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SUBMITTED BY : NAZIA ISHRAT ROLL NO: 1005231025
Submitted to the Department of ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree of Bachelor of Technology In ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY G.B. Technical University [2012-2013]
Student Name:NAZIA ISHRAT Seminar Guide Name: ER. DIVYA TRIPATHI
Student Signature: 1
Seminar Guide signature:
This to certify that Miss NAZIA ISHRAT prepared this B.Tech seminar report titled LIGHT FIDELITY(LI-FI) under the esteemed guidance of Er. Divya Tripathi .This seminar report is submitted to the department of Electronics Engineering in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering.
Seminar Guide Name ER.DIVYA TRIPATHI
Head of Department Dr. NEELAM SRIVASTAVA
Seminar Guide Signature
It gives me a great sense of pleasure to present the B.Tech Seminar report undertaken during B. Tech. Third Year. I owe special debt of gratitude to respected H.O.D Neelam Srivastava for her guidance. I would like to take this opportunity to thank my seminar guide Er.Divya Tripathi for her constant support and guidance throughout the course of my work. Her
sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for me. It is only her cognizant efforts that mine endeavor have seen light of the day. I also do not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of all dignitary Staff-members of I.E.T. Lucknow for their kind assistance and cooperation during the development of my Seminar report. Last but not the least, I acknowledge my friends for their contribution in the completion of the seminar report. Apart from the efforts of me, the success of this project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this report.
What if we could use other waves to surf the internet? One German physicist. or competing for bandwidth at a conference. As more and more people and their many devices access wireless internet. But radio waves are just one part of the spectrum that can carry our data. and tablets is transmitted through the light in a room. He envisions a future where data for laptops. clogged airwaves are going to make it increasingly difficult to latch onto a reliable signal.smartphones.DR. but far more powerful. And security would be a snap—if you can’t see the light. 4 . which is speedier than your average broadband connection. It’s the same idea behind infrared remote controls.ABSTRACT Whether you‘re using wireless internet in a coffee shop. which he calls D-Light. can produce data rates faster than 10 megabits per second. Haas says his invention. stealing it from the guy next door. has come up with a solution he calls“Data Through Illumination”—taking the fiber out of fiber optics by sending data through an LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can follow.you can’t access the data. Harald Haas. you’ve probably gotten frustrated at the slow speeds you face when more than one device is tapped into the network.
2 APPLICATIONS CHAPTER 8 8.2 METHODS OF VLC CHAPTER 5 5.INDEX SERIAL NO.1 SYSTEM DESIGN 4.1 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 3 3. CHAPTER 1 1.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE NO.1 WORKING TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 6 6.1 COMPARISION BETWEEN LI-FI&WI-FI 6.2 ISSUES WITH RADIO WAVES 6. 07-08 07 09-10 09 11-14 11 15-17 15 15 18-21 18 22-24 22 23 24 25-31 25 26 32-32 32 33-33 33 5 .1 FUTURE PROSPECTS 7.1 CONCLUSION CHAPTER 9 9.1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 2 2.3 HOW IS LI-FI DIFFERENT CHAPTER 7 7.1 LIGHT FIDELITY (LI-FI) CHAPTER 4 4.
1 Fig 7.2 Fig 5.2 Fig 7. 08 09 11 13 16 19 20 21 23 25 27 28 29 30 31 6 .4 Fig 7.1 Fig 5.1 Fig 2.1 Fig 7.1 Fig 3.3 Fig 6.3 Fig 7. Fig 1.2 Fig 4.4 GHz Wireless Router Electromagnetic spectrum Coinage of LI-FI Transfer of data through light Communication system Working of Li-fi Block diagram Transfer of data from internet to user Four aspects of WI-FI Anticipated uses of LI-FI Use in medical field Use in airlines Use in power plants Under sea awsomeness Use of LI-FI in traffic control Page no.6 Figure name 2.1 Fig 3.1 Fig 5.5 Fig 7.List of figures Figure no.
as it has been dubbed. where each LED transmits a different data stream. Terms at the University of Oxford and the University of Edingburgh are focusing on parallel data transmission using array of LEDs. ―At the heart of this technology is a new generation of high brightness light-emitting diodes‖. Germany have reached data rates of over 500 megabytes per second using a standard white-light LED. if the LED is on.―They can be switched on and off very quickly.Haas says.Very simply.The LED intensity is modulated so rapidly that human eye cannot notice. theoretically allowing a high-definition film to be downloaded in 30 seconds. to promote high-speed optical wireless systems and to overcome the limited amount of radio based wireless spectrum available by exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Li-Fi is the term some have used to label the fast and cheap wireless-communication system. UK. which uses 2. which is the optical version of Wi-Fi.4-5GHz RF to deliver wireless Internet access around our homes. Most of us are familiar with Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity). Other group are using mixtures of red.Li-Fi. Researchers at the Heinrich Hertz Institute in Berlin. you transmit a digital 1. offices and in public places. has already achieved blisteringly high speed in the lab. which gives nice opportunities for transmitted data. The consortium believes it is possible to achieve more than 10Gbps. detectable at a distance of up to ten metres In October 2011 a number of companies and industry groups formed the Li-F Consortium. it has its 7 . We have become quite dependent upon this nearly ubiquitous service.‖It is possible to encode data in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s. schools. so the output appears constant. green and blue LEDs to alter the light frequency encoding a different data channel. The technology was demonstrated at the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas using a pair of Casio smart phones to exchange data using light of varying intensity given off from their screens. More sophisticated techniques could dramatically increase VLC data rate.1 INTRODUCTION Li-Fi is transmission of data through illumination by taking the fiber out of fiber optics by sending data through a LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can follow. The term was first used in this context by Harald Haas in his TED Global talk on Visible Light Communication. says Harald Haas from the University of Edinburgh. if it‘s off you transmit a 0.CHAPTER 1 1. But like most technologies.
Therefore RF-based technologies such as today‘s Wi-Fi are not the optimal way. music libraries and video games Figure 1. This is a good match to the speed of most current Internet services.1 .11n standard. its bandwidth is typically limited to 50-100 megabits per second (Mbps) today using the IEEE802. While Wi-Fi can cover an entire house. but insufficient for moving large data files like HDTV movies. including movies. pictures and games.4 Ghz Wireless Router The more we become dependent upon ‗the cloud‘ or our own ‗media servers‘ to store all of our files. the more we will want bandwidth and speed. 8 . music. Linksys 2.limitations.
9 . Fig 2. This will be particularly relevant in indoor ‗smart‘ lighting systems. where the light is always ‗on. their secondary duty could be to ‗piggyback‘ data communication onto lighting systems.1 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION Many people‘s first exposure to optical wireless technology was VLC.‘ In contrast to infrared. Thus while LEDs will be used for illumination. This can be done due to the ability to modulate LEDs at speeds far faster than the human eye can detect while still providing artificial lighting. Think of a TV remote in every LED light bulb and you‘ll soon r ealise the possibilities of this technology. communications can ride along for nearly free.1 Electromagnetic spectrum The premise behind VLC is that because lighting is nearly everywhere. Today. illumination can be used for beamguiding. discovery or generating an alarm for misalignment. it is seen as an alternative to different RF-based communication services in wireless personal-area networks. There.CHAPTER 2 2. An additional opportunity is arising by using current state-of-the-art LED lighting solutions for illumination and communication at the same time and with the same module. This emerging technology offers optical wireless communications by using visible light. the so-called ―what you see is what you send‖ feature can be used to improve the usability of transmitting data at shorter point-to-point distances between different portable or fixed devices.
for example. Assuming that all the light bulbs are exchanged with LEDs. shortrange M2M and F2M communications to exchange. The most important groups are IrDA with its new 10 Giga-IR working group. Data rates are supported from some 100 kbps up to 100 Mbps using different modulation schemes. the focus is on low-speed. 10 . The VLC Consortium (VLCC) in Japan was one of the first to introduce this technology. It specifies VLC comprising mobile-to-mobile (M2M). the IEEE 802. medium-range communications for intelligent traffic systems and on high-speed. one billion barrels of oil could be saved every year. visible light communication is gaining attention in research and development.15 wireless personal-area networks working group. The final standard was approved in 2011. research institutes and universities in 2008. There. which again translates into energy production of 250 nuclear power plants.One of the biggest attractions of VLC is the energy saving of LED technology.15. fixed-to-mobile (F2M) and infrastructure-to-mobile (I2M) communications.7 task group was established by the industry. Driven by the progress of LED technology. Nineteen per cent of the worldwide electricity is used for lighting. Other standardisation groups are working on standardised optical wireless communication (OWC) solutions using visible and infrared light. multimedia data. ISO and ICSA. Thirty billion light bulbs are in use worldwide. After establishing a VLC interest group within the IEEE 802.
by fast and subtle 11 .The Term Coined By Dr Harald Haas Li-Fi is a VLC.1“Li Fi”. Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs. Prof.7 standard.at TED Global in July 2011. However. Li-Fi is now part of the Visible Light Communications (VLC) PAN IEEE 802. These devices are normally used for illumination by applying a constant current through the LED. Harald Haas and Dr Mostafa Afgani at the University of Edinburgh. Figure 3.15. The term Li-Fi was coined by Prof. Haas when he amazed people by streaming highdefinition video from a standard LED lamp.1 LIGHT FIDELITY(Li-Fi) VLC represents only a fraction of what appears to be a much larger movement towards optical wireless technologies in general. visible light communication. This larger word has been dubbed ‗Li-Fi‘ (Light Fidelity) by Dr Harald Haas of Edinburgh University and organisations such as the Li-Fi Consortium.CHAPTER 3 3. technology developed by a team of scientists including Dr Gordon Povey.
applications and end users. It is not limited to LED or laser technologies or to a particular receiving technique. over to precise indoor positioning or controlling video games. machines or robots with entirely new natural user interfaces. regardless the part of the spectrum where they belong. In that connection. Just like the more commonly known wireless fidelity. known as the head over heels in LED from his teenage years.it aims to transfer data through light. these and many more could be merged to a full-featured Li-Fi cloud providing wireless services for other future applications as well. It is a technology based on LED‘s for the exchange of data. says Dr Povey. the optical output can be made to vary at extremely high speeds. Data will be sent via light. It includes sub-gigabit and gigabit-class communication speeds for short. this variation is used to carry high-speed data. all kinds of light. 12 . Product Manager of the University of Edinburgh's Li-Fi Program‘D-Light Project’.variations of the current. Li-Fi is a short term of light fidelity. . Li-Fi comprises several optical wireless technologies such as optical wireless communication. Li-Fi comprises a wide range of frequencies and wavelengths. navigation and gesture recognition applied for natural user interfaces . Li-Fi is a framework for all of these providing new capabilities to current and future services. Li-Fi has been developed by Haas whose expertise is on the mobile communications at Edinburgh University. Finally.Thus it provides a completely new set of optical technologies and techniques to offer users add-on as well as complementary functionalities compared to well-known and established RF services. from the infrared through visible and down to the ultraviolet spectrum. This could reach from a new user experience regarding communication speeds in the gigabitclass to bridge the well-known spectrum crunch.Unseen by the human eye. and unidirectional and bidirectional data transfer using line-of-sight or diffuse links. medium and long ranges. reflections and much more.
On the other side are portable or fixed devices on a desk in an office. Thus a two-hour full HDTV movie (5 GB) can be transferred from one device to another within four seconds. GigaShower. in a production hall or at an airport. precision location and gesture recognition technologies.MIMO are the other models for in-house communication.Fig 3. the Li-Fi Consortium defined different types of technologies to provide secure. There a transmitter or receiver is mounted into the ceiling connected to. for example. a media server. For giga-speed technologies. the GigaBeam model is a point-to-point data link for kiosk applications or portable-to-portable data exchanges. optical mobility technologies. with speeds up to 10 Gbps. GigaShower provides unidirectional data services via several channels to multiple users with gigabit-class communication speed over several metres. in an operating room. reliable and ultra-high-speed wireless communication interfaces. GigaBeam. 13 . the Li-Fi Consortium defined GigaDock. While GigaDock is a wireless docking solution including wireless charging for smartphones. tablets or notebooks. These technologies included giga-speed technologies. In an initial approach. and navigation. GigaSpot and GigaMIMO models to address different user scenarios for wireless indoor and indoor-like data transfers. GigaSpot and Giga. GigaShower.2 Transfer of data through light Within a local Li-Fi cloud several databased services are supported through a heterogeneous communication system.
In case GigaShower is used to sell books.This is like watching TV channels or listening to different radio stations where no uplink channel is needed. hall or shopping mall for example. 14 . music or movies.and multi-channel HotSpot solutions offering bidirectional gigabit-class communication in a room. GigaSpot and GigaMIMO are optical wireless single. the connected media server can be accessed via Wi-Fi to process payment via a mobile device.
which is converted back into a data stream and sent to the client. The client can communicate through its own LED output or over the existing network.data from the internet and local network is used to modulate the intensity of the LED light source if any undetectable to the human eye. by fast and subtle variations of the current. These devices are normally used for illumination only by applying a constant current.1 SYSTEM DESIGN Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs at the downlink transmitter. However.CHAPTER 4 4. This very property of optical current is used in Li.Fi setup. the optical output can be made to vary at extremely high speeds. The photo detector picks up signal. 4. An overhead lamp fitted with an LED with signal-processing technology streams data embedded in its beam at ultra-high speeds to the photo-detector. A receiver dongle then converts the tiny changes in amplitude into an electrical signal.2 Methods of Visible Light Communication Devices used for Visible Light Communication Communication using Image Sensors 15 . The operational procedure is very simple-. which is then converted back into a data stream and transmitted to a computer or mobile device.
Receiver devices of visible light communication 1.1 Communication system Transmitter devices of visible light communication 1. RECEIVER Data rate: low speed to very high speed (up to several hundred Mbps) 2.>PIN diode A PIN diode is a diode with a wide. Data rate: up to several kilo bps.>Visible Light LED LED light intensity is modulated by controlling its current.> Fluorescent Lamp FSK modulation of high frequency fluorescent light. The p-type and n-type regions are typically heavily doped because they are used for Ohmic contacts. 16 . lightly doped 'near' intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region.Devices used for Visible Light Communication Visible light TRANSMITTER Fig 4.
photo detectors. APDs show an internal current gain effect (around 100) due to impact ionization (avalanche effect). It is used mostly in digital cameras. Early analog sensors were video camera tubes. However. camera modules and other imaging devices. most currently used are digital charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors. APDs can be thought of as photo detectors that provide a built-in first stage of gain through avalanche multiplication. they can be regarded as the semiconductor analog to photo multipliers . Communication through image sensors An image sensor is a device that converts an optical image into an electronic signal. and high voltage power electronics applications.>Avalanche photodiode An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity. fast switches.The wide intrinsic region is in contrast to an ordinary PN diode. From a functional standpoint.In general. 17 . 2. but it makes the PIN diode suitable for attenuators.By applying a high reverse bias voltage (typically 100-200 V in silicon). some silicon APDs employ alternative doping and beveling techniques compared to traditional APDs that allow greater voltage to be applied (> 1500 V) before breakdown is reached and hence a greater operating gain (>1000). The wide intrinsic region makes the PIN diode an inferior rectifier (one typical function of a diode). the higher the reverse voltage the higher the gain.
Other group are using mixtures of red. you transmit a digital 1. LED can be switched on and off to generate digital strings of 1s and 0s. green and blue LEDs to alter the light frequency encoding a different data channel. Very simply.CHAPTER 5 5. so the output appears constant.‖It is possible to encode data in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s. ―They can be switched on and off very quickly. the LED illumination can be used as a communication source. More sophisticated techniques could dramatically increase VLC data rate. if it‘s off you transmit a 0. Researchers at the Heinrich Hertz Institute in Berlin Germany. There are reasons to prefer LED as the light source in VLC while a lot of other illumination devices like fluorescent lamp. Terms at the University of Oxford and the University of Edingburgh are focusing on parallel data transmission using array of LEDs. VLC data rate can be increased by parallel data transmission using LED arrays where each LED transmits a different data stream. Data can be encoded in the light to generate a new data stream by varying the flickering rate of the LED. It uses fast pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly. As the flickering rate is so fast. by modulating the LED light with the data signal.1 WORKING TECHNOLOGY VLC uses visible light between 400 THz (780 nm) and 800 THz (375 nm) as optical carrier for data transmission and illumination.Li-Fi. A data rate of greater than 100 Mbps is possible by using high speed LEDs with appropriate multiplexing techniques. has already achieved blisteringly high speed in the lab. The main components of this communication system are 1) a high brightness white LED. are available. as it has been dubbed. have reached data rates of over 500 megabytes per second using a standard 18 . incandescent bulb etc. To be clearer. Which acts as a communication source and 2) a silicon photodiode which shows good response to visible wavelength region serving as the receiving element.The LED intensity is modulated so rapidly that human eye cannot notice. the LED output appears constant to the human eye. where each LED transmits a different data stream.‖Haas says. if the LED is on. which gives nice opportunities for transmitted data.
The technology was demonstrated at the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas using a pair of Casio smart phones to exchange data using light of varying intensity given off from their screens.11 (2012)© Research India Publications. like using an array of LEDs for parallel data transmission.com/ijaer.htm each frequency encoding is a different data channel. or using mixtures of red. http://www.ripublication. We have to just vary the rate at which the LED‘s flicker depending upon the data we want to encode. Such advancements promise a theoretical speed of 10 Gbps –meaning 19 . detectable at a distance of up to ten metres. green and blue LEDs to alter the light‘s frequency with International Journal of Applied Engineering Research.1 Working of LI-FI So what you require at all are some LEDs and a controller that code data into those LEDs.white-light LED. Further enhancements can be made in this method. ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. Figure 5.7 No.
quite literally as well as metaphorically.you can download a full high-definition film in just 30 seconds. Light-emitting diodes can be switched on and off faster than the human eye can detect. There's a new technology on the block which could. causing the light source to appear to be on continuously. This invisible on-off activity 20 . but has turned out to have its upside. Simply awesome! But blazingly fast data rates and depleting bandwidths worldwide are not the only reasons that give this technology an upper hand. This can even work underwater where Wi-Fi fails completely. causing the light source to appear to be on continuously. Imagine only needing to hover under a street lamp to get public internet access. Radio waves are replaced by light waves in a new method of data transmission which is being called Li-Fi Light-emitting diodes can be switched on and off faster than the human eye can detect.2 Block Diagram A flickering light can be incredibly annoying. 'throw light on' how to meet the ever-increasing demand for high-speed wireless connectivity. even though it is in fact 'flickering'. Figure 5. Since Li-Fi uses just the light. it can be used safely in aircrafts and hospitals that are prone to interference from radio waves. being precisely what makes it possible to use light for wireless data transmission. or downloading a movie from the lamp on your desk. thereby throwing open endless opportunities for military operations.
3 Data from internet to user through light 21 .enables a kind of data transmission using binary codes. Information can therefore be encoded in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s. Fig 5. though it‘s potential to compete with conventional Wi-Fi has inspired the popular characterisation Li-Fi. This method of using rapid pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly is technically referred to as Visible Light Communication (VLC).
so the two technologies can be considered complimentary.1 COMPARISION BETWEEN LI-FI&WI-FI LI-FI is a term of one used to describe visible light communication technology applied to high speed wireless communication. and li-fi is ideal for high density wireless data coverage in confined area and for relieving radio interference issues.11. Bluetooth and IrDA. It acquired this name due to the similarity to WI-FI. only using light instead of radio WI-FI is great for general wireless coverage within buildings.CHAPTER 6 6. Table 6. Only Wi-Fi currently offers very high data rates. i. Wi-Fi.1Comparison between current and future wireless technologies The table also contains the current wireless technologies that can be used for transferring data between devices today.e. The IEEE 802.n in most implementations provides up to 150Mbit/s (in theory the 22 .
Note that one out of three of these is an optical technology. expensive and we only have a certain range of it. 6.1 Four aspects of WI-FI 1. radio waves. which are :- Fig 6.>CAPACITY: We transmit wireless data is by using electromagnetic waves -.standard can go to 600Mbit/s) although in practice you receive considerably less than this. Radio waves are scarce. Due to this limitation one can’t forever hope to cope with the demand of wireless data transmissions and the number of bytes and data which are transmitted every month.inparticular.2 ISSUES WITH WI-FI USING RADIO WAVES There are four issues with the current wi-fi scenario . 23 .
You can simply stand under any form of light and surf the internet as the connection is made in case of any light presence. You no more need to be in a region that is Wi-Fi enabled to have access to the internet.3 How LI-FI is different? Li-Fi technology is based on LEDs for the transfer of data. the light can belong to the invisible. That is. Also. They can be intercepted.>SECURITY The radio waves penetrate through walls. 24 . games. The efficiency of such a base station is only at about five percent.>EFFICIENCY There are 1. music etc in just a few minutes with the help of this technology. and somebody can make use of one‘s network.but is used to cool the base stations. ultraviolet or the visible part of the spectrum. Also. The transfer of the data can be with the help of all kinds of light.4 million cellular radio masts deployed worldwide. 3. 6. the technology removes limitations that have been put on the user by the Wi-Fi. no matter the part of the spectrum that they belong.>AVAILABILITY Availability of radio waves or RW signals causes another concern We have to switch off our mobile devices in aero planes It is not advisable to use mobiles at places like petrochemical plants and petrol pumps 4. is not used to transmit the radio waves. There cannot be anything better than this technology. the speed of the internet is incredibly high and you can download movies.2. Most of the energy consumed.
CHAPTER 7 7. Axiomtek Europe presented such a product at the Embedded World exhibition in Nurnberg.1 FUTURE PROSPECTS First applications of Li-Fi have been put to use already.in hospitals where RF signal are a threat due to interference problems with medical equipment such as blood pumps and other life supporting instruments.1 Anticipated uses of VLC Technology 25 . Fig 7. for example. we will see more Li-Fi products entering the market. Germany. both in the industrial as well as consumer markets. In the coming years. The prototype of a mobile phone with an incorporated VLC system was presented by Casio at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas in January this year.
2 APLICATIONS 7.1 Enhanced & Exclusive Shopping Experience Imagine yourself walking into a mall where GPS signals are unavailable but the mall is equipped with ceiling bulbs that create their own ‗constellation‘ of navigation beacons. As the camera of your cellphone automatically receives these signals. 26 . it switches your navigation software to use this looking information to guide you to the ATM machine you‘re for. wearing that coveted jacket. the clerk hands you the actual jacket in exactly your size. You turn and pose while the image matches your orientation and body gestures for a ‗digital fitting.7. As you walk away. your phone notifies you that the leather jacket Tom featured in the movie is on sale nearby. You walk over towards the show window and your image comes up on the screen. and then download within a few seconds the high-definition movie into the GigaLink flash drive plugged into the USB port of your smartphone.‘ When you walk into the store. You conclude your ATM transaction and notice the GigaSpot sign for instant digital movie downloads. You pick out that new Tom Cruise movie using your phone‘s payment facility.2.
and there is also that whole lack of dedicated spectrum. While Wi-Fi is in place in many hospitals. Operating rooms do not allow Wi-Fi over radiation concerns.2 You Might Just Live Longer For a long time. And. Code Red! Figure 7. but tend to be the most glaring (pun intended) fixtures in the room. Li-Fi solves both problems: lights are not only allowed in operating rooms.000 times the spectrum of Wi-Fi.2 Use In Medical Field 27 .2. Li-Fi has 10. interference from cell phones and computers can block signals from monitoring equipment. so maybe we can delegate red light to priority medical data. medical technology has lagged behind the rest of the wireless world.7. as Haas mentions in his TED Talk.
I expect it. Uh.7.3 Airlines ( Data on the go!) Nothing says captive audience like having to pay for the "service" of dial-up speed Wi-Fi on the plane. I‘ll be the guy WoWing next to you. And at the same price as checking a bag. United is planning on speeds as high as 9.8 Mbps per plane. Li-Fi could easily introduce that sort of speed to each seat's reading light. Figure 7.3 Use in airlines 28 .2. The best I‘ve heard so far is that passengers will "soon" be offered a "high-speed like" connection on some airlines. And don‘t get me started on the pricing. Its better than listening to you tell me about your wildly successful son. I have twice that capacity in my living room. ma‘am.
But power plants need fast.2. Not only would this save money related to currently implemented solutions.7. The savings from proper monitoring at a single power plant can add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars. inter-connected data systems to monitor things like demand. Figure 7. abundant connectivity for all areas of these sensitive locations. Li-Fi could offer safe. Like those surrounding power plants.4 Use in power plants 29 . but the draw on a power plant‘s own reserves could be lessened if they haven‘t yet converted to LED lighting.3 Smarter Power Plants Wi-Fi and many other radiation types are bad for sensitive areas. grid integrity and (in nuclear plants) core temperature.
5 Under sea awesomeness 30 . high-powered lamp — then they would be much freer to explore. If their wires were cut and replaced with light — say from a submerged. or when it gets stuck on something. They could also use their headlamps to communicate with each other.4 Undersea Awesomeness Underwater ROVs. ROVs work great. except when the tether isn‘t long enough to explore an area. those favourite toys of treasure seekers and James Cameron. all the while obtaining their next batch of orders. Figure 7. operate from large cables that supply their power and allow them to receive signals from their pilots above.7.2. processing data autonomously and referring findings periodically back to the surface.
6 Use of li fi in traffic control 31 .2. that is.or a hurricane. you‘re online. if there‘s light. common dead zones for most emergency communications. pose no obstruction. in times less stressing cities could opt to provide cheap high-speed Web access to every street corner. with Li-Fi.5 It Could Keep You Informed and Save Lives Say there‘s an earthquake in New Delhi. Until they pass under a street light. Take your pick — it‘s a wacky city. Plus. Figure 7. Metro stations and tunnels. The average Delhiite may not know what the protocols are for those kinds of disasters. Remember.7.
CHAPTER 8 8.1 CONCLUSION The concept of Li-Fi is currently attracting a great deal of interest. making it more and more difficult to get a reliable. One of the shortcomings however is that it only work in direct line of sight. high-speed signal. not least because it may offer a genuine and very efficient alternative to radio-based wireless. 32 . the airwaves are becoming increasingly clogged. As a growing number of people and their any devices access wireless internet. This may solve issues such as the shortage of radio-frequency bandwidth and also allow internet where traditional radio based wireless isn‘t allowed such as aircraft or hospitals.
CHAPTER 9 9.com/ 3 http://teleinfobd.in/2012/01/what-is-lifi.org/ 33 .com 2 http://visiblelightcomm.blogspot. http://ted.org/2012/01/11/a-lifi-world/ 5 www.html 4 technopits.lificonsortium.cgap.blogspot.1 Bibliography 1.comtechnology.
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