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R. P. Maheshwari, Ph. D. Professor Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Modern electrical power systems contains major components such as Generators, Transformers, T&D Lines and Motors. Faults are inevitable system configuration change in the length of the line during operation the amount and nature of the loading. Short-circuits not only damage not only to the faulty component but also to the neighboring components and to the complete power system. It is important to limit the damage to a minimum by speedy isolation of the faulty section without disturbing the working of the rest of the system.
To operate the correct C. Unbalance. . To operate the correct C. To give indication as to where to fault has occurred. to isolate the faulty section from the healthy system in case of abnormalities like O/L. To clear the fault before the system becomes unstable.B. O/V. U/V. B.Functions of Protective Relay Schemes Sense the fault. so as to disconnect only the faulty equipment from the system as quickly as possible thus minimizing the trouble and damage caused by faults.
T. . The relay operates as per the characteristics and its contact closes. CT & PT transmits the fault current and post fault voltage to current and potential coil of a protective relay. A x -1 F R -1 A x 52TC 52 For a fault on a feeder. R P.Basic Tripping Circuit C. T.
On the operation of auxiliary relay. alarms etc (ii) To increase relay sensitivity as it won’t carry high trip coil current.Basic Tripping Circuit The closure of the contact energizes the coil of an auxiliary relay. the trip coil of CB is energized and CB trips. . The auxiliary relay is required (i) to perform functions such as annunciations.
S. The zones of protection are overlapped so that there is no “blind spot”.Zones of Protection P. is divided into a no of protective zones each covering one type of equipment. There will be CBs and relays associated with each zone. .
Prot).Diff. It is relative if it is obtained by grading the settings of the protections of several zones. all of which may respond to a given fault (O/C and Distance). Sensitivity:-It is the ability of the protective device to react correctly to the relatively low fault signals. Selectivity is absolute if the protection scheme responds only to faults within its own zone (exp. Speed:-Faster the speed of operation of elements of protective system (relay and breakers). . lesser is the damage to the equipment.Requirements of Protective System Selectivity:-This is the property by which only the faulty element of the system is isolated and the remaining healthy sections are left intact.
. usually associated with high values of fault currents. Stability:-The quality of protective system by virtue of which it remains inoperative under specified conditions.Requirements of Protective System Discrimination:-Protective system should be able to discriminate between fault and loading conditions even when the minimum fault current is less than the maximum load current. Reliability:-Quantitatively it can be expressed as inverse probability of failure. (ii) Security: ability of the protection schemes to avoid maloperation between faults. It can be categorized as: (i) Dependability: It is the certainty of correct operation in response to system trouble.
two types of relays. This remote relay will trip in a delayed time if the breaker in the faulty section fails to trip.is provided by a relay on the next station towards the source. a time-delay relay is operated by the main relay. to trip on a fault. This is the most widely used form of back-up protection. In breaker back-up scheme. main and back-up schemes are provided. main relays. . the feeder fault becomes a bus-bar fault. to trip all the other breakers on bus.Main and Back-Up Protection For each zone of protection. Breaker back-up:-When feeder breaker fails. PTs need to be duplicated and hence not used. CTs. Relay back-up:-In this scheme. Remote back-up:.
reliable and are still used by the utilities. their cost is little high as compared to electromechanical relays.Historical Development Electromechanical Relays:-These relays were rugged. But as these relays consist of moving parts. mechanical vibrations etc. They have many advantages such as low burden. low torque. precise and complex characteristic and small size. high burden and high power consumption for auxiliary mechanisms. . However. Static Relays:-came in 1950’s. there are problems of friction. They may maloperate in case of temperature variations.
oscillography. and ability to communicate with other relays and control computers. self-testing. adaptive logic. including dynamic changes in that logic. (iii) Allow users to develop their own logic schemes. sequence-of-events recording. Advantages:-(i) They provide many functions such as multiple setting groups.Historical Development Micro-processor based Relays:-Came in 1970s. (ii) The cost per function of microprocessor-based relays is lower as compared to the cost of their electromechanical and solid-state counterparts. programmable logic. self-monitoring. .
(v) Microprocessor.based protection systems require significantly less panel space than the space required by electromechanical and solid-state systems that provide similar functions. (vi) Reporting features. including sequence of events recording and oscillography are another feature of microprocessor-based protection systems. .Historical Development (iv) Microprocessor-based relays place significantly less burden on instrument transformers than the burden placed by the relays of the previous technologies.
. etc. While each generation of microprocessor-based systems increases the functionality compared with the previous generation.Historical Development Shortcomings:(i) However. the pace of advancements makes the equipment obsolete in shorter times. microprocessor-based protection systems will always remain more susceptible to problems like Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI). (ii) Microprocessor-based devices have short life cycles. This makes it difficult for the users to maintain expertise with the latest designs of the equipment. Radio Frequency Interference (RFI).
and track the relay settings. Setting-management software is generally available to create. specifically the ability to enable and disable selected functions. transfer. Special testing techniques. are generally used when microprocessor-based relays are tested. Proper procedures must be followed to ensure that correct settings and logic are activated.Historical Development Shortcomings:(iii)The multi-function microprocessor-based relays have a significant number of settings. . The increased number of settings may pose problems in managing the settings and in conducting functional tests. This increases the possibility that the desired settings may not be invoked after testing is completed.
mutual coupling. However. time delay. cheaper and sturdier. . and.Historical Development Digital Relaying:The concept of digital computer relaying has grown rapidly as digital computers have become more powerful. long-term storage of prefault data. they also inherit all the features of microprocessor based relays. remote infeed. It has been observed that digital relays can realize some very useful functions which are not possible with electromechanical or analog circuits. these computer relays do not have successful solutions to the cumbersome problems such as high fault resistance. such as mathematical functions.
This requires high degree of professionalism on the part of the user to decide as to when and what changes to make in the settings. .Historical Development Adaptive Relaying:(i) All the settings are usually selected on the basis of worst case and changed only when a major change in the system configuration is made. (ii) Relay settings which are selected for the worst case would generally give slow speed. low sensitivity or poor selectivity on other conditions in the protected system.
Historical Development Adaptive Relaying:(iii)A fixed operating characteristic of a given relay may not be able to give the requisite speed. (v) With the development of high speed microprocessors. selectivity and sensitivity on all the operating conditions of the protected system. this dream is fast turning true. new tools for signal processing and digital communication techniques. . (iv)Relay engineers have dreamed that relay could adapt to the system changes.
it is possible to design a relay such that it changes its settings. parameters or even the characteristic automatically and appropriately in accordance with the changed condition of the system protected by it.Historical Development Adaptive Relaying:(vi) With the use of programmable devices in digital relays. (vii) A relay having such a feature is termed as an adaptive relay. .
Thereafter. The adaptive relaying philosophy can be made fully effective only with digital computer based relays. different researchers have given different definition of adaptive protection. All these definitions narrate the same facts in different forms.Historical Development Adaptive Relaying:(i) The idea of modifying relay settings to correspond to changing system conditions. . (ii) It is defined as changing relaying parameters or functions automatically depending upon the prevailing system condition or requirements. as a preventive action to improve system stability. was first proposed by DyLiacco in 1967.
relay operates less than a cycle or half a cycle. even though. has the operating time of 8 ms. (AREVA or ALSTOM based motor protection relay) . (vi) The fastest relay.Historical Development (i) However. (iii) It takes more than a cycle (n+2). utilities are using Numerical/Digital relays. (ii) Microprocessor/Numerical relays are not faster than static relays. They are under research.5 cycles.5 cycles. overall operating time (with breakers) remains 1-1. (iv) Operating time of CBs is 1-1. (v) Hence. adaptive relays are not manufactured by any manufacturers. available in market. Now a days.
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