008: 4 facilities for absorption and disposal of hydrocarbons are operating in the Refinery. Starting from 1996, VRU gasoline vapor recovery unit operates in block 40, used do catch gasoline vapors during filling of railway and road tanks from gasoline reservoirs with solid roof connected to the VRU. Starting from the end of 2005, ENETEX incineration unit is operating in the WWT in block 50, used to burn escape gases from the WWT plant. Since 2006, ENETEX incineration unit is operating in the the Cumol Phenol production unit, used to burn escape gases from oxidation reactors. In November 2007, test operation of ENVITHERM thermic recuperation unit has started; the unit is used to burn escape gases from the MCHB WWT plant. Table 14. Run of the VRU and combustion units for disposal of hydrocarbons Gasoline vapors recovery unit , VRU,bl. 40 Labor Absorbed hours CxHy (l) 8 420 210 800 8 633 213 336 Escape gas combustion KF - oxide reac- WWT plant, block From the MCHB tors 50 WWT plant Labor Burnt Labor Labor Burnt hours CxHy (l) hours hours CxHy (kg) 8 075 7 904 291 642 254 21 960 7 773 279 665 6 345 152 091 6 854 596 434

Year 2007 2008

Hours 8 760 8 784

After reconstruction, the sludge incineration plant was put into operation in 2007. The request from the Refinery to specify different operation conditions lower temperature and minimum content of oxygen in the burn-out chamber was accepted by relevant authority (Slovak Environmental Inspection). This solution helped decrease the power demand of the incineration plant and reduce emission of pollutants to the air. In June 2008 the Envitherm 50/3/WBH recovery incineration plant has been put into operation, used to dispose of the air evacuated from under the covered areas of the mechanical and chemical stages of the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 1.2 EVALUATION OF THE ATMOSPHERIC QUALITY (IMISSION SITUATION)

The Refinery has been monitoring pollution situation in its environs on long-term basis. The measurement is performed in 3 automatic monitoring stations situated in the northern forefield of the Refinery, in Podunajsk Biskupice and in Rovinka. The data processed from measurements made in 2006 and 2007 are shown in the following tables:

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Table 15 Survey of average concentrations - 2008 Monitoring sta- SO2 NO2 PM10 CO 3 3 3 3 tion g/m g/m g/m mg/m Slovnaft,a.s. 8,7 25,3 23,3 0,4 P. Biskupice 6,6 22,5 22,0 0,5 Rovinka 11,0 19,4 22,5 0,5 Table 16. Survey of average concentrations - 2008 Monitoring sta- SO2 3 tion g/m 9,8 Slovnaft,a.s. P. Biskupice 5,2 8,2 Rovinka NO2 3 g/m 25,9 21,0 18,7 PM10 3 g/m 23,0 20,9 20,7 CO 3 mg/m 0,4 0,4 0,4 O3 3 g/m 48,6 56,0 59,1 THC 3 mg/m 1,5 1,5 1,5 H2S 3 g/m 1,7 benzene 3 g/m 3,5

O3 3 g/m 53,1 55,7 55,8

THC 3 mg/m 1,5 1,5 1,5

H2S 3 g/m 1,2

benzene 3 g/m 2,9

Table 17. Observance of emission limits, following the Decree of the Ministry of Environment No. 706/2002 Coll. - 2007 Substance Averaged period Measured value Limit Number of runs in2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 over- Admissible overruns

SO2 (g/m )

Refinery P. Biskupice Rovinka Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka

max. 1 hours average 201,4 350 112,7 171,8 max. 24 hrs. average 78,5 125 22,2

24x / year

3x / year

NO2 (g/m )

dust, 3 PM10 (g/m )

CO (mg/m )

Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka

ozone (ug/m )
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74,5 max. 1 hours average 119,7 0 230 129,7 0 98,0 0 annual average 25,3 0 46 22,5 0 20,2 0 max. 24 hours average 140,1 11 50 62,6 6 59,1 4 annual average 23,3 0 40 22.0 0 22,5 0 max. daily 8 hrs. average 1,14 0 10 1,50 0 0,81 0 max. daily 8 hrs. average

18x / year

35x / year

0x / year

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Substance Averaged period Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka C6H6 (ug/m )
3

Measured value 183,3 175,3 185,7 2,9

Limit

Number of runs in2007 57 53 48 0

over- Admissible overruns 25x / year

120 annual average 8

Slovnaft, a.s

In 2006 the admissible number of excess values (25 overruns / year) of ozone has been exceeded in all three monitoring stations. The admissible number of overruns for NO2, SO2, PM10 and CO was observed. Table 18. Observance of emission limits pursuant to the Decree of the Ministry of Environment No. 706/2002 Coll. 2008 Substance Averaged period Max c 2008 Limit Number of overruns Admissible overin 2006 runs

Maximum 1 hour, average


Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka
3

SO2 (ug/m )

NO2 (ug/m )

Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka Slovnaft, a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka Slovnaftf a.s P. Biskupice Rovinka

PM10 (ug/m )

CO (mg/m )

ozn (ug/m )

442,5 1 201,9 350 0 178,0 0 3 24 hrs. average (ug/m ) 50,1 0 25,1 125 0 39,6 0 3 1 hours average (ug/m ) 159,5 0 126,3 220 0 107,9 0 3 24 hrs. average (ug/m ) 92,1 8 85,4 50 10 72,5 7 3 max daily 8 hrs. average (mg/m ) 1,25 0 1,40 10 0 1,21 0 3 max daily 8 hrs. average (ug/m ) 139,6 21 147,1 46 120 151,6 56

24x / year

3x / year

18x / year

35x / year

0x / year

25x / year

In 2008, the limit value for average 1 hour's concentration of sulphur dioxide was exceeded in Slovnaft, a.s. (1x; it was exceeded by 26.4%), the limit value for the average 24 hour concentration of PM10 (dust) in Slovnaft, a.s. (8x; on average by 31.0%), in Podunajsk Biskupice (10x; on average by 20.1%), and in Rovinka (7x; on average by 19.4%), as well as the limit value for average 8 hours concentration of O3 (ozone) in Slovnaft, a.s. (21x; on average by 7.2%), in P. Biskupice (46x; on average by 8.1%) and in Rovinka (56x; on average by 8.0%). Other limit values for SO2, NO2 and CO were observed. The admissible number of above-limit values for SO2, NO2, PM10 and CO was observed on all three monitoring stations. The comparison of the annual average concentrations with the limit value (2003-2008) is shown in the following graph:
EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI


2004

70 60
54 52 2003 2004 50 48 200 46 5 2006 2007 44 2008

Limit values Average of 2003 Average of 2004 Average of 2005 Average of 2006
45 200343,0 41,5 40 40 40 2004 20052006 2007 29,34 2008 26,0 22,7 19,3 18,7 15,4 21,9 21,7 25,0 22,6

50
3

Average of 2007 Average of 2008

40 ug/m 30 20
25,2

21,5

10 0 NO2 PM10

10 10 10 94,83 8 7 20032004 2005 3,120062007 2,92008 3,4 2,3 3,5

benzene

Fig. 8 Comparison of average annual above-limit concentrations with the limit value B) The proposed alternative During the construction of the CCGT power block, point mobile air pollution sources will be represented by building machines, stationary sources will be represented by earthworks or improperly deposited loose building materials. In the building site vicinity dustiness and emissions from the machinery may be increased, as well as noise and vibrations in adjacent objects and machinery. The above negative impacts will be reduced by spraying of dusty surfaces, maintenance and checks of building machinery, elimination of night shifts, etc. Air pollution during operation of the CCGT block: According to Article 2, clause b) of Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 338/2009 Coll., the construction "CCGT CMEPI power source" will be a new source of air pollution. Plant: CCGT power block Production unit: CCGT power block 2 x GT According to Annex No. 2 of Classification of large and medium air pollution sources to Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 338/2009 Coll., the technologies of the source (construction) belong to the following categories: 1. Fuel- industry, 1.5 Gas turbines 1.5.1 Large air pollution source with installed total rated thermal power input 50 MW. In the operation of the CCGT power block, the sources being the primary place of production of air pollutants within burning process are represented by combustion chambers and gas turbines in block 95. Total rated thermal power input of gas turbines will be approx. 2 x (290 / 0,39) = 2 x 743,6 = 1487 MW. In the following table, beside the source the way of emission absorption and removal and assumed volume of air pollutants are given. The limits of emission into atmosphere for gas turbines are given in section 2 of annex No. 4 to the Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the SR No. 338/2009 Coll.; in our case, the emission limits from 3 section 2.2 B apply. Emission limits are specified as concentrations of pollutants (mg/Nm ) in exhaust gases under standard status conditions. Conditions for validity of the emission limits (section 2.2B of the above Decree): - standard status conditions dry combustion gases; O215%, pressure 101 325 Pa, temperature 0C. - emission limits are valid for individual turbines when the basic load is higher than 70 % Emission limits for solid pollutants, SO2, NOx a CO valid for nominal heat input 50 MW are as follows: EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 54/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Table 19. The emission limits applied for section 2.2, Table B Emission limit in mg.m soot content (Bacharach scale) * 35 ** 50/75 100
3

Pollutant Solid pollutant SO2 NOx CO

*Weight limit for solid pollutants is not specified ** 3 The 75 mg/m emission limit applies to gas turbines used - in combined heat and electric power production with total efficiency above 75% - in combined cycle plants with total electric efficiency above 75% (average annual value)

Observance of the specified emission limits is decisive for the selection of gas turbines and binding for operation of the proposed CCGT power block. Consequently, the emission sources of the CCGT power block may be characterized as follows: Table 20. Sources and volumes of air pollutants in the CCGT power block with planned (4160 hours/year) and maximum (8200 hours/year) labor Source of emission Emitted substance Limit* -3 mg.m 50 100 35 5 quota 50 100 35 5 quota mg.Nm
-3

Emission figures -1 -1 kg.h t.year with 4160 h/year 73,98 27,62 4,42 151 171 73,98 27,62 4,42 151 171 307.7 114,9 18,4 628 872 307.7 114,9 18,4 628 872

t.year with 8200 h/year 606,52 226,49 36,27 1 239 604 606,52 226,49 36,27 1 239 604

-1

GT1

GT2

NOx CO SO2 solid pollutants CO2 NOx CO SO2 solid pollutants CO2

33,47 12,5 2

33,47 12,5 2

* The above emission limits are specified for dry gas under standard status conditions (pressure 101,325 o kPa, temperature 0 C) and reference O2 of 15 %.

The emission values given in Table 20 have been determined on the basis of the following input parameters, which are the basic condition of tender documents for selection of the EPC contractor: concentra3 tion of pollutants NOx=25 ppm, CO=10 ppm, solid pollutants= 2mg/m - specified by the producer; volume 3 flow of dry combustion products 2 210 400 m /h for combustion turbine performance at 10C ambient temperature. CO2 emission values are calculated as emissions from consumed CO2 heat = 558 kg /GJ (the 2008 value, SPP) and heat consumption 0,724 GJ/s for 4160 and 8200 h/year. According to SPP fig3 ures, the input value of the content of sulphur in natural gas is 0,45 mg/m . Assumed operation time is 4160 h/year. Scheduling of the CCGT power block operation for the daytime when electric energy demand is higher means reduction of the labor hours fund from 8200 h/year to 4160 h/year. Thus, the volume of emissions produced by this energy sources will be reduced considerably. Pollution control and the method of checking the observance of emission limits: Monitoring of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere will be specified in the project, considering the requirements for observance of the emission limits at GT. New AMS monitoring system will be established for the abovementioned sources. The volume of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere and the data on observance of the specified limits will be determined in terms of Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 408/2003 Coll.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Places of emission released into the air for the CCGT block sources : Emissions from the power block units will be released via two newly built chimneys with the following parameters: Table 21. Places of emission into the atmosphere for the CCGT block sources Place of emission Connected emission sources Diameter of the point place of emission Emission height (m) Volume flow rate* 3 -1 (mN,s, .s ) Temperature of emissions o ( C) o do 200 C

New chimney GT1 6,5 m 65 m 622,1 - 711,0 No. 1 o New chimney GT2 6,5 m 65 m 622,1 - 711,0 do 200 C No.2 * According to the figures provided by the investor, volume flow rate of moist combusion gases at temperature of -25C+38C.

2.
2.1

WASTE WATER
TYPES AND VOLUMES OF DISCHARGED WASTE WATER A) The zero option

SLOVNAFT a.s. (including SPC and CMEPS) is one of the largest producers of industrial waste water in Bratislava. The Refinery discharges to the Danube and Little Danube include: contaminated rain water - according to Act on Water classified as industrial waste water, chemical waste water - according to Act on Water classified as industrial waste water sewage, waste cooling water - according to Act on Water classified as industrial waste water, rain water, not polluted - according to Act on Water classified as industrial waste water.

Rain water, not polluted: result from accumulation of rain water from areas where direct pollution by oil substances or by other substances harmful to water -polluting substances is excluded (roof gutters and other clean surfaces). In the Slovnaft site, unpolluted rain water runs into open collector C which drains cooling and rain water to existing waste water treatment plant in blocks 17-18 and further to the Little Danube recipient. Contaminated rain waste water: result from direct contact of rain water with oil substances and/or with substances harmful to water. Captured rain water from leak-proof surfaces with possible contamination, from emergency and retention tanks, handling and storage areas, roads, etc. Contamination of this type of water by oil substances or by other substances harmful to water is rather different due to the character of the source and to the manner of rain water contact with pollutants. Contaminated rain water runs into chemical sewerage system and purified in the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant. Chemical waste water: Within the Refinery, SPC and CMEPS heat plant this water is mainly contaminated by oil substances (non-polar extractable substances), as well as by other substances harmful to water (such as sulphides, ammonia, mineral salts, etc.). In most units the water is partly treated before being discharged into chemical sewerage system. The water is discharged via chemical sewerage system to the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant; there it is agitated and purified in the mechanical, chemical and biological stage of the plant, and following the treatment it is discharged 3 into the Danube recipient. In 2007, 10,267,437 m of chemical waste water were purified in the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant. Sewage: Within SLOVNAFT, a.s., sewage is discharged via sewage and chemical sewerage system to the MCHB WWT plant, or pumped from biological septic tanks to the MCHB WWT plant by the pump station in block 11 and there it is purified together with chemically contaminated water. Cooling waste water: Cooling waste water represent the biggest volume of discharged waste water in 3 the Slovnaft site. From the total volume of 69.63 mil. m of discharged waste waters in 2007, cooling 3 waste water represented 51.11% (35.64 mil.m ).
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI All waste water from SLOVNAFT site is discharged via three waste water treatment plants. The quality of water discharged from individual waste water treatment plants together with basic balance figures for 2007 is shown in the following tables: Table 22. Balance of the waste water treatment plant in block 11 (cooling waste water average values) BOC5 CHOCCr insolubles NPES IN Phenol pH Flow rate BOC5 CHOCCr insolubles NPES IN Phenol pH Flow rate 15 35 40 1.5 0.15 6,5-8,5 300(l/s) 15 35 30 1,5 0,15 6,5-8,5 WWT plant in block 11 2007 1.54 3.64 2,21 7.50 22.00 12,58 5.50 13.50 9,51 0.10 0.57 0.310 0.010 0.018 0.0140 7.54 7.90 7.72 WWT plant in block 11 - 2008 1,30 6,30 3,06 9,50 19,75 13,60 5,05 25,55 12,37 0,19 0,42 0,313 0,012 0,030 0,0200 7,47 7,81 7,65 219851,0 322084 261137 8,968 51,064 38,602 1.258 0,055 4 058 080 (m /year) 9,601 42,630 38,754 0,981 0,063 3 3 133 642 (m /year)
3

Table 23. Balance of the waste water treatment plant in block 17 (waste cooling water average values) WWT plant in blocks 17, 18 2007 BOC5 CHOCCr insolubles NPES IN PhFenol pH Flow rate 10 25 30 0.7 0.1 6,5-8,5 3200 (l/s) WWT bl. 17-18 - year 2008 BOC5 CHOCCr insolubles NPES IN Phenol pH Flow rate m
3

1.20 6.0 1.98 0.02 0.011 7.62

2.48 17.00 28.00 0.30 0.028 8.1

1.92 11.18 10.28 0.120 0.0170 7.85

106.190 618.335 568.559 6.637 0.9402 55 307 285 3 (m /ryear) 132,698 711,662 534,841 5,584 1,3686 54 743 232 3 (m /year)

10 25 30 0,7 0,1 6,5-8,5

1,53 9,3 6,90 0,03 0,012 7,51 3423749

4,55 18,50 14,25 0,22 0,035 7,88 6318760

2,42 13,00 9,77 0,102 0,0250 7,70 4561936

Table 24. Balance of MCHB WWT plant (chemical waste water) average values MCHB WWT plant, 2007 8.16 5.55 62.5 40.75

BOC5 CHOCCr

20 80

3.20 26.5

56.984 418.398

55.275 405.846

1.937 14.226 57/162

EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI MCHB WWT plant, 2007 15.50 8.02 0.64 0.050 17.15 8.36

insolubles NPES IN Phenol + NH4 pH Flow rate BOC5 CHOCCr insolubles NPES IN Phenol + NH4 pH Flow rate

20 2 0.1 30 6,5-9 500 (l/s) 20 80 20 2 0,1 20 6,5-9

2.65 0.03 0.01 0.77 7.80

82.355

79.884 1.454 0.212 41.859 9959414 49,398 404,785 96,558 1,683 0,188 46,062 9899365,1

2.800 0.051 0.007 1.467 349093 1,739 14,247 3,399 0,059 0,007 1,621 348424,9

3,42 31,0 3,55 0,03 0,01 0,61 7,78 770176

0.146 1.499 0.0213 0.2187 4.203 43.154 8.07 3 10 266 837 (m /year) MCHB WWT plant, 2008 6,14 4,99 51,136 56,0 40,89 419,032 16,00 9,75 99,957 0,56 0,030 12,32 8,30 936825 3 m 0,170 0,0190 4,653 8,04 853983 1,742 0,1947 47,683 10 247 790 3 (m / year)

B) The proposed option During operation of the CCGT power block, the following types and volumes of waste water will be produced: 1. INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER Industrial waste water will come from the production of technological steam (preparation of feeding water, slags), preparation and circulation of cooling water, flushing of compressors. The estimated volume 3 of waste water: ca. 5,5 m /h, continuously. During flushing of combustion turbine compressors the vo3 lume will increase to 30 m /h. Discharge : Industrial waste water will be pumped via underground tanks to chemical sewerage system of the Refinery, which is connected to the input of the mechanical stage of the MCHB WWT plant.

2. SURFACE WATER 2a. Unpolluted surface water: Unpolluted surface water results from discharge of rain water from unpolluted surfaces, e.g. roofs of buildings. Discharge: Unpolluted surface water will be fed into cooling water pools or, alternatively, discharged via the C collector and following mechanical purification in the WWT plant in block 17 it will be discharged to the Little Danube recipient.

2b. Polluted surface water : Polluted surface water results from discharge of precipitation water from polluted surfaces, e.g. transformer station yards, etc. Discharge: Polluted surface water will be pumped through underground tanks to the chemical sewerage system of the Refinery. The chemical sewerage system of the Refinery is connected to the input of the mechanical stage of the MCHB WWT plant.

3. SEWAGE WASTE WATER Sewage waste water is produced in sanitary facilities of the CCGT energy block. The estimated volume 3 of this type of waste water will be approx. 12,5 m /day. Discharge: Sewage waste water will be pumped through underground tanks to the chemical sewerage system of the Refinery which is connected to the mechanical stage of the MCHB WWT plant. 58/162

4. WASTE COOLING WATER FROM INDIRECT CIRCULATION COOLING


EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Waste cooling water from indirect circulation cooling is produced by continuous blowdown of the cooling 3 -1 circuit. The estimated volume of waste water: approx. 160 m .hour . Discharge: Low load waste cooling water from indirect circulation cooling will be pumped via a separate pipeline into nitrification chamber N8 and to activating tank Z 301A of the biological stage of the MCHB WWT plant. If the quality of waste cooling water is acceptable, it will be possible to re-direct the water directly into the terminal tank of the MCHB WWT plant equipped with 8 surface aerators for airing of purified waste water before its discharge into the recipient.

The assumed total volume of waste water from the CCGT power block which will be treated in the MCHB 3 WWT plant in Slovnaft, a.s. and discharged into the Danube will amount to approx. 170 m /h (47,22 l/s). With operation time 4160 h/year, total annual volume of waste water discharged into the recipient will 3 amount to approx. 707200 m . With respect to the fact that waste water in the proposed CCGT block will be fed to the Refinery's sewerage system, the control of its quality will be matched to the Refinery's requirements. Shift supervisors will be responsible for observance of the specified waste water quality conditions. 2.2 THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS GIVING RISE TO WASTE WATER A) The zero option In the Slovnaft site, waste water is produced within the technological processes oriented on processing of oil production of engine fuels, lubricants and petrochemical products. These processes also include refining and cracking, technological processes, production of semi-products and production finalization (including production of plastics), aiming at the achievement of the required product properties. Their description is beyond the scope of this report. B) The proposed option In the proposed CCGT block, waste water will result from production of industrial steam (preparation of feeding water, slag, etc.), from cooling of machinery (during preparation and circulation of cooling water) and from flushing of combustion turbine compressors. 2.3 TYPE, DESIGN CAPACITY AND EFFICIENCY OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT IN THE DECISIVE POLLUTION FACTORS A) The zero option All chemically polluted water from production- and non-production units of the Refinery, CMEPS, SPC and other producers in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, as well as contaminated rain water from the whole site will be pre-treated first in mechanical oil trap of the waste water treatment plant in block 50, with the following indicators: Total volume The chamber dimensions (l.w.d) Number of chambers Maximum NPES concentration at input Maximum NPES concentration at output 2,182 m 43.3 x 6 x 2.1 m 4 -1 2,000 mg.l -1 500 mg.l
3

Following pre-treatment, the water will be fed to the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant (block No.126) and after complete purification it will be discharged to the Danube recipient. Realization of the suggested option of the CCGT power block will influence the technological process of treatment in the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant and/or in other WWT plants of the Refinery only by increasing the volume of treated waste water. The mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant was put into permanent operation in 1985. The proprietor of the treatment technology is the Kurita company (Japan). The design parameters of the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant are shown in Table 25: Table 25. Design parameters of the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant Indicator
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Hydraulic load : Waste water quality NPES BOC5 CHOC + NH4 Phenol Sulphides Insoluble substances pH 2 x 1 800 m .h (with the possibility of 20 % overload) Input Output -1 436-859 5 mg.l -1 -1 475 mg O2.l < 20 mg O2.l -1 1.068 mg O2.l -1 17,5 mg.l -1 -1 40 mg.l < 0,1 mg.l -1 14,6 mg.l -1 -1 90-150 mg.l < 30 mg.l 8,8 10,2 6,5 8,5
3 -1

Description of the cleaning process of the MCHB WWT plant I. The mechanical stage: In the mechanical stage, consisting of two chambers with 2 x 27.000 m volume and retaining time 8.530 h, segregation of oil substances from water takes place based on different specific weight of both 2 -1 phases and on low solubility of oil substances (10 mg.l ). In the mechanical stage tanks separated oil is removed from the surface and sludge from the bottom by help of rake device. The captured sludge (ap3 -1 prox. 5 m .h , approx. 8 mass % of dry mass) is pumped from accumulation shafts for further processing in sludge management. The captured slop is dehydrated in the tank and then pumped for repeated processing. II. The chemical stage: Water treated in the mechanical stage is brought into coagulation tanks into which coagulant can be added. From the flocculation tanks the water flows to flotation tanks where approx. 30% of chemically pre-treated water from the chemical stage output can be fed by help of recircula3 tion pumps, if required., With 2 x 1,720 m volume of flotation basins the retention time is 0,5-1,5 h. The flotated sludge is removed mechanically into accumulation shafts, and captured chemical sludge in max3 -1 imum volume of 50 m .h with 2.5 mass % of dry mass is pumped by sludge pumps to sludge management or to the mechanical degree. III. The biological stage: This stage is most important as to efficiency of the entire treatment. Water from the chemical degree is fed to the activation tanks, where the activation substance is aerated by the fine bubble aeration system. The biological stage includes substitution tanks and final tanks. Nutrients (ammonia and phosphoric acid) are dosed into activation tanks for activation of biological degradation processes. In the secondary basins, activated flocculent sludge is separated by sedimentation from the purified water. A part of the sludge is recirculated to the input of the circulation basins and 3 excess sludge is pumped to sludge management. Purified water is fed to final basins 2 x 60,000 m ), where it is aerated by help of 2 x 4 swimming aerators with 18 kW power. From the final tanks, water is discharged or pumped via the pumping station into the Danube recipient. Sludge management: Sludge management consists of sludge dehydration and burning. Within sludge management, sludge from individual purification stages is dehydrated. Oily mechanical sludge and excess biological sludge is dehydrated in separators. Dehydrated sludge is burned in the sludge incineration plant at 850C. Disposal of sludge incineration products is ensured by an external contractor. Efficiency of the waste water treatment plant with respect to important pollution indicators: Three-stage waste water treatment process in the MCHB WWT plant guarantees steadily balanced quality of the water discharged to the Danube recipient; the achieved output indicators are pronouncedly better than the design indicators. Table 26. Efficiency of the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant with respect to important pollution indicators, 2007 Indicator NPES BOC5 Phenol
EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.
3

unit mg.l -1 mg O2.l -1 mg.l


-1

Project 5 < 20 < 0,1

The reality (2007 average) 0,135 5,551 0,021

% of the design value 60/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Indicator Insoluble substances CHOC Hydraulic load unit mg.l -1 mg O2.l -1 l.s
-1

Project < 30 1000

The reality (2007 average) 8,008 40,75 325,56

% of the design value 32,6

The design capacity of the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant consists of two 3 lines, 2x1800 m /h of waste water. Pursuant to legal rules, the stages of the line must be covered. Currently only one line is covered. Covering of the second line requires high investment costs. This is why hydraulic capacity of the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant is limited. Thus, a new evaluation of the possibilities of purification of sewage water from waste water in the MCHB WWT was made in October 2009. Its conclusions, which demonstrate a possibility of connecting the CCGT power block are documented in section A II 8.2.7 of the report - Connection to communications, supplier and purchaser networks. 2.4 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECIPIENT

Protection of surface water (the Danube and Little Danube recipients) is provided by the unit P 4.4 Ecology and water management schedule in the Refinery site. The Danube recipient: Industrial waste water from the production unit is fed into the mechanicalchemical-biological waste water treatment plant ant then, after final treatment, it is discharged into the Danube recipient, together with other waste water types. In the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant special strict waste water discharge rules are applied. Average flow rate proportions are being stabilized increasingly thank to construction of hydro-electric plants on this water course; 3 -1 3 -1 minimum flow rate is approx. 800-900 m .s , average annual flow rate is 2000 2100 m .s (in 19313 -1 1970 average flow rate was 2020 m . s ) and maximum flow rates will presumably not exceed the capacity of the flood-protection system provided by SVP, .p. OZ Bratislava (Slovak Water Management Enterprise Bratislava). The limit for water discharge from the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant into -1 -1 the Danube, was 400 l.s in 2000 and - 500 l.s in 2007 (approx. 0,06 % of minimum flow rate), the average value of discharged waste water from the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment -1 -1 plant was 272 l.s in 2000 and 322,4 l.s in 2007. The quality of discharged water does not exceed the limits of any of the specified indicators. The Little Danube recipient: Unpolluted surface rain water, waste cooling water and sewage are discharged from the Refinery, SPC and CMEPS into the Little Danube; the water is then treated in the waste water treatment plant in blocks 17-18. Similarly to the MCHB WWT plant, the quality of discharged water does not exceed the limits in any of the specified indicators. Regarding the fact that the Little Danube is doped by water from the Danube, its flow rate is modified as necessary and according to the required volume and quality of water in this river used for irrigation in summer. Another fact is the operation of the small hydroelectric power plant in the headwater of Little Danube (before the drain mouth from 3 the waste water treatment plant in block 11), which requires approx. 25 m /s flow rate in the river. Both water recipients are described in more detail in sections III 1.4 Hydrological situation and III 4.2 Water pollution of the project. Beside the production of pollution in the pollution sources and the level of its elimination in the waste water treatment plants, quality of surface water is influenced by other factors as well, the most important ones including the intensity of natural physical, chemical and biological processes in the stream, flow rate and water temperature. 2.5 DISCHARGED POLLUTANTS IN RESPECTIVE UNITS

A) The zero option The volumes of discharged waste water and of pollutants are decreasing since 1998 (due to new eco3 nomical conditions). In 1998 the Refinery has discharged 131 154 531 m of waste water, while in 2007 3 it was 67776239 m . Thus, with the applicable limits maintained, total annual volume of discharged pollutants in waste waters from the Refinery is reduced. Waste water from SLOVNAFT, a.s. is discharged into the Little Danube recipient via the waste water treatment plants in blocks 11 and 17-18, and to the Danube recipient via the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant, in which chemically polluted water is treated. Progressive modernization of production changes the composition and ratio of
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI the discharged waste water volumes. Introduction of circulation cooling decreases the volume of flowthrough cooling water compared to other cooling water types. The volume of pollutants discharged in waste water to the Danube and Little Danube is given in the following table and graph. Table 27. Balance for the MCHB WWT plant (chemical waste water)

MCHB WWT plant - 2008


Indicator mg/l BOC5 CHOCCr insolubles NPES IN Phenol
+ NH4

Limit (mg/l) 20 80 20 2 0,1 20 6,5-9 500

min. (mg/l) 3,42 31,0 3,55 0,03 0,01 0,61 7,78 770 176

max. (mg/l) 6,14 56,0 16,00 0,56 0,030 12,32 8,30 936 825

average (mg/l) 4,99 40,89 9,75 0,170 0,0190 4,653 8,04 853 983

volume (t/ month) 51,136 419,032 99,957 1,742 0,1947 47,683 10 247 790

Refinery 49,398 404,785 96,558 1,683 0,188 46,062 9 899 365

SPC
1,7386 14,2471 3,3985 0,059/0,25* 0,0066 1,6212 348 425

pH Flow rate

Legend to Figure 9: Mnostvo vypustench zneisujcich ltok Volume of discharged pollutants rok year Mal Dunaj Little Danube Dunaj Danube BSK5 BOC5 CHSKCr CHOCCr NL insolubles NEL I NPES IN
Mnostvo vypustench zneistujcich ltok
1173,3
10000

848,7 754,3 419,0

673,6 517,3

573,6

193,4 133,9 142,3 51,1

1000

47,7 40,4
NH4+

100

t/rok

10

8,3 7,3 6,6

1,7

1,6 0,9 1,4

0 BSK5 CHSKCr NL NEL I Fenol

Fig. 9 Volume of pollutants discharged in waste water to the Danube and Little Danube rivers C) The proposed option Waste water from the CCGT block will be released by connection with the sewerage system into existing for of waste water processing equipment in the Refinery. The conditions for discharge of waste waters are as follows:
EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

0,2

0,0

47,7

rok 2008 rok 2007 Mal Dunaj rok 2008 Dunaj rok 2008

100,0

62/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI a) Limits for waste water discharged into chemical sewerage system defined by internal regulations Limits for the accumulation area units 94 and 95 are not specified. Possible limits for the CCGT block are given in the following table. Table 28. Limits for the system of chemically polluted waste water NPES (mg/l) S 2- (mg/l) pH 25 10 6-10 Chemical waste water (i.e. waste waters from condensate purification, extra-operation water from gas turbine flushing) and sewage will be discharged to the collector of DN 500 chemical pressure sewerage system. Chemical waste water released from the CCGT block are shown in the following table. The values were determined (CEZ and SN) with the condition that oil filters will be installed at transformer oil catching tanks or to chemical waste water. Table 29. Limits for the CCGT chemical waste water system Description NPES Mechanical impurities Sulphides Phenol pH CSKCl NH3 Temperature Value/Unit < 500 mg/l < 250 mg/l < 100 mg/l < 20 mg/l 7 12 < 2000 mg/l max. 5 kg/h < 40 C Duration 48 hours 48 hours 48 hours 24 hours 48 hours -

b) Limits for the quality of waste water discharged from the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant, protection of the Danube water. The limit values were specified by permit No. MCHB OV (block 126) - ZPS//1351/2005/ONR. The quality of waste water discharged from the mechanical, chemical and biological equipment for processing of waste water (mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant) in block 126 into the Danube shall be as follows: Table 30. Admissible limits for waste water discharged from the mechanical-chemicalbiological waste water treatment plant (block 126) into the Danube Indicator Unit Admissible maximum 2006-2009 2.6 BOC5 mg/l 20 CHOCCr Insolubles NPES Phenol NH4
(105 C)
0

pH Flow rate (l/s) 500

mg/l 80

mg/l 20

mg/l 2

mg/l 0.1

mg/l 20

6.5-9

OTHER CHARACTERISTIC SENSORY AND ORGANIC WATER QUALITY INDICATORS

Chemically polluted waste water from the Refinery, SPC, CMEPS heat plant or from the CCGT block may contain certain specific pollution resulting from leakage of raw materials (fuel), or of some chemicals and auxiliary substances into waste water. The water does not or will not contain highly toxic substances -1 (poisons), or higher concentration (more than 1 mg.l ) of heavy metals. 2.7 INFLUENCE ON THE FLOW AND MODE OF SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND WATER

It is assumed that as a result of construction of hydro-electric plants on the Danube average flow rate 3 -1 situation in the river will be stabilizing increasingly, with minimum flow rates approx. 800-900 m .s and 3 -1 3 -1 annual averages approx. 2000 2100 m .s (in 1931-1970 average flow rate was 2020 m .s ), and the 3 -1 maximums not exceeding the capacity of the flood protection system (10,000-11,000 m .s ). The capacity of central waterworks which takes in supply water for the Slovnaft site from the Danube is -1 approx. 9 760 l.s . (approx. 1,5 % of minimum Danube flow rate and approx. 0,6 % of average flow rate). Within the above flow rate / offtake ratio, the above offtake of the Refinery has almost no influence on the
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI mode of surface and underground water. The above mode will not be affected by current reconstruction of the heat plant given in the zero option, or by the proposed options of the CCGT block either. According to the above table, the limit for the quantity of water discharged from the mechanical-chemical-1 biological waste water treatment plant into the Danube for 2009 is 500 l.s (approx. 0,06 % of minimum flow rate); the achieved average volume of waste water discharged from the mechanical-chemicalbiological waste water treatment plant -1 was 322 l.s in 2007. Mode and directions of underground water flow in the Refinery site are mainly influenced by hydraulic underground water protection, which decreases their levels permanently and modifies the direction of their flow in the direction of depression cones occurring during underground water drawing. With respect to this fact, erection of structures primarily influences the directions of seepage water flow.

3.
3.1

WASTE
TYPES AND CATEGORIES OF WASTE A) The zero option

During production in the Refinery (oil processing), in the SPC (production of plastics) and in the CPMS heat plant (production of energies) a wide range and certain volumes of various waste are produced in both categories dangerous and common waste. The basic classification of waste used by both organizations is division of waste according to its origin as follows : a) Technological waste, consisting of products not suitable for further processing, used oil, adsorbents and filtration materials, used catalysts, etc. b) Waste from raw materials, semi-products and auxiliary substances, consisting of paper, plastic and metallic packages, damaged containers, waste wood, and also containers with residues of dangerous instances, iron, steel, etc. c) Waste produced during secondary servicing consisting of dirty rags and gloves, hoses, cables, small cleaning waste, sludge from machinery cleaning, concrete and bricks or mixtures thereof containing dangerous substances, glass, plastics and wood containing dangerous substances or contaminated thereby, aluminum, other insulating materials consisting of or containing dangerous substances. d) Waste produced during general revisions, reconstructions etc., consisting of dismantled devices and fittings, contaminated insulating and building materials, wood, construction debris, waste metals, etc. In addition to the above types of waste, there is also normal communal waste produced by the employees at their workplaces. Waste similar to communal waste is also produced by other companies having their seat in the Refinery site. Survey of waste production in the Refinery according to origin in 2007 and according to categories (D dangerous, C- common) in 2007 and 2008 is given in the following charts:

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI

Porovnanie mnostva odpadov z investinej innosti, z drby a z technolgie


30 000 25 000
18 124 28 941

20 000
Mnostvo (t)

15 000
6 057

10 000 5 000 0

14 148 3 876

16 301

2007 Odpad z investinej Odpad z udrby (t) vstavby (t) 2006 Odpad z technolgie (t)

Fig. 10 Comparison of waste production according to types of activity in the Refinery Legend to Figure 10: Porovnanie mnostva ... z technolgie Comparison of waste volumes from investment activities, maintenance and technology; Odpad z investinej vstavby Waste from investment construction; Odpad z drby Waste from maintenance; Odpad z technolgie Waste from technology; Mnostvo - volume
Bilancia tvorby odpadov
70 000 60 000 50 000
44 473 67 276

Mnostvo (t)

40 000
33 456

22 803

53 123

30 000 20 000 10 000 0 Nebezpen odpad (t) Ostatn odpad (t) 2008 2007 Celkov mnostvo odpadu (t)
19 667

Fig. 11 Production of waste in D and C categories in the Refinery Legend to Figure 11: Bilancia tvorby odpadov Waste production balance; Nebezpen odpad Dangerous waste; Ostatn odpad Common waste; Celkov mnostvo odpadu Total waste; Mnostvo - Volume More detailed specification of all types of waste produced in Slovnaft, a.s., is beyond the scope of this evaluation report. According to the analyses from 2008, the Refinery produced 67276 t of waste, thereof 44473 t in the D category and 22803 t in the C category. In 2008, SCP produced the total of 931 t of waste, thereof EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 65/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 696 t in the D category and 234 t in the C category. Most of the waste produced in the Slovnaft, a.s. premises was recovered and disposed of by external organizations (ARGUSS, s.r.o., ecorec Slovakia, s.r.o., .A.S.A. Zohor, s.r.o, OLO, s.r.o., SADACI, n.V. Gent Belgium, Eko-Salmo, s.r.o. or in own waste disposal facilities the Sludge incinerator and the MCHB WWT plant, as well as in other companies authorized for waste recovery and disposal). B) The proposed option Waste from construction of the CCGT power block: The largest volume of waste will be produced during building site preparation and reconstruction. The individual project will be provided For site clearance (including deforestation) a separate project will be developed, with detailed specification of waste volumes, types and categories and of disposal thereof. This project will be subject to a separate approval procedure, and thus waste from the clearage are not included into this project. This project only considers the waste generated during the construction directly, and specified in the following table: Table 31. Assumed volumes of waste during construction of the CCGT block
No. Waste code Waste type specification

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6

17 05 03 17 05 05 17 01 01 17 01 06 17 09 03

Excavated soil, not contaminated by oil substances Soil contaminated by oil substances Concrete, not contaminated Concrete contaminated by oil substances Construction debris and other building waste contaminated by harmful substances 17 09 04 Construction debris and other building waste not contaminated by harmful substances

Waste category C D C D D C

Waste from operation of the CCGT block: The technology of the CCGT power block is characterized by the fact that no solid technological waste is produced. During normal operation, waste similar to communal waste is produced. Larger volumes of solid and liquid waste are generated during maintenance and repairs of the power block equipment; they are shown in following table. Table 32. Waste generated during operation of the CCGT power block* Code 160602 160604 1302 160213 Waste description Ni-Cd batteries and accumulators Alkaline batteries (other than those specified under No. 16 06 03) Waste engine, gear box and lubricating oils Rejected machinery containing dangerous parts, other than specified under Nos. 16 02 09 through 16 02 12 Sludge from soil traps Mixed metals Sludge from water clarification (sludge from chemical water treatment dry matter) Other waste (particles from the front air suction filters 1x/y; particles from rear air suction filters 1x/3-4 yrs
)

Category Estimated

weight D C C D 50 kg/y 60 kg/y 20 m /y *) 3

Way of gathering

Disposal code

container container barrels, container container

R4 R4 R3, R9

160708 170407 190902 190199

D C C O

10 m /y 30 t/y 2,4 t/d 2)

barrels container barrels container container

D10 R4 D9 D1

200301 Mixed communal waste O 100 t/y *) to be specified during realization of the project, or during test operation

container

D10

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Note: It will not be possible to determine specific volumes of the above waste produced during the CCGT block construction sooner than in the project documentation for the construction proceeding, or alternatively, during the test operation of the CCGT block THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS GENERATING WASTE A) The zero option In the Slovnaft site, solid waste results from technological procedures oriented on oil processing, from production of engine fuel, lubricants and petrochemical products. The most balanced generation is related to technological waste whose production depends upon the volume of production in the given year. Maintenance waste depends upon its periodicity and upon periodicity of minor and medium repairs of technological equipment. Usually this type of waste is between one third and a half of technological waste volume. However, in relation to production volume ( approx. 5.5 mil. ton) it represents just a small fraction of the handled material (less than 1 %). Waste from investment activities ranges between 20 and 80 % of technological waste. Description of the technological procedures which generate solid waste in the Refinery is beyond the range of this project. B) The proposed option Solid waste (except communal waste) is generated during operation of the CCGT block only during maintenance and repairs of the power block equipment. 3.3 WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES A) The zero option In 2006 and 2007, organization changes of waste disposal took place in the Refinery; as a result thereof, waste disposal is provided mainly by external organizations. Within the company, the following facilities are operated in order to dispose of the selected types of waste: the reconstructed Sludge incinerator F5101 (disposal code D10 incineration on the land) and the MCHB WWT plant (disposal code D8 biological treatment and D9 physical and chemical treatment). Table 33. Volume of waste disposed in equipments of the plant Equipment 2006 labor Volume hours (t) fund (hours) 5670 5484 1451 376 4931 2654* 232 121* 1500 6359,5 690,8 7756,7 7887,78 2007 labor Volume hours (t) fund (hours 2008 labor Volume hours (t) fund (hours

3.2

Waste incineration plant 1 Waste incineration plant 2 sludge incineration plant A sludge incineration plant B sludge incineration plant F5101 mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant Waste generator SLOVNAFT, a.s Waste generator- external organizations Total, treated in the mechanicalchemical-biological waste water treatment plant * converted to 100% dry mass

operation terminated 6254 3317* 7244 4496*

1724,28 4635,22

129,92 560,88

1459,45 6297,25

300 1200

1999,56 5887,22

In 2008, most of dangerous waste resulted from the ongoing investment activities, as the waste contaminated soil is produced during excavation works; in addition, the produced waste includes sludge from block 17 and pollution sources from blocks 92 3452 t, sludge and residues from oil traps in block 17, and MCHB WWT plant.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI A higher production of technological waste is caused by a higher volume of disposed sludge in the Sludge incinerator. There was a higher production of waste from maintenance as well. Since 2008 was the year of overhauls in several production units, the above increase is understandable. B) The proposed option The CCGT power block will have no waste recovery or disposal facilities of its own. However, it will use the MCHB WWT plant, including the sludge incineration plant.

4.

NOISE AND VIBRATIONS


A) The zero option :

As mentioned already in Section II, in the area in question most noise comes from is public, railway and air traffic, being the primary sources of noise for the housing constructions in the region. This has also been proved by noise studies made for the proposer by ZPS Vibro Acoustic Club, ilina-Divina (Ing. J. ma) and by the Department of Civil Engineering Physics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology (doc. Mr.Tomaovi). Based on theoretical results and site measurements, it is said in the studies that admissible LAeq values for day and night time specified by hygienic requirements in the most exposed part of the area (on the western part of housing constructions in Podunajsk Bis kupice) are not exceeded. In this part of the area, during accumulation of noise from all types of traffic (road, railway, air) the difference between the noise from traffic (decrease starting from the level of approx. 7077 dB at minimum distance of 500 m) and the noise produced by Slovnaft, a.s. machinery (decrease of the level of noise from normal operation (75-85 dB) or decrease from approx. 90 105 dB at minimum distance of 1200 m) is much smaller and hardly discernible. Noise from the Slovnaft and SPC machinery (even at unchanged intensity) is perceived more during night time, when the noise from traffic decreases. During night time, sporadically occurring noise from decompression of machinery is perceived rather strongly. The above facts have also been proved in the published noise load of the Bratislava agglomeration whose elaboration had been ordered by Bratislava, the Capital of the SR, from EUROAKUSTIK, the developer and coordinator of the project. The maps included in the study are available on the internet (http:://www.laermkarten.de/bratislava). B) The proposed option In the technical solution of the CCGT power block, in the areas where outside and partition structures function as noise sources the requirements for noise level reduction to the level required by standards will be considered. Similarly, foundations for generators and turbines (or other rotating machines) will be built with respect to their vibration effects on the subsoil and/or on adjacent objects. Both solutions must observe the respective criteria of STN and EU standards which restrict the noise and vibration levels of industrial objects. Admissible noise and vibration values are defined in the Regulation of the Ministry of Health of the SR No. 549/2007. According to the Regulation, the CCGT premises and its closest vicinity belong to territorial category IV; the closest residential area (Lieskovec) belongs to category III. Table 34. Admissible values of the decisive noise values in the exterior Terr. category Description of the protected zone Reference time span Admissible values (dB) Traffic noise Land and RailAir transport c) water ways LAeq,p LASmax,p transLAeq,p b)c) port LAeq,p 60 60 50 60 60 55 60 60 50 75
a)

Noise from other source s L


Aeq,p

III

Territory as in category II near highst nd ways, roads of the 1 and 2 class, municipal communications with pub9) lic transport, railways and airports, 11) city centers

Day Evening Night

50 50 45

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI IV Territory with no residential purposes Day and no external protected spaces, Evening production zones, industrial parks, Night enterprise premises 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 95 70 70 70

Notes: a) Admissible values are valid for dry road surface and ground with no snow. b) Land transport is the transport on land communications including tram transport.11) c) The local transportation system stops as well as bus, railway and water transport stops and taxi stands intended for getting on/off of passengers only are considered as a part of the land and water transport. d) Admissible values in front of the faade of non-residential objects are applied during the time of their use (e.g. schools during classes).
11)

Act No. 135/1961 Coll. on land communications (the Road Act) as amended. Act of the National Council of the SR No. 164/1996 Coll. on railways and on the amendment of Act No. 455/1991 Coll. on trade business (the Business Act) as amended. Act No. 143/1998 Coll. on civil aviation (the Aviation Act) and on amendment of certain acts as amended.

Table 35. Admissible values of the decisive noise values in the interior of buildings Category Description of the protected room inside buildings Reference time span Admissible values (dB) Noise from Noise from internal the external d) sources environe) LAmax,p ment LAeq,p 40 40 a) 30 50 40 c) 40 c) 30 50
c) g)

Residential rooms, lodging houses, nursing b) homes, kindergartens and nurseries

Day Evening Night When in use

Rooms where verbal communication is required, e.g. school workshops, waiting rooms, lobbies, etc.

Notes: a) The examined value for pulsed noise resulting from the operation of personal lifts is determined by addition of correction K= (-7) dB to LAmax for night time. b) Admissible values for kindergartens and nurseries are applied when these are in use. c) The examined value for traffic noise in territorial category III according to Table 1 is determined by addition of correction K= (-5) dB to LAeq for the day time, evening time and night time. d) Admissible values are valid for evaluation according to clause 2.1 a) and b). e) Admissible values are valid for evaluation according to clause 2.1 c). g) Admissible values are valid when other characteristics of a protected room such as ventilation, heating and lighting are observed simultaneously. The CCGT power block will be situated in blocks 94 and 95 of SLOVNAFT, a.s. the south part of the Refinery plant, in blocks 94 and 95. Close to the block there are industrial buildings of OLO, a.s. municipal waste incineration plant, and heat plants of Bratislavsk teplrensk, a.s. Bratislava-south. The closest settlement with some residential houses Lieskovec - is 1-1.5 km far from this power block. With power block construction might influence the noise level for a short period. Assuming that the noise level will not exceed the work environment limits, it can be assumed that with respect to the distance and ground the noise situation in the above-mentioned settlement will remain unchanged. Vibrations : The decisive value for the evaluation of vibrations inside buildings is the equivalent value of frequency-weighted acceleration of vibrations considered within 1-80Hz frequency range, in accordance with the Slovak technical standard.14) In case of a high coefficient of the amplitude of vibrations in accordance with Slovak technical standard15) whose energy is contained in the above-mentioned range of frequency, the maximal value of weighted acceleration of vibrations is the decisive quantity as well (for T=1s or measured with the time and weight function Slow). The decisive quantities are determined in places of public dwelling and in the axial direction of the basis-centric coordinate system in accordance with Slovak technical norms (STN ISO 2631-1:1999, STN ISO 2631-2:2004, STN ISO 2041) whereas vibrations influencing the whole body are evaluated for the direction and locality with the highest values of vibrations detected in the protected room. For comparable values in various axes, vibrations for all
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI axes are evaluated separately. The examined value is the equivalent value of the frequency-weighted acceleration of vibrations determined in the time of occurrence of vibrations and the maximal value of the weighted acceleration of vibrations. Admissible values for the closest residential area Lieskovec are given in the following table. Table 36. Admissible values of the decisive values of vibrations in the interior Description of protected room inside buildings Reference time span Continuous or discontinuous periodic or steady accidental via) brations aweq -2 (m.s ) 0,008 0,008 0,005 Shakes and vibrations with considerable dynamics occurring several times a day awmax -2 a) b) (m.s ) 0,11 0,11 0,05

Residential rooms, lodging houses, nursing homes.

Day Evening Night

Notes: a) Quasi-stationary vibrations evoked by recurring shakes are also included. b) If the dynamic range of maximal values detected for individual events is less than half of the highest amplitude, their arithmetic mean is used. In other cases, maximal values are evaluated.

Vibro-acoustic study with degree EIA assessment level has been developed to consider the effect of the CCGT block on noise level of the working place and relevant area (textual annex No. 5 hereto). According to this study, the levels of noise from stationary and mobile sources of the Refinery and of the CCGT block in the closest residential zone (Lieskovec) compared to admissible levels specified by Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic No. 549/2007 Coll. will not be exceeded in any time.

5.

RADIATION AND OTHER PHYSICAL FIELDS


A) The zero option:

In the Slovnaft site radioactive emitters are currently situated in Block 50; they are used to measure the level in boilers during production of lubricants in the shut down unit Plastic lubricants. Within the construction of EFPA emitters have been installed in the unit Hydrocracking of heavy oil fractions to measure the level of catalysts in reactors; the emitters meet the operation and safety standards. There are no other sources of radioactive radiation of anthropogenic origin in the Refinery. Sources of this type situated outside the Refinery have not been considered within this project. We can state, based on the analysis of long term operation of technological processes in the Refinery, that production equipment does not constitute any pre-requisites for environmentally important violation of natural geophysical fields. B) The proposed option During construction and operation of the CCGT block the use of radioactive radiation sources is not assumed. Operation the power block, primarily the transformers, switchhouse, 400 kV connection branch and 110 kV connection branch within the Refinery will affect electromagnetic field of their close neighborhood. Therefore, the technical solution project will correspond to applicable legal rules and regulations of the Slovak government, to STN standards, as well as to EU laws and standards, in particular to Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 330/1996 on operational health and safety as amended, and to Regulation of the Government of the SR No. 329/2006 Coll. on minimum health and safety requirements for protection of employees against risks related to electro-magnetic field (Annex No. 2 Limit values of exposition and action values of exposition); in case of connection to the switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice also to Regulation of the Government of the SR No. 325/2006 Coll. on details and requirements for electromagnetic field sources and for limits of exposition of population to electromagnetic field in the environment (annex No. 2 Limit values and action values of exposition).

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6.
6.1.

ODOR AND OTHER OUTPUTS


ODORS A) The zero option

Emission limits for fetid substances are not specified in current environmental legislation. These substances must not be present in the atmosphere in concentrations that may be annoying for the population when percepted. Fetid substances coming into the atmosphere from the Refinery's production include primarily sulphur compounds and some volatile organic compounds. Emission balances of these substances are presented in preceding sections of the project. Under bad weather these substances may have adverse influence the population of the area in question. B) The proposed option: During construction of the CCGT power block, fetid substances such as combustion gases of gasoline and diesel engines, volatile substances from insulating and protective coatings glues, etc. may occur at the building site. During normal operation fetid substances are not assumed. Mercaptans used as natural gas additives for identification of possible leakage in case of failure of pipes, fittings or technological machinery may be considered as fetid substance. 6.2 WASTE HEAT A) The zero option: With respect to the character of technologies in the Refinery and SPC, within the EFPA project their impact on thermal field changes was analyzed in particular; comments to this issue are given in the following section. According to information from SLOVNAFT employees, efficiency of technological equipment ranges between 80-93%. Overall power output of all air pollution sources is 1.865,7 MW. Out of this installed output, approx. 7-20%, i.e. approx. 130-3701 MW is represented by waste heat dispersing into the environment. Mostly dispersion into the exterior is concerned, because the technological equipment assemblies are installed in the open air and hermetically sealed. Figures related to heat emissions from individual chimneys and field burners were calculated by the operator, considering the combustion process efficiency of individual emission sources. The figures have also been included in calculation of total waste heat. Following subtraction of these figures, waste heat resulting from transfer through structures makes approx. 0-240 MW. Waste heat transfer through con2 -2 structions to the site area (approx. 5 km ) results in planar heat emission ranging between 0-48 W.m . At -2 -2 the level of chimneys and field burners this planar emission is increased by 22 W.m , i.e. to 22-70 W.m , what makes approximate increase of the natural thermal field value in the Refinery site. Emitted heat per m of the site is less than 1 kW.m and, apart from working environment microclimate, it does not affect the thermal regime of the area in question. Thus, it can be said that during normal operation of the Refinery and SPC there are no pre-requisites for environmentally significant impairment of natural thermal field, because: - the site is situated on flat ground with good natural ventilation of the exterior. As a rule, inversion days , when natural ventilation of the site is worse, occur during colder seasons; - the site area is larger than comparable refineries in the west-European countries; distribution and location of technologies and the site layout do not allow excessive accumulation of heat and avoid excess overheating of the outside areas; - the produced heat is used mostly for technological purposes, for electrical power production, and to a lesser extent for heating in winter. Waste heat from certain technological processes is used for this purpose as well. As to economic efficiency of production, it is endeavored to utilize maximum of produced and waste heat for technological purposes, and thermal efficiency of technological equipment is between 80-93% of its input; - heat dispersion is limited by the safety standards, where contact surface temperature lower than 70C is required, and also by safety regulations for work with light hydrocarbons where safety risk may increase in case of overheating of the area by waste heat. If necessary with respect to technology, hydrocarbon gasses are burned in field burners, which create point sources of waste heat. They are built to disperse heat at higher heights and in larger area;
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI - analysis of flora and fauna in the area in question does not indicate any changes of the thermal field in the plant and in its neighborhood either. Environmentally significant thermal field violation in the site and in its close neighborhood may occur during disasters such as war, connected with surface fires in the site. Since realization of the EFPA project in the Refinery numerous units and technological equipment have been modernized. The modernization also included more effective management of the heat produced in the Heat plant or in other production units of the Refinery. An important factor of waste heat decrease is in its utilization for heating of the media which enter the technological processes. Introduction of circulation cooling contributes to the issue, because it enables better control of thermal flows and, compared to flow-through cooling, lower heat escape into the environment. The above modernization trends and steady annual volume of processed oil (approx. 5,5 mil. ton) allow to assume that the volume of heat escaping into the environment was reduced. B) The proposed option The proposed CCGT power block will be a new source of waste heat; during operation, it will be carried away by cooling towers into the environment. This source of waste heat will be situated in peripheral locality of the built-over territory of the city, in contact with green areas and water pools having the character of protected zones where building cannot be assumed. The territory is flat and easy to ventilate. Operation of the block, in particular of the cooling towers, will evoke locally ascending streams of warm air and water vapors. Actual effect upon the thermal field of the adjacent area will not be significant. 6.3 OTHER INFLUENCES

Due to location of the construction within the Refinery, and to the facts presented above in previous points, the construction proposed for the area in question will cause minor or none conflicts of interest which would have to be dealt with during project and investment preparation. In this case, construction of the power block may be influenced by the issue of branch connection to the SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice.

7.

COMPLEMENTARY FACTS

Expected induced investments are addressed in section II 8.5 Expected induced investments. Except necessary excavation and earth works during the construction and upon its termination, construction of the CCGT block will not require any significant ground modification and interventions into landscape.

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C. I.

COMPREHENSIVE CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS INCLUDING HEALTH DELINEATION OF THE AREA IN QUESTION

The steam-gas CCGT power source will be situated within the existing production site of SLOVNAFT, a.s., and SPC. Its environmental impact can be evaluated only as a part of the impact of the whole site which is situated on the south-eastern edge of the city of Bratislava and belongs to the district Bratislava II and its municipal part Ruinov. The block will be situated on the southern edge of the Refinery site. Delineation of the territory affected by the proposed construction is based on the previous knowledge of impacts which SLOVNAFT, a.s., and SPC have had on individual components of the natural environment in its surroundings as follows: the extent of impacts of the above-mentioned plant on the rock subbase and ground water is limited by the technical measure built and effective hydraulic ground water protection which localizes the possibility of rock subbase and ground water contamination by oil substances to the Refinery site only; protection of surface water (the Danube and Little Danube Rivers) is ensured by the MCHB WWT and WWT pants in blocks 11 and 17-18 which have very strict limits for waste water discharge; impacts on soil, biotopes, population and cultural-anthropogenic components in the involved area are mediated by and related to air pollution primarily emissions and air imission pollutants. Noise and potentially also heat radiation are transmitted by air as well; out of all production effects of SLOVNAFT, a.s., air pollution has had spatially the most extensive impact on the environment so far; it exceeds the border of the facility.

Delineation of the area in question is based on Rozptylov tdia imisno-prenosovho posdenia ZZO SLOVNAFT a.s. (The Dispersion Study on the Evaluation of Air Polluting Transmission of the Air Pollution Sources in SLOVNAFT, a.s.) elaborated by EKOTRADE HT (RNDr. J. Brozman) for the needs of SLOVNAFT, a.s., in 2007. The results of the study are described in more detail in section CII 5 Atmosphere and CIII 4 Air Pollution. The delineated area is of an irregular shape and its localization is shown in graphic annex No. 3. It extends to residential zones and the cadastre areas of the following municipal parts of Bratislava and adjacent municipalities: municipal part Ruinov (district Bratislava II), cadastr al area the southern part, municipal part Vrakua, cadastral area the south-western part, municipal part Podunajsk Biskupice (district Bratislava II), cadastr al area the western part, municipal part Petralka (district Bratislava V), cadastr al area the eastern part, the village Rovinka (district Senec), cadastral area the north-eastern part.

Simultaneously, the involved area overlaps the reach of potential industrial breakdowns of the Refinery appliances described in The Security Analysis of SLOVNAFT, a.s., site, Bratislava (Revision 1, SLOVNAFT VRUP, a.s., and co-operating organizations, Bratislava, June 2007).

II. 1.

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS QUO IN THE AREA IN QUESTION GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

With regard to the geomorphology, the area in question belongs to the Podunajsk rovina (Danubian plain) sub-system - Pannska panva (Pannonian basin), province: Mal Dunajsk kotlina (Small Danubian valley), area: Podunajsk nina (Danube lowland). It is a territory with a typical fluvial topography which has been evolved due to the territory downcast and subsequent aggradation. The Danube River has been the determining factor for the formation of the territory in terms of development. The Gabkovo Waterworks has reduced the aggradating and alluvial activity of the Danube. As an effect, escalation and stabilization of ground water surfaces has been achieved.

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2.
2.1.

GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE EVALUATED AREA

The involved area belongs to the peripheral part of Podunajsk panva. Its subsoil is constituted by the rocks of karpatsk krytalinik (the Carpathian crystalinic), mostly by the rocks of so-called slovensk masv (the Slovak massif). The depth of the basin is approx. 5,000 meters. Its underground structure has been scarcely explored. The assumption is that under the basin there is depleted crust (below 30 km) with more frequent presence of alkaline rocks and small bodies of granitoids. Filling sediments of the basin consist of rocks of the Neogene and the Quaternary. Their thickness decreases from the center towards edges. Current shape and extent of the basin is the result of territorial evolution which occurred not sooner than in the Pliocene and Quaternary eras. The Neogene: The Neogenic filling of the basin has been scarcely explored as well. Presence of sarmatic and tortonic, potentially also oligocenic, layers in the Pliocene subsoil is assumed. Older paleogenic layers in the Neogene subsoil have not been found. The Neogene subsoil of the basin represents varied lithofacial sediments of brackish and fluvial evolution (clays, sands, pudding stone enriched by calcic and coal components). The surface of the Neogene basin is constituted by pliocenic pannon sediments consisting of viridescent and griseous powder-arenaceous clays, calcic clays with inferior inserts of sand and grits. Pannon sediments such as the Quaternary basis can be found on the left riverside of the Danube only in the Bratislava area (up to SLOVNAFT, a.s.), further downstream they are sunk under Pont sediments which are laid on the Pannon transgressively. They are constituted mostly of thick pelithic sediments of clays, arenaceous clays and sands, potentially also grits in some areas. The youngest Pliocene formation is the Levant; together with the Quaternary, it constitutes gravel watery filling of the topmost section of the basin. With respect to difficult differentiability, the Levant and Quaternary grits and gravels are described as dunajsk trky (the Danubian grits). Their maximal thickness in the upper part of itn ostrov ranges between 11 and 52 meters. The Quaternary: The Neogene filling of the basin is overlapped by fluvial Quaternary sediments (grit, clay, sand, organic sediments). They are also represented by surface layer of soil, deeper down by layers of arenaceous clays with low to medium plasticity and the layers of pseudo-granulated grits. Upper layers are often mixed with anthropogenic sediments (backfills, embankments, construction debris). Fluvial Quaternary sediments (dunajsk trkopiesky Danube gravels and grits) are characterized by a very varied lenticular structure with alternations of gross and clay-like positions. Sands are mostly medium-granulated (0.25 1.0 mm), unequigraniferous (with the coefficient of equigraniferousness between 2 and 7), grits are medium- to gross-granulated with majority of 8 10 mm nuggets (the coefficient of equigraniferousness oscillates between 4 37 mm). Transitional types have considerably wavy curves of graniferousness, and their coefficient of equigraniferousness ranges between 2 and 121 mm (Pelikan, 1984). Fluvial sediments of the Danubes low terrace cover the whole involved area. They are spatially most widespread and their thickness oscillates considerably. In the north-western direction from the Danube bend the thickness of these sediments is approx. 20 m and further on towards Podunajsk Biskupice and Rovinka it increases still. In the western part of the area the locality where the Danube and Little Danube bifurcate it is 28 m and at the Kalinkovsk rameno even 95 m. Average thickness of the Quaternary in the involved area is approximately 10 15 m and in depressions between 20 and 30 m. Grits and sands as fluvial silts are covered by 2 3m thick layer of various loessial and clayey soils. Danubes bayous are filled by sediments of organic origin, containing organic substances and clayey particles. The surface of grits in these bayous is lower than in their close vicinity; it implies that the stream performed mostly erosive activity in the Recent. In the involved area, many facies of fluvial sediments of organic origins are to be found that of riverbed, of meadow alluviums and of muddy gyttja powder-arenaceous and clayey soils. In the facies of riverbed, grits, gravels and grits with an admixture of sand and occasional positions of sands are to be found. In the facies of meadow alluviums, two lithological types are recognized soils and sands (obov, 1988). The facies of bayous fill in narrow sags carved into the surface of riverbed sediments and meadow facies. On the surface, they are usually recognizable through depression (0.5 1.5 m deep). However,
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI they are often flush with alluviums of meadow facies. They are sharply detached from the sediments of the facies of riverbed. On the other hand, they run smoothly into the sediments of meadow facies on the surface. The thickness of the sediments ranges between 1 and 3 m (rarely 4 6 m). Nowadays these facies are more or less disguised by meadow sediments, potentially also by anthropogenic layers. Anthropogenic sediments are very heterogeneous with respect to their composition. With regard to the origin of material which they are constituted of, various types are to be recognized in the involved area: dumpsters, municipal and industrial waste, removed and mixed earth. 2.2 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE THE SLOVNAFT A.S. PREMISES

The Quaternary sediment subsoil in the facility is composed of the Neogene arenaceous and clayey sediments. Sands are mostly fine-granulated, partly clayey and often clayey particles are to be found which significantly decrease their penetrability. The sands sometimes reach up to 36 m of thickness but sometimes, on the other hand, are absent altogether. Thickness alternation is very rapid. The isopleths of sand thickness in the space between inner and outer drill lines of the hydraulic underground water protection show that the distinctive structural direction is NE SW. This is also the direction in which sand lines cross the area. In deeper locations, there are clayey sands, clayey soil and griseous and sage green clays. Of Quaternary sediments, thick position of grits is very prevalent. It consists, apart from silica and quartzite, of scarcely worked nuggets, even boulders of granites, up to 40 cm in diameter. Boulders which belong among fluvial sediments are relatively common. A very good shape as well as petrographical composition of nuggets (silica, quartzite, gneiss, chert and calcite) manifest of a long transport and imply that their origin is in farther Alpine as well as Carpathian territory. These sediments are sometimes covered with backfill (1 2 m), clayey sands or soils with humus, in locations of smothered bayous even with sediments of organic origin. The geological subsoil of SLOVNAFT, a.s. site is very well examined and continuously monitored. 2.3 ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

From the engineering-geological point of view, the involved area belongs to the region of Neogene tectonic depressions, to the area of inner-Carpathian lowlands and to the district of valley fluvial alluviums. The Neogene sediments are mainly clays with medium and high plasticity. They are grey, griseous and blue in color. With increasing depth, their consistence becomes solid and tough if in contact with Quaternary sediments. Quaternary fluvial sediments represent thick gravel formation where clayey-arenaceous soils are to be found. On the surface, a layer of humus soil is located underneath which irregularly located and mutually wedged-out layers of clay (with low to medium plasticity, mostly of solid and sometimes of tough consistence, brown and grey in color) or arenaceous clay (mostly of tough consistence, brown, fuscous and grey in color) are to be found. Sometimes, locations of fine-granulated clayey sand (solid consistence, yellow to brown color) were discovered. 2.3.1. LOAD CAPACITY OF FOUNDATION SOIL AND PROPOSAL OF FOUNDATION MODE IN BLOCKS 94 AND 95

According to the test pits obtained during well drilling in blocks 94 and 95 and to the test pits performed in block 64 it can be deduced that the rock subsoil environment (7 10 m in depth) is not suitable for spatial foundation without preceding modifications, which are rather investment and time demanding. Thus it appears more suitable to found the planned objects in-depth with the use of wide-profiled stilts. Down to 7 10 m depth under the ground, mellow arenaceous and gravel mines are located which are not suitable for founding. Thus it is proposed to keep minimal foundation depth of approx. 10 m under the ground. In this depth, medium-sedimented gravel soils are located which are capable of leading away safely even massive loads, without greater deformation. Before the construction works begin, it will be necessary to perform a detailed engineering-geological and hydrological research on the construction site, according to the specific demands of the designer. Hydro geological conditions: Within the given hydro-geological conditions, ground water may affect concrete aggressively due to the presence of aggressive carbon dioxide (CO 2). The concrete must be waterproof. Due to high electrolytic conductivity and to the presence of aggressive carbon dioxide, ground water is very aggressive against steel. Relevant protection is to be used for all steel objects which come to contact with this water. Altitude and the ground water level: The SLOVNAFT site is at the altitude 133 m above the sea level (the Adriatic Sea). The ground water level is 7 8 m under the ground.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 2.4 GEODYNAMIC PHENOMENA AND THE RADON RISK

Tectonics: According to the geological plan of Bratislava (Vakovsk e t al. 1998), tectonic cracks in the NE SW direction delineate gabkovsk prepadlina (the Gabkovo Depression) in the Podunajsk nina. On the north-eastern side it is delimited by the cracks proceeding through the base of Little Catpathians and on the south-eastern side by palkoviovsk zlom (The Palkovi Crack). The depression is divided into floes by other cracks in the NW SE direction. Cracks in the area of Jankov Dvor are related to the involved area. These delineate a partial depression and their run corresponds with the Danube river bend in the harbor and Vlie hrdlo locations. Another crack running from Jarovce to Podunajsk Biskupice divides the above-mentioned depression from a partial terrace elevation. With the involved area, two partial dropped floes are also connected biskupick kryha (The Biskupice Floe) and kryha Rovinky (The Rovinky Floe). The partial biskupick kryha is divided into two parts by a traverse crack. Its southern part, where the involved area is also situated, is more dropped and the thickness of gravel complex reaches from 32 to 39.3 m. No tectonic crack becomes significantly visible with respect to the surface morphology. Seismicity: According to the seismic plan with regard to STN 73 0036 Seismic load capacity of constructions, the construction site is assigned to the area 7M.C.S. Shock -resistant constructions in this area must be designed so as to be resistant to seismic powers in all directions. Slope movements and erosive processes: There are no slope movements in the involved area. Among the erosive processes, eolian activity is especially significant and it affects in particular the arenaceous soils. There is a risk of the occurrence of suffose phenomena caused by excessive ground water consumption in the area. Radon risk: The involved area is assigned to the category with a low radon risk (the volume activity of -3 radon at low soil permeability is lower than 20 kBq.m ) due to which there will be no need to make constructional-technical precautions in order to reduce the radon radiation. The locality with a medium radon risk is situated south-east from the facility near the towns of Lieskovec and Ketelec. (Bezk, J. Orientan IGP, GD-Geofond, Bratislava, 1994) 2.5 DEPOSITS OF MINERAL RESOURCES

In the involved area, there is no deposit of mineral resources currently in use. No circumstantial evidence of oil and natural gas presence has been found, either. Of construction raw materials in the involved area, gravels (mining classification no. 3 4) are potentially to be considered. The area is located on the top of ground water aquifer. Its constant renewal through the Danube water infiltration, together with good self-cleaning abilities of its offshore zone, cause that this water is usable for supply of the population basically without any treatment. (Sources for the EIA EFPA project, I. Khun, 1993)

3.
3.1.

SOIL CONDITIONS
SOIL TYPES AND THEIR QUALITY

A high rate of urbanization in the involved area caused significant alterations in the soil proportions. Basically all types of land according to the land registry are located in the area built-up areas, other areas, gardens, vineyards, agricultural soils and forest land resources. The soils in the involved area represent typick a degradan antrozeme (typical and degradative a nthropogenic soils; according to the soil classification of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) and ku ltizeme (cultivated soils; according to the soil classification of the Czec hoslovak Socialist Republic). Anthropogenic soils are artificially created soils, e.g. during recultivation of mounds and backfills, during surface finish after mining of various soils and after construction works, etc. The substrate is constituted mostly of anthropogenic sediments. Typical cultivated soils belong among these soils, too. They are the cultivating soils which have been altered by anthropogenic activities to that extent that their original characteristics have been lost. Ranked as the number two with respect to the expanse are typical fluvial soils, especially medium and less heavy. The substrate is constituted of anthropogenic sediments, alluvial sediments (lighter and medium heavy) as well as terraced non-carboniferous gravels. On the eastern side of the involved area, there are typical blacklands (medium heavy). The substrate is constituted of alluvial sediments (lighter, medium heavy up to heavy) as well as terraced non-carboniferous gravels. These are parts of agricultural land resources and forest land resources). EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 76/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 3.2 MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL SOIL DEGRADATION

The topography of the involved area is mostly flat, with a minor segmentation with a tilt up to 12 %. Mechanical soil degradation due to the impact of topography is out of question here. Soil erosion due to water activity may be considered partially in the northern part of the involved area, in close proximity of the right bank of the Little Danube River. Soil risk as a result of erosive wind activity is relevant only on the arenaceous soils (easy-to-dry-up fluvial soils 00 01001) which are assigned to the soils with -1 -1 medium risk as a result of erosive wind activity (blow 4.0 10.0 t.ha .r ). Chemical soil degradation in the involved area is caused by acidification of land resources, soil contamination by heavy metals, sulphates, chlorides, organic compounds, fertilizers and pesticides. For the area of Bratislava, approximate coefficient of gross vegetable production decrease due to contamination of 2 agricultural soil and vegetation especially by SO and NOx has been specified in the value of 0.90 (Holobrad and Kalz, 1985); this is one of the highest values in Slovakia. It is assumed that due to reduced use of fertilizers and pesticides in the last years their surplus in the soil has been eliminated. The occurrence of heavy metals in soils is described in more detail in section 4.3 Soil Pollution.

4.

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

According to the general climatic classification the area is assigned to warm and moderately humid climatic sub-region of Slovakia with mild winter (district A5) which is characterized by annual average temperature 10 C and more. The city of Bratislava itself is the second warmest place in the republic. Wind intensification is felt here due to direct effect of the Little Catpathians mountain ridge (perpendicular to predominant north-western winds) on the one hand, and to the depressing effect of the Danube valley between the promontories of Little Catpathians and Alps on the other hand.

5.
5.1

ATMOSPHERE
PRECIPITATION

According to long-term observations in the involved area, the highest precipitation amount is recorded in June (75 mm), the lowest in September (36mm). On average there are 88 days per a year with the precipitation amount above 1 mm. On average there are 30 days per a year when a storm occurs. The average number of days with precipitation is 133 per a year. Abundant precipitation occurs mostly in the summer season. Snow cover has been recorded during 37 days per a year on average. Relative humidity values range between 69 and 84 %, while the long-term average is 76 %. Annual course of cloud formation is characterized by the maximum in December (78 %) and the minimum between June and September (47 52 %). A high number of days with sufficient up to intense air flow enables dispersion of clouds. Most hours of sunlight occur in June, least in December. Average cloud formation reaches approximately 60 %. On average there are 47 cloudless days and 120 cloudy ones. Average annual number of foggy days (visual range shorter than 1 km) is approx. 34, while most foggy days were recorded in December (9), least in July (0.1). Average precipitation amounts recorded at the meteorological stations in Bratislava (Mudroova ulica, Devnska Nov Ves, Koliba, and The M. R. tefnik Ai rport) in 2004 2005 are quoted in the following table. Table 37. Average monthly and annual precipitation amount (mm) in Bratislava in 2004 2005 II III IV V VI VII VIII 40,4 IX X 2.8 XI XII Year

month 2004 2005

50,2 58,0 67,1 56,9 72,1 77,3 40,7

40,2 38,7 48,5 24,4 614,5 54,3 81,5 630,5

44,7 49,8 19,5 38,0 42,7 31,4 84,3 143,0 38,5

(Source: The Statistical Report of the Capital of Bratislava, SR Bratislava, 2006)

5.2 TEMPERATURES According to long-term observations, average annual temperature reaches 9.7 C. Long-term maximal air temperatures were recorded in July (38.2 C) and minimal in February ( -24.6 C). Average soil freeze reaches down to 30 35 cm in depth, during mild winters the soil does not freeze at all. Temperature inversion occurs approximately 100 days per a year on average. The most affected area is the zone beEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI low the Refinery, i.e. Lieskovec and Ketelec. The inversivity decreases towards the built-up area. The average temperature amounts recorded at the meteorological stations in Bratislava (Mud roova ulica, Devnska Nov Ves, Koliba, and The M. R. tefnik Airport) in 2004 2005 are quoted in the following chart: Table 38. Average monthly and annual air temperatures (C) in Bratislava during 2004-2008 month 2004 2005 I -2,3 1,1 II 2,4 -1,8 III 4,5 4,1 IV V VI VII VIII 20,9 18,8 IX X XI 5,6 4,1 XII 1,2 0,2 Year 10,3 10,1

11,6 13,9 18,2 20,2 11,3 15,8 18,8 20,6

15,7 11,9 16,5 11,3

(Source: The Statistical Report of the Capital of Bratislava, SR Bratislava, 2006)

5.3

WINDINESS

On the basis of the long-term basic characteristics of airflow in the involved area it can be concluded that -1 the predominant airflow is north-west. The average airflow velocity is 3.8 m.s . , With regard to its location, the involved area has suitable wind conditions for dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosth phere. The involved area is assigned to the moderately inverse location with low fog occurrences [ 10 Landscape Atlas of the Slovak Republic; MP, SAP; Esprit, 2002]. The territory of the city of Bratislava is classified among the regions of air-quality control for the PM10 pollutant. The numbers of airflow directions detected by the automatic imission monitoring station (AIMS) Rovinka are as follows: In 2008, the most common wind direction was SW and WSW, i.e. the direction toward P. Biskupice 23.63%. The least common wind direction was N and NNW 0.16%. The NW and WNW wind directions, taking emissions from Slovnaft, a.s., to the municipalities of Rovinka, Dunajsk Lun, Kalinkovo, Ham uliakovo and the town of amorn, occurred at 2.22%. Frequency of wind directions (in %) is shown in the graph in the following Figure 12.
AIMS 3 Slovnaft AIMS 4 Petralka

AIMS 2 P. Biskupice

SSZ 15 SZ ZSZ Z ZJZ JZ JJZ 10 5 0

S SSV SV VSV V VJV JV JJV J


SLOVNAFT AIMS 1 Rovinka

smer vetra

AIMS = Automatick imisn monitorovacia stanica

Legend to Figure 12: smer vetra wind direction; AIMS = Automatic Imssion Measurement Station Fig. 12 Compass-card for Slovnaft, a.s. for 2008 the wind directions expressed in % Note: The Little Carpathians represent a continuous obstacle for NW winds which are predominant in this area and thus an increase of their velocity and gust intensity occurs on the leeward side. Given this direction, the affected area has suitable wind conditions for dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere due to its location. On the other hand, a negative situation for dispersion of harmful substances emerges on the windward side of the Little Carpathians during the SE airflow; then the wind velocity decreases and transfer of exhalates from the industrial areas to the city center occurs. However, local topography of the terrain and the existing housing de78/162

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI velopment often alter climatic and wind conditions in that specific locality significantly, especially in lower strata of the atmosphere.

6.
6.1

HYDRO-GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS:
WATER STREAMS

According to SVP SR (Slovak Water Management Enterprise) VII The Danube river basin, the area is assigned to partial river basin of the Danube River (the basic river basin: 4-20-01 the Danube River from the mouth of the Morava River up to the mouth of the Vh River, including the Little Danube River ; the 2 area of the river basin: 2,097 km ). The Danube River represents an allochthonous water course with 3 -1 3 -1 average annual flow rate of 2,044 m .s , the minimal flow rate approximately 800 m .s and the maximal 3 -1 approximately 10,000 11,000 m .s . It is an alpine river with a relatively balanced outflow during the year. The Little Danube River was originally one of the Danube River's arms and turns off thereof at the 1,865.43 km of the water course. Currently, its flow rate regime is determined by the manipulations at the filling object, i.e. its character is not natural. 6.2 WATER POOLS

In the involved area, bayous of the Danube River exist as a remnant of the system of Danubian river arms from the past. The most significant is Biskupsk rameno. Apart from them (especially in the wes tern part of the area in Petralka), there are some artificial lakes (so-called trkovisk) among which Dradiak is the most significant one. The quality of their water is determined by the water quality in the Danube River. 6.3 SPRINGS AND SPRING AREAS

The east and south-east part of the involved area is assigned to water management protection area itn ostrov. Significant resources of ground water are located there, which are used for drinking and utility water supply. Wells for utility water consumption have been built here for the Istrochem, a.s. plant. Ground water is drained from the hydraulic ground water protection system as well, and partly used for production purposes in SLOVNAFT, a.s. 6.4 THERMAL AND MINERAL SPRINGS

Currently, there is no thermal nor mineral spring registered in the involved area. 6.5 PROTECTED WATER MANAGEMENT AREAS

Due to Regulation of the Government of the SSR (The Slovak Socialist Republic) No. 46/1978 Coll. as amended by Regulation of the Government of the SSR No. 52/1981 Coll., a protected water management area itn ostrov has been declared in the upper part of itn ostrov, with approximate surface 2 area of1,400 km . Its western border, bounded by the streams of the Danube and Little Danube rivers, is located in the area affected by the production activities of SLOVNAFT, a.s., and SPC. 6.6 HYDRO-GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

According to the hydro-geological classification of Slovakia ( uba et al. 1984), the involved area is assigned to the hydro-geological class Q-052 The Quaternary of the south-west part of Podunajsk rovina. From the water management point of view, this is the most significant water management class in the Slovak Republic. Since the end of 1992, the ground water level in the involved area has, due to the filling of the water tank Hruov, increased by approx. 0.5 1.0 m and it is currently at the level 128.2 129.0 m above the sea level. Ground water has a loose water level and might be in a partially tense state only locally, in the places with thicker layers of cohesive soils. The direction of ground water flow is approximately from NW toward SE. The maximal levels were recorded during the spring months (April and May), occasionally with a monthly delay. The level gradually decreases during the summer months and reaches its minimum in the autumn months and in the beginning of winter (October December). The subsoil permeability -3 -4 -1 coefficient ranges between 3.00x10 6.00x10 m.s .

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI The ground water quality is closely related to surface water quality in the Danube. Distinctive calcichydrogen carbonate type of ground water predominates and it gradually changes to calcic-magnesiumhydro-carbonate type. The ground water level beneath the site and on its eastern border is constantly lower in comparison with the water level of the Danube and Little Danube rivers and potentially with broad surroundings of the site, due to water consumption by the hydraulic ground water protection system.

7.
7.1

FAUNA AND FLORA


FAUNA

From the geographical point of view, the involved area lies in the province of the Inner Carpathian lowering whose sub-region Pannonia reaches its northern border here. Zoogeographically, the animals from this region belong to the area of Pannonian steppes whose climate is characterized by average annual temperature of 9-10 C and a average annual precipitations of approx. 600 mm. Various biotopes are characteristic for the fauna of this province: steppes and forest steppes (rocky and meadow), cultivated areas (vineyards, orchards, large-territorial agrocenoses), cultural forests (pines, acacias, etc.), residences; the fauna here is characterized by thermophilic species. Around the rivers are located large marshy ecosystems, floodplain forests and various posts with significant water level variations during spring floods. Salty soils can be found in many localities. Around 20% of our fauna lives in this territory. The monitored site of the planned construction is situated at the edge of the industrial zone, in the rest of a floodplain forest and in the steppe-like fields. The area of interest as such is small; with regard to the flora it is a ruderal that has nothing in common with the original biotopes. In spite of this, animals from the surrounding biotopes penetrate into this area: crow nesting, pheasant and partridge movements. It is remarkable that the surrounding biotopes are relatively varied as far as species are concerned; given a reasonable approach it may be an example proving that it is possible to preserve rich and manifold animal communities even in the vicinity of large industrial enterprises. Therefore it will be necessary to enforce as considerate access as possible to the construction site during the construction, as well as to beware of activities that would devastate the surrounding significantly. Given such an approach of the operator, the construction as well as operation of the CCGT block as such will have no major influence on the change of the fauna structure. The construction site of interest is attacked by various animal groups from the surrounding environment, in particular from the natural reserve Kop Island and from Danubian floodplain forests. The Danube River as such is an important route of migration for many animal groups including not only those living in water. A bio-corridor of European significance is located on both Danubian riversides. Simultaneously, it is an important source for preservation of species diversity in all biotopes surrounding the planned construction as well as for revitalization of harmed areas. The natural reserve Kop Island itself is a very important factor for preservation of ecological and biological stability of the surrounding ecosystems in some of its parts as there are biotopes similar to those nearby the construction. This enables regeneration of biotopes and plant and animal communities in its surroundings. The found animal species as such more or less correspond to the respective characterization of the zoogeographical definitions (the section of Pannonian steppes) as well as with the characterization of biotopes in similar territories. The above-mentioned fauna has been found in the forest adjacent to the construction site and in the surrounding meadow covers and open fields. Exceptionally, flights of various bird species over the territory have been detected, mostly flights on the search for food. The list of found animals comes from individual data found in literary sources, databases as well as own observations with regard to the anthology Majzlan et al. 2007: Prroda ostrova Kop, Bratislava, 286 p. earthworms Oligochaeta: common earthworm - Lumbricus terrestris L., red wiggler worm - Eisenia foetida (Sav.)., Dendrabaena platyura platyura (Fitzinger, 1833), Allolobophora dubiosa (rley, 1881). molluscs Mollusca: on meadows and next to fields: - Cepaea vindobonensis - Cepaea vindebonensis (Fr.), Helicella obvia - Helicella obvia (Menke), Zebrina detrita - Zebrina detrita (Mll.), in groves: Aegopinella nitens (Aegopinella nitens), Clausilia pumila (Clausilia pumila), Semilimax semilimax (Semilimax semilimax), Roman snail (Helix pomatia),

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI harvestmen Opilionidea Phalangium opilio - Phalangium opilio, Oligolophus tridens - Oligolophus tridens Koch. spiders Aranea: Lycosa singoriensis - Lycosa singoriensis Laxm., Ladybird Spider - Eresus niger (Petag), Thomisus albus - Thomisus albus (Gmel.). cockroaches Blattodea: Dusky cockroach - Ectobius lapponicus, Forest cockroach - Ectobius silvestris earwigs Dermaptera : Common earwig Forficula auricularia; mantises Mantodea: European Mantis - Mantis religiosa L., locusts Ensifera: Grasshoppers Caelifera: Italian locust - Calliptamus italicus (L.), Blue-winged grasshopper - Oedipoda coerulescens, true bugs Heteroptera: Italian Stink Bug - Graphosoma italicum Mll., Rhynocoris iracundus - Rhynocoris iracundus Poda. cicadas Auchenorhyncha: Hyalestes obsoletus - Hyalestes obsoletus Sing., European Lantern Fly Dictyophara europea (L.) net-winged insects Neuroptera: Ascalaphus macaronius - Ascalaphus macaronius (Scop.), beetles Coleoptera: Carabus cancellatus - Carabus cancelatus Ill., Carabus scheidleri - Carabus scheidleri Panz., Calosoma maderae - Calosoma maderae F., Bombardier beetle - Brachynus crepitans (L.), Harpalus pubescens - Harpalus pubescens (Mll.), Corn Ground Beetle - Zabrus gibbus (F.), Burying Beetle - Necrophorus germanicus (L.), Silpha obscura - Silpha obscura L., Dorcadion fulvum - Dorcadion fulvum (Scop.), Dorcadion pedestre - Dorcadion pedestre (Poda), Dorcadion aethiops - Dorcadion aethiops,(Scop.), Althrus apterus -Althrus apterus (Laxm.). hymenoptera Hymenoptera: Messor structor - Messor structor (Latr.), Polyergus rufescens - Polyergus rufescens (Latr.),, Polistes bimaculatus (Fourcr.) a forest species of the fam. Vespidae. Vespula germanica (F.), Vespula vulgaris (L.). butterflies - Lepidoptera Southern Festoon - Zerynthia polyxena (D.-Schiff.), Zygaena ephialtes - Zygaena ephialtes (L.) amphibians Amphibia: European Fire-bellied Toad - Bombina bombina, European Green Toad - Bufo viridis , Common Toad - Bufo bufo. reptiles Reptilia: European Green Lizard - Lacerta viridis, Sand Lizard - Lacerta agilis, Grass Snake Natrix natrix, Slow-worm Anguis fragilis. birds Aves: Eurasian Curlew - Numenius arquata (L.), Hen Harrier - Circus cyaneus (L.), Montagus Harrier - Circus pygargus (L.), Short-eared Owl - Asio flameus (Pontopp.), Yellow Wagtail - Motacilla flava L., Corn Crake - Crex crex (L.), Northern Lapwing - Vanellus vanellus (L.). Mallard - Anas platyrhynchos, Collard Flycatcher Ficedulla albicollis, Great Tit - Parus maior, European Magpie - Pica pica, Blackcap - Sylvia atricapila, Common Blackbird - Turdus merula., Grey Partridge Perdix perdix, Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus, Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros, Bean Goose - Anser fabalis, Mallard - Anas platyrhynchos, Honey Buzzard - Pernis apivorus, Black Kite - Milvus migrans, Northern Goshawk - Accipiter gentilis, Eurasian Sparrowhawk - A. nisus, Rough-legged Buzzard - Buteo lagopus, Peregrine Falcon - Falco peregrinus, Grey Partridge - Perdix perdix, Common Quail - Coturnix coturnix, Common Moorhen - Gallinula chloropus, Eurasian Coot - Fulica atra, Norhern Lapwing - Vanellus vanellus, Little Ringed Plover - Charadrius dubius, Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur, Eurasian Collared Dove - S. decaocto, Common Cuckoo - Cucculus canorus, Green Woodpecker - Picus viridis, Medium Spotted Woodpecker - Dendrocopus medius, Lesser Spotted Woodpecker - D. minus, Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus, Hooded Crow - Corvus corone cornix, Great Tit - Parus major, Blue Tit - P. caeruleus, Marsh Tit - P. palustris, European Penduline Tit - Remiz pendulinus, Eurasian Nuthatch - Sitta europea, Fieldfare - Turdus pilaris, Common Blackbird - Turdus merula, barred warbler - Sylvia nisoria, Common Whitethroat - S. comunis, Common Chiffchaff - Phylloscopus collybita, Dunnock - Prunella medularis, Tree Pipit,- Anthus trivialis, Great Grey Shrike - Lanius excubitor, European Greenfinch - Carduelis chloris, European Goldfinch - C. carduelis, Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, Corn Bunting - Emberiza calandra, Yellowhammer - E, citrinella.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI mammals Mammalia European Hamster - Cricetus cricetus (L.), European Polecat - Putorius putorius (Lesson). European Roe Deer Capreolus capreolus, Brown Hare Lepus europeus, Wild Boar Sus scrofa, Red Fox Vulpes vulpes, Siberian Polecat Mustela eversmanni, European Pine Marten Martes martes, Least Weasel Mustela nivalis, Southern White-breasted Hedgehog Erinaceus concolor, Forest Dormouse Dryomys nitedula. In the southern grove, there were found Yellow-necked Mouse - Apodemus flavicollis, Wood Mouse - A. sylvaticus, Bank Vole - Clethrionomys glareolus, Common Shrew - Sorex araneus. 7.2 FLORA

According to phytogeographical division of Slovakia, the monitored area belongs to the region of the Pannonian flora (Pannonicum), sub-region of the proper Pannonian flora and to the phytogeographical district the Danubian lowland (Futk 1972). The involved area is assigned to the sosiekoregin (bioregion) No. 116 Podunajsk rovina whose biotical characteristics are represented by flood-plain forests along the Danube River, the vegetation of bayous and marshlands, and at drier locations by depleted maple and oak forest types. In the area along the Danube River, there are remnants of meadow woods with representations of Populus alba (white poplar) and Populus nigra, elm, ash and willows. From the point of view of potential natural vegetation, two types of phytocenosis (116.1 and 116.6) are present in the involved area. The 116.1 phytocenosis is constituted of an inundation area mostly on gravel sediments with depressions and bayous with arenaceous and mucilaginous gravel fluvial soils and with a shallow ground water level. Phytocenologically, it is constituted of willow-poplar meadow woods (with prevailing Populus nigra species) and ash-poplar meadow woods. It occurs in the involved area on the inter-perineal spaces and on the Danube banks, on moist and - during high water levels - periodically underflooded (by ground water) depressions, in the Danubian bayous, in shallow river arms mostly filled-up by soil, regularly affected by surface floods during the year. The 116.6 phytocenosis is constituted of plains and undulating plains on anthropogenic sediments with anthropogenic soils, cultivated soils and built-up areas. Phytocenologically, it consists of elm-oak forests. It is assigned to the forest type dbrava (oak forest). In the involved area, it is present in high and rel atively dry locations of fertile bottomlands (river terraces, aggradation banks, etc.,) where it is affected by less frequently and especially in shorter periods recurrent surface floods or fluctuating ground water level. (Povaaj, background data for the EIA EFPA project 1993). Within the dendrological survey in the area of interest, the following types of biotopes have been identified in accordance with the publication Biotopy Slovenska (The biotopes of Slovakia) (Ruikov, H., Halada et al.1996) and in accordance with Katalg biotopov Slovenska (Register of the biotopes of Slovakia (Stanov, Valachovi, 2002). 1. On the site of the planned construction on the former site of the Slovnaft Refinery 7 types of biotopes have been mapped characterized as non-sylvan wood and plant vegetation which had emerged either naturally or by planting and which consists of domestic, introduced and invasive species of woods and plants. In the locality of the immediate planned construction, no biotopes of European or national significance have been found. The following types of biotopes are found here: a) 2163000 Tree groups, groves dominated by trees on an area smaller than 1 ha; they represent remnants of original vegetation or have emerged through natural seeding; in the area of interest they consist mostly of willow-poplar soft floodplain wood species and they spontaneously occur in approximately a half of the areas with wood vegetation. b) 2162000 Floristically poor shrublands this biotope is characterized by the monodominant structure with only one prevailing shrub species; other species are represented to a lesser extent. This is caused either by the influence of an extreme post, or by a vital, competitively strong major wood species. In the evaluated area, in shrub covers Swida sanguinea and Black Elder prevail, young shrub acacias with nitratephilic ruderalized plant undergrowth occur locally. Occurrence of Chinese Box Thorn shrublands has been recorded at the outside wall. c) A200000 Wood covers of anthropogenic origin covers of trees and shrubs which were planted by humans intentionally are to be found in the parts at the outside wall, at the access communication and in front of office buildings in the areas with decorative and insulating functions.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI d) A400000 Biotopes in abandoned and unused areas are represented by biotopes in all places which had been originally used by humans for various purposes but nowadays are abandoned and out of use. An unifying ecological factor is represented by spontaneous and gradual succession in different succession phases. In case of the evaluated area, the succession occurs in all abandoned areas, e.g. in the gravel-pit area. e) X9 Covers of non-autochthonous wood species plantings or natural seedings of spontaneously spreading non-autochthonous shrubs and trees. In the evaluated area, local continuous covers of boxelder maple can be found. f) X8 Covers of invasive neophytes covers of non-autochthonous invasive plants which occupy natural and semi-natural posts and force the original vegetation out. They are usually distinctively monodominant; equal representation of various neophytes is rarely found at the same place. In unmowed and unmaintained areas, continuous covers of high plants occur, with predominance of giant goldenrod. In accordance with Act No. 543/2002 Coll. on the protection of nature and land as amended, the owner (administrator, tenant) of land is obliged to remove invasive species from his or her land and to take care of the land in such a way as to avoid recurrent dissemination of invasive species.

2. The territory in the vicinity of the planned location southward and south-eastward of the Slovnaft site Ls1.1 Willow-poplar flatland floodplain forests *91E0 X8 Covers of invasive neophytes A110000 Fields Potential natural vegetation represents such a vegetation which would evolve under the present climatic, soil and hydrological conditions with no influence from the humans. Potential natural vegetation (Maglock 2002) in close vicinity of the Danube River comprises soft willow-poplar floodplain forests in the flood territories of large rivers of the Salicion albae, Salicion triandrae unions with White Poplar, Black Poplar, White Willow, Crack Willow and other species. In the height gradient of the underground water level, soft species are naturally followed by covers of ash-elm-oak forests in the basins of large rivers (hardwood floodplain forests) of the union Ulmenion with species Smooth-leaved, European White Elm, Pedunculate Oak, Black Elder, Broad-leaved Garlic, Yellow Anemone and others. The cover in the blocks 94 and 95, where the CCGT power block will be situated will be removed from the construction site before its hand-over to the proposer. The area clearage project as well as dendrological research and deforestation is ensured, by SLOVNAFT, a.s. within an individual investment activity. The actual vegetation on the premises of the projected construction in blocks 94 and 95 : The actual vegetation on the premises of the projected construction comprises non-sylvan wood vegetation characterized as a decorative and insulating vegetation, of self-seeding domestic and invasive woods and to a lesser extent there are mowed grasslands and abandoned areas covered by shrubs, as well as areas with ruderal plant vegetation. Domestic wood species such as Black Poplar, White Poplar, White Willow and Common Ash are abundant there. Decorative as well as introduced species such as Blue Spruce are rather rare. There are long shrubbery stripes of Swida sanguinea and Black Elder. In the parts with decorative functions, as well as young planted trees of Small-leaved Lime and Large-leaved Lime. The wood species in abandoned areas of the industrial park are self-seeding ones. Species common for the potential natural vegetation of willow-poplar floodplain forests can be found there, with predominance of Black Poplar, White Poplar, White Willow and Common Ash. Invasive woods can oftren be found as well, especially Boxelder Maple. In the shrubs, permanently domesticated, allochthonous species of Chinese Wolfberry grows. In the wood covers, the total of 29 species have been found, including 21 species of trees, 6 species of shrubs and 2 species of lianas. As far as wood species groups are concerned, domestic hardwood species predominate in the area and represent 87.11% of covers; domestic softwood species are represented by Norway Spruce - 0,28 %, introduced species represent 1,4 % (Blue Spruce , American Ash), fruit trees represent 0,56 % (Apple tree) and invasive species (Boxelder Maple, Black Locust)

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI represent 10,64%. Representation of individual wood species is given in the annexes to technical report to the evaluation of wood species s in the location of the project. In the wood and shrub covers as well as on the buildings, there grow Common Hop and Travellers Joy lianas. In the covers of high plants synathropic species with Common Tansy and Common Wormwood prredominate. The lawns comprise False Oat-grass, Perennial Ryegrass Cocksfoot Grass and other species. Groups of covers with Common Reed occur locally. The actual vegetation nearby the location of the project southward and south-eastward of the Slovnaft premises, behind the access communication, comprises a fragment of a soft floodplain forest, covers of non-sylvan wood vegetation and high-plant covers with predominance of invasive plant species. The forest fragment comprises, in the tree level, Black Poplar, White Poplar, White Willow, Common Ash, Wild Cherry, Pedunculata Oak and Black Locust. In the shrub level, Swida sanguinea, Dog Rose and Black Elder grow. The wood veil comprises Common Hop (Humulus lupulus) and Travellers Joy lianas. In the plant level, in the autumn season species of soft floodplain forests, synanthropic and invasive plant species have been documented. There are Bramble, Stinging Nettle, Odontites vulgaris, Common Chicory, Common Yarrow, Hoary Alyssum, Vipers Bugloss, Cypress Spurge, False Oat -grass and others. As to invasive species, Panicled Aster, Giant Goldenrod, Canadian Horseweed are abundant. 7.3 PROTECTED, SCARCE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES AND BIOTOPES

In the involved area, the Kop Island belongs to protected areas with the occurrence of Artemisia austriaca. Astragalus asper Wulfen and Apera interrupta which are present in the Ostrovn lky natural reserve also belong to scarce species. Newly discovered taxons include scarce Galium parisiense subsp. anglicum, also located in Ostrovn lky (closely below the involved area). In this locality, plentiful population of Orchis coriophora is present. Another critically endangered species, Spiranthes spiralis, is to be found here. As to protected flora species, Cornus mas (the European cornel), Colutea arborescens, Staphylea pinnata, Leucojum aestivium (the summer giant snowflake) and Stipa ioannis can be found. Only some insect species of the protected species of invertebrates are to be found in the involved area, such as Lucanus cervus (the stag beetle), Cerambyx cerdo, Bombus (the bumblebee), Mantis religiosa (the European mantis), and some protected species of butterflies, such as the swallowtail (the family Papilionidae) and Zerynthia polyxena (the southern festoon). As to endangered species of wild animals, the occurrence of Bombina bombina, Rana klepton esculenta (the edible frog), Natrix natrix (the ringsnake), Erinaceus concolor (the southern white-breasted hedgehog) and Mustera putolius (the European polecat) has been recorded. (Povaaj, Data for the EIA EFPA Project 1993) The priority biotopes of national and European significance (according to Article 6, Clause 3 and Article 28, Clause 10 of Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 543/2002 Coll. on Nature and Land Protection, given in Annex No. 1 of the Regulation of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic] No. 124/2003 Coll., through which Act No. 543/2002 Coll. on Nature and Land Protection is enforced) include: Kr 9 Willow shrubberies on flooded riversides Br 7 plant bordering communities of lowland rivers Ls 1.1 willow-poplar lowland flood-plain forests 7.4 SIGNIFICANT MIGRATION CORRIDORS OF ANIMALS

According to zemn systm ekologickej stability Bratislavy (The Territorial System of Ecological St ability of Bratislava; Krlik et al., 1994), in the broader area a supra-regional wildlife corridor XIII. the Danube with inundation is situated, which represents an important supra-regional route of migration of European significance. It is important especially for the species dependent on water and high humidity. Its connection is tied to the pontic area while it is still very active nowadays (species migration out of the Danube River delta and vice versa). The route of migration of a regional significance, which connects individual bio-centers with actively used routes of migration between the Carpathians and the Danubian flood-plain forests, is represented by the wildlife corridor Little Catpathians rsky les and the Pannonian flood-plain forest alongside the Little Danube River the flood-plain forest next to Kop. This route of migration provides a connection of sylvan Carpathian flora and fauna with species of Pannonian forests.
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8.
8.1

LAND
TYPE OF LAND

In the second half of the last century, development of the affected area was impacted by agglomerating tendencies of Bratislava, as well as by collectivization and industrialization of agricultural production. The affected area is currently characterized by three different types of landscape: City and metropolitan type urban settlement with highly concentrated residential functions, industrial production, commerce, services and civic amenities, with elements of long-term historical and cultural development and newly finished infrastructure (Ruinov, Petralka), Historical ruralized landscape with a marked reshaping of the original nature into rural cultivated agricultural landscape with historical elements, with influence of modern technologies in agricultural mass production, as well as rural-type urban units influenced to a large extent by urbanizing effects of the Bratislava agglomeration (Podunajsk Biskupice, Rovinka), Floodplain forests in inter-perineal areas and on Danube riverbanks, constituted by wet depressions, periodically underflooded by groundwater at times of high water level, bayous and shallow, mostly overgrown, distributaries flooded at times of higher levels of surface and ground water. The above landscape types are continually interconnected, creating a higher integrated landscape unit with elements of industrial, as well as cultural and administrative agglomeration. 8.2 LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE - urbanized areas continuous as well as intermittent build-up in areas used for production, housing, civil and economic services, culture, sport, recreation, and other human activities represented by production structures, residential houses, infrastructure objects, recreation facilities, sport and recreation areas, etc., together with roads and hard surfaces with various vegetation types corresponding to the type of build-up, - traffic corridors (motorway, I III class roads, field roads, railways, airport surfaces, electricity lines, product pipelines, etc.), - agricultural areas (ploughland, meadows and pastures, vineyards, gardens and greenhouses), - forest areas and wood species cover within agricultural land (river bank vegetation, dispersed vegetation, old tree alleys, line vegetation, waterlogged areas), - water courses, water surfaces and utilized groundwater sources, - other areas (soil exposures, gravel quarries, land-fills, social outfield, etc.). With respect to concentration of activities, the affected area now belongs to the most intensively exploited ones in the Slovak Republic; not only from the point of view of personal migration dynamics, but also from that of movement of materials and energies, degree of environment transformation and the proportion of anthropogenic elements. 8.3 LANDSCAPE SCENERY

Current forms of functional usage of the involved area are as follows:

Formation of landscape scenery within the affected area was most substantially affected by Little Carpathians and by the flat, slightly undulated terrain of Podunajsk nina (the Danubian Plain), with the Danube River. In the past, its foothills, slopes and the adjacent plain were the home of the historical Bratislava, diversifying the natural landscape with the colors of its buildings and historical monuments, including the silhouettes of the Bratislava castle, the St. Martins Dome, the Town Hall Tower and towers of other churches. In the last century, the city grew into an agglomeration, suppressing natural elements in the landscape, expanding its developed areas and enriching the city and land scenery with new dominants. These dominants, especially the dominants of the most recent period of city construct ion, suppress the citys original panorama and create its non-homogenous, chaotic and disharmonic image. One of the industrial dominants impacting the modern scenery of Bratislava is the SLOVNAFT, a.s. production site, which, in spite of a large number of vertical compositional elements (chimneys, purifying columns, field burners, cooling towers) thanks to their density, appears as a massive landmark feature.
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9.

PROTECTED AREAS ACCORDING TO SPECIAL REGULATIONS AND THEIR PROTECTION ZONES


PROTECTED AREAS

9.1.

Open areas within the site fall under the basic 1st degree of protection as per paragraph 12 of the Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 543/2002 Coll. on protection of nature and landscape. A part of the involved area is represented by the protected water management area itn ostrov, created by a decree of the SSR Government No. 46/1978 Coll.,. Investment activities within this area are governed by the principles of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic, stipulated based on evaluation of SLOVNAFT, a.s. constructions impact on the environment as per Act of the Slovak National Council No. 24/2006 Coll. 12 protected areas have been declared within the territory of Bratislava as per Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 543/2002 Coll. on Protection of Nature and Landscape. Out of these, the following are located in the affected area: Kop Island natural reserve with area of 82.62 ha within the cadastral district of Podunajsk Biskupice, Topoov hony natural reserve with area of 60.06 ha within the cadastral district of Podunajsk Biskupice, Gajc natural reserve with area of 0.84 ha within the cadastral district of Podunajsk Biskupice, originally designated as a protected habitat, Pnsky diel natural landmark with area of 15.6 ha within the cadastral district of Podunajsk Biskupice, originally designated as a protected natural formation). Bajdel protected area with area of 8.68 ha originally designated as a protected study area Poovncky les protected area with area of 7.5 ha originally designated as a protected study area. A network of protected areas in Bratislava, the capital of the Slovak Republic, was set up and ratified by the NVB Council resolution No. 262 dated October 24, 1990. It comprises the total of 73 sites (areas), out of which for 43 protection has been proposed due to occurrence of rare and endangered flora. The involved area includes the following sites: Left-bank floodplain forests (The Biskupice distributary, Tvrd luh located between Gajc and the Biskupice distributary, Vlie Hrdlo floodplain forest, fragments of a transitional floodplain forest at Bajdel). Right-bank floodplain forests (floodplain vegetation at Lido, Sov lun les, forest in Hrabiny, Star hj Hrabiny, Klokoov hj near Starohjska street., Pnske nivy I, Pnske nivy II, Zrkadlov hj at the Dradiak Lake, Mal Dradiak, Star hj at an island next to the Zuzana distributary, Chorvtske rameno, floodplain forest at a road branch to Jarovce close to Jankovsk polia, Jarovce distributary, Island at the Jarovce distributary, depression close to a Jarovce distributary side branch, forest at the artificial hill, forest next to Sverdlovova St., Star hj next to Starohorsk street., remnants of vegetation between the Old Bridge and Lido, lake within the Petralka hospital site). Danube floodplains (Dunajsk luhy) the territory of the Ruinov city district i ncludes a northern part (80 ha) of a marsh (the Vlie Hrdlo floodplain Kop Island locality), which has been included in the international list of mashes of international significance as per the Ramsar convention. The area was declared a protected area by Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 81/1988. The area also includes a protected bird area set up to protect the nesting grounds of white-tailed eagle, little egret, black kite, little bittern, Mediterranean gull, common tern, common kingfisher, garganey, common redshank, red-crested pochard, gadwall, tawny pipit, black stork, western marsh harrier, and sand martin. The list of historical vegetation includes the Martin cemetery site, Prievoz cemetery, Prievoz manorhouse park, as well as the park belonging to the National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases in Podunajsk Biskupice. 9.2 PROTECTION ZONES

Protection zones declared and currently located in the affected area are given in the following overview:
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI SLOVNAFT, a.s. production site's hygienic protection zone st nd 1 and 2 degrees SLOVNAFT, a.s. site's safety protection zones MCHB WWT plant's hygienic protection zone, greatly overlapping with the previous PHO, st nd 1 and 2 degree sanitary protection zone of Podunajsk Biskupice water sources, due to the fact that the site is still used for water management purposes even though the water sources have been abandoned, WWT Petralka plant's hygienic protection zone, hygienic protection zones of the farm yards belonging to Jankov dvor agricultural cooperatives in Rusovce and Podunajsk Biskupice, harbor land circumference, Danube protection dams.

Note: the SLOVNAFT, a.s. production site's sanitary protection zone was modified by a decision of the Bratislava II District Authority, ref. No.: R/1/01/Bal-2 dated March 27, 2001. Protected animal and plant species are described in Part III of the Project 1.2.6. Fauna, flora and vegetation. There are no trees requiring particular protection within the involved area.

10.

TERRITORIAL ECOLOGICAL STABILITY SYSTEM

The term ecological stability signifies the survival of an ecological system as a whole in a given condition during stressful events, and/or its ability to return to its original state without any additional energy input after the cessation of external influences. The elements of territorial ecological stability system for the affected area are given in Annex No. 5 and form a part of the ecological stability system of larger land units. The following elements were proposed as biocenters and biocorridors within the regional ecological stability system proposal for the extended territory of Bratislava, the capital of the Slovak Republic: - above-regional Bratislava Floodplains biocenter extends into the involved area by its northernmost part. It consists of a complex of well preserved floodplain forests on both banks of the Danube and forms a part of an internationally important Danube floodplain marsh, - regional Prievoz-Vrakua biocenter - provincial Danube biocorridor - regional Little Carpathians Little Danube biocorridor, which has a discontinuous character and consists of several local biocenters and integration elements. The following local biocorridors were proposed within the elaboration of the Ruinov city district's local ecological stability system (Stankov, 1992): - Danube-harbor levee corridor, - D61 expressway feeder corridor, - corridor next to the Bratislava-Komrno railway (establishment, or completion). Within the involved area, a high level of ecological stability is exhibited by the natural floodplain forest biotopes on both banks of the Danube. A slightly lesser degree of ecological stability can be attributed to areas with individual housing (Prievoz, southern and western part of Podunajsk Bis kupice, Rovinka) and to areas with older apartment housing (Petralka). Other built -up areas within the involved area exhibit a medium to low degree of ecological stability. The lowest level of ecological stability is attributable to farm land to the north and south-east of the SLOVNAFT, a.s site.

11.
11.1

POPULATION
NUMBER OF INHABITANTS IN THE INVOLVED MUNICIPALITIES:

Inhabitants of the involved city districts and municipality form an unbalanced pool, wherein the inhabitants of the independent municipality of Rovinka only constitute approx. (0,56) % of the whole, and the main portion of inhabitants consists of the populations of Petralka, Ruinov, Vrakua and Podunajsk Biskupice (99,44 %). The numbers of inhabitants as of December 31, 2001 (SR, Bratislava, 2002) were as follows: Table 39. Number of inhabitants broken down according to administrative units
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pality Ruinov Podunajsk Biskupice Vrakua Petralka Rovinka Total Total 70004 19749 18386 117227 1274 226640 % Male 31439 9403 8786 56116 645 106389 Female 38565 10346 9600 61111 629 120251 Male % 44,9 47,6 47,8 47,9 50,6 47,76 Female % 55,1 52,4 52,2 52,1 49,4 52,24

(30,89) 8,72 8,11 51,72 (0,56)


100.00

Given the fact that the area affected by the proposed construction only covers a small part of the Ruinov city district housing, only a portion of its inhabitants is expected to be affected by the planned activities. Their number is given in section C III 1 of the report. 11.2 POPULATION AGE STRUCTURE IN THE INVOLVED MUNICIPALITIES

Population age structure in the involved municipalities reflects the construction period of housing sites in individual city districts. The following overview gives the age structure of the population broken down according to the city districts (data as of May 26, 2001 SR, Bratislava, 2002): Table 40 Population age structure in administrative units within the involved area
City district / municipality Ruinov Podunajsk Biskupice Vrakua Petralka Rovinka total Total percentage Total 70,004 19,749 18,386 117,227 1,274 226,64 100.00 0-14 9,271 2,693 3,211 14,768 201 230,943 13,29 No. of inhabitants as of May 26, 2001 Male 15-59 Female Male Female 15-54 60 + 55 + 18,158 18,425 7,361 14,249 6,679 6,486 1,017 2,111 6,015 6,257 634 1,278 43,080 44,931 3,176 6,670 448 393 84 144 521,932 729,55 168,308 469,099 4 32,8 33,73 5,41 10,79 unknown 2,540 763 991 4,602 4 1765,1 42 3,93

11.3

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF POPULATION

Economic activity of population does not include working retirees. The following table shows population age structure in individual administration units being a part of the involved area. Table 41. Economic activity of inhabitants within the involved area
City district / municipality Ruinov Podunajsk Biskupice Vrakua Petralka Rovinka Total No. of inhabitants as of May 26, 2001 Total Male Female 31,241 15,395 15,846 11,130 5,603 5,527 10,342 5,075 5,276 68,754 33,321 35,433 703 384 319 824,467 443,394 381,082 % of the total number of inhabitants 44,63 56,36 56,25 58,65 55,18 54,21

11.4

HEALTH OF THE POPULATION

The data concerning population health are only available for Bratislava as a whole. According to the Report on the Health of Inhabitants of Bratislava, Capital of the SR, in 2004, the population of Brat islava is acquiring a Western European character (postponed marriages, birth of children at a later age, small families). This development is characterized by decreases in natality and female fertility with stagnating population mortality. The resulting effect is an overall decrease in population growth. Characteristic reproductive values have reached the average values of Western European countries. Development of mortality structure has not undergone any significant changes. The most frequent cause of death involves circulatory diseases, followed by cancer, injuries and poisonings, as well as deaths
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI caused by digestive and respiratory tract conditions. These five causes remain the most frequent causes of death of the inhabitants of Bratislava. Large differences in mortality broken down according to the cause of death in Bratislava's districts are related to the age structure of their inhabitants and to average age of the population. A separate group of deaths is represented by deliberate self-damaging (the number of these stagnates). Men are the prevalent group in the number of successful suicides. Women attempted suicide more often. The problem of the city is its appeal to marginal population groups such as persons suffering from various types of addictions, individuals performing prostitution of sexes, homeless persons, etc. In disease statistics, these individuals are reflected within selected communicable disease indicators, such as HIV carriers and AIDS patients. According to the analyzed indicators, the health condition of Bratislava inhabitants appears to surpass the national average in spite of the fact that air pollution levels in the rest of the area of the Slovak Republic are significantly lower than in the capital. Certain effects bear a positive impact, such as higher education and consequent more rational lifestyle attitudes (food, physical activities, stress management, etc.). 11.5 CULTURAL TRADITIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES OF THE POPULATION Cultural and historical traditions show that Bratislava, thanks to its location and historical development, has always been an important cultural center of the region. Its cultural traditions have been developed through an interaction of Slovak, German, Hungarian, Jewish, Czech, Moravian and Croatian communities. Each of them has left a significant and indelible trace in the cultural development of the city and its traditions. Bratislava has a strong tradition of chamber music, theaters, fine arts and book culture. Environmental awareness and environmental attitudes of the population depend on individual education and employment of the inhabitants, on their cultural level and relation towards their home and living. 11.6 INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE TERRITORY

The location of the proposed CCGT block is the Vlie Hrdlo suburb of Bratislava, the capital of the Slovak Republic, where the SLOVNAFT, a.s. production site is situated, hosting the proposed CCGT construction. The area affected by the construction partially covers the city districts of Bratislava - Ruinov, Vrakua, Podunajsk Biskupice, Petralka and partially also the territory of the municipality of Rovinka pri Dunaji. 11.7 BASIC DATA ON RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES IN THE INVOLVED AREA

Bratislava is situated on the south-western border of the Slovak Republic, below the confluence of the Danube and Morava rivers, on both river banks of the Danube and on the south-western spur of the Little Carpathians. The city has an advantageous geographical location enabling its economic development. It 2 belongs to the most developed parts of Slovakia, and has the area of 367.6 km . It is the capital of the Slovak Republic with all the metropolitan attributes of an administrative, cultural, social and economic center. The common feature of the city districts, forming part of the involved area is that, in the past, they were independent municipalities only integrated into the city structure in the second half of the last century. Rovinka pri Dunaji is a village-type municipality, situated to the south-east of Bratislava. Its development has been affected by the proximity of the capital. The spatial organization of the affected area and its functional utilization are shown in the Graphical Annex No.5. Residential functions within the built-up parts of the involved area are provided as follows: Buildings and housing types: Bratislava, as well as the involved area, contains virtually all permanent and temporary accommodation types, with the prevailing type (according to the number of apartments and the number of their inhabitants) being apartment buildings. Mass apartment residential housing sites, as well as individual housing are distributed along the entire western, northern and eastern boundary of the involved area. The situation is reversed in Rovinka, where one-floor individual housing prevails. Industrial production: Functional production types within the citys territory include industrial plants, service company sites, warehouse sites and sites of agricultural cooperatives. They cover total area of

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI approx. 2,000 ha, which represents a total of approx. 15% of the built-up city area. Production facilities do not form a compact municipal production zone, but are dispersed along its boundary. The SLOVNAFT, a.s. production site is situated on the left Danube bank just below the cargo harbor. Its location in Vlie Hrdlo was decided upon in accordance with contemporary urbanistic pri nciples (location of production facilities bearing in mind the direction of prevailing winds, close to a sufficiently large water source and a source of labor force), and in that period of time in a sufficiently large distance from municipal residential zones. The site, including the MCHB WWT plant and the forefield containing non-production structures, has total area of approx. 620 ha. It is thus the largest and most compact industrial site within the city. Other production surfaces and facilities within the affected area include warehouse structures to the east of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. terminal, the WWT site in Petralka, the OLO a.s. municipal incinerator site and the Podunajsk Biskupice switching station site. Agricultural production: Agricultural production with a dominance of fruit growing, cultivation of cereals, root crops and vegetables, as well as a smaller portion of vineyards prevails is Bratislava and in the involved area. Within the involved area, agricultural land is managed by Rusovce, Podunajsk Biskupice, Prievoz and Rovinka pri Dunaji agricultural cooperatives. Small growing and breeding farms are developing especially as a part of individual housing in Prievoz, Podunajsk Biskupice, Nov Pl enisko and Rovinka pri Dunaji. A part of the agricultural land located between Podunajsk Biskupice and Rovinka pri Dunaji belongs to a specially protected land fund defined by Act No. 307/1992 Coll. On the Protection of the Agricultural Fund as amended. Forestry: Floodplain forests forming a part of forest fund and BLP are located within the involved area, to the south of SLOVNAFT, a.s., on the left side of the Danube. The following forest type economic complexes are found dispersed in the involved area: 101 extreme limestone oak woods, 124 hornbeam bottomland forests (hard floodplains) 125 period floodplain ash woods (transition floodplains). From the functional point of view, these locations not only fulfill economic and recreation functions for the inhabitants of adjacent residential sites, but also provide them with hygienic protection - especially in Petralka. In addition, on a regional and super regional level they fulfill the role of biological corridors. Transport and transport surfaces: The most important traffic artery of European significance, which intersects the involved area, is the Danube River, used for international navigation. A transport facility within the involved area related to this transport route is the Plenisko cargo harbor. The area is also intersected by the Bratislava-Vienna and Bratislava-Komrno railroads. In addition to the Podunajsk Biskupice railway station, the involved area also includes central cargo railway station and a separate SLOVNAFT, a.s. railway terminal. Roads located within the area include the following: expressway section Petralka - Prstavn most (Harbor Bridge - Prievoz, motorways within the basic city traffic by-pass system, outward-bound road in the direction of amorn and Komrno, etc. The busiest roads in the involved area include Prstavn most, an intersection next to the harbor, Slovnaft street. and Svornosti street. The main road connection of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. production site to the city road system leads through the B2 category Slovnaftsk street. The site's main entrance is connected to the above-mentioned street. Railroad connection of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site is provided by a siding track through the Podunajsk Biskupice railway station and by a separate siding track from the Central cargo station) leading from the north through a separate SLOVNAFT, a.s. transport terminal. The north-western direction of the Central cargo station rail connection provides the continuation and interconnection of the tracks with the Bratislava Nov Mesto railway station (direction ilina) and with the Bratislava Hlavn stanica railway station (direction Brno-Prague). There is also a siding track connection of the Bratislava-Plenisko harbor with the Central cargo station. Product pipelines: The involved area contains the Druba and Adria pipelines carrying oil - the basic raw material to SLOVNAFT, a.s. There is an engine fuel product pipeline (BA and MN) leading from the site into the SLOVNAFT, a.s. business facility in Klaany. Oil and product pip eline routes lead along the southern and eastern fencing of the site and continue in the eastern direction. In the past years, routes of product pipelines carrying oil into the company were relocated outside of the area of itn ostrov, with the exception of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. connection, which is situated at the western border of the protected
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI water management area. This area, within the range of hydraulic groundwater protection system, contains preventive protection measures against possible product pipeline accidents. A corridor for future alternative south-bound interconnection product pipelines is considered to be located along the southern fencing of the site, leading towards the border with Austria. Electric energy supplies: A parent 400/110 kV SEPS Podunajsk Biskupice switching station is s ituated south-east of SLOVNAFT, a.s. Very high voltage distribution power lines lead from the switching station along the southern and eastern boundary of the site and supply electricity to individual very high and high voltage switching stations in the city. These power lines form a part of the dominant power line circuit around the city. Three 110 kV cable power lines lead from the 400/110 kV Podunajsk Biskupice switching station to the SLOVNAFT a.s. site. Gas supplies: Two DN 500, PN 4.0 MPa high pressure gas pipelines lead from parent high-pressure gas pipelines located south of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site. One of them, Nov Dedinka SLOVNAFT was built for the purposes of SLOVNAFT, a.s. The other one, Nov Dedinka Bratislava leads along the western side of the site into the SPP site in Mlynsk Nivy. A DN 200 high pressure gas pipeline leads from the northern side of the site, then continues along the northern border of the site and makes a turn in a DN 150, PN 2.5 MPa profile. A DN 500 high pressure gas pipeline, connected to the DN 500 Kittsee Bratislava high pressure pipeline immediately after Prstavn most on the Petralka side of the river, leads to Petralka through the western part of the involved area. Water supplies: Drinking water supplies in the affected area and in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site are provided by a public BVS, a.s. water pipeline. Service water is taken in from the Danube and led into the site via a separate intake structure and an open supply canal. Another source of service water is the hydraulic ground water protection system. A service water source for Istrochem, a.s. is located on the western border of the site. A public water delivery pipeline route leads south-east of the site, supplying drinking water from the Kalinkovo water source into the site of the former Podunajsk Biskupice water source, which currently only fulfils the function of a water management unit. Sewerage: A uniform public sewerage system has been built in Bratislava. On the left bank of the Danube, the main elements of this system include collectors A, B, C, E, G with their respective feeders and detailed sewerage networks. Waste water from this area is delivered to the central waste water treatment plant in Vrakua, with the final recipient being the Little Danube. On the right bank of the river, in Petralka, the main elements of this system include collectors A, B, C, with their r espective feeders and detailed sewerage networks. Waste water is treated in the Petralka waste water treatment plant and discharged into the Danube. SLOVNAFT, a.s. has its own divided sewerage system. Before its return into the sewerage system, industrial waste water, i.e. chemically polluted waste water and polluted rain water is, when necessary, treated in neutralization and/or sedimentation tanks and oil removal plants within the company's facilities. Sewage is cleaned in septic tanks. This water is then transported to MCHB WWT treatment plant, and after an overall treatment discharged into the Danube. Surface water, i.e. unpolluted rainwater and flow cooling water is transported through the WWT plant's heated water sewerage system in blocks 12, 17 and 18, and then discharged into the Little Danube. The most important out of non-public sewerage systems in the area affected by SLOVNAFTs constru ction activities is the Istrochem, a.s. sewerage system with an individual MCH WWT plant on Roavsk street, and two waste water channels. An older gravity channel leads through Ruinov and Prievoz into the Danube. A newer pressure channel leads through the eastern by-pass around the built-up part of the city into the Danube, as well. Their routes connect on the northern border of SLOVNAFT, a.s. and lead into the recipient along its western border. Services and civic amenities: The typological range of facilities, objects and service sites, as well as tertiary and quaternary civic amenity structures in Bratislava and in the area affected by construction activities of SLOVNAFT, a.s. in general corresponds with the status of the city, of the affected city districts and suburbs. In the adjacent municipality of Rovinka, the existing service facilities and civic amenities correspond to the contemporary standard of facilities in comparable village-type residential units. Recreation and tourism: The most important natural features and sites within the affected area contributing to the development of tourism include the Danube. In addition to extensive water sport and fishing possibilities, it is also used for tourist sight-seeing and recreation boat rides. From the point of view of tourism in this area, floodplain forests and bayous on both sides of the Danube are an insufficiently exEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI ploited natural attraction. It is anticipated that following a future establishment of a trilateral natural park, the south-western and southern border of the evaluated area will be partially used for these purposes.

12.

CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND THEIR UNIQUENESS

Approximately 890 historical monuments within the city limits are registered at the Bratislava City Monument Protection Institute. Out of these monuments, the following are situated in the involved area: - manor house, Lieskovsk road, Lieskovec, - column sculpture (Holy Trinity), Biskupick street, Podunajsk Biskupice, - manor house in Podunajsk Biskupice. According to the Cultural, Historical and Social Topography of Bratislava, compiled by the former Office of the Chief Architect of Bratislava, other cultural and historical monuments within the affected area include: the St. Joseph Chapel, St. Nicolas Church and the Episcopal School (rebuilt in 1904) in Podunajsk Biskupice, the present Park of Janko Kr, which is the oldest publicly accessible park in Central Europe, structures of the Petralka harbor and shipyard (functionalistic architecture from the inter-war period by the architect E. Belu) and the SNP Bridge (by the architect J. Lacko).

13.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

From the historical point of view, the involved area was inhabited as far back as in the early Bronze Age. This is evidenced by archeological findings from burial grounds of the so-called Wieselburg culture in Podunajsk Biskupice. There are two as yet unexplored burial mounds probably from the early Hal lstatt Iron Age located between Lieskovec and the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site. The discovery of a 9th century grave in Vlie Hrdlo is also interesting.

14.

PALAEONTOLOGICAL SITES AND SIGNIFICANT GEOLOGICAL LOCALITIES

The evaluated area does not include any palaeontological sites with occurrence of protected fossils, covered by paragraph 23 of Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 543/2002 Coll. on Protection of Nature and Landscape.

15.

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EXISTING SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

The current quality of the environment of the involved area is influenced by the sources of its devastation which are located in the involved area, by the sources located in other regions of Bratislava, - transit station, railway, water and air transport and remote transmission. In the involved area, the largest production units and the registered environmental pollution sources are represented by SLOVNAFT, a.s., OLO, a.s. incineration plant, and ZEZ (West Slovakia Power Plant). In addition to these, the waste water treatment plant in Pertalka and operation of the cargo harbor are to be mentioned, as well as operation of agricultural cooperatives and animal breading near family estates as potential pollutants of surface water. It is necessary to include small and large boiler rooms used for heating residential objects and civic amenities to the list of air pollution sources. Basically all residential and production objects as well as civic amenities produce solid waste. The influence of environmental devastation sources on Bratislava, primarily on districts Bratislava I, II and III, is affected by the location of the involved area which, in relation to the city, is located beneath the area of the above-mentioned districts in the direction of surface and underground water flow (cf. e.g. contamination of underground water by chemical sewerage system of Istrochem in the past) and in the direction of prevailing NW winds (smog spreading). The impact of traffic (emission, noise, vibrations) is influenced by the fact that the most busy road route in the SR runs through the area - the highway running through the city and to Prstavn most (Harbor Bridge). The quality of the environment is also influenced by high frequency of passages on the most used communications of the involved area - Slovnaftsk and Ulica Svornosti streets. As to railway transport facilities in the involved area, the major influence is that of the Central cargo station and of the Bratislava-Komrno railway route, which are connected by a siding with SLOVNAFT, a.s. The impact of
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI air transport on the involved area (noise, emission) is given by the location of the Bratislava civil airport, whose arrival and departure track is situated to the east of the involved area. Water transport has the lowest impact on the involved area. However, it is a possible contamination source for surface and underground water, as well as for shore ecosystems in case of crash of boats transporting ecologically dangerous cargo. Considering remote transfer, the effect of the Vienna agglomeration is shown on the Danube water quality ; under certain weather conditions, its impact may result in impaired air quality. 15.1 CONTAMINATION, VULNERABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT

15.1.1 AIR POLLUTION According to the Report on the quality of atmosphere in the Bratislava region (Kovikov, KP Bratislava, October 2006), except for the fraction of suspended particles with the diameter smaller than 10 m (PM10) and ozone , the limit value for protection of health was not exceeded for any other pollutant in any of the AMS in the agglomeration. The pollution level of NO2 is lower than in previous years, when on the AMS Bratislava-Trnavsk mto the limit value was exceeded in 2003 and the limit value and tolerance limit were exceeded in 2004. On the basis of results of statistical analysis it can be assumed that the contribution of local sources of PM10 air pollution on the AMS in this agglomeration does not exceed 20 %, which is approximately the same value as in 2004. The main local sources are represented in particular by traffic, suspension and re-suspension of particles from inadequately cleaned communications, construction sites and other city areas. The petrochemical industry, energy and traffic play the main part in air pollution in the Bratislava agglomeration Another important air pollution source is represented by vast construction activities, primarily of polyfunctional objects, and by the demolition, excavation and building works connected therewith. Construction work requires cutting down of trees and existing vegetation. In this connection, a negative factor is represented by insufficient planting of new vegetation, resulting in decreased absorption potential of harmful substances by existing vegetation, as well as by replacing the vegetation by hard surfaces - tiles, especially in the city centre, as well as by insufficient maintenance and cleaning of roads In winter the PM10 limit values are also exceeded due to the spreading material used. Table 42. Evaluation of air pollution according to limit values for protection of health in 2007 Agglomeration / zone Pollutant Averaging period
-3

SO2 NO2 1 24 1 1 hour hours hour year 125 (3) 200 (18) 40

Limit value (g.m ) 350 (24) (number of overruns) Bratislava Kamenn nm. Trnavsk mto Jesniova Mamateyova 0 1) maximal eight hours concentration

PM10 CO benzene 24 Averag- 1 hour 24 hours hour ing period 50 40 10000 5 (35) 16,0 38,0 23 26,0 22,8 29,1 25,2 23,6

0 0 0

36,9 14,6 24,7

1910

1,7

In the neighborhood of SLOVNAFT, a.s. a local imission monitoring network operates. Imission stations are installed in Rovinka, Podunajsk Biskupice and in the SLOVNAFT residential site in Vlie hrdlo. The results of the above monitoring stations are summarized in the following table (average annual concentrations and maximal measured concentrations in the averaging period of 1 hour, 8 hours and 24 hours), from the information concerning air quality published by SLOVNAFT, a.s. Table 43. AIMS measurements in the evaluated period [g/m ]
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Rovinka Biskupice SO2 12,1 6,0 NO2 16,3 18,6 PM10 24,5 23,3 CO 720 860 SO2 615,7 257, 1 131,6 44,0 NO2 91,3 107,9 PM10 117,5 127,6 CO 1990 2100 Slovnaft 8,8 21,1 27,2 840 801,9 68,6 107,7 105,9 2090 Rovinka Biskupice 11,6 8,1 17,7 21,4 24,7 22,0 500 650 353,5 395,1 143,4 58,13 90,5 111,9 69,3 74,1 1440 1990 Slovnaft 11,6 25,2 29,4 600 687,1 151,7 111,9 160,2 1660 Rovinka Biskupice 9,9 5,6 18,0 21,8 21,9 22,0 400 510 136,9 112,7 74,5 22,2 81,1 129,7 59,1 61,1 810 1500 Slovnaft 8,5 24,8 24,5 460 201,4 78,5 119,2 140,1 1140

Annual average 1h 24 h 1h 24 h 8h

To evaluate the contribution of air pollutants from SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC to air pollution in the evaluated area, a Dispersion study has been developed (RNDr. Juraj Brozman, Bratislava, 2007). The goal of the evaluation was to determine whether the waste gases can flow away freely and whether dispersion of emitted waste substances is sufficient to avoid overrun of their admissible concentrations in the air related to the pollution source in question, with a certain reserve considering the existing and planned sources as well. From this aspect the volume of waste gases emitted into the air must be specified so as to ensure environmental and health protection. According to the conclusions of the study, the following conclusions can be made: 1. The limit values of evaluated basic pollutants and the times when they were reached in 2007 were specified by Annex No. 1 of Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 706/2002 on the quality of atmosphere; since September 2009 Decree No. 338/2009 Coll. is applicable, by which certain provisions of the Act on Atmosphere are executed. 2. Annual average concentrations of the evaluated pollutants in the air did not overrun the limit values specified by the legislation in any of the cases. 3. The highest concentrations of pollutants were measured in the neighborhood of the industrial site which is being monitored. The maximum values were usually measured to the east and south of the site. With maximal short-term concentrations the contributions of SO2 and NO2 from the SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC air pollution sources in the monitored locations exceed the admissible limits under bad dispersion conditions, especially during the transition seasons. Other air pollution sources outside SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC, s.r.o. are dominant in air pollution by CO and PM10. The share of SO2 is dominant both with maximum short-term and average annual concentration values. The share of NO2 is significant only with maximal short-term concentrations; with average annual it is less important. The share of CO and PM10 in the measured values is minimal. The number of overruns of the limit values with maximal shortterm concentration was 8 during the monitored period of 2.5 years. Note: On the basis of the above findings within the Dispersion study in question, the involved area given in the beginning of this chapter has been specified. 15.2. WATER POLLUTION

15.2.1 SURFACE WATER POLLUTION The main water flow in the location is the Danube River. Industry and municipal waste water, agricultural activities and ship transport are contributing to water pollution. The level of surface Danube water pollution in Bratislava is determined dominantly outside the borders of our country: The quality (pollution) of water in the Danube and in its tributary river Morava in the Bratislava-Devn profile is decisive. In the area of Bratislava, above the drain mouth of MCHB WWT plant of Slovnaft, a.s. there are other pollution sources cargo harbor with its transship point, Istrochems MCH WWT plant and municipal WWT plant in Petralka. Waste water from BVS, a.s. flows through the A-B drainage gallery into the Danube practically without any treatment. The Little Danube is basically a distributary of the Danube; therefore the basic characteristics of water quality in this river are similar to those in the Danube. Most of waste water and pollution from the Bratislava agglomeration (waste water from the Central waste water treatment plant in Vrakua, cooling water from the WWT plant and from oil traps in blocks 12, 17 and 18 of SLOVNAFT, a.s. and from other minor producers of pollution) is discharged into the Little Danube.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI According to the Report on the status of the environment in the Slovak Republic in 2005 (the Ministry of Environment, int.), the Vth pollution class of Danube water is caused by the concentrations of Hg and Al in the group of micro-pollutants (F). The Danube water quality in the area is also negatively influenced by the impurities carried by the water of its upper tributary river Morava (class III-IV). Class IV is caused by abundant NEL-UV in the group of micro-pollutants (f). In 2005 decrease of contaminants discharged into these sources can be observed in all indicators. Table 44. Surface water quality in the Bratislava affected area
River Sampling location Bratislava centre Bratislava P.B. Bratislava Malinovo A II II I I Quality class indicator categories B C D E III II III IV II II III IV II II III III II IV III III F V V IV IV

Little Danube
Source: SHM

Compared to ground water and surface streams, still surface water of bayous and artificial lakes created as a result of gravel extraction has much higher bacteriologic pollution and pollution by organic substances; some of them are even not suitable for summer bathing with respect to hygiene. 15.2.2 UNDERGROUND WATER POLLUTION The quality of underground water in the eastern part of Bratislava is primarily determined by the Danube water quality and by the rock subbase characteristics. The effects of pollution from industrial and residential Bratislava agglomeration, from agricultural work and from other point and area pollution sources are secondary. The influence of anthropogenic activities can be found primarily in the upper part of the area and is demonstrated by increased volume of sulphates, chlorides, nitrates and organic substances. The involved area belongs to the region with low to moderately high mineralization of underground water -1 (up to 500 mg.l ) with an increased share of sulphates, primarily from precipitation. In this area, in agricultural and forest soil chemical pollution of underground water caused increased concentrations of nitrates, manganese and PCB persists. In the built-up part of the involved area increased contamination of underground water is possible due to runoff from undrained paved surfaces, to seepage of polluted rain water and also of seepage via leaking sewers (their age, maintenance and overall condition vary considerably in the involved area). The area of underground water contamination caused by SLOVNAFT a.s. sources is set out by the Danube and Little Danube flows, which determine the ground water flow directions. Taking this flow into consideration, SLOVNAFTs production can directly contaminate only the area between the Danube and the Little Danube. In the remaining area of the site involved by the construction only mediated (indirect) contamination by imission fall can occur; however, most of these imissions are caught by vegetation or by soil. In 1972, considerable ground water contamination by oil substances had been found in the upper part of itn ostrov. As a precaution to keep the area protected and also to avoid spreading of underground water contamination by oil substances outside the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, on the basis of the results of a research task of Geotest Brno a hydraulic ground water protection system has been built. In 1973, the extent of underground water pollution affected the second water source for Bratislava in Podunajsk Biskupice. Today, thanks to permanent operation of the hydraulic ground water protection system, the possibility of such contamination is restricted to the production site of this plant only. Thus, flow and quality of underground water (except both flows mentioned above) at the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site and in its close neighborhood is influenced dominantly by long-term operation of the hydraulic ground water protection system. The system was built in 1974 after breakdown of the second water source in Podunajsk Biskupice, and after its contamination by oil substances in 1972. The hydraulic ground water protection system creates a continuous surface depression and models the pressure conditions at the height of watering, and thus prevents spreading of the above- mentioned contamination of underground water. The evaluated area is also the peak of the Horn itn ostrov protected water area of the with its important drinking water sources. Currently, in the area of the second water source no dissolved oil substances are present. In none of the monitored objects the limit of NPES and the "B" category limit were
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI overrun. The content of aromatic hydrocarbons was very low, similarly to 2006. As in the previous years, the limit values pursuant to Regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic No..354/2006 Coll. have not been exceeded in 2007 either; the same applies to the C category limits for individual indicators. With new investments, ground water protection from pollution by oil substances is ensured at the Slovnaft site by adequate construction design of reconstructed and/or new objects ones and sewerage systems (reduction the number of possible leakage places of oil substances, tight tanks, sumps,, water-tight sewer system, oil substances leakage monitoring systems, etc.). 15.3 SOIL CONTAMINATION

Out of the areas with excessive anthropogenic soil contamination in Bratislava the involved area includes the area next to municipal solid waste incineration plant, SLOVNAFT, a.s and the Podunajsk Biskupice area. When comparing the found out content with the limit values in case of the incineration plant, considerable overrun of the indication value for clearage had been stated for Zn, Cu and Cd; the content of Pb is close thereto. The content of Ni is also close to the indication value, and that of Co has exceeded the reference value for uncontaminated soil. In the Podunajsk Biskupice locality the indication value for clearage was exceeded in case of Hg, the content of Zn is within the indication values, the content of Pb is close to the indication value for clearage. According to the quoted regulation, sanitation precautions should be made in these areas. Generally, it can be concluded with respect to soil contamination level that agricultural soil in the area does not show above-standard content of the monitored risk elements. Forest soil does not show any pronounced above-limit contents either, and surface contamination has not been reported. Only point-type pollution of natural origin has been noted, namely increased content of Cr due to the influence of subbase rock - primarily of diabases, amphibolic rock and erlanes. Soil cover contamination of point type, both of mono- and poly-element character occurs. Various anthropic soil cover is concerned.. Areas of so called wild dumps (for example the area of the Municipal soled waste incineration plant) show maximum concentrations of the monitored elements. All in all, however, the area can be classified as uncontaminated, with pronounced point-type pollution resulting from anthropogenic activities. As to soil with erosion risk, the involved area is completely flat without any signs of surface water erosion (slope 0-1) and it is not classified in the category of highly or very eroded soil according to the handbook for interpretation of the maps of judged soil and ecological units. 15.4 ROCK SUBBASE POLLUTION

In the involved area, primarily oil substances can be considered as to rock subbase pollution. They may be contained in the rock in liquid form as a separate phase, in gaseous form as a part of soil air, and as an emulsion or a solution in ground water directly. As a rule, liquid oil substances penetrating into the rock environment must run through an aeration zone, in which their movement is mostly vertical. A part of the oil substances remains caught in the rock firmly and does not run further. The amount of oil substances stabilized in the rock this way can reach 10-40% of the porosity value, and depends on the oil substance viscosity and on rock granularity. The volume of 3 -3 oil substances bond in rocks with different porosity can range between 10 and 120 dm .m . The ability of rock to retain a certain volume of oil substances is a natural protection of ground water in case of isolated leakages. At places of repeated leakages, oil substances seep more easily through contaminated rock. A certain volume of oil substances will be retained even in cases when they come to the place in question as a result of ground water movement and fluctuation. When oil substances saturate the rock sufficiently, they can move on further, either due to gravitation or they can be carried by ground water. The distance at which oil substances can spread depends mainly on their volume, because a certain part of them remains fixed in the rock during flow-through. If the volume of oil substances in the rock decreases to the residual saturation value, their movement will stop. To stop oil substances from spreading in ground waters of itn ostrov a hydraulic ground water protection system was built in the involved area following previous research verification. This system successfully fulfils its protective function and also serves for clearage of the subsoil impacted by the breakdown from 1974 till now. In the rock environment oil substances remained which cannot be removed due to their stationary bond to the surface of individual sand and gravel grains. A part of these oil substances is retained by capillary EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 96/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI forces and a part is sorbed on the surface, or penetrates into fine cracks of gravel and sand grains (for example, in sand with grain diameter of 0.6 mm 15% of petroleum oil remains, which seeps into the grains. In sand with grain diameter of 0,1 as much as 21% of petroleum oil seeps in). 15.5 WASTE

Taking into consideration the development in the involved area and its functional use, most of the sources of communal, industrial and other waste, including building waste are in its northern part. Disposal of communal waste in the Bratislava region is mainly provided by the OLO, a.s. company The ASA, a.s. Zohor company and other specialized waste disposal companies participate in the disposal of industrial and other waste as well. Some of the biological waste is used by the agricultural cooperatives. Large producers of industrial and agricultural waste have their own waste management facilities for preparatory processing, secondary use, or final disposal of the waste they produce. In spite of a relatively branched system for the disposal of waste it is not possible to avoid illegal uncontrolled dumps, in the city region or in the involved area; many of them are backfilled soon, or become grown over by bushes and weeds. Temporary waste dumping areas are provided at the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site directly, namely in blocks with hard and modified surfaces available. These are managed according to the Refinery's waste management program and to applicable rules and regulations. At SLOVNAFT, a.s. site there are waste incineration plants 1 and 2 (both shut down) and sludge incineration plant.. Municipal waste incinerator of the OLO, a.s. company is located in the involved area as well. All incinerators have their own waste management, collection areas (pools) for the waste to be burned, as well as collecting areas for the produced slag and ashes. In terms of soil contamination the slag collection area of OLO, a.s. incineration plant is most problematic. In addition, the dump in the Lieskovec- Poovncky forest locality, is a problem with respect to ground water contamination risk, as well as for plant waste dump (composting site), soil dumping and gravel piles in the Ketelec locality 15.6 NOISE AND VIBRATIONS

According to the way of utilization, the involved area can be categorized as production, residential and recreation zone. Admissible noise and vibration emissions are defined in the Notice of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 549/2007 as follows: Table 45. Selected admissible values defining the noise level in the exterior
Area category I. Description of the protected area Territories with special protection against noise (for example spas, sanatoriums) Areas in front of residential rooms and family houses, areas in front of protected rooms in schools, healthcare facilities and other protected objects, d) recreation area Territory identical with category II adjacent to speedways, first and second class roads, local communications with mass transport, railroads, airports and city centers Territory without a residential function and protected external areas, production zones, industrial parks, factories Reference time interval day evening night day evening night day evening night day evening night Admissible values a) (dB) L Aeq,p 45 45 40 50 50 45 50 50 45 70 70 70

II.

III.

IV.

d) The admissible values in front of faade of non-residential buildings are applied only when the buildings are being used (for example during class hours in schools)

Admissible noise levels in interior areas of buildings caused by inside and outside sources range between 35-50 dB during day time, or while they are being used; , in the evening they range between 3040 dB, and between 25-30 dB at night. As to vibrations in the interior which cannot be located in areas affected by the proposed structure, for example areas with a higher protection category (e.g. hospitals, etc.), hostels,, retirement homes, kindergartens, schools, libraries, only the admissible limits are specified by the Notice No. 549/2007.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI The main source of noise in the involved area is represented by traffic on the main communication system of the city, in particular on radials, where the base noise level LZ range between 70-77 dB(A). In the involved area, these include Dolnozemsk road, Einsteinova street, Prstavn most (Harbor Bridge), Slovnaftsk street and Ulica svornosti street, as well as first class national road running through the Rovinka settlement. The involved area also includes railway route no. 131 Bratislava-Komrno, where the calculated noise levels in the distance d = 7,5 m from the rails and in the height of H = 1,5 m range between 51,97 dB(A) and 70,57 dB(A). Excessive noise from the railway affects primarily the adjacent residential objects on Einsteinova street, near Prstavn most, on the southern edge of the Nivy and Prievoz city districts, at the north-western and eastern edge of Vrakua and at the eastern edge of Podunajsk Biskupice. The M.R. tefnik international airport in Bratislava is also a source of noise. The greatest noise problems are in Vrakua and in Podunajsk Biskupice, where the noise of the M.R. tefnik airport contributes to the noise from the terrestrial means of transport. SLOVNAFT, a.s. site is separated from the nearest residential objects (except the emergency dwelling site) by Slovnaftsk andUlica Svornosti streets. The noise from this source, reaching 56-59 dB on the edge of the site, overridden with respect to the above objects by car traffic noise with the abovementioned intensity of 70-77 dB, which then decreases to 60-65 dB near the residential zone in Podunajsk Biskupice. 15.7 SOURCES OF RADIATION AND OTHER PHYSICAL FIELDS

The involved area is mainly classified as low radon risk category. The part of the area between the OLO, a.s incineration plant and Lieskovec is classified as medium risk category. Small sources of Ra radiation are used by the Refinery for measuring and regulation in the technological equipment for the production of oils and lubricants. No other sources of radiation, physical fields, or deformations of existing physical fields in the evaluated area affected by the construction are known to the developers of the project. 15.8 OTHER SOURCES OF POLLUTION

The involved area is rather heterogeneous in terms of its functional utilization and spatial layout of anthropogenic elements. There are numerous registered and unregistered sources of pollution in the area, and their description is beyond the limits of the project. In fact, currently many of its parts and functional areas are changing their character and utilization. These changes are related to the revival of construction and development of local business which are currently underway in the area. Sometimes they even reach into the BOP of SLOVNAFT site, in spite of restrictions for this zone concerning capital construction. Within the above development, liquidation, change or occurrence of new pollution sources cannot be excluded. There was no new source of environmental pollution with pronounced impact upon environmental quality in the involved area during recent 10 years - on the contrary, according to many environmental quality indicators (such as reduced imission fall, lower ground water contamination, etc.) overall environmental situation is improving. 15.9 VEGETATION DAMAGES DUE TO IMISSIONS

The primary component of air pollution in Bratislava is represented by sulphur dioxide. It is accompanied by nitrogen oxides, hard metals, organic compounds and solid pollutants, and due to interactions of the above pollutants a specific complex called Bratislava imission type is formed. The Bratislava industrial agglomeration is a large source of imissions which pollutes the environment considerably. Sulphur compounds are a dominant component of the Bratislava imission type, and bother the entire area of the city, including the area affected by SLOVNAFT, a.s. operation. Within the involved area, the most complicated situation is next to the OLO, a.s. incineration plant and in the area located to the south-east from of the site, where synergy of both air pollution sources occurs. In the involved area, seriously damaged wood species can be found in Vlie hrdlo, in the northern and north-western part of the Kop Island and in Topoov hony; moderately damaged wood species were found in the Danube floodplain forests. Reduction of emissions from SLOVNAFT and SPC production has resulted in significant improvement of the imission situation in these areas, and thus the status of vegetation in the involved area can be gradually improved.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 15.10 ENDANGERED FAUNA BIOTOPES

The important (but not protected) wood species covers in the involved area include primarily former soft landscaping in the park near Lieskovec in the cadastral area of Podunajsk Biskupice. Beside the floodplain forests, a significant landscape forming element is represented by the historical gardens in the monastery and manor house sites in Prievoz and in the site of the present-day hospital in Podunajsk Biskupice. Investment construction connected with the development of new business activities, development of housing, transportation and the infrastructure is increasingly being pushed in the region. The demand for recreation facilities and thus anthropogenic pressure on the floodplain biotopes are increasing considerably, primarily on the Petralka side of the involved area. Beside recreation activities, which bring engine fuel combustion emissions, dust and vegetation damages (stepping on herbs, breaking of branches, creating new paths and roads, etc.) into the microclimate of these biotopes there is a new form represented by illegal picking of plants (flowers, medical plants) for commercial purposes. Moreover, these biotopes are mostly endangered by ongoing ruderalisation and spreading of invasive neophyte plants, which gradually replace the original species. Another type of damage to the biotopes is represented by the retreat of fauna into more quiet and less disturbed areas.

16.

COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

16.1 SYNTHESIS OF THE EVALUATION OF THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS The heterogeneity of the involved area is reflected in different quality and proportions of natural substances of the environment, in the different functional exploitation of its individual parts, and most pronouncedly in the character and spatial layout of anthropogenic elements, which are presented by buildover and by the technical infrastructure of the involved area. This heterogeneity is the reason why individual sections of the involved area have different environmental problems. The urban development in Petralka at the western edge of the involved area is a monotonous, fairly high housing development with many floors, revitalized by some civic amenities. A negative environmental factor in this area is represented by fairly high houses and density of the development with high den-1 sity of population (more than 200 people per ha ). This predetermines high intensity and frequency of the population's activities, primarily of car traffic; in the north-western part of the involved area in the section Lafranconi Bridge Prstavn most (Harbor bridge) the traffic is multiplied in the highway and city traffic corridor and it is also cumulated with railway transportation here. This corridor creates a barrier, which separates Petralka from the recreation zone on the right river bank near the Danube. On the other hand, beside the relatively well grown and good quality greenery within the housing sites the living situation and the quality of the environment in this region of the involved area is improved by adjacent large sport and recreation facilities (the racing ground, the Dradiak lake, etc.), by the flow of the Danube and by the floodplain woods on both sides of the river, which separate this residential zone from the industrial zone on the other side of the Danube, where the SLOVNAFT, a.s site is situated. With respect to concentration of negative environmental factors, the most problematic is the northern part of the involved area, at the edge of the Bratislava city core. It is a zone with considerable concentration of industrial, transportation and service activities, and with large residential areas of Ruinov, Vrakua and Podunajsk Biskupice on its edge. The axis of these parts of the involved area is the above-mentioned communication arch Einsteinova street, Prstavn most, Slovnaftsk street, Ulica Svornosti. This is where a part of the cargo port, the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, the water source for Istrochem, the water-management installations for the Little Danube, the Central Freight Station and the railway terminal of SLOVNAFT, a.s., the Podunajsk Biskupice agricultural cooperative, warehouses and distribution facilities of various companies are situated. This area also includes the former working colony, nowadays the peripheral residential and recreation development called Nov Plenisko, and also a similar development called Mal Plenisko. Agricultural land, various garden colonies and relics of forest growths are situated between these developments. The area to the west and northwest of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site has the character of city outskirts with chaotically dispersed and low quality manufacturing, service, residential and recreation developments with numerous above-ground piping and considerable portion of outfield land. In the area the effects of
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI intense road traffic (from the urban and above-urban traffic routes), the railway transportation (including the Central Freight Station) and partially the effect of the port, airport and of the two largest air-polluting factories in Bratislava - Istrochem and SLOVNAFT cumulate. Beside the above-mentioned factors of urbanistic devastation, chaotic functional exploitation of the area and imission impact, the basic environmental problems in this part of the involved area are represented in particular by emissions, noise and vibrations from road, railway and air transportation which, in the end, have bigger and worse impact on the residential environment than the effects of SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC operation. The above environmental problems in adjacent residential areas are intensified or subdued by the quality of the corresponding residential environment. On one hand, Prievoz has a relatively big concentration of environmental problems but, on the other hand, their negative impact is partially compensated by the acceptable standard of the residential environment, which consists mainly of houses with well-developed greenery in gardens next to houses or in nearby garden sites. The situation is worse on the border of the Nivy district, which is separated from this zone by various service and office buildings. The eastern part of the evaluated area, in the zone Vrakua, Podunajsk Biskupice Rovinka pri Dunaji has the character of agricultural outskirts of the city with three settlements, which were originally of countryside type. From among them, Vrakua and Podunajsk Biskupice are becoming a part of the city with relatively numerous multi-storey city housing from the end of the last century and from nowadays. The new scattered build-over, determined by the character of the available pieces of land, is more adapted to the original historical build-over. In this area, large sources of environmental devastation also include beside intense road and railway transport and the airport the agricultural cooperative's farmyard, distribution and transport objects and facilities on Lieskovsk road. A particular problem in this part is the increased density of higher order electric wiring systems from the Podunajsk Biskupice switching station, which create barriers for avifauna which also creates electromagnetic field changes near the residential areas. Rovinka pri Dunaji remained a countryside settlement with a relatively preserved historical development. The main source of environmental devastation in this area is represented by continuous car traffic. A zone with a prevalence of natural biotopes and agricultural culture can be found in floodplain woods on both sides of the Danube beneath the Freight Port, and on agricultural land in the southern part of the involved area. This zone is typical by increasing impact and demands of the population concerning exploitation of the Danube and of the nearby floodplain woods for recreation, and also by intensification of agricultural production in the south-eastern part of the involved area. Thus, conditions for development and existence of environmental problems are gradually being created. Even though the forest and floodplain woods can be considered as a zone with the lowest occurrence of environmental problems within the involved area, which under these conditions represents a zone with an eco-stabilizing function, human interference into these biotopes (change of the composition of wood species by planting American poplar monocultures, extraction of gravel from the Danube, cutting off the Danube distributaries, building of the VDG and natural pressure of the residents of Petralka concerning its exploitation for recreation purposes) will necessarily lead to massive changes of this area. There is a problem with the agricultural land to the south and southeast of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site concerning contamination of soil by imissions and wind erosion in extra-vegetation periods. 16.2 ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY AND VULNERABILITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT

In general, ecological sustainability derived from vulnerability of its natural components is understood as the extent of the lands sensitivity towards anthropogenic effects. Basic characteristics of human acti vities and the characteristics of anthropogenic effects deducted from them are predetermined by the function, in other words by the functional exploitation of the area. The SLOVNAFT, a.s. site is situated in the south-eastern part of the built-up area of Bratislava, in the industrial zone of the city, practically between the intensely built-up city area, the agricultural area near the city with fewer developments and the area with floodplain woods on both sides of the Danube. It is an area which is functionally differentiated, where the vulnerability of its natural elements and the ecological sustainability of its individual parts varies, based on how the relevant functions of the area have been forming its natural components and on what anthropogenic elements (buildings, objects and installations), have been built in connection with the particular function in the area.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Based on the facts mentioned above, vulnerability of the area and its ecological sustainability in accordance with legislative specifications or in other words with the actual functional exploitation of the area, is defined differently for: built-up and densely populated areas of settlements, where humans and the comfort in their residential and working environment are considered as the most vulnerable element of the environment, - agricultural areas, which consist mostly of agricultural land and agricultural cultures, where most of the agricultural soil fund is protected by the law, forests, protected areas and natural reserves, where protected biotopes, water sources, natural formations, etc. are considered as protected elements. .

Because it is not possible to cover all interdependences of the effects of anthropogenic activities in the evaluated area in the full extent of present-day information and theoretical knowledge, in the next section (based on the scale from 1-5) only those characteristics of natural elements of the environment were analyzed, which are relevant for the assessment of their vulnerability or of ecological sustainability of the area. 16.2.1 VULNERABILITY OF ROCK SUBBASE The decisive characteristics for the judgment of vulnerability of rock environment in the involved area is represented by permeability of geological layers, which expresses the ability of water or contaminated rain water to move through the rock environment. Sand gravel, gravel located on both sides of the Danube, to the south of the upper flow of Little Danube and in the area to the south of Rovinka, and also small and medium sized sand, from which the island areas near floodplain woods in Star Hj and Ovsite are created, has the highest permeability. The -2 -1 average value of the permeability coefficient in this area is above 1.10 m.s . Fluvial sediments with dominance or with a noticeable mixture of soil (soil, sandy soil and clay soil) have a medium permeability (based on the local conditions). Such localities dominate especially in the vicinity of SLOVNAFT, a.s. -2 -3 -1 site. Average permeability coefficient value in this area varies from 1.10 -1.10 m.s . The lowest permeability in the involved area is in the fine-grained powder-clay or clay areas of the bayous and meanders in the Podunajsk rovina plain, which create enclaves similar to the shape of the original distributaries and meanders basically in the whole involved area. Average value of the permeability coefficient is -3 -1 lower than 1.10 m.s . In terms of functional exploitation of individual parts of the involved area, the most vulnerable rock environments (5) are the geological layers under the production and servicing sites, under the areas that are being used for agriculture and under transportation installations in the southern and central parts of the involved area between the freight port and Prievoz, including the production area of SLOVNAFT, a.s., where the protection of rock environment is ensured by continuous activity of the hydraulic ground water protection system. Potentially very vulnerable rock environments (4) are made-up grounds and upper geological layers under the residential and civil developments (apartments in Petralka, Ruinov, Prievoz, Vrakua, Podunajsk Biskupice, and also partially in Rovinka pri Dunaji), which can be contaminated by sewage, leakage from the sewerage system, by water from communications, yards, roofs, etc.. In both cases, the degree of vulnerability is increased by the possibility of breakdown of technological and technical machinery, including breakdown of technical infrastructure networks. Based on its permeability, vulnerable (3) rock environment is the rock layer under agricultural land (vegetable mass-production, mass stock-raising in agricultural farms and cooperatives, small cultivating areas, small stock-raising in family developments, gardens and garden colonies). The subsoil may be contaminated by seepage of excrements, manure, fertilizers, and pesticides. As these substances are degradable, the changes initiated by this contamination are reversible. Not very vulnerable (2) and the least endangered rock environment in terms of functional exploitation of the area are the rock layers under forest growths, floodplain woods and protected areas, where the negative changes of the rock environment can only be initiated by the factors affecting the involved area globally, in particular imissions, and gradual accumulation of heavy metals, which are absorbed by the vegetation and soil in a relatively small amount, or natural permeability of the rock environment which, together with the flow (and absorption) of underground water allows contamination of these bedrock layers. EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 101/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI An individual, but possible case of contamination of the rock environment is a change made to underground water regime. For example, in 1972 exploitation of water sources in Podunajsk Biskupice had caused depression of underground water level around the source and absorption of contaminated underground water from SLOVNAFT, a.s. subsoil. On the other hand, the same principle of creating depression by help of the hydraulic underground water protection system prevents the contamination of the bedrock in the site. A high permeability of watered geological layers in the involved area predicts overall high vulnerability (4) and decreased ecological sustainability of the rock environment in the involved area. 16.2.2 RELIEF VULNERABILITY The involved area is created by a fluvial plain with 0 12 acclivity. The relief is flat with slight vertical division only. Vulnerability of the fluvial plain is mainly in the production of anthropogenic and atypical relief forms, such as mounds, excavations, etc. This aspect is closely related to sustaining the original landscape types, where the de-levelling of the terrain should not exceed 2-3 m. In natural biotopes of fluvial plain, young soil-free depression locations are more vulnerable, where during high underground water levels, potential contamination can occur with resulting passage of contaminated water into water environment. In terms of functional exploitation of the area, major and often irreversible changes of the relief occurred (or are occurring) in the built-up areas within settlements and in the objects of engineering structures. On the other hand, with respect to numerous hard surfaces and construction changes, the built-up area relief is stable, resistant to natural erosion, but vulnerable to human activities (3). Due to low acclivity, long vegetation season and precipitation distribution, the relief of agricultural parts of the area, is stable with respect to natural erosion. Its changes resulting from anthropogenic activities are long-term and not very noticeable. They are caused by progressive leveling of land by tillage, backfills, melioration, etc. The relief is not very vulnerable (2) to these activities. The relief in forests and in protected areas has its original natural appearance, including young earth-free depressions, which often become the place of unregistered solid waste dumps. Its relatively low vulnerability (1-2) depends on the line or local disturbance of the surface by forest machinery and transportation. In general, the plain characteristic of the involved area creates a low vulnerability of its relief (2). 16.3 VULNERABILITY OF SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND WATER

The relatively low natural vulnerability (1-2) of Danube water depends on precipitation, melting of snow and glaciers in the Alps. Because of anthropogenic activities along the river, in the Bratislava territory the Danube changes to a vulnerable (3) and even very vulnerable (4) river. With respect to the volume of flowing water the flow of the Danube, is much less vulnerable than that of the Little Danube, which has a limited volume of flowing water and where the proportion of discharged waste water to the flow rate is much higher. This year, especially during the summer, the Little Danube belongs to the most vulnerable rivers (5) in the Bratislava region. Vulnerability of open water surfaces depends on the Danube's water regime and on the dynamics of ground water regime; in the involved area it is affected by the Danube, partly by the Little Danube and also by the hydraulic ground water protection system. Decreased flow speed of the flow of surface and ground water as a result of the construction of Gabkovo waterworks increases the possibility of water eutrophization of open water reservoirs bayous and artificial lakes, thus increasing their vulnerability (3-4). The main factors which affect the vulnerability of ground water are represented by physical and chemical characteristics of the soil cover and of the gravel-sand watered environment, by thermodynamic conditions in the water-rock system, by the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the contaminating substances. Taking into consideration high permeability of the rock environment and the ground water regime, natural vulnerability of ground water to contaminants migrating in the watered environment is relatively high (3-4) in the whole involved area. In terms of possible penetration of contaminants into ground water, the most vulnerable groundwater is under the industrial zone in the involved area and under the western, northern and south-eastern part of the residential development (4). Less endangered is the ground water in agricultural areas in the southeastern part of the involved area and in its south-western corner (3).
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI As to functional exploitation of the area and to groundwater dynamics, the least endangered groundwater is that of floodplain woods on both sides of the Danube (2). 16.4 VULNERABILITY OF SOIL

The ability to stabilize the pH value of soil acidification buffering ability) was chosen as the criterion for judging the vulnerability of soil in the involved area. Degraded urbisoils have the lowest buffering ability in the involved area. Fluvisoils, which take up a large portion of the involved area, have medium buffering ability. Black soils and other similar urbisoils cultivated in the eastern part of the involved area have the highest buffering ability. In the industrial zone of the involved area, high vulnerability of original soil types and their gradual transformation into degraded urbisoils is given by the character of land exploitation for manufacturing, transportation and other purposes in the sites and installations in the zone, and also by the formation of unploughed land in their close vicinity (4). In mass residential and civil developments in the involved area soil has mainly been relocated. Its fairly low vulnerability is given by permanent vegetation cover. In residential developments, there are mostly less vulnerable (2) cultivated urbisoils, which are similar to black soils with high buffering ability. The agricultural soil fund in the south-eastern and south-western parts of the involved area consists of fluvisoils and black soils, which have medium to high buffering ability. Vulnerability of these soil types depends considerably on the currently used farming methods and on the current condition of the vegetation cover. During the non-vegetation season, vulnerability of these types of soil increases by possible wind and water erosion (3). The soil of forest growths, especially in floodplain woods on both sides of the Danube, consists of medium heavy to heavy gley fluvisoils and gleysoils with medium buffering ability. With respect to natural recovery and permanent protection by vegetation cover, vulnerability (2) is considerably lower than tat of soil within the agricultural soil fund. 16.5 VULNERABILITY OF THE ATMOSPHERE

Vulnerability of the atmosphere is evaluated on the basis of its pollution, considering common and extreme meteorological situations stipulating dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere (wind direction and velocity, precipitations, stability of the atmosphere, inversion, etc.) and the time factor (permanent effect, long-term effect, impulsive episodic effect). Currently, the annual imission limits of monitored harmful substances are not exceeded within the influence of SLOVNAFT, a.s. However, daily and half-hour limits are exceeded locally, namely in the case of sulphur dioxide, f nitrogen oxides and ozone; however, in a considerably lower extent than the allowed percentage of overrunning the limit values (cf. section CII 15 of the report). Dispersion of emissions in the atmosphere of the involved area is affected by air circulation considerably. In this area, average annual wind velocity ranges between 4 4.5 m.s-1. These relatively high wind velocity values result in suitable conditions for dispersion of harmful substances, except the calm days (13% of all the days in the year). According to long-term measurements of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute Bratislava, in the area in question north-western, north-eastern and northern circulation prevails (62% of the days in a year), which causes dispersion of emissions from the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site in the south-eastern direction, outside of the densely populated part of the city. The atmosphere in the central part of the city is usually affected by Slovnafts emission on days with south and south-east wind (approximately 17 % of the days in a year). The area of Petralka may be affected by its emissions during eastern circulation (10% of the days in a year). Vrakua and Podunajsk Biskupice are usually a ffected by its emissions during south-west wind, which occurs on 5% of the days in a year. During stable temperature layers inversions are created, which occur mainly in winter and at night. They are not typical for the area in question. Inversions mostly occur to the south from the site, in Lieskovec and Ketelec; they decrease towards the built-up part of the city. In terms of functional exploitation of the area, the highest vulnerability of the microclimate, which occurs mostly during thermal inversions, can be identified in manufacturing sites of the industrial zones in the involved area, and also around SLOVNAFT, a.s. (4). A similar vulnerability of the microclimate is around enclosed and partially enclosed areas of transportation corridors in the built-up area (4). Because of local heating sources, in winter inversions the microclimate is worse around the residential development of Nov Plenisko and partially also in Prievoz, Vrakua, Podunajsk Biskupice and Rovinka pri Dunaji (3).
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI A smaller vulnerability of the microclimate is in apartment developments (2). The lowest vulnerability of the atmosphere is in the floodplain woods and swamps with good ventilation conditions, situated on both sides of the Danube (1). In general, the involved area can be classified as moderately vulnerable (3). 16.6 VULNERABILITY OF VEGETATION, FAUNA AND THEIR BIOTOPES

Evaluation of vulnerability of the vegetation is based on a methodical procedure, developed by the Institute of Landscape Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences for the evaluation of ecological stability. Its advantage is that it differentiates the forms of vegetation in built-up areas, in agricultural areas and also in forest growths. According to the above-mentioned method, the least vulnerable forms of vegetation include the vegetation of forest parks, city parks and cemeteries with a larger portion of older trees (1). The manor house park in Prievoz, the park within the National institute of tuberculosis and respiration diseases in Podunajsk Biskupice, flora in the Prievoz cemetery, flora of the racing course), flora of the Dradiak recreation area, etc can be included into this group. Somewhat more vulnerable is the vegetation of agglomerated villages, villa quarters (2) where, even in the involved area, older flora of adjoined villages Prievoz, Vrakua, P. Biskupice is concerned, as well as flora of the new family house developments, etc. Vegetation in the older open development (3) apartment sites in Nivy, Ruinov a Petralka, emergency housing site near SLOVNAFT, a.s. can be classified as vulnerable. The same applies to forest growths that have come into contact with the developments of the city. More vulnerable is the vegetation in the semi-open and new open development (4) housing sites in Vrakua and Podunajsk Biskupice, the cemetery in P. Biskupice, flora in gardens and garden colonies. Very vulnerable is the vegetation in enclosed development, newly created flora in the open development and the vegetation of industrial and transportation areas (5) flora of the historical development in adjoined villages and Plenisko, the flora near the new development of the involved area, flora near the railway routes and transportation installations (Central cargo station, the port, the SLOVNAFT station, etc.), Prstavn most (Port Bridge), including the crossroads on both sides. Very vulnerable (5) are also agricultural annual and biennial cultures (5). An individual category of biotopes in the affected area is represented by protected areas (Ostrov Kop, Topoov hony, Gajc, Pnsky diel, Bajdel, Poovncky les, avobren lun lesy, Pravobren lun lesy, Dunajsk luhy (Biskupick rameno, Tvrd luh between Gajec and Biskupick rameno, Luh Vlieho hrdla, fragments of the temporary floodplain woods near Bajdel, etc.), in which ecological stability and decrease in vulnerability are specified by the legislation (1). This group also includes the unclassified fragments of forest growths on both sides of the Danube. 16.7 VULNERABILITY OF THE COMFORT AND HUMAN LIFE QUALITY FACTORS

Comfort and quality of life are attributes of a persons life, which are related to objective features of the external environment of people and also to subjective features (sensations) of their internal environment, which is determined by their health condition and psyche. Tangible factors of internal and external comfort include: - clean, hygienic air, without bad smells, - adequate air temperature and humidity, - good light conditions in terms of intensity and color of light, - good acoustic conditions in terms of the intensity and composition of background sounds, absence of vibrations, shocks and other disturbing moments of the sense-perception, - areas adequate to performed activities, modified with respect to urbanization and architecture with adequate outfit by devices and furniture, - finish of areas with adequate aesthetic and artistic level. The above factors affect the physiological and mental comfort of people, along with intangible factors of their social and cultural environment created by human relations. . In terms of the quality of air, with respect to environmental comfort subjective perception of bad smelling substances is most pronounced.. Bad smell is strongest during inversions, in particular in industrial zones of the involved area, in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, near communications and transportation installations, in farms and agricultural cooperatives and in their close vicinity (4). Bad smell is less strong in resiEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI dential areas of the involved area, and in well ventilated agricultural areas (2) or around forest growths on both sides of the Danube (1) it is perceived least. Temperature, humidity and natural lighting depend on the seasons of the year and on specific meteorological situation. Vulnerability of these factors of comfort is in underrun or overrun their threshold values. They are compensated by artificial interferences such as heating, artificial light, humidification of air. The facilities for correcting the above factors in the involved area correspond to STN standards and to hygienic regulations, and thus vulnerability of these factors in the involved area is relatively low on a long-term basis (2). In terms of subjective perception, noise is considered to be one of the most disturbing factors of comfort in exterior and interior environment. The optimal noise level is considered to be 30-50 dB (A). Several independent noise studies have been made to analyze the noise values around the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site. It can be said based on the facts from these studies that in the northern part of the involved area acoustic comfort is highly vulnerable (4-5) thanks to noise sources from automobile, railway and air transportation, which overlap the noise sources of SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC on day times; the latter ones can be heard especially at night when the traffic noise levels decrease. Increased noise levels above 60 dB occur in some SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC units, around Slovnaftsk cesta and Ulica svornosti streets and around railway routes. On short-term basis, the noise created during decompression of technological installations is very disturbing. . The acoustic comfort of the environment in the southern part of the involved area is much better and less vulnerable (2) with respect to natural character of the environment. Noise sources are represented by SLOVNAFT, a.s., SPC, OLO, a.s. incineration plant, air and water transportation. The character (not the level) of comfort of the environment is determined by the character and time of building development in the area and by the degree of physical and moral wear and tear of objects and installations. Their vulnerability (or improvement) depends on the ability of the dominant users to maintain, reconstruct or modernize the environment they use. The aesthetic and artistic finalization of the area is a form of displaying self-realization and culture of its users. It is also necessary to critically say that the aesthetic and artistic finalization of the environment of the involved area does not correspond to the standard of the capital city of the republic and of the main cultural and social metropolis of the Slovak Republic. In comparison with the city, it has many peripheral characteristics and a higher rate of negative or even vandalistic features. Its vulnerability is mainly in inadequate perceiving of the environment as the home in which people not only realize their economic activities, but also spend most of their lives. The highest vulnerability of comfort and quality of the environment (5) is assumed in manufacturing, storage and transportation areas. The employees working in this environment are exposed to multiple negative effects, resulting from the character of the particular working environment (noise, vapor, vibrations, stress, low aesthetic level of the environment, etc.).

17.

OVERALL QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT SYNTHESIS OF THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE FACTORS

The above analysis of vulnerability of natural components in the whole involved area revealed a very low vulnerability of the relief; considerably differentiated vulnerability of surface water, vegetation and biotopes and also of comfort and quality of life of people in terms of functional exploitation of the area; considerably differentiated and simultaneously increased vulnerability of the atmosphere with respect to area, according to the layout of emission sources; e and very high vulnerability of ground water and the rock environment in the whole involved area. Most of the irreversible changes in the involved area relate to intravilans of settlements (city parts of Bratislava and the nearby village Rovinka pri Dunaji). The changes are related to modifications of the relief, anthropogenic mounds, change of soil to urbisoils, building development in the area and creating its infrastructure. Hardly reversible changes are represented by changes made to the vegetation cover in the intravilans of settlements and the change of the original natural landscape to agricultural landscape. All the above-mentioned changes are made on purpose, connected with gradual colonization of the country and with historical acquirement of the area by its residents. That is why they cannot be evaluated as negative them from the position of humans.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Reversible changes related to the involved area include changes made to the quality of groundwater, surface water and the atmosphere. Qualitative changes, determined by functional utilization of the area, can also be made to the quality of vegetation and soil, and also to comfort and quality of the environment. The changes made to ground water regime, which threatened the existence of the floodplain wood remnants on both sides of the Danube, came close to the limit values for the functioning of the ecosystem of the area. The stabilization of their levels as a result of the construction of the Gabkovo waterworks is a reversible change, which allows to preserve and renew the endangered biotopes. The changes in the quality of the atmosphere, surface water and locally also groundwater can come near to the limit (or legislatively specified limit) values. Under their effect, partial changes to biotopes or deteriorated conditions of comfort and quality of life can occur in the involved area. Currently the limit values are exceeded especially as to emissions and noise from the means of transport. In terms of the above limits, primarily the built-up areas of intravilans are close to the limit of ecological and hygienic sustainability. In the involved area this concerns primarily the transportation corridors of industrial zone, the crossroads near Prstavn most, the highway corridor, Slovnaftsk street and Ulica svornosti street leading along the western edge of Podunajsk Biskupice. In both corridors, in addition to being close to the ecological and hygienic sustainability limits, the roads are getting congested due to higher frequence of drives, and their operation parameters are decreasing. Similar situation of being close to the ecological and hygienic sustainability limit is beginning in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, where the ecological and hygienic sustainability limit is expanded by the limits of sewage water pollution and the strict limitations concerning the contamination of soil, ground water and rock environment in the Slovnaft, a.s. site, with the assumption to repay the ecological debt. In both above cases of getting near to the ecological and hygienic sustainability limits the changes of natural countryside elements are reversible within technological solutions. Within the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, in addition to built and operating hydraulic ground water protection system, technology modernization and ecologization projects realized in the past and at present, waste management and realization of environmental protection measures, one of the solutions supporting reversible changes is represented by the project of the CCGT power block construction under evaluation, which represents a source with a low portion of emission in electric energy production within the context of the power policy of the Slovak Republic.

18.

EVALUATION OF THE ASSUMED DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA IF THE PROJECT WOULD NOT BE REALIZED

In case the CCGT block would not be built, SLOVNAFT, a.s. would continue its business activity - production of refinery and petrochemical products, and strengthening its competitive ability. Alternative usage of the vacated blocks 94 and 95 and of free capacities of its technological machinery would be sought; the resulting impacts on the involved area cannot be predicted for the time being. The duty to operate the hydraulic ground water protection system would continue. Another alternative would be sought to provide for self-sufficiency of the Slovak Republic in production of electric energy and to strengthen the power resources in Bratislava. The environment of the involved area will be further influenced by the existing sources of its devastation and the development of this status will depend on other investment activities that will develop in the involved area. They will also influence the development of social sphere and t of job opportunities, as well as stability or increase of the standard of living of the inhabitants in the involved area and in its neighborhood.

19.

COMPLIANCE OF THE PROJECTED ACTIVITY WITH THE VALID ZONING DOCUMENTATION

According to Regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic No. 336/2001 Coll., amending Regulation of Regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic No. 64/1998 Coll., the area in question belongs to the binding part of the town plan of the large area unit Bratislavsk kraj (the Bratislava District). In the area in question there are no actions of investment character from the sphere of environmental protection The floodplain forests landscape in the cadastral part Podunajsk Biskupice on itny o sEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI trov constitutes an outstandingly valuable natural system with an important reservoir of drinking water. Due to its protection, this area has been declared as water management protected area. The potentials that essentially determine the development of this area in terms of respecting the principles of sustainable development include primarily underground resources of drinking water, good quality agricultural soil fund, forest growths with other types of vegetation in the landscape (constituting important bio-centers and bio-corridors), and water flows of the Danube and Little Danube rivers. The CCGT power block will be situated within the site of SLOVNAFT, a.s. Its location in the industrial zone of the city is in accordance with the approved City plan of the capital of Bratislava from 2007. The construction does not require any changes in functional and spatial organization of the involved area. A new zoning measure outside the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site will be made by declaration of protected zone for 2 x 400 kV branch connection of the block to switching house in SEPS in Podunajsk Biskupice. The SLOVNAFT, a.s. site is situated on the south-eastern development axis of Bratislava and its location essentially determines the possibility of developing a compact urban structure in the southern and southeastern directions. The functional use of the contact area of SLOVNAFT, a.s. is as follows: production and services of production character, stock management, distribution, civic amenities the entrance space at SLOVNAFT, a.s. low-rise residential build-up area in Podunajsk Biskupice agricultural vegetable production + gardens, protective greenery, forest-land resources (BLP)

The requirement to maintain regulated sanitary protective zone around the SLOVNAFT site closely related to its production plants continues to be valid. (NVB-R No. 4141-154/24/1979 - II., dated 29.6.1979). st nd Similarly, regulated protective zones of the 1 and 2 degree are also preserved, where the following is forbidden: - housing construction, - building of kindergartens and nurseries, - building of other facilities for children, - building of recreation institutions and sports facilities, - building of healthcare institutions. On the windward side of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site within the distance of 300-1000 m it is possible to locate warehouses, semi-operation units, emergency objects without any negative impact on the environment.

III.

EVALUATION OF THE ESTIMATED INFLUENCES OF THE PROJECTED ACTIVITY ON THE ENVIRONMENT INCLUDING HEALTH, AND ESTIMATION OF THEIR SIGNIFICANCE INFLUENCES ON THE POPULATION
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION HEALTH IN THE AFFECTED AREA

1.
1.1

A) The The zero option As already stated above, the population health in the involved area may be affected especially by the emissions (through the imission fall-out) coming from the sources of the Refinery and SPC. Most significant air pollutants coming from the mentioned sources are sulphur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO x), carbon monoxide (CO), solid pollutants (dust) and noise. A brief description of their characteristics and of the forms of their impact on organism is as follows: Sulphur dioxide (SO2): is a poisonous gas which causes (in higher concentrations) respiratory and eye diseases. Sulphur dioxide makes photosynthesis impossible and thence causes intoxication of flora. Carbon monoxide (CO): emerges during imperfect combustion of fuel and is toxic already in low concentrations.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Nitrogen oxides (NOx): are formed during combustion of nitrogen bound in fuel and also as the result of high-temperature reaction of air nitrogen with oxygen in flame. Nitrogen monoxide (NO) is formed as the primary product which oxidizes further to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). It is just nitrogen dioxide (NO2) that is as dangerous as carbon monoxide (CO) and when inhaled causes death even in small concentrations. TOC (Corg): the elementary acute effect of organic compounds on human organism is that on the nervous system. Organic compounds irritate the respiratory system, lungs, eyes and skin. The effects of hydrocarbons (short exposure to higher concentrations as well as long-term exposure to lower concentrations) result in damages on some organs, in particular kidneys, liver, myocardium and blood vessels. The most serious effect of chronic exposure to hydrocarbons is represented by carcinogenicity (benzene). Solid pollutants: the effects of solid pollutants do harm to humans as well as to animals. They are the cause of local smog screens, they pollute and damage buildings and iron constructions. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) represent a specific group of air pollutants within the emissions from the Refinery, and include primarily ethane, ethylene and propane (benzene). They penetrate into the atmosphere during production, transportation, storage and partly during combustion of organic liquids. They come into organism through the respiratory system, skin and mucous membranes and have a negative impact. They are harmful to skin because they deprive it of adipose compounds and thus evoke formation of fissures and stimulate inflammation and eczema. Aliphatic hydrocarbons have mostly narcotic effects and dehydrate mucous membranes and skin. Due to the presence of other significant sources of environmental devastation (transportation, OLO incineration plant, BTS, a.s. heat plant, etc.), the influence of SLOVNAFT, a.s. on the health of the population in the involved area cannot be proved. Long-term evaluations of air pollution (according to the human health protection limits as well as to the limits elevated by the tolerance rate both in Bratislava and in the monitoring stations operated by SLOVNAFT, a.s.) show that during the last years that during the recent years the long-term admissible limits have not been overrun, and the short-term limits (1 24 hrs) have been exceeded only occasionally less than 5 times a year(in the involved area). This, together with the proof of decreased emissions from the plant, indirectly proves the decrease of the plants impact on the population health in the involved area. B) The proposed option: According to the elaborated dispersion study (RNDr. J. Brozman, Bratislava, 2008, textual annex No. 6), emissions of CO, SO2 and solid pollutants are negligibly low or zero with regard to the used fuel. They are negligibly low or zero also with regard to the current imissions detected by the AIMS and they will virtually not appear in the imission load of the area. The relevant pollutant in the CCGT block emissions is represented by NOx. The current load of the area by NOx imissions reaches 45 to 71% of the limit value. According to the developed dispersion study, after the start of the CCGT block operation the NO2 imission load of the area will increase by 2 to 6% in comparison to the current situation and will reach 47 to 75% of the admissible limit value; it will not influence the population health in the involved area. The CCGT energy block facilities and its connection to the switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice are located outside the residential areas and thus alterations of the electromagnetic field will have no effect on the population in the involved area. With respect to these facts, impacts on the population health in the involved area are not to be expected. 1.2 IMPAIRMENT OF WELFARE AND QUALITY OF LIFE

A) The zero option If the prescribed limits for emissions and harmful substances in the discharged waste water are kept, then the factor of impairment of welfare and quality of life of the population in the involved area is represented by noise. In fact, noise from the daily operation of the companys technological appliances is concealed by the noise from road traffic on the nearby communications, Slovnaftsk Street and Ulica svornosti with respect to the neighboring residential zones (except the emergency housing site and the dormitory of Slovak Chemical Vocational School). A negative factor of impairment of environmental comfort welfare and the quality of life in the involved area is represented by the noise occurring during decompression of pressure appliances. This noise may last up to several hours and is, unfortunately, irremovable from the SLOVNAFT, a.s., and SPC proEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI duction. The only precaution to reduce this phenomenon is avoiding the occurrences of technological failures requiring decompression. B) The proposed option During the construction, the only factor impairing comfort and quality of life of the population in the involved area will be represented by the noise from the transport related to the reconstruction. It will be concealed by overall traffic noise on the access communications. According to the developed noise study (Ing. J. ma et al., Bratislava, 2008), the intensity of the noise from the construction works (80 90 dB due to its location on the southern side of the site) will not reach the values seriously impairing day and night comfort in the neighboring residential zone in Lieskovec. Noise and dustiness at the building site will affect only its closest vicinity where they will temporarily lower the parameters of the working environment comfort. If the prescribed limits for noisiness of the power block technological appliances (according to the conclusions of the developed study on noisiness) are kept, then, similarly, the intensity of the noise related to the operation of the power block will not reach the levels that would mean impairment of both day and night comfort in the adjacent residential zone in Lieskovec. During operation of the power block noise resulting from decompression of appliances may occur (e.g. when discharging pressurized steam through safety valves). . Based on the experience with the previously realized constructions in the Refinery, the limits of noisiness for these appliances will have to be specified for suppliers of technological appliances (especially of compressors and pumps); protective covers (chambers) for the appliances will have to be considered within the construction project. 1.3 HEALTH RISKS FOR EMPLOYEES A) The zero option Health risks of the refinery and the petrochemical production facilities are risky during normal operation as well as during emergencies which may be the result of internal or external causes. Normal operation hazards include the following: - risks and occupational accidents related to job performance, which can arise as a result of technical or technological equipment damage, employees inadvertence, breach of labor discipline, breach of sanitary requirements and safety regulations and the like, - risks and occupational accidents when rectifying causes and consequences of natural disasters, failures and breakdowns of technological equipment, - long-term exposures to substances harmful to health, long-term exposures to excessive noise and vibrations, long-term staying in unsuitable working environment and the like. In the first two cases, damages to health usually occur suddenly, or within a short period of time, and their causes are apparent. In the third case, the cause of damage to health is often hidden in the long term and damages to health occur gradually during a long time, often in many years. To reduce the above hazards, for each production unit working procedures, sanitary requirements and safety regulations have been developed and employees have been provided with special trainings, as well as with necessary working and safety equipment. Competence to perform particular jobs is checked by testing and examining. The precautions to reduce the effects of long-term exposures include modification of operating mode (shorter stay in hazardous environment), compulsory use of protective equipment, medical examinations, etc. The extent of the above-mentioned hazards and their consequences usually do not exceed the production facility, production unit or the premises of the Refinery, and usually they affect the employees operating the equipment in question, or the persons present in close vicinity of the source. The health risks, the precautions for their elimination or for reduction of their consequences in the Refinery are described in more detail in section C IV. 19.2 of the report. Note: In accordance with Act No. 261/2002 Coll. on prevention of serious industrial breakdowns (SEVESO), the situation concerning implementation of the tasks arising from SLOVNAFT, a.s. Safety Report from 2005 is currently being re-evaluated and its updating with regard to the projected activity, i.e. the construction and operation of the CCGT power block in the blocks no. 94 and 95, is underway. On the basis of this updating, further steps on the part of SN and precautions within 109/162

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI the CCGT annex No. 7). CMEPI project preparation will be agreed (see the textual

B) The proposed option: Health hazards for employees of the CCGT block are similar to those for employees of the Refinery, CMEPS and SPC. The differences are in a lower extent of possible toxic damages to health and in a significantly higher probability of injuries by electric current. Impacts of thermal field are more considerable and from the point of view of long-term exposures there are significant impacts of electromagnetic field in the generating block. To reduce the above hazards of the generating block, the operator will be obliged by virtue of law to elaborate the necessary working procedures, regulations and instructions, sanitary requirements and safety regulations, and to provide employees with special trainings as well as necessary working and protective outfit. Competence to perform particular jobs shall be checked by testing and examining. If necessary, reduction of long-term exposure impacts shall be resolved by operating mode modification (shorter stay in hazardous environment), compulsory use of protective outfit, medical examinations, etc. 1.4 HEALTH RISKS FOR THE POPULATION IN THE INVOLVED AREA A) The zero option Under normal operation of the production facilities of the Refinery, CMEPS and SPC, there occur no health risks for residents in the involved area. A hidden hazard can be in a long-term overrun of admissible limits of imission fall, which is out of question with current monitoring of the area and with the penalty system applied. Serious hazards, often connected with emergencies, are represented by large industrial accidents due to natural disasters (extensive fires, floods, windstorms and the like.), other external causes (fall of a large object, diversionistic activities, etc.), or by internal causes (most often, explosions of technological equipment or hazardous material storage tanks with extensive destructive impacts of pressure waves, thermal field impacts or toxic cloud impacts), which exceed the boundaries of the premises and can affect a part of the defined involved area. In such a case there are health hazards for the residents in the affected part of the involved area as well. Similarly to the previous cases, the of production facility operator is also obliged by virtue of law to develop regulations and to make technical, organizational as well as material precautions to avoid such events, as well as regulations and precautions for elimination of their causes and consequences. The production facility operator is obliged to inform competent authorities and institutions, as well as all legal and natural persons within the assumed impact of such emergency on possible hazards, to develop regulations, take measures, to provide for material support for elimination of the causes and consequences, and to inform all the involved. B) The proposed option: Similarly to the previous case, within normal operation of the CCGT generating block, no health hazards for residents in the affected area will occur. For management of hazards in large emergencies of industrial nature, principles similar to those for SLOVNAFT, a.s. shall apply (textual annex No. 7) 1.5 ACCEPTABILITY OF THE PROJECT FOR THE POPULATION IN THE INVOLVED AREA

A) The zero option The residents of the involved area accept the existence of the plant because of its economic necessity. They appreciate its economic and social impacts. On the other hand, they welcome and perceive positively every reduction of effects of the plants production on the environment. This fact becomes evident in the evaluations of SLOVNAFT, a.s. investment intentions. B) The proposed option The acceptability of the CCGT turbine plants construction for the residents of the involved area will d epend on the ability to clarify its contribution for the economic development of the region, for the customer sphere including minor purchasers, for the employment rate development and for strengthening of social securities. On the other hand, the extent of acceptability for the residents of the involved area will depend
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI on a solution for the ecological and safety parameters of the construction (especially the reduction of impacts on the environment and lowering the risk of a large-extent industrial breakdown connected to the Refinery, SPC and CMEPS production). 1.6 THE NUMBER OF RESIDENTS AFFECTED BY THE IMPACTS OF THE ACTIVITIES

A) The zero option The residents of the involved area in the city districts Ruinov and Petralka, local parts of Vrakua and Podunajsk Biskupice and the village Rovink a are affected by the production in the Refinery, SPC and CMEPS. Since the involved area does not overlap the territories of the above-mentioned city districts of Bratislava, the number of the affected citizens is represented by their aliquot part which was calculated on the basis of expert estimation as follows: Table 46. Assumed number of residents affected by the considered activities City district The total % of built-up area % of the resinumber of located in the indents in the inresidents volved area volved area

Residents affected by the CCGT block construction Petralka 125 038 10 10 12503,8 Ruinov 72 609 10* 10 7260,9 Vrakua 18386 50 60 11031,6 Podunajsk Biskupice 20 957 100 80 16780 Rovinka 1 217 1217 Together 19581 48793,3 * excluding the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site the southern edge of Prievoz + Nov Zhrady, Nov Plenisko, Mal Plenisko, the built-up area on the northern edge of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site B) The proposed option With regard to the CCGT block location on the southern side of the Refinery site, it is to assume that its construction and operation will affect a significantly lower number of residents who are concentrated mainly at the northern edge of the involved area. Other impacts of either zero or proposed option on the environment, residences and residents in the involved area are not expected.

2.

INFLUENCES ON THE ROCK ENVIRONMENT:

2.1 INFLUENCES ON THE ROCK SUBBASE, MINERAL RESOURCES, GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS A) The zero option Basically, the zero option maintains the status quo in the state of rock subbase contamination which has been marked by the historical ecological load from the 70s of the last century. Its restriction to the co mpanys site only is presently being controlled by the hydraulic ground water protection system. This contaminations echo will last for several decades after the production in SLOVNAFT, a.s., is potentially closed down. The zero option deepens both physical and moral wear of the appliances belonging to the Refinery, SPC and CMEPS as well as to other facility users. In addition, its extreme form connected with the production close down in the company due to loss of competition ability would open an unsolved problem of future operation of the hydraulic ground water protection system (the expenses are some 100,000.00 EUR p.a.). Shutting down the hydraulic ground water protection system would represent new and rapid extension of rock subbase contamination by oil substances even outside the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, as well as water resources endangering in the itn ostrov (Rye Island) Protected Lan dscape Area . B) The proposed option The rules ensuring the rock environment and ground water protection against contamination by the oil substances during the investment activity in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site in the status of project preparation
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI are specified by Act of the Government of the Slovak Socialist Republic No. 46/1978 Coll. . According to this Act, every investment activity of SLOVNAFT, a.s. is subject to approval of the participating ministries. Currently, these are the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic and the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic. During the construction works, disturbance of soil and upper-quaternary layers of rock environment will be necessary due to foundation of new objects and transfers of the existing underground distribution systems and networks as well as transfers and modifications of communications and hard surfaces. The foundations of new objects and transfers themselves will not cause rock environment contamination. However, excavations and earthworks may reveal the latent rock environment contamination. Then it will be necessary to remove contaminated soil according to relevant legal rules, and dispose of it in an appropriate way. The rock environment protection against contamination caused by the turbine plant operation will be ensured by the construction adjustments that are required by the investor (creation of leak proof tubs beneath the operation units with a high risk of harmful substances leakage, potentially creation of retaining tanks and pressure sewerage system made of welded steel pipes for chemically polluted water). Secondary rock environment protection against pollution in the plant surroundings will be ensured by the ground water hydraulic protection system as before. Due to the pumping of ground water beneath the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site a large depression is formed. It prevents oil substances from spreading and thus pre-empts the rock environment contamination outside of the site. The hydraulic ground water protection system is operated by SLOVNAFT, a.s. Geomorphological conditions and geodynamic phenomena in the examined area will not be affected by the construction of the power block. Currently there is no deposit of mineral resources under exploitation in the involved area and realization of the construction thus cannot influence extraction of mineral deposits.

3.

INFLUENCES ON CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

Production activities of Slovnaft, a.s., SPC, CMEPS and of other two major power sources (the Heat Plant South and the OLO incineration plant) may have an impact on local microclimate of the construction premises and their closest surroundings during inversion. Under normal climatic conditions, the impact of the external climate superimposes the microclimate within these premises. During inversion, the CCGT power block may contribute to microclimate changes in this industrial zone. Under normal climatic conditions, its impact will not be significant due to good ventilation ability in the area. Water vapors from the cooling towers may cause increased formation of hoarfrost under certain conditions in the winter months.

4.

INFLUENCES ON THE ATMOSPHERE

A) The zero option This option represents the status quo of air pollution in the involved area by the emissions which come from the sources of SLOVNAFT, a.s., as described above (see section C II 5.). The plant does not exceed the admissible annual limits for air pollution. However, the short-term limits are overrun occasionally; overrun sulphur dioxide (SO2) limits has been t most pronounced. As mentioned already in section B II.2 of the project, the company permanently strives to reduce the volume of air pollutants coming from its sources by production innovation and modernization of technological appliances in individual production units, by modernizing storage and distribution of its products in compliance with the valid legal rules. The success of such efforts is revealed by long-term statistic observations which are published in the annual reports on the Refinery and SPC productions impact on the environment. The company has its own monitoring system for air pollution measurement with three automatic checkpoints in the closest residential zones within the SLOVNAFT, a.s. surroundings. This monitoring system is included in the nationwide monitoring system of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. The results of monitoring are published daily and available to citizens. A study Rozptylov tdia imisno-prenosov posdenie ZZO Slovnaft, a.s. a Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o. (Dispersion study imission-transfer evaluation of the air pollution sources of SLOVNAFT, a.s. and Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o.) (RNDr J. Brozman, Martin,2007) has been elaborated in 2007 to evaluate the contribution of the air pollution sources of Slovnaft, a.s. and SPC to pollution of the adjacent EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 112/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI atmosphere, that is whether waste gases can be transported freely by flow, and whether such a dispersion of emitted air pollutants is provided so that their admissible concentrations in the atmosphere will not be not exceeded with regard to the respective source, with a certain reserve taking into account also the existing and projected sources. Conclusions of the evaluation: The limit values of the examined basic pollutants and the dates of their achievement are specified by Annex No. 1 to the Regulation of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 705/2002 Coll. on quality of atmosphere. The concentration contributions from SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC premises have been calculated for the examined pollutants in the location of the AIMS for a given average time period. On the basis of modeling of the imission from the of SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC air pollution sources and of comparison with measured values in the AIMS Vlie hrdlo, P. Biskupice and Rovinka, the dispersion study concludes that: a) average annual emissions SO2 average concentrations specified by modeling are higher than the measured ones in all cases. The differences range from 1.3 multiple to 3.8 multiple. The greatest differences between the modeled and the measured values are in the Podunajsk Biskupice AIMS, the smallest in the Rovinka AIMS; that is alright because the model in this scaling factor does not take into account terrain obstacles which are located between the measuring station in Biskupice and the air pollution sources. NO2, CO, PM10 conversely, with these pollutants the calculated concentrations are lower than the measured ones. This It is rather pronounced with CO and PM10, which means that the SLOVNAFT, a.s. contribution to air pollution in the surroundings of the production site is minimal in comparison with the sources from traffic. b) maximal short-term concentrations SO2 24 hour maxima in this case it is irrelevant to compare the model values with the measured ones because with the model the daily maximum is calculated as the average of the calculated hourly maximum in a given point; with the AIMS data the daily maximum is calculated as the average of hourly measurements which may vary considerably. Again, the lowest measured values are in the Podunajsk Biskupice AIMS and the highest ones are in Rovinka where there are no terrain obstacles. SO2 1 hour maxima this is the only case when higher values than the calculated model data have been measured three times during the examined period. Under a closer inspection of the data from the measuring stations we will see that the distinctive maxima in the Slovnaft and Rovinka AIMS in 2005 were sudden extremes. They occurred momentarily during the day, for approximately an hour. It is obvious from the daily maximum which reaches only 50% of the daily limit of SO2. Other highest values in this year were significantly lower than the model maxima. The last of the three maxima higher than the model maximum is from 2006. Apparently, in this case the situation lasted more hours because the daily maximum of SO2 was exceeded, too. The remaining abovelimit values from 2006 correspond with the model values (the total of eight overruns). All above-limit values were measured during the last quarter when the dispersion conditions are usually worse; apparently, they were related to a single discharge of emissions whose mass flow significantly exceeded the values used in this evaluation. Also in this case the lowest values were measured in the Podunajsk Biskupice AIMS and in the Rovinka model where the model data and the measured values show the best correspondence. NO2 1 hour maxima the highest maxima calculated by the model in the area of the Slovnaft AIMS in comparison with other two AIMS are related to the location of the sources producing most NOx emissions within the site in comparison with the most significant sources of SO 2. This time comparable maxima for the Slovnaft and Podunajsk Biskupice stations during all three monitored years may be caused by the contribution of local power sources burning various kinds of fuel in Biskupice. CO 8 hour maxima the model values are by several orders lower than the measured ones; this is related to low production of CO emissions in Slovnaft, a.s., in comparison with traffic on adjacent communications. PM10 24 hour maxima the contributions from SLOVNAFT, a.s. calculated by the model are also several times lower here than the measured values; they even exceeded the allowed limit during all monitored years.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Imission contribution from SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC air pollution sources on close surroundings : For the evaluated pollutants, the concentration contributions from SLOVNAFT, a.s. (in 2007, the CMEPS heat plant was a part of the Refinery) and SPC to air pollution on the periphery of the closest permanently populated locality have been calculated, in this case for the Vlie hrdlo residential site, Krajinsk and amornska streets on the south-western edge of the city part Podunajsk Biskupice and the m unicipality of Lieskovec to the south from the Slovnaft a.s. premises. The graphic interpretation of the calculations concerning the distribution of concentration of the basic pollutants in the atmosphere produced by SLOVNAFT, a.s. and Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o., it can be concluded that the highest concentration values of pollutants occur in the vicinity of the examined industrial premises. The maxima are mostly to the east and to the south from the premises. Average annual concentrations of the evaluated pollutants did not in any single case exceed the limit values prescribed by the legislation. For solid pollutants PM10 they do not reach even 10 % and for NO2 they did not exceed 50% of the limit. Maximal short-term concentrations of CO imissions did not in any single monitored year exceed 1% and for PM10 they are under 10 % of the admissible limit. During unfavorable dispersion conditions, SO 2 imissions exceed the limit values in the above-mentioned permanently populated localities in all three monitored years. The values were the highest in 2006 and the lowest in 2007. NO2 imissions also exceed the limits in the monitored localities; only on the edge of Podunajsk Biskupice the imissions are below the limit for 2006 and 2007. We may conclude from these results that SO2 a NO2 contributions in these localities exceed the admissible limits during unfavorable dispersion conditions, especially during transitional seasons. For air pollution caused by CO and PM10, the air pollution sources outside SLOVNAFT, a.s. have a dominant influence. Conclusions from the examination results: 1. Due to the different character of SLOVNAFT, a.s. and Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o., technologies, the influence of their respective emissions on the surrounding environment is also different. With regard to the amount of released polluting emissions into the atmosphere in 2005-2007, the percentage of the above companies as to individual pollutants released from stationary air pollution sources can be expressed approximately as follows: SO2 NOx CO solid pollutants 93% 7%

Slovnaft, a.s. SPC

99.98% 0.02%

88% 12%

78% 22%

2. Results of the imission situations for maximal short-term concentrations for all monitored years are relatively unfavorable; however, the trend in 2005-2007 is positive. The area of above-limit concentrations of SO2 and NO2 for 2007 is only between the edge of Podunajsk Biskupice and the SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises. 3. A comparison of the AIMS data and model calculations showed a different influence of contributions of individual sources of pollutants from SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC on the measured data of the individual AIMS: The share of SO2 is dominant for maximal short-term as well as average annual concentrations. The share of NO2 is significant only for maximal short-term concentrations; for average annual concentrations it is less significant (ca. >50% of the measured value). The shares of CO and PM10 in the measured values are minimal. Note: Long-term duration of the zero situation presupposes gradual degradation of the climate parameters and of the atmosphere quality. Should the production in the Refinery and SPC be shut down, a qualitatively new condition would arise in the involved area. It would be characterized by emergence and existence of a functionally hardly utilizable, even non-utilizable area and by emergence of new devastative factors related to the development of so-called social outfield.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI B) The proposed option

In order to evaluate the CCGT turbine plants impact on the imission situation in the involved area, the study The Evaluation of the SLOVNAFT CCGT Construction in Respect to Imission and Transfer (textual annex no. 6, J. Brozman, Martin, November 2008). The goal of the imission evaluation was to appraise the contribution of the CCGT block to overall air pollution in the close surroundings after the reconstruction of the heat plant which will precede the construction of the turbine plant. The results of the mathematical model have shown that the contribution of evaluated elementary pollutants produced by the CCGT turbine plant after it will be launched to overall air pollution will meet the limits for air pollution according to Regulation of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 706/2002 Coll., applicable at the time when the study had been under development. Model calculations used in the study were made for the current situation (the existing sources of air pollution within the Refinery site for the proposed state, i.e. the current sources of air pollution plus the CCGT as well as the sources of air pollution] and the CCGT separately). With respect to location of the construction, types of air pollution sources and the height of waste gas release, an 8,000 x 8,000 m computational area f with a pace of 160 meters in both directions was chosen for the evaluation. . With respect to the analysis referred to in chapter 5 of the study The Evaluation of the SLOVNAFT CCGT Construction in Respect to Imission and Transfer" (2008), out of the elementary air pollutants which are present in the CCGT turbine plant emissions only nitrogen oxides (expressed as NO2) was considered. The following were not considered: - solid substances (PM10) with respect to the used fuel and current levels of air pollution - carbon monoxide (CO) with respect to low emissions and current air pollutants measured by the AIMS - sulphur dioxide (SO2) with respect to the used fuel The NOx imission limits for the averaged period of 1 hour and 1 year is 200 g/m and 40 g/m , respectively. The conclusions of the above-mentioned study are as follows: The results of the AIMS network measurements show that the nitrogen monoxide (NO) concentrations from all the sources of air pollution, i.e. the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site and other nearby stationary and linear sources, come up to 50 % - 65 % of the limit at measured maxima, and to 47% - 62% of the limit for the annual averages. The calculated NO2 concentrations in the reference points currently come up to max. 3 142 g/m , i.e. 71 % of the limit. After the sources of the CCGT turbine plant are included, the NO2 con3 3 centrations will increase by 3 g/m and 12 g/m in Podunajsk Biskupice and in the Vlie hrdlo neighborhood, respectively, which represents an increase from 45 % to 47 % and from 69 % to 75 %, respectively. Maximal hourly contributions from the sources of air pollution of the CCGT turbine plant proper in 3 the reference points for ambient temperature of 10 C range between 9.5 g/m (4.75 % of the limit) in 3 Rovinka and 17 g/m (8.5 % of the limit) in the Lieskovec settlement. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that after the CCGT turbine plant is constructed, air pollution caused by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) will increase by 2 6 % in comparison with the status quo and will represent 47 75 % of the NO2 limit in comparison with the current 45 71 %. NO2 concentrations from the examined construction will represent significantly less than half of the limit (9.5 17 % for the averaged time (one hour), and 1.7 2.75 % for annual average) specified by the Regulation of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 705/2002 on air quality which is a condition for new sources of air pollution. The proposed chimney heights are suitable for the given parameters of the gas turbines. Summarization of the analyses : Currently, there are operation units of three legal subjects on the existing SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises, namely the SLOVNAFT, a.s. Refinery, Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o., and CM European Slovakia, s.r.o. (the Heat Plant) which together produced the emission volumes (given in tons) in 2008 which are shown in the following table (estimated emission values of these three subjects after the reconstruction of the Heat Plant as well as the data from the operation of the proposed CCGT energy block and their percentage in emissions from the air source pollution sources of the whole Slovnaft site, together with the estimation of overrun of the imission limits. Table 47 Review of emissions and imissions for 2007 and 2008 and estimations of overrun of the imission limits after the reconstruction of the Heat Plant and the construction of the CCGT power block 115/162
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Emission producer (t/year) solid SO2 NOx CO TOC CO2 pollutants The status in 2007 (values according to the materials of SLOVNAFT, a.s. and RS ZZO Slovnaft, a.s.) Air pollution sources from the SLOV175 8435 2513 456 85 2 250 NAFT, a.s. premises in 2007 495 Total contribution of the air pollution Did not The anDid not Did not Did not sources from the SLOVNAFT, a.s. preexceed nual limit exceed exceed exceed the mises to the overrun of the annual imis- the anis not 50% of the the anallowed sion limit values in 2007 nual limit specified annual nual limit quota limit Total contribution of the air pollution Did not Exceeded under Did not sources from the SLOVNAFT, a.s. preexceed unfavorable condiexceed mises to the overrun of short-term imis- 10% of tions. 1% of the sion limit values in 2007 the limit limit The status in 2008 (values according to the District Council of the Environment) Refinery Slovnaft, a.s. 61.21 145945 695.51 409.16 58.01 1188610 Heat Plant, CM European Slovakia, 98.32 6641.37 1859.07 9.55 39.78 1060712 s.r.o. Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o. 17.5 20.74 367.36 50.48 61.3 353915 Total air pollution sources from the 177.03 8121.31 2921.95 469.19 159.09 2603237 SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI

The status after the Heat plant reconstruction (values of the District Council of the Environment) Refinery Slovnaft, a.s. 61.24 1459.45 695.51 409.16 58.01 1188610 Heat Plant, CM European Slovakia, 78 2100 2250 50 39.77 1060712 s.r.o. Slovnaft Petrochemicals, s.r.o. 17.5 20.74 367.36 50.48 61.3 353915 Total air pollution sources from the 156.74 3580.19 3312.87 1509.64 159.08 2603237 SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises 48 Total contribution of air pollution Will not Will not exceed the Will not Will not sources from the SLOVNAFT, a.s. preexceed allowed annual limits; exceed exceed the mises to the overrun of the imission limit the al- chance of overrun of the alallowed values after the Heat plant reconstruclowed the short-term limits lowed quota tion an estimation limits limits The status after the launch of the CCGT operation, with 4160 hrs. 1) CCGT contribution (Table 2 of this EIA) 36,8 643.66 919.52 1839.04 0 1257744 Total - Refinery, Heat Plant, SPC 193,51 4223.6 4232.4 2348.68 159.09 3860981 +CCGT together Increase from the CCGT operation in % 23,5084 17.9796 28.483 361.135 48,31 Total contribution of the air pollution Will not Will not exceed the Will not Will not sources from the SLOVNAFT, a.s. preexceed allowed annual limits; exceed exceed mises to the overrun of the imission limit the al- chance of overrun of the althe alvalues after the Heat Plant reconstruclowed lowed lowed the short-term limits tion an estimation limits limits quota
1)

The value is based on the fact that current combustion turbines use the so called Dry Low NOx method, which provides for a decrease of production of nitrogen oxides for combustion of natural gas.

In comparison with the status from 2008, in the total volume of the emission production of 11849.21 t/y, after the reconstruction of the Heating Plant and the construction of the CCGT power block the total emission volume from the Slovnaft premises will be 11157.3 t/y, i.e. by 692.16 t/y (ca. 5.8414%) lower; that still does not include positive impacts of further implemented investments of Slovnaft, a.s. (e.g. reconstruction of EJ, etc.). CO emissions which did not reach 1% of the admissible limit will not overrun the limits even after their elevation (5.15-times). The same applies to solid pollutants. Regarding other climate parameters of the involved area as well as environmental comfort (noise, vibrations, thermal and other fields) with respect to location, distance and barrier coverage of the CCGT turbine plant by other technological units of the plant, its construction and operation will not affect the current climatic situation and environmental comfort of the closest residential areas the Lieskovec settlement where the admissible noise and vibration levels will not be exceeded. With regard to noise and vibrations, the above statements are proven by the study The CCGT SLOVNAFT Refinery: A Vibr ationAcoustic Study for EIA Level of Evaluation (J. ma, November 2008).

5.

INFLUENCES ON WATER CONDITIONS


A) The zero option:

Influences on surface water Surface water protection is ensured by water management and water management regime of SLOVNAFT, a.s. Intakes of service water from the Danube River (approx. 1100-2500 l/s) will have practically no impact on 3 its usual flow rate (average annual flow rate of the Danube River is approx. 2000 m /s). Lately, intakes have had a decreasing tendency, in particular due to modernization of the operation technologies and implementation of circulation cooling of the technological facilities. The volume of water taken by the 3 3 Refinery in 2008 was approx. 46.93 mil m /year (1.5 m /s). Due to the same reason the discharged volumes of waste water from the facilities on the SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises have no impact on flow rates or water quality of the Danube River either. With regard to the intakes, these have also had a decreasing tendency recently. The volume of discharged waste water in 3 3 2008 was 10.2 mil m /year (0.33 m /s).
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Chemically polluted waste water along with other waste water types (sewage pre-treated in septic tanks, polluted rain water pre-treated in oil substances interceptors and other waste water types from the Refinery, SPC and CMEPS) are discharged into the mechanical-chemical-biological waste water treatment plant (MCHB WWT plant) and from there after final treatment into the Danube recipient. Unpolluted rain water and flowing cooling water is discharged through the waste water treatment plant in blocks 17 18 into the Little Danube River. The operation of both wastewater treatment plants (MCHB WWT and waste water treatment plants in blocks 17 18) has to comply with especially strict rules concerning waste water discharge. While keeping these as well as other requirements of Decree the Government of the Slovak Republic No. 242/1993 Coll., the impact on the quality of surface water is rather rare, usually during emergency situations only. In 200, the Refinery discharged approx. 57,83 mil. m /year (1,83 m /s) into the Little Danube. The volume is increased by flowing cooling water from the drills of the hydraulic ground water protection sys3 tem; its minimal flow rate (given by the operation of the small hydro-electric power plant) is 25 m /s. With minimum flow rate, the Refinerys waste water increases the river's flow rate by approx. 7.52 %. Influences on underground water: The area which will be affected by the construction is located in the upper part of itn ostrov (Rye Island) Protected Landscape Area . That is the most significant reservoir of high-quality drinking water in Slovakia. Protection of this area is given by Act of Government of the Slovak Socialist Republic No. 46/1978 Coll. on protected area of natural water accumulation in itn ostrov. The regime and circulation of ground water in the upper part of itn ostrov are predominantly determined by the Danube River. After the Gabkovo Waterworks was co nstructed, its surface has been more stabilized. Ground water protection at the Refinery site and in its close surroundings is ensured by the hydraulic ground water protection system. When new investments are being employed, ground water protection is also ensured by construction modifications (e.g., retaining tubs for oil substances beneath the technological appliances; collecting and retaining tanks for oil substances with insulation resistant to oil substances; double-jacket tanks for raw materials and fuel storage; waterproof chemical sewerage piping; systems for oil substances leakage indication; etc.). Within the operation of the HGWP system in SLOVNAFT, a.s. 28.96 mil m (918.24 l/s) of ground water 3 has been drawn with the prescribed limit 36.3 mil. m . Out of that, 25.97 % (79.77 % of the limit) has been used for cooling. Underground water drainage by the HGWP operation causes permanent decrease of the underground water level under the SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises; that prevents spreading of oil and other polluting substances in the subsoil of the premises. The zero option with the alternative of production close down in SLOVNAFT, a.s., due to loss of competition ability and with failure to ensure future operation of the hydraulic ground water protection system would be a menace of spreading of ground water contamination by oil substances outside the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site and endangering of water resources in the Protected Landscape Area Horn itn O strov. Note: The zero option with the alternative of production close down in SLOVNAFT, a.s., due to loss of competition ability and with failure to ensure future operation of the hydraulic ground water protection system would be a menace of spreading of ground water contamination by oil substances outside the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site and endangering of water resources in the Protected Landscape Area Horn itn 1 Ostrov. . B) The propose option Influences on surface water : The intake of water for industrial purposes from the Danube will be realized through the Refinery waterworks appliances on the basis of a contractual relation. Consequently, con3 sumption of the Danube water by the Refinery will be increased by 2105600 m /year. Intake of cooling 3 3 water will represent 3 328 000 m /year. Both volumes together will represent 5433600 m /year and thus will represent the Refinery's intake increase by approx. 11,58 % in comparison with 2008 (172,3 l/s). In 3 comparison with normal flow rates in the Danube River (ca. 2000 m /s) this increase will have no practical impact. Similarly, the increase of the volume of waste water from the CCGT block - approx. 707200 m /year, which is 6.89% of the total volume of waste water discharged from the Refinery via the MCHB WWT plant in 2008, will have no impact on flow rates and water quality of the Danube River either.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI The quality of waste water discharged from the CCGT power block will have to meet the agreed quality indicators the limits specified by the MCHB WWT plant operator (Slovnaft, a.s.) that is responsible for the quality of water discharged into the Danube River. In case of meeting the required indicators and limits, waste water from the CCGT power block will basically influence the quality of water in this recipient only insignificantly. Influences on underground water : Assuming the realization of construction modifications providing ground water protection and regarding the hydro-geological situation (which are locally modified by the consumption of ground water reserves, especially from the drills of the hydraulic screen), it is possible to conclude that the CCGT turbine plant construction and operation will not affect the ground water regime and flow. Similarly to rock environment protection, ground water protection will be ensured by construction modifications impenetrable tubs and sewerage system which will avoid waste water penetration into the rock environment. Secondary ground water protection will be ensured by the already mentioned hydraulic ground water protection system which has been operated on long-term basis and permanently monitored.

6. INFLUENCES ON SOIL
A) The zero option Impacts on soil are mediated through the imission fall-out. When the emission limits are kept, the imission fall-out in the involved area decreases (in absolute values) proportionally to the anticipated decrease of emissions from the production units. Since this is a general long-term trend supported by strict national and European emission limit standards, it can be assumed that improvement of the imission background will take place. Thus the soil load by imission fall-out will be reduced in the examined area, soil contamination by foreign substances will decrease and soil quality will improve. Due to reduction of sulphur dioxide (SO2) imission, soil acidity of soil will change gradually. A qualitatively new condition would occur in case of the Refinery and SPC production close down. Then, a long-term social outfield would develop on the site (either partial or total, depending on the options for utilization of the grounds), accompanied by gradual soil degradation due to decay of technological appliances and to uncontrolled human activities (wild waste dumps, squattering, etc.). B) The proposed option Soil within the site (blocks 94 and 95) can be characterized as a built-up (hard) surfaces and social outfield with devastated soil. Before the construction begins, this soil will be removed for the most part. Whenever soil contamination will be detected during earthworks, soil will be removed and disposed of as dangerous waste according to applicable regulations. At the end of construction works it will be partially replaced by made-up soil or gravel on un-built and soft surfaces within landscaping, according to the purpose of the surface.

7.

INFLUENCES ON THE FAUNA, FLORA AND THEIR BIOTOPES:

A) The zero option The impacts of the zero options realization (assuming maintained production) on the genetic resources and biodiversity will not be shown on short term basis. In longer terms, they will be concealed by synergetic effects from other sources of devastation in the area, while it will be fairly difficult to define the impacts of the Refinery, CMEPS and SPC production. The alternative of production close down would, on one hand, have a partially positive influence on the air quality, soil and biotopes (while the influence of traffic and other sources of the area devastation must be considered). On the other hand, however, this alternative would endanger (from the future perspective) the most valuable natural resource of the involved area ground water, as a result of finished or reduced operation of the hydraulic ground water protection system. In addition, due to transmissivity of the rock environment and to soil capillarity, the biotopes would be potentially endangered as well. Due to the development of social outfield, the conditions for biodiversity of unwanted outfield fauna and flora communities would extend into the surrounding agricultural production land and into the built-up areas. B) The proposed option In blocks 94 and 95, currently rudimentary communities of plants and self-seeding woods are present, along with built-up areas and hard surfaces. They will be removed before the handover of the construcEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI tion site to the investor. The impact of construction and operation of the CCGT turbine plant on the biotopes in the involved area will be only mediated (through the atmosphere and soil). With respect to synergic effects from other sources of environmental devastation (traffic, other production activities, etc.), the impact will not be distinctive and basically will not be manifested in preservation or alterations of the genetic resources and biodiversity in the involved area. The impact on protected and endangered fauna and flora species will also be insignificant. Avifauna of the involved area could be affected by the air line of the 2 x 400 kV connection to the SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice since it will represent an air barrier for birds (poles and cables of the connection); this could be even dangerous due to possible burns by electricity). With regard to the proximity of the birds sanctuary in Dunajsk luhy (a part of the Ruinov, Podunajsk Biskupice and Petralka cadastral areas), it will be necessary to make the necessary technical precautions for the protection of avifauna during construction of the connection line (see cause C IV 2 Technical precautions).

8.

INFLUENCES ON THE LANDSCAPE

The evaluation of the impacts of the proposed CCGT turbine plant construction is based on the premise that the construction will be realized within the Refinery site, which represents a functionally coherent unit within the structure of the landscape. On the basis of this premise, the evaluation of the impacts of the construction on the landscape is as follows: 8.1 INFLUENCES ON THE STRUCTURE AND USE OF THE LANDSCAPE A) The zero option Neither functional utilization nor spatial configuration of the landscape will be changed due to the acceptance of this option. The production will continue provided that innovation will be provided for technological equipment in those production units which are morally outdated and physically worn out at present already, and whose parameters do not meet current standards and regulations. Should the production continue in hard technical and technological conditions and under growing pressure of changing economic and ecological conditions of the production, the consequences of this options acceptance would become evident through decreasing economic dynamics of the company and, consequently, would result in its gradual functional extinction. Production close down would result in development of an area (ap2 prox. 5-6 km ) without possible utilization on long-term basis, with devastated structure of objects and equipment. In the landscape, a necrotic anthropogenic element would develop, acting not only as a discordant and regressive element in the systems of technical and economic infrastructure in the area, but also as a devastative element against the natural components of the landscape environment. B) The proposed option The construction and operation of the CCGT turbine plant in the Refinery site will not change the current structure and existing functional systems and elements of the landscape. Due to its construction, build-up of blocks 94 and 95 will be changed. In addition, an above-ground high tension electric line (2x400 kV) as a connection of the CCGT turbine plant to the SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice will be set up. Should the turbine plant be connected to the remote heating system, a short section of the heating pipeline (some 100 meters) between the turbine plant and the existing pipeline will be added. Other changes in the structure and utilization of the landscape will not become visible. Outside the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, the influence of the zero or proposed options realization on the landscape utilization (e.g. changed utilization of the nearby woods for leisure, changed agricultural land resources structure and utilization, changed urban structure and housing development character) will be st nd restrictive within the extent of the hygienic protection zone and the safety protection zones (1 and 2 degree), potentially also within the proposed protection zones of the CCGT turbine plant facilities (the protection zone around the 2x400 kV connection line to the switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice.) However, changes of specified regimes in protection zones, and also any changes in the utilization of the landscape elements in the involved area are not excluded. 8.2 INFLUENCES ON THE LANDSCAPE SCENERY A) The zero option Realization of the zero option will not have any impacts on the current landscape scenery.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI B) The proposed option The character of the turbine plants construction will affect the view of the Refinery site from the southern side, which is perceptible only in the narrow corridor of the communication running along the southern and south-eastern border of the site. Partly changed view of the Refinery site will not alter the panorama of the city within which the SLOVNAFT site is perceived as an industrial site with its characteristic verticals of columns, chimneys and field burners with changing intensity of flames and fume veils.

9.
9.1

INFLUENCES ON PROTECTED AREAS AND THEIR PROTECTION ZONES


INFLUENCES ON PROTECTED AREAS AND PROTECTION ZONES A) The zero option:

During continued production in the plant, the zero option impacts on adjacent protected areas and protection zones would not appear. After termination of production, as a result of the above-mentioned social outfield biodiversity conditions of undesired outfield fauna and flora population would spread into adjacent protected areas, namely to those in Luh Vlieho hrdla and Ostrov Kop, or possibly also Poovncky les and Topoov hony, and protected flora and fauna species could be threatened. Termination of production and abandoning of the premises could have a rather adverse impact upon the Horn itn ostrov protected water area, upon ground waters and water resources. B) The proposed option The examined area includes 6 protected territorial objects. In addition, there are 24 proposed localities which are interesting from the point of view of nature and land protection. All the above-mentioned protected areas are situated close to main water flows of the Danube and Little Danube rivers. With respect to these facts (impacts on natural environment), the CCGT block construction and operation), will not be a threat to these protected areas. Boundaries and regimes of declared protection zones will remain untouched and the assumed imission situation will not affect their function adversely. 9.2 INFLUENCES ON PROTECTED AREAS OF EUROPEAN IMPORTANCE (NATURA 2000)

The evaluated affected area includes (parts of) the following protected areas of European importance (Natura 2000) defined according to Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 3/2000 whereby national list of areas of European importance has been specified pursuant to Article 27, Clause 5 of Act No. 543/2002 as amended by Act No. 525/ 2003 Coll.: Bratislavsk luhy, part of cadastral area of Petralka (2nd and 4th protection degrees), Biskupick luhy, part of cadastral area of Podunajsk Biskupice (2nd to 4th protection degrees) Hruovsk zdr, part of cadastral area of Podunajsk Biskupice (2nd protection degree). Dunajsk luhy within of the Dunajsk luhy landscape reserve, part of cadastral area of Ruinov, Podunajsk Biskupice, Petralka.

The following area has been declared a protected bird area: -

The reasons of the above declaration, protected biotopes, plants and animals are given in the abovementioned Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. Evaluation of impacts on protected areas of European importance (Natura 2000) is governed by the same conclusions as in III 9.1. The appearance of the construction and operation of the CCGT power block and will not affect the natural components of the environment and will not endanger the above protected areas. the boundaries and regimes of the declared areas will remain intact; the assumed imission situation will not affect their function negatively.

10.

INFLUENCES ON THE TERRITORIAL SYSTEM OF ECOLOGICAL STABILITY


A) The zero option

During continued production in the Refinery, the conditions for the existence of biotopes of the territorial system of ecological stability would be gradually impaired as a result of increasing imission fall-out increase due to outdated production equipment. They might be endangered and/or depreciated after
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI shutdown of the hydraulic ground water protection system and after the spread of outfield fauna and flora communities following shutdown of operation close in the plant. B) The proposed option Disturbing impacts of the CCGT turbine plant construction will be short-term and will not result in permanent changes in the territorial ecological stability system. A disturbing element in the ecosystem of the involved area will be represented by high voltage electric line (2x400 kV) - connection to the SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice, being a flight obstruction for avifauna. This influence may be eliminated through suitable technical precautions (e.g. barriers for landing of birds on the poles, of scare-off targets on the line).

11.
11.1

INFLUENCES ON THE URBAN SITE AND USE OF THE LAND:


INFLUENCES ON THE STRUCTURE OF SETTLEMENTS, HOUSING, ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDINGS A) The zero option

Except the above-mentioned reconstruction of the Heat Plant the zero option does not assume any changes of functional use of surfaces or changes of the character of buildings inside the Refinery site. Maintaining this status quo will result in gradual moral outdating and physical wear and tear of objects and equipment and degradation of quality of the environment. The extreme form of this option - production close down will definitely have a negative impact on the urban site and on the use of land. The abandoned premises will represent a long-term obstacle to urbanistic development of the involved area, since the investments for redevelopment or reconstruction of the Refinery site will increase the cost of any investment project up to an economically intolerable extent. Moreover, within possible redevelopment, numerous technical and ecological problems will have to be resolved connected with liquidation of the object and its technological facilities and with continuation of the HGWP operation. B) The proposed option: The construction will change the functional use and buildings of blocks 94 and 95; outside SLOVNAFT, a.s site it will partially change the technical infrastructure of the involved area due to power line connection branches.. Apart from the above-mentioned changes, the implementation of both options (zero and proposed) will not affect the urbanistic structure of settlements, their architecture and buildings; however, it does not exclude changes in the forms of using the urbanistic structures in the involved area (outside the Refinery premises) within the intentions of approved urbanistic concepts. 11.2 INFLUENCES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION A) The zero option The production of engine fuels and other products of refining and petrochemical industry in SLOVNAFT, a.s. may continue regardless of the realization of the CCGT turbine plant construction. On the other hand, maintaining the status quo without necessary innovation and modernization of technological equipment in the plant would lead to gradual reduction of production possibilities, to lower competition ability of the plant and, in the extreme case, following loss of markets even to production close down with all its unwanted impacts on the environment, on the development of the involved area and on the social and economic sphere development, as mentioned above. The related production companies, distributors, trading network and other purchasers would have to search for new providers of raw materials, semi-products and goods purchased in SLOVNAFT, a.s. With regard to the diversity of assortment and to the produced amounts, reduction or close down of the production would also affect the situation in other production branches in the Slovak Republic for a certain period of time. B) The proposed option The construction of the CCGT turbine plant belongs to big investments which (during the period of the construction and the delivery of technological appliances) will create requests for production in other plants of engineering, electrical, chemical and building industry as well as requests for deliveries of construction and assembly works both in Slovakia and abroad. On the other hand, it will be a new provider of electric power (possibly also of heat) for the consumer sphere (industrial plants and other purchasers) during its operation period. The advantage is in short start-up time which will allow to cover the of power
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI consumption peak times. In both cases, its impact on the industrial production as a result of the proposed project can be designated as positive. 11.3 INFLUENCES ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND THE FORESTRY

A) The zero option Slovnaft, a.s., SPC and (indirectly) CMEPS belong to major suppliers of engine fuels, oils and other petrochemical products to be used in agricultural production and forestry as well (very often in mediated manner via producers and distributors). Within the involved area, modernization of technological appliances in the plant will be demonstrated in due proportion to reduction imission fall-out. In due proportion to this, the characteristics of agricultural soil and a quality of forest growth will change as well. These changes will be hidden and hard to perceive. B) The proposed option Construction and operation of the CCGT turbine plant will not affect the agricultural production and the forestry directly. It will become evident (as mentioned above) by improved conditions for electric power consumption purchase for these two industrial branches as well. 11.4 INFLUENCES ON SERVICES, SPORT, RECREATION AND TOURISM

A) The zero option The supporting impact of SLOVNAFT, a.s. on services, sport, recreation and tourism is similar to the preceding case, including the impacts of production innovation and modernization. In addition, SLOVNAFT, a.s. is a determining operator of the chain of petrol stations in the Slovak Republic and thus it contributes to the development of services for drivers and of tourism. SLOVNAFT, a.s. is also a sponsor of numerous local, nationwide and international sport events. B) The proposed option Construction and operation of the turbine plant will affect services, sport, recreation and tourism through improvement and extension of the possibilities for electric power consumption for consumers in these industrial branches as well. 11.5 INFLUENCES ON TRANSPORTATION

A) The Zero Option Mass transport within the Slovnaft, a.s. site is provided by the company. Its schedule corresponds to starting of individual shifts and to internal needs of the plant. External public transport is provided by the Bratislava urban transport lines and by the bus lines of the non-city bus lines. Freight transport of raw materials and goods within SLOVNAFT, a.s. is operated as follows: Oil as the basic raw material (approx. 2,500 kt/year) is transported via Druba and Adria oil pipelines. It is assumed mode of oil transport will continue to be pivotal, while shipment is also alternatively being considered with respect to diversification of resources. Natural gas is also fed to the Refinery via pipeline. The remaining raw materials are transported by rail or trucking to the Refinery. However, their year-long consumption is significantly lower in comparison with the volume of transported basic raw material, and does not represent a significant load of the other means of transportation in the involved area. Approximately 20 % of annual production of gasoline and 15 % of annual production of diesel and fuel oil is transported to the fuel distribution storage facility in Klaany via pipeline. Additional approx. 20 % of annual production of diesel and fuel oil and 15 % of annual production of heating oil is transported to a terminal in the Bratislava harbor by another pipeline. From there it is transported by river boats to foreign purchasers. The above-mentioned pipeline transportation is self-contained and does not affect other means of transportation related to the companys operation. (similarly to the water conduit and sewer network) Approximately 60 % of annual production of gasoline (i.e. 900 kt), approx. 55 % of diesel and fuel oil (i.e. 1,260 kt), 70 % of heating oil (i.e. 126 kt), approx. 65 % of annual production of asphalts and of oxidation mixtures (i.e. 50 kt), approx. 60 % of annual petrochemical production (i.e. 210 kt) and a part of lubricating oils and greases are transported by rail.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI The remaining volumes of the companys production are transported by trucking (out of the annual production, this represents approx. 20 % of gasoline, 10 % of diesel and fuel oil, 15 % of heating oil, 35 % of asphalt and oxidation mixtures, 40 % of petrochemical production and a part of lubricating oils and greases). As a whole, it is assumed that the forms of raw materials and products transportation as well as their proportions will remain unchanged in the future. From all the used forms of raw materials supply and product distribution, traffic/transportation in the involved area is most significantly affected by the railway and trucking freight. Road and rail connection of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. plant is described in section B I.5.2. Overall road transport load due to dispatching and transport of products out of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site is approx. 7 12 arrivals and departures in an hour. This is only an insignificant portion (1.0 3 %) of the overall transport load on Slovnaftsk Street (400 600 vehicles in an hour), and its impact on the environment due to traffic on Slovnaftsk street (noise, vibrations, emissions) is basically imperceptible. The traffic load of Slovnaftsk street and Ulica svornosti during traffic rush-hours exceeds their capacity limits; thus, their passability is decreased. Both communications are two-lane roads. Overall load of rail transport due to dispatching of SLOVNAFT, a.s. products is 228-355 wagons daily, i.e. 7 12 train units. In Vrakua Ostredky the rail section this represents approx. 25 % of this rails load. Transportation of engine fuels and other products within SLOVNAFT, a.s. is realized according to internal regulation issued in compliance with valid security regulations of the Slovak Republic and of STN standards. During realization of the zero option until reduction and potentially close down of production in the plant, the load of road and rail transport will not be altered due to the options claims. B) The proposed option As mentioned already both access communications of the main transport system of the city Slovnaftsk cesta and Ulica svornosti are overloaded during traffic rush-hours. The communications are loaded within the upper half of their capacity limits during working hours. Other access communications along the perimeter of SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises are used within the lower half of their capacity limits. Construction of the CCGT block will not directly affect the development of local communications or road, railway, air and water transport in the involved area. During the construction works demands for personal transport will arise (max. 800 employees of contracting companies); a part of the employees may be transported by public transport, by transport of the contractors or by own cars. With regard to assumed two-shift construction works, it can be assumed that a part of the personal transport will be performed before traffic rush-hours or at their beginning. From the perspective of load of access communications, transport of the above number of persons may affect the beginning and duration of traffic rush-hours to a slight (or even negligible) extent. From the perspective of trucking during the construction works, increased transport demands may arise during excavation works in relation to the way of founding the objects, creating temporary soil deposits or, alternatively, to the directions and routes of their disposal. Soil disposal will be performed especially during daily working time in the extent of approx. 10 to 20 drives; it will increase the load of the access communications, and this will be reflected considerably in side access communications around the SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises whereas this increase will be less noticeable on Slovnaftsk cesta and Ulica svornosti. The above-mentioned influence of soil disposal will be short-term, i.e. within a few months. Load in a similar extent may also occur during the main construction works in relation to transportation of building materials, as well as in dependence on the manner of handling within the project of organization of the construction and in dependence on the construction schedule. A specific range of problems related to road transport during construction of the CCGT block will be transportation of heavy, oversized freights; the investor, selected carriers and construction executor together with the respective institutions and authorities will have to develop and agree a special regime of transportation of such freights (time, route, road arrangements, traffic restrictions, detours, etc.). Transfer of deliveries of materials and technological equipment in the largest possible extent to rail transport can contribute to improve the situation on access road during the construction works. Within the CCGT turbine plant, the most significant volumes of raw materials (natural gas and water) will be transported by pipelines whose parameters will be considered, or recalculated and modified within the EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 124/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI construction project, partly also within the operation. The necessary modifications of existing pipeline distribution systems, as well as and construction of new pipeline connections will be realized according to the construction project during the construction works. Operation of the turbine plant will load the traffic networks in the involved area only with small volumes (intake of auxiliary chemicals or waste removal). 11.6. INFLUENCES ON THE TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE AREA A) The zero option The Refinery grounds are connected to the technical infrastructure in the involved area. The original objects and networks of this infrastructure and their connection to the municipal distribution system (energy pipelines, water mains, sewerage, connections, etc.) were originally built for processing of 8 million ton of oil a year. Currently, they are used for slightly over 60 % of their capacity. Within reconstruction of the heat plant, short connections from the pipeline bridges and from the adjacent plants will have to be built to provide for connection to the site's infrastructure. The reconstruction of the CMEPS heat plant will not affect the technical infrastructure in the involved area. B) The proposed option For the most part, the turbine plant will make use of the technical infrastructure of the Refinery as well as of the existing technical infrastructure in the involved area. However, connections and branches to the existing networks and distribution systems will have to be built. Especially important is the construction of input branch pipe to the existing 2xDN 500 gas line, and 2x400 kV output branch connection to the SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice, which is not included in the proposed construction project. 11.7 INFLUENCES OF RELATED CONSTRUCTIONS, ACTIVITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE A related construction is represented by building of the 2x400 kV connection to the SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice which is a sine qua non for the turbine plants operation. Other related constructions would be represented by completion of the branch pipe to the existing BAT, a.s., heat line (in case of utilization of the turbine plant as a source for central heat supply). Apart from that, construction of the turbine plant does not assume the necessity of realization of any other related constructions, changes of the infrastructure in the involved area or other related activities outside the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site either.

12.

INFLUENCES ON CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS:


A) The zero option

SLOVNAFT, a.s. does not directly participate in preserving cultural and historical monuments and archeological excavations. An indirect effect is represented by reduction of aggressive elements of the imission fall-out that damage objects and buildings with cultural values and objects of historical and/or prehistorical significance. Reconstruction of the heat plant will contribute by a significant decrease of sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions to this effect. B) The proposed Option: There are no cultural or historical objects in the area of the proposed construction.

13.

INFLUENCES ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

Archaeological discoveries are not assumed in the area of the proposed construction, also with regard to previous investment activities.

14.

INFLUENCES ON PALAEONTOLOGICAL SITES AND ON SIGNIFICANT GEOLOGICAL LOCALITIES


The CCGT power block may contribute to the preservation of cultural and historical monuments in the broader area affected by the construction in a way similar to that of Slovnaft, a.s., within the intentions of its economic and territorial activities. In case of discoveries of some objects of cultural and historical values or in case of archaeological or palaeontological discoveries, the in125/162

There are no palaeontological sites in the involved area. Note:

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI vestor and operator of the construction will report the discovery to the respective institutions and will interrupt the investment activities until a decision of the respective authority will be made.

15.

INFLUENCES ON IMMATERIAL CULTURAL VALUES


A) The zero option

The production in SLOVNAFT, a.s. does not directly affect any immaterial cultural values. On the other hand, employment of several thousands of people (not only directly in the plant but also in the sphere of service and civil amenities) as well as preserving social securities by maintaining the employment rate may, along with other factors, contribute to preserving cultural traditions and a certain cultural standard in the companys sphere of activates. In addition, the company is often a sponsor of various cultural and social events. For instance, various cultural events take place in the company's club Apollo, and SLOVNAFT, a.s. will continue doing so in the future as well. B) The proposed option

With regard to the interconnection of the proposer with the MOL group and SLOVNAFT, a.s., it can be expected that the CCGT turbine plant through its management and employees will also participate in cultivating the immaterial cultural values.

16.

OTHER INFLUENCES:

Other than the above-mentioned influences of the proposed construction on the urban site and use of the land are not expected.

17.

SPATIAL SYNTHESIS OF THE INFLUENCES OF THE ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE AREA

Assumed anthropogenic load and its relation to environmental sustainability of the area: The area affected by construction of the CCGT power block is created by three landscape types with different representation rates of anthropogenic elements and with a very different functional use of areas and facilities comprised in these landscape types. Anthropogenic load of the involved area represents a wide range of activities which arise from its functional use. Intersection of urban landscape with countryside of suburban type creates a heterogeneous physiognomic-functional structure which comprises residential, industrial, traffic, agricultural, recreational and other activities. Individual activities have naturally different impact intensities on land. Each new anthropogenic activity interferes into the system of bonds created between natural landscape and anthropogenic activities established in the landscape during the period prior to the start of influences of the new activity. . From the point of view of functional use, frequency and intensity of anthropogenic impact, floodplain forests in southern parts of the involved area and agricultural land fields intended for vegetable production to the north and to the east from the premises of SLOVNAFT, a.s can be designated as surfaces (areas) with relatively low anthropogenic load. Medium anthropogenic load of the area is created by housing development of family houses and houses with up to 4 floors in Nov Plenisko, Prievoz, Vrakua, Podunajsk Biskupice, Rovinka, including services, civic amenities, technical infrastructure, small local management facilities, communications, vegetation and areas for sports and recreation. High anthropogenic load of areas and lands is created by high-rise housing development (including services, civic amenities, technical infrastructure, small local management facilities, communications, vegetation and areas for sports and recreation) in Mlynsk nivy, Ruinov, Vrakua, Podunajsk Biskupice and Petralka, larger distribution and social centers and smaller industrial premises in Mlynsk nivy and Petralka. Finally, there is very high anthropogenic load in large industrial sites (Mlynsk nivy and the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site), in traffic facilities (port, central freight station, SLOVNAFT, a.s. terminal) and on transport routes Einsteinova street, Pannska and Dolnozemsk roads, Prstavn most, Slovnaftsk street, Ulica svornosti.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Spatial distribution of assumed overloaded localities of the area: The most overloaded area in the involved area is represented by the traffic corridor formed by the above-mentioned communications, the north part of the SLOVNAFT, a.s., premises, the port and central freight station. It is also possible to add certain industrial and traffic premises in the area of Mlynsk nivy. These localities will keep existing as overloaded areas; however, their overloading will be only slightly affected by the planned activity. The CCGT generating block will be situated on the southern edge of the of SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises on the boundaries of an area with a relatively low anthropogenic load formed by floodplain forests and fields. Spatial synthesis of positive effects of the activity: As mentioned above, positive effects of the construction on the involved area will be reflected in improvement of the power consumption conditions for the consumer sphere and in building of an environment friendly source of ecologically pure power. With respect to area, the above-mentioned effects will be reflected in two different zones. They will be more significant in the zone formed by the arch connecting the eastern part of Petralka, the eastern part of Star mesto, the southern part of Ruinov, Prievoz, Podunajsk Biskupice and Rovinka; the zone is highly urbanized and densely populated and its power consumption conditions will be improved. In the second zone, located to the south of the premises between the Danube and Rovinka, the effects of construction of the power generating block will not appear when the current status will remain unchanged.

18.

COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF THE ASSUMED EFFECTS WITH REGARD TO THEIR SIGNIFICANCE AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH THE VALID LEGAL RULES

From the point of view of comprehensive evaluation of the assumed effects of the generating block construction, the primary effects are represented by the impacts on abiotic natural components of the environment. Partially also full-grown vegetation will be affected. On the construction site and its close proximity there are no objects with a higher number of job positions requiring comfort of interior or exterior environment. During the construction, when founding the construction objects, the terrain, soil and surface layers of rock environment will be disrupted within approx. 1 m depth. Regarding the assumed depth of object founding, the ground water regime will not be disturbed. There is no surface water in the vicinity of the construction site. Concerning abiotic elements of the environment, air and comfort of the environment will be affected most considerably. During the construction, especially in its first stage, when performing earthworks and founding construction objects, as well as when completing ground modifications, the dominant adverse impacts will be represented by higher dustiness, noise, vibrations and shocks caused by the construction machinery used. These impacts will mainly affect the staff of the construction companies; their employers are obliged to provide them with appropriate individual protective outfit. Dwelling units (except emergency housing site and the western edge of Podunajsk Biskupice) are situated outside the security zone I, more than 1000 m away from the premises. According to performed examinations of the construction site and its surroundings and according to theoretical calculations of noise level increase in SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises and their surroundings, the construction works will not directly affect the residential environment of the nearby residential sites in Prievoz, Podunajsk Biskupice, at the emergency housing site, and in Lieskovec which is the nearest to the site. The same applies to dustiness, vibrations and shocks, where, similarly to noise, distance or adjacent technological units will have a substantial effect on their reduction (textual annex No. 7). An indirect impact of the power generating block construction will temporarily arise from a slight increase of traffic intensity on the above-mentioned communications, as a consequence of transport of materials and structures for the construction. According to calculations of noise levels, the standard admissible noise level will not be exceeded in residential sites in Podunajsk Biskupice and in Prievoz, and in the emergency housing site either, where the overrun is within the admissible exception. Primarily positive effects of the CCGT block operation are assumed. A dominant positive effect is the production of environment friendly power and improvement of conditions of its consumptions for consumer sphere, and alternatively also heat supply as well.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI During the generating block operation, a slight increase of NOx emissions will occur. This increase, on the other hand, will be more times balanced by decreased SO2 emissions caused by planned reconstruction of the CMEPS heat plant. At the same time, there is a decrease of monitored emissions in the involved area in comparison to emissions produced by SLOVNAFT, a.s. sources, influenced also by other emission sources and background into which long-distance transfer of pollutants is projected. Therefore the decrease of imissions is significantly lower in comparison to the decrease of emissions of SLOVNAFT, a.s. Direct adverse impact on other abiotic natural components of the environment in the involved area, i.e. rock environment, ground and surface waters, caused by the generating block operation will not occur. So far, the preparation for the proposed activity has been implemented in accordance with the valid legal regulations of the Slovak Republic which affect the concept of the proposed project, the selection of technological equipment, as well as technical solution of the proposed construction in accordance with valid legal standards of the Slovak Republic, European Union, as well as with STN and EN standards. Observance of the legal regulations and technical standards in the following phases of the preparation, construction and operation of the proposed investment will be checked by the relevant authorities and institutions.

19.
19.1

OPERATION RISKS AND THEIR POSSIBLE INFLUENCE ON THE AREA


RISKS OF THE EXISTING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN THE REFINERY AND SPC

Safety analysis Risk Evaluation of Existing & Upgraded Refinery at Bratislava: This safety analysis has been developed for SLOVNAFT, a.s. by AEA Technology, Consultancy Services, Risley, Warrington, England during development of the EFPA project. The company reviewed existing production plants and units of the company as to possible major breakdowns by analyzing potential risk of possible industrial breakdowns, the degree of individual and social risk and the degree of threat to the population outside SLOVNAFT, a.s. site. The conclusions of this safety analysis (Risk Evaluation of Existing & Upgraded Refinery at Bratislava) were as follows: The contours delimiting the areas of individual risk from all activities in both configurations (i.e. before and after realization of the EFPA project) are outside the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site in relatively unpopulated areas, especially southwards and eastwards. In areas with considerable population the risk is below 10 6 -1 .year . The danger for individual people in this area which could be caused by major breakdowns in SLOVNAFT, a.s. is thus evaluated as a factor definitely less than 1/100 of the danger of a traffic accident, and with most cases it is assumed as a danger lower than the possibility of lightning stroke. Social danger outside the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site was expressed as frequency of major breakdowns including a number of death cases. Comparison to the tolerance criteria, applied in other countries allows to conclude that a risk of a major breakdown within SLOVNAFT, a.s. site resulting in more than death cases outside the site can be considered as improbable and negligible. Comparison with historical facts about breakdowns in chemical and petrochemical industry on worldwide basis allows to assume that risks outside SLOVNAFT, a.s. site caused by sources within the site and which could affect the population of adjacent areas are much lower than could be assumed for a refinery plant of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. size. Big breakdowns with numerous injured persons in areas outside the plant are theoretically possible, but possibility of such breakdowns is extremely improbable. The main reasons for the above conclusions were as follows: - SLOVNAFT, a.s. site is situated on a large area. - to the south of the plant and in its eastern and western neighborhood there is a large area with relatively dense population - the prevailing winds will tend to carry possibly emitted toxic and flammable gases above such areas - only as minor part of production units with considerable degree of danger is situated in the northern part of the site, close to which there is numerous population. Risks for people inside the site have not been specified. It is supposed that most of the personnel are informed about production equipment risks and trained with respect to operational safety and health. Safety report of the SLOVNAFT, a.s. plant in Bratislava, the organization S-VRUP, a.s.:

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI During previous years, in terms of Act No. 261/2002 Coll. on prevention of serious industrial breakdowns and on amendments of certain acts additional safety analyses have been developed in SLOVNAFT, a.s., confirming in principle the above conclusions on safety risks of production in SLOVNAFT, a.s. and in the SPC . Their contribution is in more detailed presentation of the issues in question pursuant to legal rules of the Slovak Republic. The last document Safety report of SLOVNAFT, a.s. n Bratislava has been developed by S-VRUP, a.s. in 2007. The report also includes the organizational changes, including split of the original organization to SLOVNAFT, a.s. and SPC. According to the report, technological equipment with impacts beyond the SLOVNAFT, a.s. site is situated at the eastern or north-eastern edge of the site, with partial impact on adjacent residential sites (housing between the northern fencing and the Little Danube, the western edge of Podunajsk Biskupice). Technological equipment is situated at the southern side of the site, and compared to the housing site mentioned above it has a far better position. Beside the analysis of the safety issues in the entire SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, the safety report also contains safety analyses of individual units of the plant. Separate safety report for the CMEPS heat plant has not been developed, because indication of the sources of risk of serious industrial breakdowns has revealed that the selection number for the analyzed sources of this unit is smaller than or equal to 1 (i.e. the possible impacts do not exceed the plant's borders and their indication number is smaller than 30, i.e. the value specified for further evaluation by the QRA analysis). The safety report is available at District Office of the Environment, Karlovesk 2, Bratislava, and in SLOVNAFT,.a.s. 19.2. RISKS OF A DANGER RELATED TO OPERATION OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SLOVNAFT, A.S., SITE

According to the recent safety analysis (S-VRUP, a.s.), in case of leakage of oil substances, fuels, chemicals and additives, or of energy carriers there may be a risk of fire, explosion and toxic effects even outside the production unit proper. Leakage of flammable liquids, gases and vapors, which may be heated above the ignition temperature results in the risk of their ignition. In addition, during possible breakdown with leakage of hydrocarbons explosive mixture of hydrocarbon vapors with the air will be created, and this is the most serious danger in equipment operation. Safety data cards have been issued for fuels, chemicals, additives and energy carriers which, in addition to the basic physical specifications and chemical composition, contain also their negative effect on health and environment, the manner of individual protection, first aid for people afflicted by effects of the substance and ecological precautions. Sources of risk to health and safety of employees: The risks of employees are given by the character of operation in individual production units. The risk factors for operation of technological equipment include in particular the following: - the substances taking part in the production process (exposition to these substances in case of equipment failure, during equipment opening for repair or maintenance, or during scheduled shutdowns) - sampling of media during the production process - work on platforms and at heights - injury caused by rotating machine parts . - hot surfaces of equipment - injury by electric shock - noise of a technological equipment. Specification of reserved technical equipments: Pursuant to Regulation of Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs and Family No. 718/2002 Coll., reserved technical equipment for ensuring operational safety and health and safety of technical equipment is specified as follows: lifting technical equipment, gas technical equipment, electric technical equipment, other technical equipment (pressure vessels, boilers, pumps, compressors, blowers, exchangers, measurement and regulation equipment and machines, etc.)

The impact of risk on employees is eliminated in the project already, mainly by compliance of the project with applicable rules related to operational safety and health. The basic operational safety and health requirements are specified by Decree of the Government of the Slovak Republic No. 201/2001 Coll.; the
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI basic requirements on operational health and safety during building works are specified by Regulation No. 374/1990 Coll. of Slovak Office for Operational Safety and Slovak Safety Office. To restrict the risks, employees must be trained and must use the allocated protective outfit. The principle to prevent operational risks rather than protect from their effects is applied in production units. The cases when operators come into close contact with the operational media is being minimized. Common machine operation is restricted to periodical checking according to operation rules. Restriction of risks effects is as follows: Inadmissible concentrations: The risk that inadmissible concentration of pollutant with respect to hygiene will develop in the air or dangerous concentration of explosive vapors will occur, is reduced considerably, as most machines are mounted in the open air in open steel structures. In sporadic cases, in case of direct contact with the harmful substances (maintenance and repairs of technological equipment with the possibility of contamination) protective outfit such as glasses, gloves, apron, and respirator with filtration pad for hydrocarbon vapors are used. Electric installations and equipment: Machines are realized in accordance with relevant STN and EN STN standards, including the manner of protection against dangerous contact with dead parts and with dangerous contact voltage. All metal covers of electric equipment are grounded. Electric installation and machines are provided as relevant to specified environment according to STN 33 0300 and other standards. Hot surfaces: Most of the installed equipment and piping are equipped with good quality thermal insulation. Equipment and machines without thermal insulation with the temperature higher than 50C have a suitable protective cover at places with risk of accidental contact by the operator when performing normal activities. Rotating parts of equipment All rotating parts are equipped with protection covers or are otherwise protected against injury of operators. These covers will be of different color than the remaining parts of the equipment. Danger of the fall from height All places and areas in heights, where regular checking, operation or maintenance of equipment is performed, are protected by tough ladders and work platforms. Hand-rails on work platforms have selfclosing doors (operated by gravitation with oblique hinges) at ladder exits, or self-closing drop latch. Transfers from work platforms on ladders are protected against falling of people into the depth. Uncovered tanks, ramps, platforms, foot-bridges and access routes (higher than 500 mm above the environment) have suitable hand rails. Safety zones and escape routes: Safety zones are specified in the protocol on the definition of external effects, which is part of the building project or passport. Communication and transport within a block is organized so that access to the equipment for operation and maintenance would be possible with operational safety considered. Escape of endangered people from production unit working area is provided as a rule by two independent escape routes, including escape ladders to opposite directions. Escape routes from servicing platforms, stairways and cable space are protected by emergency lighting with a reserve source Safety orientation labels are installed at important places. Protection of working environment and employees against the effects of pollutants In Slovnaft, a.s. protection of employees and working place is performed by a system of legal, organizational, technical and health precautions aimed at creation of working conditions, safety and protection of employees and working environment. Protection is based on observance of general organization and safety standards SLOVNAFT a.s. All employees must be trained and tested evincibly with respect to these standards. Protection of workers is also performed by providing for technological equipment with high tightness, signaling of dangerous situations, and thorough use of individual protection outfit. All equipment and piping with surface temperature higher than 50C in a production unit are covered by thermal insulation for protection of operators. Technical equipment and surfaces for operation, maintenance and repairs: The layout and size of areas in production units correspond to the requirements for equipment operation. Safe access to all the working places and servicing areas of the unit has been designed. Maintenance and repair of technological equipment can be done on free parts of sloped concrete floor of the production unit. Dismantling of pumps and other machinery is made by help of special mobile technology, stationary cranes and tackles. Platforms, landings, stairs and foot-bridges will be protected against fall down by
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI hand-rails, anti-skid floor treatment and rail stops where necessary. Stationary ladders are protected by cages. Communications will be provided for all climb places on structures, working platforms will have anti-skid treatment at ladders. Where necessary, sufficient lighting will be provided in the production unit for night inspections; safety signs and paints will also be provided to draw attention to increased risk of tripping, injury of head, and contamination by dangerous and harmful substances. Storage of hazardous substances and their handling: Production units are technologically designed so that, as a rule, raw materials are not stored there, or only minimum volumes necessary for operation. Raw materials and media required for operation are mostly transported via pipelines or by trucks or tank trucks. Internal regulations are developed for hazardous material storage and handling. Fire fighting and the civil protection equipment: Fire fighting is a separate part of the project documentation of individual objects, buildings and operation units pursuant to relevant Slovak legal rules and to STN standards. During operation, each production unit has its own fire fighting plan with supplements, which specifies the rules for activities of the employees during a fire. With respect to operational similarity, the facts given in this clause can be applied to the CCGT block as well, while the specific issues related to production, transformation and transfer of electric power should be included in safety analysis of its operation. 19.3 POSSIBILITIES AND RISKS OF DANGERS FROM EXTERNAL INFLUENCES

From among external sources of risk outside the site, operation of the civil airport in Bratislava with, aircraft fall risk, OLO (municipal waste incineration plant), fire of the adjacent Vlie hrdlo and Kop forest massifs and fire of agricultural cultures on adjacent agricultural land can be mentioned. 19.4 DANGER FOR THE POPULATION

During normal operation of production units in SLOVNAFT, a.s. and provided that all prescribed emission and waste water quality limits are observed and that the hydraulic underground water protection system is in permanent operation, there is no risk of health harm or of any other injury of the inhabitants of the involved area. Health and safety of the inhabitants of the involved area can be damaged only case of major or large technological breakdowns. The forms of the risk are as follows: - fire or damage to health caused by the thermal flux (injury above 4 kW/ m of the flow, death 2 above 37,5 kW m ), - explosion of an unlimited cloud of explosive vapors (pressure > 0.1 MPa - death, > than 0.01 MPa - injury), - cracking of pressure devices (death and injury by flying fragments). The inhabitants of the involved area could be at risk under unfavorable climatic conditions, in case of massive generation of combustion gases from a large fire in SLOVNAFT, a.s. or of excessive escape of vapors from the processed materials (e.g. light hydrocarbons, natural gas, heating gas or other technological gasses), as in c certain concentrations these substances have a hazardous effect for human organism. SLOVNAFT, a.s. has developed and ensured the necessary precautions in accordance with applicable legal rules on civil protection, including information about possible risk, the manner of self-help and mutual help and actions of inhabitants in case of a major breakdown. In the CCGT block, which will be located at the southern edge of Slovnaft, a.s. site, individual persons occurring sporadically on the communications and adjacent areas outside the plant could be at risk. 19.5 ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS
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Environmental risks related to the production in the Refinery, CMEPS and SPC for various stages of the activity are described in section IV 6. For possible ecological breakdowns in SLOVNAFT, a.s. (or in the Refinery and SPC) relevant directives for individual production units have been developed, and relevant material resources have been provided. During operation of the CCGT block an environmental risk can occur in case of minor leakage of natural gas, leakage of oil substances and additives into rock environment and underground water. Note: On the basis of the above-mentioned evaluation of risks and safety in relation to Act No. 261/2000 Coll. on prevention of serious industrial breakdowns (SEVESO II), the situation of enforcing the tasks resulting from the Act and from other legal rules is re-evaluated and their update is underway also with regard to construction and operation of the CCGT power block. On its EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 131/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI basis, the necessary technical precautions will be made within the project preparation as well as for the realization of the CCGT power block (see textual annex No. 7).

IV.

MEASURES SUGGESTED FOR PREVENTION, ELIMINATION, MINIMIZATION AND COMPENSATION OF INFLUENCES OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ZONING MEASURES

1.

It is recommended that the land planning documentation for the CCGT power block (in terms of relevant legislation of the SR) also comprises conclusions of the overall Safety Analysis of SLOVNAFT, a.s. the premises in Bratislava, (Revision 1, SLOVNAFT VRUP, a.s. and cooperating companies, Bratislava, June 2007) and conclusions of connected safety analyses for new investment plans of SLOVNAFT, a.s. in accordance with the negotiations and agreed procedures (see textual annex No. 7) Even before the start of the area clearage and preparation of the construction site in accordance with the respective legislation, it is necessary to elaborate a project for wood species cutting and replanting in accordance with the overall urbanistic solution and terrain modifications on the CCGT energy block premises or, alternatively, for wood species replanting outside the premises according to the instruction of the County Council Bratislava Ruinov. Induced zoning measure will be represented by declaration of a protection zone for the air line of the 2 x 400 kV connection to the SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice; the protection zone will be 25 m from the level of the outside conductor perpendicular to the terrain, on both sides.

2.

TECHNICAL MEASURES

In compliance with legal rules of the Slovak Republic and with STN standards, as well as with legal rules of the EU and with EN standards, the project documentation for the CCGT power block (including the 2 x 400 kV line to the SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice) should comprise technical measures to reduce impacts of the CCGT block technology on the environment and on operational health and safety, as well as technical measures to avoid large industrial breakdowns and endangering the residents in the involved area. Technical solution of the construction: Technical and technological project of the generating block will apply the principle of maximum elimination of possible technological failures and technological breakdowns and the principle to limit them and their consequences only to the broken down technological unit. Basic technical measures to limit the occurrence and extent of technological breakdowns and accidents which have to be addressed within the project already are as follows: technically safe handling and storage of the used fuels and toxic substances, - safe electric installations including static electricity elimination, - automatic technological process control system, systems of warning alarms and blocking systems.

Basic technical measures to limit the extent of breakdowns only to the broken down operational unit which must be addressed in the construction project already are as follows - development of tight retention tanks and tight sewerage system, - integration of automatic fire extinguishing systems in selected operation units and storages, - development of hydrocarbon vapors monitoring system covering the whole site. Regarding the CCGT block operation, it will be greatly important to add an automatic alarm system for possible occurrences of dangerous concentration of combustibles and of substances harmful to health in the air covering the whole SLOVNAFT, a.s. site, and its physical interconnection with the system that shuts the CCGT block down in case of dangerous concentration of combustibles and substances harmful to health in the air (at least within effective air intake into the combustion chambers). Technical solution of the 2 x 400 kV line to the SEPS switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice must include technical obstacles to prevent the access of unauthorized persons on the conduction poles in. With regard to proximity of the bird sanctuary of Dunajsk luhy, it is necessary to create technical obstacles against landing of birds on the high-risk locations of the poles and to place scare-off targets on the conduction in order to protect the avifauna.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI An unavoidable condition for licensors and suppliers of technological equipment is the standardized noise level of technological equipment, which shall not be higher than 85 dB in the distance of 1 m away from the outer surface of the equipment. Another condition is that concerning the equipment where the noise level of approx. 85 dB and higher is assumed, the designer will leave more space for an additional bonnet for the case that cumulative noise impacts from individual equipment exceed the defined working environment noise level in industrial objects. Where it is not possible to meet the defined standardized noise level, employees shall use individual protective outfit and have a working schedule with a limited period of exposure modified by a hygiene officer . Minimization of outputs into the environment: The measures to avoid adverse environmental impacts of the generating block operation shall include minimization and reduction of the extent of production outputs into the environment as follows: - maximum possible sealing of technological equipment, perfect reduction of nitrogen oxides, at least observing the newly defined NOx emission limits, - partial recycling of feeding and cooling water, collection of technological waste water in tanks and their discharge to the MCHB WWT plant via chemical sewerage system. The premises of SLOVNAFT, a.s. where the generating block will be located, are situated in the Horn itn ostrov water protection zone. In addition to the above-mentioned construction modifications retention tanks and sewerage system, the premises and adjacent areas are protected continuously from ground water pollution spreading by the HPGW system operation.

3.

TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES

Measures during production of technological equipment: Technological equipment and piping systems of the generating block operation units have to be produced from materials suitable for the required production parameters and suitable for corrosive impacts of the environment and media. Production procedures have to guarantee the equipment quality in accordance with relevant safety and sanitary regulations, technical standards and specifications of such equipment according to the project documentation. Relevant production documentation will be required upon technological equipment delivery, including proved tests of used materials and structural elements, records on inspection of production procedures and on performed tests. A similar routine will also be used for assembly and construction works and for building structure deliveries. After the completion of equipment and piping assembly works, compulsory tests will be performed (tightness, pressure, construction) and individual and complex checks of assembled equipment will be carried out. Records shall be made on results of all performed inspections in the course of production and during the takeover of technological equipment deliveries, as well as on results of performed inspections of assembly works. These records will constitute a part of assembled equipment documentation. Consistent observance of all above-mentioned measures and rules during the design, construction and production of technological equipment and during their assembly and testing are the basic preconditions to avoid breakdowns during commissioning and operation of technological equipment. The above zoning and technical measures projected into the project documentation shall be re-evaluated at all stages of approval of the project documentation, construction realization, final inspection and commissioning of the construction in terms of the legislation of the Slovak Republic. Measures during the construction : Within the construction organization, measures will be applied which aiming at reducing possible adverse impacts of performed construction and assembly works on adjacent residential areas (Lieskovec) as well as on existing, operated units within the premises. In accordance with this principle, the use of mechanisms causing excess noise will be limited to 1st and 2nd working shifts. During performance of excavation works, inspection will be carried out to verify whether the bedrock is not polluted by oil or other dangerous substances. If so, the polluted rock will be removed down to the necessary depth and will be disposed of in accordance with the regulations on hazardous waste handling. During performance of earthworks, water sprinkling will be provided during periods of increased dustiness on the construction site as well as on the access roads. During rainy weather, cleaning of mechanEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI isms and transport means will be provided before leaving the construction site, as well as cleaning of communications.

4.

ORGANIZATIONAL AND OPERATIONAL MEASURES

Measures during operation: Precautions and measures against occurrences of breakdowns during the generating block operation will be elaborated prior to starting its technological equipment. These measures will be developed with regard to the conditions and principles applied in the company of SLOVNAFT, a.s.: - consistent observance of operating instructions developed by supplying companies on the basis of background documents provided by licensors of technological processes, observance of generally valid safety and fire-fighting regulations and specific precautions defined in projects of individual operating units, - regular inspections of functioning ability of the safety devices protecting pressure vessels and ensuring observance of technological parameters, - regular inspections of functioning ability of automatic technological process control system (CRS), of alarm systems and blocking systems, - regular systematic revision and prescribed maintenance of all machinery, technological and electric equipment, - regular inspections of functioning ability of automatic alarm systems related to occurrences of hazardous concentration of combustibles and substances harmful to health in the air, - inspection of interconnection of automatic alarm systems related to occurrences of hazardous concentration of combustibles and substances harmful to health in the air with the system to shut down the CCGT block operation.

Organizational measures preventing the occurrence of breakdowns : In addition to the abovementioned measures, in accordance with the legislation applicable in the Slovak Republic SLOVNAFT, a.s. is developing organizational measures and material resources for safety of employees and for their operational health, precautions to avoid technological breakdowns, measures to manage emergency breakdowns and disasters and measures to manage the consequences of such emergencies. Similar measures will also be developed for the CCGT block; with regard to the conditions and principles applied in SLOVNAFT, a.s., the documents will include: - Safety report developed in terms of Act No. 261/2002 Coll. as amended by Act No. 277/2005 Coll. on prevention of serious industrial breakdowns - Safety control system - Program for prevention of serious industrial breakdowns - Environmental regime - Fire alarm directives, - Other organizational directives and safety regulations and other documents: In terms of applicable regulations in force for civil protection , SLOVNAFT, a.s. and the CCGT block will inform relevant state and municipal authorities about the status of ensuring safety in operation units and about the necessary precautions to be performed to manage emergencies.
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5.

OTHER MEASURES

No compensation measures are assumed during construction of the CCGT block. No other measures are required either.

6.

STATEMENT ON TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL VIABILITY OF THE MEASURES

The proposed option of the CCGT energy block construction and operation is technically and economically viable by the proposer; it applies even if the declared requirements of BAT (cf. the following table) will be observed. A) Heat efficiency
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Table No. 48. Heat efficiency requirements of BAT, a.s. Electric efficiency (%) Gas turbine Combined power source with/without additional heating(HRSG) for electric power production only Combined power source without additional heating (HRSG) in the combined heat and power (CHP) mode Combined power source with additional heating in the CHP mode Fuel utilization (%)

54-58

or

>38 >40

or or

75-85 75-85

The above-mentioned general EU recommendations have been taken into account in the project (line 1 for the electric power production only; line 2 when central heating will be provided as well). B) Emissions into the atmosphere Table 49 The BAT limits for emissions into the atmosphere Type of equipment Emission level assoOptional BAT alternatives for meeting the ciated with BAT required levels 3 (mg/Nm ) NOx CO 20-50 5-100 Burner with a low level of NOx production (standard equipment for new gas turbines) or selective catalytic reduction (SCR) 20-50 5-100 Burner with a low level of NOx production or selective catalytic reduction (SCR) 20-50 30-100 Burner with a low level of NOx production and a burner with a low level of NOx production for the heat exchanger section, or selective catalytic reduction (SCR), or selective non-catalytic reduction

Gas turbine

CCGT without additional heating (HRSG) CCGT with additional heating (HRSG)

The above-mentioned general EU recommendations have been taken into account in the project. The BAT compound emission levels are derived from the daily averages, standard conditions and 15% O2 level, and represent a typical load situation. Short-term peak values may be higher for the peak load during the start up and shut down phases as well as during operational problems of the exhaust gas purification system.

V. 1.

COMPARISON OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY OPTIONS AND PROPOSAL OF THE OPTIMUM OPTION DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRITERIA SET AND SPECIFICATION OF THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR SELECTION OF THE OPTIMUM OPTION

The Criteria set to compare the activity options and to propose the optimum option is based on the proposer's intention to build a combined cycle generating block in Bratislava, in the premises of SLOVNAFT, a.s. in Vlie hrdlo, on the knowledge of the purpose and possibilities of the generating block's technical solution, on the knowledge of environmental problems management in SLOVNAFT, a.s., as well as on the knowledge of the area affected by production activity of this company. Regarding the importance of criteria for optimum option selection, the following is important in the given stage of the proposed construction preparation: - management of economic problems, especially evaluation of the contribution of the proposed construction for the proposer and for further economic development and market requirements
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI meeting as well as for social sustainability, , while simultaneously respecting the restrictions arising from more severe environmental criteria; - management of environmental problems, especially evaluation of technical solution in relation to observing more severe legal regulations on emissions and outputs of harmful substances into the environment, while the other side of the problem is to create preconditions for elimination of adverse economic impacts of more severe regulations concerning the proposer; - management of safety problems, especially technical safety of technological equipment and also safety and protection of health of employees and of residents in the involved area. Selection of the optimum option or determination of the order of suitability for the evaluated options with regard to the above-mentioned facts is limited especially to the following: - progressiveness of technical solution, - power efficiency, - technically ensured tightness (sealing) of the technology, - maximum reduction of emissions, - minimization of waste water and solid waste production, - minimization of technological equipment noise, - quality of technical security measures. The least and the first limit of quality of the above criteria for the construction suppliers should be in observance of valid STN standards and of legal rules of the SR and of standards and legal rules of the EU and guarantees to observe them.

2.

SELECTION OF THE OPTIMUM OPTION OR DETERMINATION OF THE ORDER OF SUITABILITY FOR THE EVALUATED OPTIONS

The solution has only one option with respect to location; this is given by the building site location and ownership. The owner is SLOVNAFT, a.s. and it is its long-term contribution to the joint venture which is represented by the proposer of this intention. Development of the project was preceded by the above-mentioned feasibility study, namely Feasibility Study, by F-Consult Ltd (AFC), Finland, and preliminary project documentation elaborated by SES ENERGOPROJEKT, s.r.o. (Bratislava, October 2008). Within the above preparation, several solution alternatives of the CCGT block have been evaluated (single-shaft and multi-shaft alternatives of turbogenerators, direct flow cooling, indirect cooling with natural or forced drafts in cooling towers, air insulated switchhouse, etc.). When selecting the optimum option, the proposer has taken into account efficiency and flexibility of technical solution, operation economy, possibilities of connection to technological equipment and infrastructure of the Refinery, area conditions and infrastructure and also the possibilities of meeting legislative environmental conditions in the Slovak Republic. The proposer has selected the optimum option in the course of preparation and development of the project. The project developer had the possibility to become familiar with the above-mentioned study as well as with the background documents of preliminary project documentation, and it has accepted the option selected by the proposer as the most suitable, also from the point of view of this project. Therefore, the submitted project only evaluates the zero option and the proposed option of the CCGT generating block. According to the criteria selected above, evaluation of the mentioned options is as follows. From the economic point of view, the generating block construction contributes to resolving power production shortage compared to its consumption within the Slovak Republic; this offer extends the possibilities for consumers to select among power (alternatively also of heat) suppliers. It makes the use of idle capacities of several technological equipment in SLOVNAFT, a.s. more efficient. It contributes to employment development in the region and to creation of social securities for employees during the construction as well as operation of the generating block. The evaluation based on this criterion unambiguously prefers the proposed option to the zero option. From the environmental point of view, electric power production by help of combined cycle in the CCGT generating block belongs to technologies which, regarding pollutants production per production unit, are most environment-friendly. Load of the involved area's environment by the generating block operation will increase only slightly (most pronouncedly in NOx emissions, but this will affect global emissions only slightly. Other outputs to the environment are controlled and will only constitute a fraction of the outputs of SLOVNAFT, a.s.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI On the other hand, when evaluating, it is necessary to take into account location of the generating block on the southern edge of SLOVNAFT, a.s. premises, where the area's anthropogenic load is significantly lower in comparison to the northern edge, while the nearest residential site (several one-family houses in Lieskovec) is more than 1 km away from the generating block and the number of residents is several times lower. According to this criterion, the CCGT block construction on the southern edge of the premises is acceptable, as the area's anthropogenic load rate (after the generating block construction as well) will be significantly lower than on the northern edge. Imission fall-out of pollutants will not reach the limit values and will also be significantly lower than on the northern edge of the premises. Proximity of water pools and forests in the given location will allow faster reduction of CO2 volumes by assimilation. According to this criterion, when taking into account the increase of the affected area's environmental load, the evaluation is in favor of the zero option. When taking into account environmental load per production unit (in theoretical projection of environmental load in general), both options can be considered equal. When considering the economical point of view as well, the option of the CCGT generating block construction can be considered more advantageous. From the safety point of view, the project elaborator starts from the preliminary security analysis which was processed by Slovnaft VRUP, a.s., (Bratislava, December 2008) for the CCGT generating block. According to its conclusions: - subject of the report is to inform on the results of preliminary quantitative risk evaluation of the new CCGT unit, which is planned to be realized at blocks 94 and 95 in the SLOVNAFT, a.s. Refinery in Vlie hrdlo; - the evaluation considered not only the options which can occur at the CCGT unit, but also the domino effect of existing units as well as that of the new LDPE4 unit and of the new full containment tank ethylene storage at block 71. Evaluation of the domino effect considered the consequences with a 35 kPa pressure level which means damage / destruction of iron structures. After the evaluation, the report states that social hazard for the CCGT at blocks 94 and 95 before and after taking the domino effect of existing and new units into account is acceptable. The report concludes that on the basis of the above-mentioned results, the new CCGT unit can be located at blocks 94 and 95 in terms of Act No. 261/2002 Coll. on prevention of serious industrial accidents.

3.

PROPOSAL OF THE MANNER OF CHECKING THE OBSERVANCE OF THE GIVEN CONDITIONS

Checking of observance pf the given conditions in accordance with the valid SR and EU legal rules may be considered as satisfactory and thus no other checking measures are suggested in the further process of implementation of the proposed activity.

VI. 1.

PROPOSAL OF MONITORING AND POST-PROJECT ANALYSIS PROPOSAL OF MONITORING FROM THE CONSTRUCTION START, DURING THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION AND AFTER THE TERMINATION OF OPERATION OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY
PROVISIONS FOR PRODUCTION MONITORING IN SLOVNAFT, A.S. AND SPC

1.1

Emission monitoring: Currently, Slovnaft, a.s., CMEPS and SPC have their own emission monitoring system. Within the central emission monitoring, emissions from the selected emissions sources are measured continuously. In addition, emissions are measured by help of the monitoring vehicle (SO2, NOx, COx, solid pollutants, hydrocarbons, oxygen and humidity). Moreover, four portable kit analyzers are used for emission measuring (SO2, NOx, COx, solid pollutants, hydrocarbons, oxygen and moisture). Moreover, four portable briefcase analyzers (SO2, NOx, CO, O2, combustion gas temperature. draught, combustion efficiency, smoke emission) are used to measure emissions.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Within the construction of EFPA, the following production units have been equipped with continuous emission analyzers: Hydrocrack of heavy petroleum fractions, Hyrodrogenation of vacuum gas oil, Fluid catalytic crack and Sulphur treatment. The measured values are continuously transferred to the central control center of the EFPA site; the monitored data are stored in the central control system there. The measured data is also transferred to the Refinery's SD&HSE division. The concentrations of SO2, NOx, solid pollutants, CO and at the Sulphur treatment unit also H2S are measured. Monitoring of pollutants emitted into the air from the CCGT block's sources will be specified in the project with regard to the requirements for keeping the emission limits. For the above mentioned resources a new monitoring AMS system will be provided. The volume of pollutants released to the air and the data about observing the specified pollution limits will be specified in terms of the Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 408/2003 Coll. The CCGT power block will be equipped with continuous analyzers for monitoring of natural gas, NO x, CO, a CO2. The AMS system will be connected online via the Internet to the state administration authorities (District Environmental Office Bratislava and Slovak Environmental Inspection OIPK). Of a special importance with regard to safety is monitoring of oil substances, and especially VOC and others, in critical concentrations of whose explosion, fire or intoxication risk for people may occur. Monitoring of these substances is installed in selected operation units of the Refinery and SPC at the assumed sources of leakage. There is no system to detect movement of oil substances cloud which may acquire critical concentration by dispersion also beyond the source of origin, namely at the initiation mechanism of a different operation unit. Seriousness of this scenario will increase after the operation start of the CCGT objects (such as the AIS distribution point, air intake for the combustion turbine, etc.) since these are logical initiators of explosion or, possibly, of fire. A possible solution is to establish a network of appliances detecting the emergence of critical oil substances concentrations interconnected with immediate shutdown of the CCGT block. Imission monitoring: Slovnaft, a.s., has 3 automatic monitoring stations (AMS) for imission monitoring; they are equipped with an air-conditioned container, respective automatic analyzers of individual pollutants, possibly also with meteorological detectors, system for collection and treatment of the measured data and telephonic modem which enables data transmission between the AMS and central station via public telephone network. They are interconnected to the central station in SD&HSE Slovnaft, a.s. Its equipment includes a telephonic modem, computer and respective software. The whole network enables to gain almost immediate concentration values of the monitored air pollutants in real time. The stations are compatible with the existing station network in the Slovak Republic and are included in the nationwide monitoring network with compatibility of collection and processing of the measured data with the SHM (Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute) network. The above-mentioned imission monitoring network in Slovnaft, a.s., will automatically monitor the imission fall-out of emissions in the CCGT power block, too. Waste water quality control: Slovnaft, a.s., has three automatic analyzers (SERES 2000) in operation for waste water monitoring; they monitor phenols in cooling waste waters at the outlets of cooling waste water from the Cumene phenol plant (WWT plant inlet, blocks 17-18; WWT plant outlet blocks 17-18 into the Little Danube recipient). The automatic SERES, DHIR 2000 analyzers for monitoring of oil substances (NPES) are installed on both inlet and outlet of the WWT plant in blocks 17-18.. The TOC analyzer ( TOC DC 600 S) is installed on the MCHB WWT plant outlet. In 1995, TOC DC-600 S analyzers for monitoring of TOC have been installed on the activation inlet (the biological level of the MCHB WWT plant), and SERES DHIR 2000 analyzers for monitoring of NPES have been installed on the MCH WWT plant outlet (to the Danube recipient). In the involved area, monitoring of surface water quality in the Danube and Little Danube rivers is sufficiently provided by the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute within monitoring of the water regime in the territory of the Slovak Republic. Due to the fact that waste water from the CCGT block will be discharged to the Refinery's sewerage system, quality control of this water will be adjusted to the Refinery's requirements. Shift leaders will be responsible for observance of the imposed of waste water quality conditions. Similarly to water flows, the basic data on the underground water regime (water level and quality variations) are provided by SHM (Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute) within the basic network of observation objects for monitoring the underground water regime. In addition, vast and very detailed monitoring of underground water is provided by Slovnaft, a.s., as a part of the comprehensive hydraulic underground water protection system. This system, which consists of approximately 700 monitoring drills on
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI the area of ca. 100 km 2, monitors a large set of physical and chemical underground water quality indicators, as well as underground water level, the extent of large-scale depression and other parameters. Monitoring of the rock environment: Due to the existing pollution of rock environment by oil substances in the south-western part of itn ostrov, the hydraulic underground water protection system must be operated even if there will be no petrochemical industry in the respective locality anymore. This requirement is substantiated as follows: A part of oil substances from polluted rock cannot be removed as they are immovably bound on the surface of individual sand and gravel grains and, due to large contact surface with underground water, they permanently pollute underground water. Reduction of the pollution will, however, be rather slow, because the volume of oil substances sorbed on gravels and sands is relatively large (approx. 4/5 of total calculated volume of contaminants beneath the Slovnaft site). Also on the basis of this fact, the operation of the hydraulic screen (as well as simultaneous monitoring) will be necessary in the future. It can be stated that all protective precautions made within Slovnaft, a.s. site (underground water offtake, oil substances offtake, hydrochemical and hydrological monitoring in the vicinity of Slovnaft, a.s.) have shown that since 1974 the hydraulic protection system has been fully avoiding further spreading of pollution from the plant's territory. On the CCGT energy block premises (located on the Refinery grounds) there is a monitoring drill RM 859 included into the 3rd control system of the monitoring drills of the hydraulic ground water protection system. Monitoring of biotic components of the environment of soil, flora and fauna: Influences of Slovnaft, a.s., CMEPS and SPC on biotic components of the environment in the involved area are only secondary. A mediated influence of emissions which infiltrate the soil by precipitations of the imission fall-out are retained in plants, inhaled by animals, or, alternatively, enter the organism via the food chain is concerned. Migration of toxic substances in the food chain is observed with the Slovak Republic primarily by the Central Controlling and Testing Agricultural Institute in Bratislava and by the Food Research Institute, by the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra and the University of Veterinary Medicine in Koice; soil is being examined in this respect by Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute (VUPOP), the systems of natural biotopes especially by the Slovak Academy of Sciences (Institute of Botany, Institute of Ecobiology and Institute of Landscape Ecology). In their controlling or research work, the above-mentioned institutions monitor the contamination of biotic components of the environment in the Bratislava region as well, including the region affected by the construction. With respect to the fact that the primary influences of Slovnaft, a.s., CMEPS and SPC production on air pollution will decrease due to the launch of the operation of the proposed construction, it is realistic to expect also a decrease of secondary, i.e. mediated, influences of this production on the biotic components of the environment. Moreover, in biotic components of the environment a synergic concurrence of the emission influences from other emission sources and from the imission background arises; given the currently used methods, it is not possible to exactly determine the contribution of Slovnaft, a.s., to deterioration of these components. Due to the above reasons, monitoring of the influences on biotic components of the environment is not required. Due to the same reasons, monitoring of the influences on biotic components of the environment by the CCGT energy block is not required either. A proposal of monitoring from the launch of the construction, during the construction and operation as well as after the termination of the operation of the proposed activity will be determined by the Slovak Inspectorate of the Environment (SIZP) Bratislava through the decisions for the zoning and building policy as well as through the decisions for the CCGT energy block operation. The decisions will also take into account the territorial and, partially, technological interconnectedness of the power block monitoring system to the Refinery monitoring system. Monitoring after the termination of the operation will be updated on the basis of the project on termination and liquidation of the power block facilities.

2.

PROPOSAL FOR CHECKING THE OBSERVANCE OF THE SPECIFIED CONDITIONS

The emissions from the decisive sources of air pollution will be continuously monitored within the central emission monitoring as stated in the previous section. Thus, the control of emissions will also be contiEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI nuous, and it is not necessary to propose any further measures concerning their control. Imission monitoring in the surroundings of Slovnaft, a.s., is working continuously as a supplement to the existing monitoring network for imissions operated by Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. . Practically immediate concentration values of the monitored substances are available and therefore it is not necessary to propose any measures for further imission control. It is not necessary to specify any special conditions for the power block operation with regard to the quality of surface and underground water. The quality control will be provided within monitoring of waste water where the Refinery's internal standard specifies stricter conditions than the respective STN standard. Other conditions for the power block operation, including the activities connected with the proposed construction, are defined in the respective regulations. Their observance is a part of routine control of the operation by authorized personnel and of the periodic control on the part of the executives. With regard to the effectiveness of the above-mentioned standards and regulations, it is not necessary to create any special control regime for observance of the specified conditions. For the control of observance of the specified conditions for the construction suppliers, it is recommended to utilize the experience from previously realized projects of Slovnaft, a.s., CMEPS and SPC, especially in those fields where observance of the conditions on the part of the supplier may be problematic.

VII.

METHODS USED IN THE PROCESS OF EVALUATION OF INFLUENCES OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE MANNER AND RESOURCES FOR COLLECTION OF THE DATA ON THE CURRENT CONDITION OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE AREA OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY

The content and thus also the basic system access to the report elaboration is defined by Act No. 24/2006 Coll. on the evaluation of influences of activities on the environment (annex No. 11 to the Act) as amended. No unified method for the evaluation of influences of the examined activities is defined by the Act. In case of evaluation of the CCGT power block influences on the environment, the following method has been applied. After a detailed monitoring of the current status of the components and factors of the environment, the expected changes evoked by the CCGT energy block have been projected into the established situation. These changes have been compared in particular with the limits of the respective legislative standards with regard to their eventual overrun. In addition, negative influences on those areas have been considered, where no restrictive limits are defined; estimated positive influences have also been considered. Simultaneously, space and time aspects of the changes evoked by the implementation of the examined activity in the area affected by the proposed activity have been monitored. Since only one of the above mentioned options has been considered for the evaluation of influences and compared with the situation when the defined activity would not be realized, it was not necessary to use sets of evaluation matrices for individual options. Reduction of the evaluated options enabled to apply verbal description of the evaluated influences and their development. For all developers, sources of information were the data of the proposer and the data provided by the SLOVNAFT, a.s., CMEPS and SPC personnel, as well as technical literature in the relevant fields, published statistical surveys and data analyses concerning the area, consultations with other experts, own studies and experience in the given field. The manner of data collection proceeded in coordination with the developers of the report and its annexes; developers of the data materials; and of the input materials of CM European Power International, s.r.o. This collaboration was of a very high quality, difficulty and due to a relatively short time for elaboration of the report also intensity.

VIII.

DEFICIENCIES AND UNCERTAINTIES IN THE KNOWLEDGE WHICH HAVE EMERGED DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EVALUATION REPORT

During the development of the evaluation report within the pre- and post-project preparation, the data on the CCGT power block construction which have been projected into the content of the report have been specified in more detail. This will continue during further preparation of the investment with respect to partial data, in comparison with the situation when the report had been under development. Deficiencies
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI and uncertainties concerning the environmental situation in the involved area are clear from the following facts: From the point of view of space, the involved area has a heterogeneous character. It consists of various different landscape types with rather varied proportions of natural and anthropogenic components. The area comprises several administration territories with an unbalanced composition and a significantly different number of inhabitants. In the involved area, there are: an urban area of a metropolitan character; rural type settlements; cultivated agricultural land; and natural biotopes. Environmental research and statistical data evaluation in this area have had various character and significance; they concern either the cadastre of the so-called Great Bratislava only, or its parts only. The issue of the municipality of Rovinka has been statistically monitored more or less within the whole Slovak Republic and numerous data on this area have been statistically integrated into the summaries of the Bratislava-vidiek district (e.g. monitoring of the population health); it is not possible to extract them for the purposes of the evaluation of the affected area. The continuity of data monitoring of the area and its population (e.g. monitoring of employment rate, population health with regard to the environment, biocenosis research, etc.) has been distorted in many fields of the research and statistics; uncovered spots emerge in the factual completion of the data on the area development. The needed data has arisen in different time horizons; they have different factual values; and their accessibility is often problematic as well due to the changes in territorial and administration organization and subjects.

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IX.
1.1

ANNEXES TO THE EVALUATION REPORT.


LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1 Schematic process diagram CCGT MS 880 MW block Fig. 2 ST unit of 880 MW MS-CCGT block Fig. 3 Standard 880 MW set up of the MS-CCGT system Fig. 4 Spatial layout of the projected 880 MW e CCGT block Fig. 5 Balance of pollutants from emission sources of Slovnaft, a.s. in 1998-2007 and after reconstruction of the heat plant Fig. 6 Emissions of pollutants from sources of the Refinery in 2007 Fig. 7 Emissions of CO2 from the sources of the Refinery in 2008 Fig. 8 Comparison of average annual concentrations with the limit value Fig. 9 The volume of pollutants discharged in waste waters into the Danube and Little Danube rivers Fig. 10 Comparison of waste production according to types of activity in the Refinery Fig. 11 Production of C and D category waste in the Refinery Fig. 12 Wind-rose for Slovnaft, a.s. for 2008 percentage of occurred wind directions

1.2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1.3

LIST OF GRAPHICAL ANNEXES Location of the proposed activity Technological scheme of the CCGT power block Delimitation of the involved area Elements of territorial ecological stability system Layout and functional utilization of the area Influences of the CCGT power block in the involved area LIST OF TEXTUAL ANNEXES

1. Statement of the Ministry of the Economy of the SR concerning the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko(CCGT energy block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia), Section of power engineering, Division of business environment, letter No. 494/2009 3430, dated 18.5.2009, 2. Hodnotenie drevn v lokalite zmeru Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii SLOVNAFT, a.s. Slovensko v Bratislave(The evaluation of wood species in the locality of the project CCGT energy block in the SLOVNAFT Refinery, a.s., Slovakia in Bratislava), technical report, Bratislava, TILIANA - RNDr. Jana Ruikov, ernyevskho 1, 851 01 Bratislava, November 2009. 3. Evaluation of disposal possibilities for industrial and sewage waste water from the CCGT power block in the Refinery Slovnaft in the MCHB WWT plant of Slovnaft, a.s.; statement of the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., member of the MOL Group in Bratislava, from 15. 10. 2009, Ing. T. Margetny, the head of Z-4, 4: Minutes from the meeting of CMEPI representatives with the representatives of Bratislavsk Teplrensk, a.s., Bratislava from 9.11. 2009, 5. Noise level study CCGT Slovnaft Refinery - vibroakustick tdia pre stupe posudzovania EIA (CCGT Slovnaft Refinery vibroacoustic study for the evaluation degree of EIA), J. ma et al., Klub Z P S vo vibroakustike, s.r.o., ilina, November 2008 6. Dispersion study Imisno-prenosov posdenie stavnby SLOVNAFT CCGT (Imission-transfer evaluation of the SLOVNAFT CCGT construction) developed for the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko (CCGT power block in the Slovnaft Refinery), RNDr. J. Brozman, Martin, November 2008, 7. Minutes from the meeting with a representative of Ob P (District Environmental Office) in Bratislava concerning the execution of the tasks emerging from the SLOVNAFT Safety Report from 22.10.09, K. Prochzkov.

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X.

GENERALLY COMPREHENSIBLE FINAL SUMMARY

CCGT CMEPI 1. BASIC DATA

The proposer of the project, CM European Power International, s.r.o., LAKESIDE PARK, Tomikova 64, 831 03 Bratislava, wants to build an energy block using the combined steam-gas cycle with the output of 880 MWe of electric power. The block production is intended mainly for commercial purchasers. If necessary, it will be a standby power supply for the Refinery. This power block will be connected to the 400 kV SEPS, a.s., switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice and to the distribution system of the Refinery. The proposers project comes out of the market requirements; a lack of electric power and thence its importation from abroad is expected in Slovakia in the future. Due to the construction of the plant, the advantage of an alternative selection of suppliers will emerge for the electric power purchasers in the area in question. Potentially, utilization of in pricing competition will arise as a result of short transfer routes. Concerning the realization, the project is based on suitable natural conditions (ample water, good conditions for emissions dispersion) and the already created technical infrastructure in the area (the existing DN500 SPP gas line reaches basically up to the construction locality; proximity of the switchhouse belonging to SEPS, a.s. in Podunajsk Biskupice; good traffic infrastructure; possible access to the longdistance heating network in case of sufficient demand; etc.). Simultaneously, the project allows making use of existing capacities of numerous technological facilities and distribution systems in the Refinery which became partially idle due to the modernization process of the production technologies. The user and operator of the proposed energy block will be the project proposer - CM European Power International, s.r.o. The construction will be located in the southern part of the Slovnaft, a.s. premises, in the locality of Vlie hrdlo, cadastral area Bratislava-Ruinov (Land Registry No. 805 556).

2. THE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY


Power stations of the combined cycle belong among economically effective and environment-friendly equipment for heat and electric power production. Their efficiency and frugality consist in a high utilization of the chemical energy of natural gas (in relation to the volume of produced energy) and in a multiple utilization of the heat gained during its combustion. In the CCGT power stations, the chemical energy of natural gas is used in two stages. In the first cycle, expansion of the combustion gases starts up the gas turbine. In the second cycle, thermal energy of the combustion products is used for steam production in the waste heat boiler; it is consequently used to drive the steam turbine. The steam-gas power station is thus a combination of gas power station and classical thermal power plant. The high efficiency is based on improved strength of the material of the stator and moving turbine blades at increasing temperatures of the combustion products (>1000 C) and on improved cooling of the blades and their protection layers; this allows to increase the temperature of the combustion products which enter the gas turbine from the combustion chamber. Such solution enables to reach up to 55% effectiveness of utilization of the energy bound in natural gas. In terms of protection of the environment the present combustion turbines use the so-called Dry Low NOx method which ensures reduction of nitrogen oxides produced during natural gas combustion. One of the advantages of steam-gas power plants is in significantly lower emissions in comparison with coal power plants (limited CO2 is only a half). They produce no solid combustion waste. Other advantages are in small built-over area, fast construction, lower acquisition costs, relatively good power regulation (20-100%) and simpler operation. A disadvantage is in higher operation costs mainly due to high price of natural gas. According to the drive of steam and gas turbine electric generator, two configurations of the steam-gas power block are used most often: - the SS configuration both steam and gas turbines drive one common generator. The combustion turbine, generator and steam turbine are mounted on one shaft. - MS configuration the steam turbine drives its own generator and the combustion turbine also drives its own generator.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI The input media for the steam-gas power source are represented by natural gas and air. Natural gas is conducted via pipeline through a series of quickly closing valves into the natural gas distribution point in the combustion turbine and then to burners of individual combustion chambers; there, after being mixed with air conducted from the compressor, it is burnt. Combustion products subsequently expand in the gas turbine. A stream of combustion products from the combustion chamber with approximate temperature of 1350-1400 C is conducted via the gas turbine distribution stator grid to gas turbine rotor blades which start up the whole turbine aggregate including the compressor and generator. After an expansion in the turbine, the combustion gases are conducted into the waste heat boiler; there a significant part of their heat potential is used to produce heat in the form of steam for the steam power source. The basic technological components of the gas cycle include: natural gas transfer station compressor room natural gas treatment plant combustion turbine including turbine air compressor, combustion chamber, gas turbine, 3-phase electric current alternator 15/400 kV step-up transformer (15/6 kV of own consumption) automatic fire extinguishing system oil management of the turbine lubricating and hydraulic oil own consumption electric switchgear.

In the second part of the cycle, combustion products from the combustion turbine give heat to the heatexchange surfaces in the waste heat boiler where water evaporates in three pressure levels as high-, medium- and low-pressure steam. High-pressure steam is conducted into the steam turbine where it expands in the high-pressure part of the steam turbine and is conducted back to the waste heat boiler where it is heated together with medium-pressure steam. Heated medium-pressure steam is conducted via pipeline interconnection back to the steam turbine where it expands in the medium-pressure part of the steam turbine. The medium- and low-pressure parts of the turbine are interconnected by the pipeline interconnection into which low-pressure steam from the waste heat boiler is connected as well. The steam expanded in the low-pressure part of the steam turbine is conducted via the turbine outlet throat into the condenser where it condenses. The condensate is used for the production of feeding water for the boiler. The condenser is cooled by closed water circulation circuit. Circulation water heated in the condenser is cooled down in cooling towers with mechanical draught. A part of thermal energy in steam is used for mechanical work - driving the turbine which then drives the electric generator. The electric energy produced in the combustion and steam turbines is transformed to required voltage and is conducted to the transfer system via the switchhouse. The basic technological devices of the steam cycle include: waste heat boiler; 3-stage steam turbine; feeding water tank; steam condenser, cooling towers electric power generator, 15/400 kV step-up transformer (15/6 kV of own consumption), oil management of the turbine lubricating and hydraulic oil electric switchhouse.

The main components needed for the operation of the steam-gas power block include: combustion turbines, waste heat boiler, steam turbines, feeding water system, external steam system condensation system of the steam turbine the main condensation system switchhouse cooling towers for indirect cooling.

Auxiliary systems for the proposed gas-steam cycle power block include:
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI water clearing machinery for refilling the indirect cooling system, the machinery for treatment of waste heat boiler feeding water, gas connection including filtration, measurement and regulation station, compressed air supply, blow-down from the waste heat boiler waste water from the cooling towers, connection to the chemical sewerage system.

When the MS (2GT+1ST) configuration of the steam-gas power block is chosen, the main construction objects and operation systems include: - additional water clearing station in block 63 - natural gas compressor station - natural gas regulation and measurement station, - the gas turbine object 2 x GT with areas for gas and electric machinery, - 2 chimneys 65 m high, - common HRSG and steam turbine object - cooling water pumping station, - cooling towers (18), - 5 transformers, - control room, - 110 kV switchgear - -2x 400 kV switchhouse by connection to the SEPS, a.s. switching station in Podunajsk Biskupice - waste water pumping station 3 - demi water tank (500-1000 m ) - warehouses and workshops - gatehouse - office building. The project also counts with a space reserve for an alternative erection of heat exchanger station and with an option of heat supply for the central heat supply. Construction of the objects will feature standard construction systems and their elements. The foundations will be made from concrete, reinforced according to the necessary carrying capacity. Vertical structures, supporting elements and systems and roof structures with rather long spans will be made from steel and prefabricated reinforced concrete elements. Vertical and horizontal structures with shorter spans will be made from bricks or reinforced concrete monoliths. Pipelines will be either underground, or on pipeline bridges. Beside the building objects, construction of the proposed power block will also include: - pipes for indirect cooling, - DN450 underground clean water piping - rain water sewerage system - sewer system - industrial waste water sewerage system - potable water piping, - fire fighting water line The proposed location of the construction at the edge of industrial zone in the south-eastern part of Bratislava is at a sufficient distance from the nearest residential zones, and minimizes the impact of construction and operation of this power block on permanent residents in the involved area. The proposed investment intention has a nationwide or even international economic impact (electric power supply); local impacts concern the environment however, their intensity in the involved area will not exceed the environmental pollution parameters and limits specified by applicable legal rules.

3.

INPUT REQUIREMENTS

Soil: The proposed energy block will be constructed in industrial zone of Bratislava, in the southern part of the Refinery premises; its construction will not require a take up of agricultural or forest soil.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Water: Water for the steam-gas power block will be taken off from the Refinery facilities on the basis of a contractual relation. The main source of service water is the Danube River. The offtake takes place via the Olejrsky bazn and further through an open inlet channel to t he Central Waterworks. The second source of service (cooling) water is represented by underground water taken off within the hydraulic ground water protection system (HGWP). The source of drinking water is a BVS, a.s., water line in Bratislava. The steam-gas power block will use water resources of the Refinery. For technological processes, draw3 ing of 4605000 m / year is estimated via its facilities. A part of the taken-off water will be used to prepare demineralized water, and a part for cooling or for other technological purposes. Demineralized water will be taken off from the existing chemical water treatment (CHWT) plant which can 3 sufficiently cover the maximal volumes of demineralized water of approx. 135800 m /year. It will be conducted via the 1xDN100 piping mounted on piping bridge. Cooling water for the cooling towers will be taken off from the Central Waterworks. The required volume of cleared cooling water for mechanical wetting of the perimeter of the cooling towers cannot be provided by the existing water treatment plant due to insufficient capacity; therefore a new water clearing station for the required volume of 800 t/h will be constructed next to the CHWT plant. A Multiflo clearing equipment made by Veolia Water company will be used. Clean water for the cooling system of the power block will be conducted via 1xDN450 underground conduit. The power block will take off water for communal purposes from the Slovnaft, a.s. water line. The vo3 lume of approx. 550 m /year is based on the estimated number of 33 employees. The offtake will be provided by a connection from the Slovnaft, a.s. drinking water distribution system. Water consumption will be equal to its offtake. Cooling water consumption is represented in particular by 3 water evaporation and blow-down from the cooling tower (800 m /h) or, possibly, by other technological losses. Fire fighting water demand for the proposed construction will be calculated within the fire fighting prevention project. Raw material resources: The preliminary material balance for the CCGT power station given an operation time of 4160 h and an expected heat supply for the central heat supply system in the volume of 3.1 PJ/year is as follows: Natural gas and combustion air requirements - natural gas consumption - combustion air consumption Water requirements - water for technological processes (Danube water) - drinking water for communal consumption Oil consumption - combustion turbine oil charge - steam turbine oil charge - transformer oil charge - lubricating and hydraulic oils - lubricating grease - compressor oil Consumption of chemicals - Hydrochloric acid (HCl) - Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) - other water treatment chemicals (softeners, cleaning chemicals) - cooling water treatment chemicals (inhibitors, biocides, FeCl3, organic flocculant, calcic hydrate etc.) 22604,09 TJ/year 0,461 mil. t/year 18,72 mil. t/year 2299051, m /year 42 3 605 550 m /year 25 30 20 25 approx. 300 0,5 35-45 75 8-10 8-10 2-3 2-3 m 3 m 3 m m /year kg/year l/year t/year t/year t/year t/ year
3 3 3

Note: It will only be possible to specify the balance of raw material and chemicals consumption after the conclusion of contracts with individual suppliers of technological parts of the CCGT block. The
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI operation regime of the new power source will be chosen in relation to supply and demand and to other economical indicators. The investor assumes the operation of 4160 hours including the required technological shutdowns. Power resources: The power block will have maximum power of 880 MW e. Annual production of approx. 3000 GWh is assumed, including its own consumption of 64 GWh/year and production for offtake of approx. 2936 GWh/year. The power block will use process steam from its own resources the waste heat boiler. In case of heat supply to the central heat supply system, its exchanger station will be powered by steam from the CCGT block, alternatively from the Refinery. The CCGT power block will take service air from the Refinery's distribution system.

4. FACTS ABOUT OUTPUTS


Air pollution during the construction: Point-type mobile air pollution sources during the construction of the energy block will be represented by construction machinery; stationary pollution sources will be represented by earthworks or, possibly, wrongly stored bulk building materials. An increase of dustiness and emissions may occur in the surroundings of the construction site. Similarly, noise and vibration levels will increase temporarily in close vicinity of the construction site. To reduce the above impacts, watering of dusty surfaces, maintenance and technical inspection of construction mechanisms, elimination of their 3 operation during the night, etc. will be implemented.

Air pollution during the operation of the CCGT block: According to Article 2, Clause b) of the Regulation of the Ministry of the Environment of the SR No. 338/2009 Coll., the "CCGT CMEPI" construction will be a new source of air pollution. Operation unit: Production unit: CCGT power block CCGT power block 2 x GT

According to Annex No. 2 Categorization of major and medium air pollution sources to the Regulation of the Ministry of the Environment of the SR No. 338/2009 Coll., the technologies of the source (construction) belong to the following categories: 1. 1.5 1.5.1 Fuel-power industry Gas turbines Major source of air pollution with an installed total nominal heat input > 50 MW.

In the CCGT power block, the sources that are the primary place of production of air pollutants during combustion process are represented by combustion chambers and combustion turbines in block 95. Total heat input of combustion turbines will be approx. 2 x (290 x 0.39) = 2 x 743.6 = 1487 MW. The following table shows the source, as well as the manner of emission catching and release, and assumed volumes of pollutants emitted into the air. Limits of emissions into the atmosphere for gas turbines are specified in section 2 of Annex No. 4 to Regulation of the Ministry of Environment of the SR No. 338/2009 Coll. In our case, the emission limits from section 2.2 B shall apply. The emission limits have been specified as concentrations of pollutants 3 (mg/Nm ) in waste gases under standard status conditions. Table 50. The emission limits used for section 2.2, Table B Pollutant solid pollutants SO2 Emission limit, mg.m
3

smoke darkness (the Bacharach scale) 35

1)

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1) 5)

50/75 100

5)

the mass limit for solid pollutants has not been specified 3 the 75 mg/m limit applies to gas turbines used in: - combined heat and electricity production with overall efficiency above 75% - combined cycle equipment with overall electric efficiency above 55% (annual average).

Observance of the specified emission limits is determining for selection of gas turbines, and binding for the proposed CCGT power block operation. Then, the emission sources of the CCGT power block can 4 be characterized as follows: Table 51. Sources and volumes of air pollutants in the CCGT power block with planned (4160 h/year) and maximum (8200 h/year) operation times Source of Emitted Facts about emissions -3 -1 -1 -1 emission substance Limit* mg.Nm kg.h t.year t.year -3 mg.m with with 4160 h/year 8200 h/year natural gas GT1 NOx 50/75 50.00 110.52 459.76 930.01 CO 100 100.00 221.04 919.53 1811.98 SO2 35 35.00 77.36321.83 634.38 solid pol5 2 4,42 18,40 36,27 lutants CO2 quota 151 171 628 872 1 239 603.46 GT2 NOx 50 50.00 110.52 459.76 930.01 CO 100 100.00 221.04 919.53 1811.98 SO2 35 35.0077.36 321.83 634.38 solid pol5 2 4,42 18,40 36,27 lutants CO2 quota 151 171 628 872 1 239 603.464 3 * The specified emission limits (m ) are specified for dry gas under normal status conditions o (pressure 101,325 kPa, air temperature 0 C) and15 % reference O2. The emission values given in the previous table have been calculated from the following input parameters, which are the basic condition of the tender documents related to selection of the EPC contractor: 3 3 pollutant concentrations NOx=50 ppm, CO=100 mg/Nm , solid pollutants= 2mg/m - guaranteed by the 3 producer, volume flow of dry combustion products 2 210 400 Nm /h for combustion turbine operation at 10C ambient temperature. CO2 emission values have been calculated as emissions from the consumed heat CO2 = 58 kg /GJ (2008 value, SPP) and from heat consumption of 0.724 GJ/s for 4160 and 8200 3 h/year. The input value of S content in natural gas according to SPP values for 2008: 0.045 mg/m . The assumed operation time is 4160 h/year. Restriction of the CCGT energy block operation to the daily time only when there is an increased consumption of electric energy means a decrease of labor hours fund from 8200 h/year to 4160 h/year. Thus, the volume of emissions produced by this energy source will be decreased considerably. Emissions will be released through two newly constructed chimneys with of 6.5 m diameter and 65 m height. The assumed volume flow of wet combustion products at ambient temperature 25 C to + 38 3 -1 o C will be 2x 622.1-711.0 mN,s, .s with temperature up to 200 C. A new monitoring system will be provided for the above-mentioned sources. Emission monitoring will be addressed in the project with regard to the requirements for observing the emission limits at gas turbines. Detection of the volume of emitted air pollutants and of the facts on keeping the required pollution limits will be performed in accordance with Regulation of the Ministry of the Environment of the SR No. 408/2003 Coll.
4

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Waste water : Industrial waste water which will be produced during the technological process of the CCGT power block operation will include: waste water from water treatment - -approx. 36 500 m /year, 3 waste water from compressor flushing - 100-200 m /year 3 waste water from condensate treatment within the block - approx. 40 000 m /year Industrial waste waters in the volume of approx. 5.5 m /h (continuously) and approx. 30 m /h (isolated occurrences) will be conducted to underground waste water tanks together with rain waste water from hard surfaces; from there it will be conducted via the chemical sewerage system to the MCHB WWT plant. Cooling waste water is estimated in the volume of approx.160 m .h with the use of indirect circulation cooling in the cooling towers. This waste water will be conducted via separate pipeline into the MCHB WWT plant activation tank. Sewage waste water, in the volume of approx. 12.5 m /day, will be conducted via sewage system to the chemical sewerage system and further to the MCHB WWT plant. Water from surface drainage, i.e. unpolluted rain water, will be conducted to the pools of the cooling towers. The limits for waste water discharged into the chemical sewerage system of the Refinery are defined by internal regulations. Currently, possible limits for NPES are 25 mg/l, and for S2 10 mg/l, pH 6-10. No. MCHB OV ZPS//1351/2005/ONR. According to this permit, the quality of waste waters discharged into the Danube should be as follows: Indicator Unit Admissible 2009 BSK5 mg/l 20 CHSKCr mg/l 80 Insolubles NPES Phenol NH4
(105 C)
0

-1

pH

maximum

2006-

mg/l 20

mg/l 2

mg/l mg/l 0.1 20 6.5-9

Flow rate (l/s) 500

Due to the fact that this water will be conducted into the sewerage system of the Refinery, waste water quality control will be adjusted to its requirements. Treated industrial waste water from the MCHB WWT plant is conducted into the Danube recipient. Aver3 -1 age flow rates in the Danube reach approx. 2000-2100 m .s . The MCHB WWT plant has especially severe qualitative and quantitative limits for the discharge of waste water. The annual limit for the volume -1 of waste water discharged into the Danube is approx. 400-500 l.s (approx. 0,06 % of the minimum flow 3 -1 rate of 800-900 m .s ). Real volumes of discharged waste water from the MCHB WWT plant represent approx. 34-37% of the admissible limits. As a rule, the quality of discharged water does not exceed the required limits in any of the required indicators. With the given flow rates of the Danube River, the surface water regime is practically not influenced by the taken off and discharged volumes of waste water from the Refinery. The underground water flow regime and directions within the Refinery premises are influenced especially by the HGWP system operation which permanently decreases their levels and modifies their flow in the direction of depression cones. With regard to this fact, foundations of the construction affect primarily the flow directions of seepage water. Waste from the construction of the CCGT power block: During the energy block construction, the largest volume of waste will be produced during preparation of the construction site and during clearage of the area. An individual project will be developed for the clearage (including cutting down of wood species); in this project, volumes, types and categories of waste and the manner of their disposal will be calculated in detail. This project will be subject to a separate approval procedure and therefore the waste from clearage is not included in the project. In spite of that, during excavation and founding of structures the following waste may be produced: Waste code Type of waste Waste category

Ser ial no.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 17 05 03 17 05 05 17 01 01 17 01 06 17 09 03 Excavation soil unpolluted by oil substances Soil polluted by oil substances Unpolluted concrete Concrete polluted by oil substances Building debris and other building waste polluted by harmful substances 17 09 04 Building debris and other building waste unpolluted by harmful substances C D C D D C

Removal and disposal of concrete, building debris and soil which will be polluted by oil substances or other harmful substances must be in accordance with applicable legal rules; in case of their occurrence they will be disposed of by professional companies. Excavation soil, concrete and building debris unpolluted by harmful substances will be carried to an external dump or, possibly, used for backfills and ground modifications. As to other waste types (in smaller volumes), other construction waste may be also expected (e.g. waste construction timber, packages, metal waste from concreting and assembly works, packages from used materials, etc.). Waste during the operation of the CCGT power block: The steam-gas technology is characterized by the fact that it does not produce any solid technological waste. During its normal operation, waste similar to communal waste is produced. Larger volumes of solid and liquid waste are produced during maintenance and repairs of the power block equipment. This waste is given in the following table: Code
Description of waste

160602 160604 1302 160708 170407 190902 190199

Ni-Cd batteries and accumulators Alkaline batteries (excluding those registered under No. 16 06 03) Waste engine, transmission and lubricating oils Sediments from dirt traps Mixed metals Sediments from water clearage (sediments from chemical water treatment dry matter) Otherwise non-specified waste (particles from front air intake filters 1x/y; particle from rear air intake filters 1x/3-4 yrs Fluorescent tubes and other waste containing quicksilver Mixed municipal waste

Waste Estimated The manner of catego- weight collecting ry D 50 kg/y container C 60 kg/y container C D C C C 20 m /y 10 m /y 30 t/y 2,4 t/d 2) 3 3

Disposal code

R4 R4 R3, R9 D10 R4 D9 D1

barrels, container barrels container barrels container container

200121 200301

N O

500 pcs/y 100 t/y

container Container

R4 D10

2)

to be specified within the project development

Noise and vibration sources: To evaluate the influence of the power block on noise situation in the working environment and the in the involved area, a study has been developed for the level of EIA evaluation. According to its conclusions, noise levels from stationary and mobile sources of the energy block in the locality of the closest residential area (the municipality of Lieskovec) will not be exceeded in any time interval in comparison with the admissible values according to the Regulation of the Ministry of Health of the SR No. 549/2007 Coll. Radiation and other physical fields: Use of radioactive emission sources is not expected during the construction or operation of the power block. The operation unit, especially transformers, switchhouse, 400 kV and 110 kV connections within the Refinery will influence the electromagnetic field of their closest vicinity. The proposal of a technical solution will be in accordance with Act of the National Council of the SR No. 330/1996 on operational safety and health as amended, with Regulation of the Government of
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI the SR No. 329/2006 Coll. on minimal health and safety requirements for the protection of employees before the risks related to electromagnetic field (annex No. 2) and, in case of connection to the switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice, also with the Regulation of the Government of the SR No. 325/2006 Coll. on particulars and requirements for sources of electromagnetic field and for limits of exposition to the electromagnetic field in the environment for the inhabitants (annex No. 2). Heat, bad smell and other outputs: During construction, combustion gases of petrol and diesel engines, volatile substances from insulation and protective paints, glues, etc. may occur at the building site as sources of bad smell. During normal operation, mercaptans added to natural gas for leakage identification in case of piping, fitting or technological equipment failures may be noisome. During its operation, the proposed power block will be a new source of waste heat which, in spite of the high efficiency of the block, will partially escape to the environment..

5.

FACTS ON THE ESTIMATED DIRECT AND INDIRECT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS


INFLUENCES ON THE COMPONENTS OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

5.1

Influences on the rock environment: During the construction of the power block, inevitable disruption of the soil and of upper Quaternary layers of the rock environment will occur, especially during foundation of new objects, communications and hard surfaces. Foundation of new objects and transfers as such will not cause contamination of the rock environment. Protection of the rock environment from contamination from the operation of the power block will be provided by construction modifications impenetrable tubs under the operation units with a risk of leakage of harmful substances or, possibly, creation of retaining tanks and of pressure sewerage system from welded steel pipes for chemically polluted water. Secondary protection from contamination of the rock environment around the site will be further provided by the HGWP system as well. Geomorphological conditions and geodynamic phenomena in the examined area will not be affected by the construction of the power block. The construction works will have no influence on mineral resources mining. Influences on the atmosphere, local climate and noise situation: To evaluate the influence of the steam-gas power block on the imission situation in the involved area, the study Imisno-prenosov posdenie stavby Slovnaft CCGT (Imission-transfer evaluation of the Slovnaft CCGT construction) (J. Brozman, November 2008) has been developed. Model calculations in the study have been made for the current situation the existing air pollution sources on the Refinery premises, for the proposed situation - the existing air pollution sources plus the steam-gas power block, and for the air pollution sources of the steam-gas cycle separately. With regard to the location of the construction, to types of air pollution sources and to the height of waste gases release, a calculation area of 8000 x 8000 meters with 160 m step in both directions has been chosen for the evaluation. With respect to the analyses of basic pollutants which can be found in emissions of the steam-gas power block, only nitrogen oxides, expressed as NO2, have been considered. The following have not been evaluated: - solid substances PM10 with regard to the used fuel and current values of air pollution - carbon monoxide CO with regard to low emissions and current imissions measured by the AIMS - sulphur dioxide SO2 with regard to the used fuel. The limit value of NO2 is 200 g/m3 for the averaged period of 1 hour and it is 40 g/m for 1 year. According to the above study, the results from the AIMS network measurements show that NO2 concentrations from contributions of all air pollution sources, i.e. the Refinery premises and other surrounding stationary and line sources, reach 50 to 65% of the limit at the measured maxima, i.e. approx. 47 to 62% of the limit with annual averages. Currently the calculated concentrations of NO2 in the reference points reach maxi. 142 g/m3, i.e. 71% of the limit. After the steam-gas power block sources will be included, NO2 concentrations will increase by 3 g/m3 in Podunajsk Biskupice and by 12 g/m3 in the residential area Vlie hrdlo; this represents increase from 45% to 47% and from 69% to 75%, respectively. Maximal hourly contributions from the air pollution sources of the steam-gas cycle proper in the reference points for ambient temperature of 10C range from 9.5 g/m3 (4.75% of the limit) in Rovinka to 17 g/m 3 (8.5% of the limit) in the municipality of Lieskovec.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that after the construction of the steam-gas power block will be finished, imission load by NO2 will increase by 2 to 6% in comparison with the current situation and will reach 47 to 75% of the NO2 limit value in comparison with the current value of 45 to 71%. NO2 concentrations from the evaluated construction will be significantly lower than half of the limit values (9.5 to 17% for the averaged period of 1 hour, or 1.7 to 2.75% for the annual average) specified by the Regulation of the Ministry of Environment of the SR No. 705/2002 on air quality, which are the condition for new air pollution sources. The proposed chimney heights are satisfactory for the given parameters of gas turbines. From the perspective of other parameters of the climate in the involved area, as well as of environmental comfort (noise, vibrations, thermal and other fields), with respect to the location, distance and barrier coverage of the steam-gas power block by other technological facilities of the Refinery, its construction and operation will not affect the current situation of the climate and environmental comfort of the closest residential area the municipality of Lieskovec where the admissible noise and vibration limits will not be exceeded (CCGT Slovnaft Refinery, vibroakustick tdia pre stupe posudzovania EIA [CCGT Slovnaft Refinery, a vibro-acoustic study for the EIA evaluation degree of]) (J. ma, November 2008). Influences on surface and underground water: Assuming the realization of construction modifications to the underground water protection system and regarding the hydrogeological situation, it can be concluded that the construction of the steam-gas power block will not affect the regime and flow of underground water. Offtakes of service water from the Danube will be made via the waterworks facilities of the Refinery. After 3 the operation of the energy block will be launched, the offtake will increase by 4481400 m /year. This volume will result in increased intakes of the Refinery by approx. 10.44% in comparison with 2007; this increase will virtually have no effect on the flow rates of the Danube River. Similarly, the increase of the 3 volume of waste water from the steam-gas power block (approx. 550 000 m /year, i.e. 5,36 % of the total volume of waste water discharged by the Refinery in 2007), will have no effect on Danube water flow rate and quality. Influences on the soil: The soil on the Refinery premises may be characterized as built-over (hard) surfaces and social outfield with devastated soil. Before the start of the construction works, most of this soil will be removed. In case of contamination detected during the earthworks, the soil will be removed and disposed of as a dangerous waste according to the respective regulations. At the end of the construction works, on free and soft surfaces the removed soil will be partly replaced by made-up ground or, alternatively, by gravel backfill according to the purpose of the area. The soil in the surroundings of the site and at the involved area is affected by imission fall-out. Influences on the genetic resources and biodiversity: Rudimentary communities of plants and selfseeding wood species will be removed from the future construction site before it is handed over to the investor. The construction and operation of the CCGT turbine plant will affect the biotopes in the involved area only marginally (via water, soil and air). With respect to synergic effects from other sources of environmental devastation (traffic, other production activities, etc.), the impact will be negligible and basically will not be reflected in preservation or alterations of the genetic resources and biodiversity of the involved area. Influences on the territorial ecological stability system: Disturbing influences of the construction of the steam-gas power block will be short-term and will not result in any permanent changes in the territorial ecological stability system. The high voltage line of the 2x400 kV connection to the SEPS regional switchhouse will represent a flight barrier for the avifauna. However, this effect can be eliminated by appropriate technical precautions. 5.2 INFLUENCES ON THE LANDSCAPE

The evaluation of influences of the proposed construction of the steam-gas power block is based on the premise that this construction will be realized within the Slovnaft, a.s., site which represents a functionally clear-cut unit in the landscape structure. On the basis of this fact, evaluation of the influences of the construction on the landscape is as follows: Influences on the structure and use of the landscape: The construction and operation of the steamgas power plant on the Refinery site will not alter the current structure and existing functional systems and elements of the landscape. The construction will change build-over of blocks 94 and 95. In addition, an above-ground high voltage electric line (2x400 kV) as a connection to the SEPS switchhouse in PoEKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. 152/162

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI dunajsk Biskupice will be provided. Should the turbine plant be connected to distance heating system, a short section of the heating pipeline (some 100 meters) between the turbine plant and the existing pipeline will be completed. Other alterations in the structure and utilization of the landscape will not become visible. The influence of the construction of the steam-gas power block outside the Slovnaft, a.s., premises on the use of the landscape will be restrictive within the extent of the hygienic protection zone and security protection zones of the I. and II. degrees or, alternatively, of the proposed protection zones of the steamgas power block equipment (protection zone of the 2x400 kV connection to the switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice). However, changes within the specified regimes of protection zones and outside their borders are not excluded, as well as arbitrary changes in the use of landscape elements of the involved area. The construction of the steam-gas power block will alter the current landscape to a limited extent only. 5.3 INFLUENCES ON THE URBAN SITE AND ON USE OF LAND

Influences on the structure of settlements, housing, architecture and buildings: The construction of the steam-gas power block will change the functional use and build-over within the premises. Due to connections to the power distribution systems outside the premises, the technical infrastructure of the involved area will be changed partly. Influences on industrial production : During the time of construction works and delivery of technological equipment, the construction will create demands for production in other enterprises of the engineering, electrotechnical, chemical and construction industry enterprises as well as demands for supplies of building and assembling works within the Slovak Republic and abroad. On the other hand, the steam-gas power block will be a new supplier of electric (or, possibly, thermal) energy for the consumer sphere (industrial companies and other purchasers), with advantage in a short start-up time which allows to cover the power consumption peaks. The consequences of implementation of the proposed plan will in both cases be positive. Influences of the construction and operation of the steam-gas power block on agricultural production, forestry, services, sport, recreation and tourism will be apparent in improvement of the conditions for electric energy purchase. Influences on the traffic: The construction of the steam-gas power block will not affect the development of local communications, road, railway, air and water transport in the involved area. The construction does not assume transfer of large volumes of soil and other materials. The focus of the transport load will be partly represented by single deliveries of technological equipment which, with respect to their volume and weight, may cause short-term (a few hours at maximum) traffic restrictions on the access roads. During culmination of the construction works, an increase in car transport by 4, max. 10, drives per hour can be expected on the Slovnaftsk ulica access communication during 3-5 months. This increase is virtually negligible given the current intensity of drives per hour on this communication, and will not show any influence on increasing the noise level. A better use of the railway transport may contribute to an improvement of the situation on the access roads during the construction. During operation of the steam-gas power block, major volumes of raw materials (natural gas and water) will be transported via pipelines. The operation of the block will load the traffic networks in the affected area only by small volumes (delivery of auxiliary chemicals or waste disposal). Influences on the technical infrastructure of the area: The CCGT energy block will use the technical infrastructure of the Slovnaft, a.s., premises and the construct technical infrastructure of the affected area. It will be necessary to complete connections and junctions to the already existing networks and distribution systems (especially junctions to the existing gas line 2xDN 500 and 2x400 kV junctions to the SEPS switchgear in P. Biskupice which is a connecting construction). The steam-gas power block will not participate in preserving the cultural and historical monuments and archaeological sites directly; however, in case of finding of objects of cultural and historical value, or in case of an archaeological or palaeontological finding it is legally binding to report the finding to the respective institutions and to interrupt the investment activity until a decision of the respective authority is passed.

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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 5.4 EVALUATION OF THE IMPACTS ON THE POPULATION HEALTH

Factors affecting the health of the population in the involved area: According to the developed dispersion study, the pollutant in emissions of the Steam-gas power block is represented by NOx. CO, SO2 and solid pollutants emissions are, with respect of the used fuel and current imissions measured by the AIMS, negligibly low or neutral. NO 2 imission load will increase by 2 to 6% in comparison to the current situation. On the other hand, the block's equipment and the connection to the switchhouse in Podunajsk Biskupice are located outside of residential areas, therefore the changes of the electromagnetic field will have no influence on the population in the involved area either. With regard to these facts, impacts on the health of the population in the involved area cannot be expected. Disturbance of comfort and quality of life: The factors of disturbance of comfort and quality of life during the construction will only be represented by transportation impacts. In the closest residential site of Lieskovec, these impacts will not reach the values which would represent a serious disturbance of the day and night comfort of the environment. Noise, and similarly also dustiness and emissions on the construction site, will affect only the closest surroundings of the construction site where the comfort parameters in the working environment will temporarily be decreased. If the required noise level of technological devices is maintained, noise intensity from the operation of the steam-gas power block in the closest residential area of Lieskovec will not reach the values which would represent disturbance of the day and night comfort. On short-time basis, disturbing noise from decompression of machinery may occur. Acceptability of the activity for the city residents: Acceptability of the construction of the steam-gas power block will depend on the extent of explanation of its positive impacts on industrial development of the region, on the consumer sphere, on employment development and on stabilization of social securities; it will also depend on management of ecological and safety parameters of the construction. Number of residents affected by influences of the activity: With regard to location of the steam-gas power block on the southern side of the Refinery premises, it may be assumed that its construction and operation will affect a significantly lower number of residents who are mainly concentrated on the northern edge of the involved area. 5.4.1 EVALUATION OF HEALTH RISKS

Health risks for employees: Health risks for the employees of the steam-gas power block are similar to those of Slovnaft, a.s., employees. A difference is in smaller extent of possible intoxication and in significantly higher probability of electric current injuries. The influence of heat field is more pronounced and from the perspective of a long-term exposition there is a significant influence of electromagnetic field in the power block. Health risks for population in the involved area: Similarly to the previous case, the steam-gas power block does not create any health risks for the population in the involved area during its normal operation. During specific climatic conditions a risk of injury (as well as death) by discharge of the electric current may occur under the 2x400 kV line during normal operation of the power block as well. To manage risks during emergencies with the character of large-scale breakdowns, similar principles as in case of Slovnaft, a.s. shall apply.

6.

INFLUENCES ON PROTECTED AREAS AND PROTECTION ZONES

The evaluated area includes 6 protected territorial objects. In addition, there are 24 proposed localities which are interesting from the point of view of protection of nature and land. All the above-mentioned protected areas are located next to main water flows of the Danube and Little Danube rivers. With respect to the above-mentioned facts (impacts on the environment), construction and operation of the steam-gas power block will not result in a threat to these protected areas. The boundaries and regimes of the declared protection zones will remain untouched and the assumed emission status will not affect their function adversely. The evaluated involved area includes (parts of) reach the following protected areas of European importance (Natura 2000) defined according to the Order by the Ministry of Environment of the SR No. 3/2000 which specifies national list of areas of European importance according to Article 27, Clause 5 of Act No. 543/2002 as amended by Act No. 525/2003 Coll.: Bratislavsk luhy, part of cadastral area Petralka (2nd and 4th protection degrees), 154/162

EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o.

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Biskupick luhy, part of cadastral area Podunajsk Biskupice (2nd to 4th protection degrees) Hruovsk zdr, part of cadastral area Podunajsk Biskupice (2nd protection degree).

- Birth sanctuary Dunajsk luhy within Dunajsk luhy landscape protection area, part of cadastral area Ruinov. Podunajsk Biskupice, Petralka.

7.

EVALUATION OF EXPECTED INFLUENCES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THEIR SIGNIFICANCE AND TIME PROGRESS OF THEIR IMPACT

The influence of investment and construction activity : A positive influence of the construction of the power block is that a new power source with appropriate ecological parameters will be built, which will extend the offer of electric power for a wider consumer sphere in a suitable way. In blocks 94 and 95 numerous makeshifts and objects will be replaced, and created rudimentary biotopes will be liquidated. Last but not least, the positive influences also include the formation of a new economic subject which will contribute to creation of job positions and to maintaining social securities for the employees of the power block and of related economic subjects. These long-term positive influences outperform negative influences of the construction works on the construction site and the influences of personal and cargo transport during the construction works. Influences during standard operation: The most extensive negative influence on the environment during standard operation is represented by air pollution by NO2 and by noise. Their relevant reach is apparent within the defined involved area. Pollution of other components of the environment does not exceed (or only slightly exceeds) the borders of the premises. A positive influence on the environment is represented by production of ecologically clean energy. In overall evaluation, positive impacts of the steam-gas power block standard operation outperform the negative ones by their extent and significance. Influences during non-standard operation and emergencies: The possibilities of non-standard forms of operation of the steam-gas power block are significantly lower in comparison with Slovnaft, a.s., and the time needed to manage them is shorter. Occurrence and management of emergencies connected with a major industrial breakdown are also similar to those in Slovnaft, a.s.; however, due to the character of the operation of the steam-gas power block, their consequences are simpler. Influences resulting from liquidation of the activity: In case of a controlled liquidation, the costs of removal of all inexploitable objects, constructions and technological facilities and the costs for redevelopment of the area for a new utilization would not exceed the potentials of the investors. The area could be used for new purposes, probably in a new relation to the Slovnaft, a.s., activities; Slovnaft, a.s., will further be responsible for the operation of the HGWP system. Uncontrolled development after termination of the power block operation is improbable.

8.

ESTIMATED INFLUENCES EXCEEDING THE STATE BORDERS

The steam-gas power block: According to the dispersion study, above-limit imission values from the emission sources of Slovnaft, a.s., and of the steam-gas power block after launch of its operation will not go beyond the defined involved area or the borders of the Slovak Republic. On the other hand, a part of the produced electric power may be distributed via the SEPS network. Implementation of the proposed project will have no negative ecological influences exceeding the state borders.

9.

POSSIBLE INDUCED EFFECTS OF THE INFLUENCES WITH REGARD TO THE CURRENT SITUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE INVOLVED AREA

The area affected by the construction of the power block consists of three landscape types. From the perspective of the functional use of the area and of frequency and intensity of anthropogenic impacts of the site (the area), there are floodplain forests and agricultural land with low anthropogenic load, building development (family and low-rise flat blocks) with a medium anthropogenic load, high-rise housing development with high anthropogenic load and industrial sites with very high anthropogenic load. The most overloaded area is on the northern edge of the involved area. The energy block will be located on the southern edge of the Slovnaft, a.s. premises, on the border of the area with relatively low anthropogenic load.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI Positive influences of the power block construction and operation on the involved area will be apparent in improved conditions for electric energy purchase for the consumer sphere and in construction of an environment-friendly energy source. Primary influences during the construction of the power block are represented by influences on abiotic natural components of the environment. The most significant effects will be found with respect to the atmosphere and environmental comfort. Dominant negative influences will be represented by increased dustiness, noise, vibrations and shocks. According to the implemented examination, the construction works will have no direct influence on the dwelling environment of the adjacent residential areas. They will be subdued by the distance or by adjacent building development. Primarily positive influences in the form of production of ecologically clean energy and improved conditions for its purchase for the consumer sphere and, alternatively, also heat supply are expected from the operation of the power block. A slight emission increase will be below the specified admissible limits. CO2 production is half in comparison with the coal and liquid fuel power plants.

10.

POSSIBLE RISKS RELATED TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY

From the point of view of its location, the steam-gas power block is understood as a part of the Slovnaft, a.s. premises. For its equipment as well as for the steam-gas power block, and in compliance with requirements prescribed by Act No. 261/2002 Coll. on prevention of serious industrial breakdowns and on amendments and supplements to some acts, the organization Slovnaft-VURUP, a.s., has developed safety analyses which prove social acceptability of the risks connected with the operation of the enterprise as well as with the operation of the steam-gas power block. The extent of individual risks corresponds with the industrial character of the enterprise and of the proposed power block. The extent of Slovnaft, a.s., environmental risks corresponds with the character of refinery and petrochemical units. Lower environmental risks of the steam-gas power block are (due to its location) subdued by Slovnaft, a.s., environmental risks.

11.

MEASURES TO REDUCE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF THE ACTIVITY

, In accordance with the legislation of the SR and with STN standards, as well as with the legislation of the EU and with EN standards, the project documentation should comprise technical measures to reduce the impacts of the steam-gas power block technology on the environment and on operational safety and health, as well as technical measures to avoid large industrial breakdowns and endangering the residents in the involved area. In the technical and technological project of the power block construction, the principle of maximal elimination of possible technological failures and breakdowns as well as the principle of restriction of such failures and breakdowns and of their impacts to the broken down technological unit only will be applied. The measures to reduce negative impacts of the power block operation on the environment include minimization and reduction of the extent of production outputs into the environment. Further measures which will be prepared during the project implementation in accordance with the legislation of the Slovak Republic include measures during production of technological equipment, measures during the construction, measures during operation of the activity, organizational measures to avoid breakdowns, etc.

12.

EVALUATION OF THE EXPECTED DEVELOPMENT OF THE AREA IN CASE THE PROJECT WOULD NOT BE NOT IMPLEMENTED

In case the CCGT block would not be built, SLOVNAFT, a.s. would continue its business activity in production of refinery and petrochemical products and in strengthening its competition ability. Alternative usage would be sought for the vacated blocks 94 and 95 and for free capacities of its technological machinery, with different impacts on the involved area. The duty to operate the hydraulic ground water protection system would continue. A different alternative would be sought to solve self-sufficiency of the Slovak Republic in electric energy production and to strengthen the power resources in Bratislava. The status of the environment in the involved area will continue to be impacted by the existing sources of its devastation and the development of this status will depend on other investment activities that will develop in the involved area. They will also influence the development of social sphere and of job opportunities, as well as the stability or increase of the standard of living of the inhabitants in the involved area.
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI

13.

EVALUATION OF ACCORDANCE OF THE PROJECT WITH THE ZONING DOCUMENTATION

According to Act of the Government of the SR No. 336/2001 Coll., being an amendment of Act of the Government of the SR No. 64/1998 Coll., the area in question belongs to the binding part of the zoning plan of the large territory unit Bratislavsk kraj. In the area there are no actions of investment character from the field of environmental protection. The power block will be situated on the Slovnaft, a.s., premises. Its location is in accordance with the approved zoning plan of the capital city of Bratislava from 2007.

14.

SELECTION OF THE OPTIMAL OPTION OR DETERMINATION OF THE ORDER OF SUITABILITY FOR THE EVALUATED OPTIONS AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROPOSED OPTIMAL OPTION

Territorially one-option solution is given by the building site location and ownership. The owner is SLOVNAFT, a.s. and the site is its long-term contribution to the joint venture which is represented by the proposer of this project. Basic selection of a technological option was made within the Feasibility Study Combined Cycle Power Plant at the- Slovnaft Refinery, Slovakia developed by F-Consult Ltd (AFC), Finland in 2008; within the plan the selection was limited to comparison of the MS and SS configurations of the power block. The MS configuration is more suitable for implementation of the project due to its greater variability. For the purposes of comparison with the zero option, economical, ecological and safety perspectives have been chosen as the criteria. According to them, the justification for selection of the proposed option (the MS configuration) is as follows. From the economic point of view, the steam-gas power block construction contributes to resolving power production shortage within the Slovak Republic, and its offer for consumers extends the possibilities to choose among power suppliers (alternatively also heat suppliers). The construction results in more efficient use of idle capacities of several technological equipment in SLOVNAFT, a.s. From the ecological point of view, the production of electric energy using the steam-gas cycle belongs to the technologies which, with regard to production of pollutants in relation to one production unit, belong to the most environment-friendly ones.. On the other hand, construction of the block on the southern edge of the premises is acceptable because even after its completion the level of anthropogenic load of the area will be significantly lower than on the northern edge of the premises. The imission fall-out of pollutants will also be substantially lower and will not reach the limit values. Proximity of water surfaces and wood covers in the locality in question will allow a faster decrease of CO2 volumes. The developer of the project has started from the provisional safety analysis which has been developed for the power block by Slovnaft-VURUP, a.s. (Bratislava, December 2008), in accordance with Act No. 261/2002 Coll. on prevention of serious industrial breakdowns. According to its conclusions, the social risk of the proposed operation is acceptable and the steam-gas power block can be located in the blocks 94 and 95 of the Slovnaft, a.s. premises.

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XI.

LIST OF THE RESOLVERS AND ORGANIZATIONS PARTICIPATING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EVALUATION REPORT
The developer: EKOTRADE HT, s.r.o. Ing. Jozef Trango The Director Oknikova 6 811 04 Bratislava

Resolvers Ing.arch. Jn Hutk, CSc. responsible rsolver Doc. RNDr Duan Matis, CSc. RNDr Jana Ruikov Ing. Jozef Trango RNDR Juraj Brozman Ing. Jn ima Ing. Pavel Hoffmann Bratislava, January 2010

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XII.

LIST OF COMPLEMENTARY ANALYTICAL REPORTS AND STUDIES AVAILABLE AT THE PROPOSER WHICH REPRESENT THE BACKGROUND DOCUMENTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE EVALUATION REPORT

The proposer made the following documents available for development of the project: 1. Pre-Feasibility Study - Slovnaft CCGT developed by F-Consult Ltd (AFC), Finland, 2008. 2. First documentation for the CCGT project, background data provided by SEZ Energoprojekt, a.s., Bratislava, 2008. 3. Other background data provided by the proposer and by the representatives of EZ and Slovnaft, a.s. 4. Zmer paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, Slovensko (Steam-gas power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia) (project in accordance with Act No. 24/2006 on evaluation of the influences of activities on the environment, as amended) developed by EKOTRADE HT, Bratislava, 2008 5. The noise level study CCGT Slovnaft refinery - vibroakustick tdia pre stupe posudzovania EIA (CCGT Slovnaft Refinery vibro-acoustic study for the evaluation degree of EIA), developed for the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko, J. ma a kol., Klub Z P S vo vibroakustike, s.r.o., ilina, November 2008 6. Rozptylov tdia Imisno-prenosov posdenie stavby Slovnaft CCGT (Imission and dispersion evaluation of the Slovnaft CCGT construction) developed for the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko (Steam-gas power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia), RNDr J. Brozman, Martin, November 2008 7. The study Combined Cycle Power Plant at the Slovnaft Refinery, Slovakia - Feasibility Study developed by F-Consult Ltd (AFC), Finland, 2009 8. Hodnotenie drevn v lokalite zmeru Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko v Bratislave (Evaluation of wood species in the locality of the project Steam-gas power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia in Bratislava), technical report, Bratislava, TILIANA - RNDr. Jana Ruikov, ernyevskho 1, 851 01 Bratislava, November 2009. With consent of the representatives of the Refinery and of SPC, during the development of the project and of the evaluation report relevant data obtained during previous projects (EFPA, HRP7, PP3, reconstructions of the Heating Plant, EJ, LDPE4, etc.) have been used The information on the involved area has been completed and updated with the data obtained from the Internet. Other cited literature: 1. Ekonomick podmienky uplatnenia zdokonalench energetickch technolgi (CCT) v energetike SR (The economical conditions for applying improved power technologies [CCT] in power engineering of the SR), Karol Dvork and Alena alamonov, Acta Montanistica Slovaca , Volume 3 (1998), 3, 211-217 2. 10. KOGENERACE (Combined Heat and Power Generation - CHP) Jiek I.-Rbl V. AZE 04/2005 3. Plynov turbny (Gas turbines), www.tukan1.szm.sk 5. Modern smery rozvoja plynovch turbn ( Modern trends in the development of gas turbines), ubomr Jurika, Siemens s.r.o. PG-W, Bratislava, lubomir. jurika@siemens.at, Peter Luby, INGCHEM, Bratislava, ingchem@mail.pvt.sk 6. Decree of the Ministry of the Environment of the SR No. 3/20045. 1 from 14 Ju ly, 2004 in which the national list of territories of the European significance is declared, zemia NATURA 2000, www.sopsr.sk 7. Futk, J., 1982: Fytogeografick lenenie M 1 : 1 000 000 ( Phytogeographic division M 1 : 1 000 000). In: Mazr, E. et al., 1982: Atlas SSR, Slovensk stav geografie a kartografie SAV, Brat islava. 8. Maglock, ., 2002: Potencilna prirodzen vegetcia. 1: 500 000 Potential natural vegetation. 1: 500 000), p. 115 In: MP SR; SAP, 2002: Atlas krajiny Slovenskej republiky (Atlas of the lan dst scape of the Slovak Republic), 1 edition. Bratislava, Bansk Bystrica, 344 pp. For the purposes of the project, the following statements and standpoints of other organizations and authorities have been issued:
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CMEPI 1. Statement of the Ministry of the Economy of the SR concerning the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko (Steam-gas power block in the Slovnaft, a.s. Refinery, Slovakia), Section of power engineering, Division of business environment, letter. 494/2009 3430, dated 18.5.2009 2. Statement of the District Headquarters of fire fighting and rescue corps in Bratislava concerning the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko (Steam-gas power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia), letter No. KRHZ-624/2009, dated 20.5.2009 3. Decision of the Hungarian party concerning collaboration on the EIA process in Slovakia within the project "CCGT power block in the Slovnaft Refinery", a letter by the Assistant Secretary of the Ministry of the Environment of the Hungarian Republic to the Institute for Environmental Protection, Ref. No.: KMF- 153 / / 2009, Budapest, 27.7.2009 4. Standpoint of Bratislava. the Capital of Slovakia concerning the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko (Steam-gas power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia), letter. MAGS OUP-42146/09-216437 RUP-308/09, EIA No. 27 dated 24.6.2009 5. Standpoint of the city part Bratislava- Petralka concerning the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko (Steam-gas power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia), ref. No. 2009/9209, letter dated 26.5.2009 6. Standpoint of the Regional Office for Public Healthcare in Bratislava concerning the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko ( Steam-gas power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia), letter. RVZ/21-7111/2009, dated 18.5.2009, 7. Standpoint of the Slovak Inspection for the Environment Inspectorate for the Environment, Bratislava concerning the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko (Steamgas power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia), letter. no. 6538-17432/2009/37/ Bal, dated 27.5.2009 8. Standpoint of the Local Office of the Environment in Bratislava, Section for evaluation and assessment of influences on the environment concerning the project Paroplynov energetick zdroj v rafinrii Slovnaft, a.s. Slovensko (Steam-gas power block in the Slovnaft Refinery, a.s., Slovakia), letter. ZPO/2009/ 04064-8/BAR/BA dated 1.6.2009. Apart from the above-mentioned standpoints and statements concerning the evaluated project, there is no other complementary information to be added to the report.

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XIII.

AFFIRMATIVE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE ABOVE FACTS BY SIGNATURE OF AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE PROPOSER

1. Affirmative acknowledgement of the above facts by signature (stamp) of the developer of the report Hereby, I acknowledge the correctness and completeness of the facts given in the "CCGT CMEPI" report developed in compliance with Act of the National Council of the SR No. 24/2006 as amended. Bratislava,

EKOTRADE HT

Jozef Trango The Director

2. Affirmative acknowledgement of the above facts by signature (stamp) of authorised representative of the proposer Hereby, I acknowledge the correctness and completeness of the facts given in the "CCGT CMEPI" report developed in compliance with Act of the National Council of the SR No. 24/2006 as amended. Bratislava,

CM European Power International, s.r.o.

Csaba Bende The Executive Mojmr alkovsk The Executive

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