Epi s c opus



Trmdator C


ST R edennp tons

(Ejus festimi celebratur 2






And Founder
of the Congregation of the Most

Holy Redeemer,






No. 178









Sold by Catlwlic Booksellers generally.

ENTERED, according

to the

Act of Congress,

in the year 1854,




Court of Maryland.

in the Clerk s Office of the District

a undertook. but this left Ora nothing to tion. translation of the Life of the Saint from the Italian. he was induced to change his origi nal plan. As soon. he resumed undertaking. and displayed his many claims in to was no Life of In order to supply this he more than ten years ago. when it came to hand.PREFACE. care has been taken to unite completeness with brevity. and he believes that . THE there compiler long since noticed with St. is now prepare for publication the work which While. however. his therefore. to and nothing beyond a mere compilation. he learned with pleasure lhat such a publication was announced in England. but various circumstances occurred to retard its our admiration and respect. he has attempted presented. regret. that the Alphonsus published merits the forth which set English language. as its prove an obstacle to its general meet the object he length was so great as to to circulation. but thinking that a compilation from the English Life would answer his purpose better than the proposed translation. in the series of the Lives of the Saints edited by the fathers of the tory. completion. did not seem fully adapted work. though it be desired in point of fulness of illustra had proposed to himself. adequately of that illustrious Saint. deficiency. In the meanwhile. as his occupations permitted.

O Blessed among women. thy benediction to and do thou take it under thy protection. could not have been rendered more perfect and true otherwise than by the entire reproduction of the is the portrait of St. repeat the result which was the bringing and aim of their first achievement. .VI PREFACE.. glory to the holy names of 1854. by new honor and JESUS and MARY. Alphonsus which voluminous memoirs already published. he exhibited continually such splendid examples of every virtue. Nov. labo riously occupied in the service of God and in the salva tion of soul?. O Lord. There is no occasion to enlarge here upon the merits of the Saint. it that the heroic actions and labors which records may. During a life-time of ninety years. 1st. given in the fol lowing pages. Impart then. and the most per this suasive exhortation to the imitation of his holiness. effect in their recital. work. that the mere narration of them will be at once his best panegyric. BALTIMORE.

retires IV..CONTENTS. I. and resolves 29 CHAPTER Alphonsus enters the V. Alphonsus follows the Profession of the . Ecclesiastical State 3 . his Law Father s SO CHAPTER Alphonsus world. Zeal... His first Labors. Alphonsus applies to Studies.. . PAGE 13 II. to quit the from the Bar.. and Success in the pulpit and the confessional. Chinese College. and the instruction of poor people in general. Alphonsus is ordained Deacon and Priest. 45 CHAPTER Alphonsus retires into the VIII.. sions in the country. 35 CHAPTER VI. 38 CHAPTER Alphonsus VII. establishes public Meetings for the advancement of his penitents. and gives mis 50 ... CHAPTER. III. CHAPTER Birth and Childhood of Alphonsus.. . 17 CHAPTER project of marrying him..

is IX. 97 CHAPTER XIV.VIII CONTENTS. and establishes a Novitiate... It establishes his Congregation at Scala. Missions in various places and Dioceses. His first Publications. Alphonsus gives Missions and founds the Houses at the Villa del Schiavi and at Ciorani. Apostolic Courses of Alphonsus. .. 89 CHAPTER XIII Alphonsus. trial. He founds the House of Nocera. under 68 CHAPTER XI.. and is Difficulties with some subjects. 112 CHAPTER XV.. PAGE called to . makes the three Religious Vows. with his companions. in Naples. especially in that of Naples. found a Congregation of Missionary - 56 CHAPTER Alphonsus goes a severe X. The opposi tion he encounters. He holds the elected Rector Major. CHAPTER Alphonsus Priests. He abandons the for mer. He seeks to have his Congregation approved by the King. 134 .. He abandons Scala. Alphonsus founds the Houses of Iliceto and Caposele. He publishes his Moral Theology. 77 CHAPTER XII. . Alphonsus obtains the approbation of at Rome. first Other difficulties . his Congregation General Chapter.

prudence and manner of diocese. to chosen Bishop. examples of his severity against hardened sinners. man Some . and a Mission in his Cathedral.. His journey Rome and 194 His Consecration. his at a general Chapter of Congrega defends his Moral Theology. . His zeal. . PAGE Alphonsus founds a house in the Pontifical States. He book on the Truth of the Faith. second Marriage. 208 CHAPTER XX. CHAPTER Alphonsus ner of to the XIX. Vari ous apostolical courses and labors. life during the visitation of the 225 CHAPTER His Conduct at his XXI.. 157 CHAPTER XVII. 261 . Alphonsus Maxims and Conduct in his quality of Founder and Superior of a Religious Order. He founds a house in Sicily. ... He re forms and regulates the Diocesan Seminary. His Charity during a Famine. IX CHAPTER XVI. 243 CHAPTER Alphonsus presides tion. His Zeal for the Preaching of the Word of God by himself and Brother s others.. He gives the Spiritual bishop. . His leaves as a life Rome and goes to his diocese. He publishes Ordinances for the Regulation of his Diocese. XXII. Exercises Clergy.. . . Circular Congregation. Alphonsus commences his Episcopal Visitation.CONTENTS.175 CHAPTER Alphonsus Loretto. Becomes dangerously ill. . . is XVIII. He es tablishes He new publishes his to his Parishes.

Alphonsus seeks to resign. His Congregation is established in the States of the Church. He works. His Congregation is persecuted in Sicily. CHAPTER Alphonsus seeks at St. 299 CHAPTER XXV. The Congregation publishes two new defence of his Con . How goes to Naples for the he exercises his zeal at Naples. He work on Dogmatics. Alphonsus His zeal solicitude for the Sanctification of Religious. .X CONTENTS. His great in conferring fessors. His Missionaries return to 359 CHAPTER XXVII. Circular to his Congregation. He gregation. He assists death of Pope Clement XIV. Episcopate. CHAPTER XXVI. in giving Jurisdiction to Con 276 and in choosing subjects for Parishes and Bene CHAPTER XXIV. He publishes several Works. 378 . His sentiments on new Pope. His 327 Missionaries abandon Sicily. fices. Interest he takes in the education of his nephews. to resign the XXIII. Holy Orders. How God assists him in his efforts. at the He publishes still other Works. He establishes solicitude Agatha a Convent of Nuns. and preventing sin in all in classes of the Laity. Alphonsus is visited by sickness and great sufferings. of Alphonsus persecuted. his Alphonsus zeal during his Episcopate in reforming secular and regular Clergy in removing scandals general. the Election of a Sicily. for the material is Churches. His mode of life and apostolic finishes his labors when paralytic.

and mortification. is threatened with complete disor all . 397 CHAPTER XXIX. in regard to CHAPTER Alphonsus XXXII. maintain discipline in the Congregation... . . . the treachery and intrigue of members. and great meek ness. . Church His efforts to and for the general promotion of piety. . 507 . PAGE Alphonsus patience in bearing injuries. Kingdom. penance. his Diocese. His admirable humility. Al 458 defence. His spirit of poverty. The Congregation phonsus labors in is its bitterly persecuted at Naples. exerts himself incessantly for the welfare of the at large. . Alphonsus resigns the Episcopate. Alphonsus exhibits through these ..487 CHAPTER XXXIV. trials entire submission to the will of God. His manner of life ment. ganization. .417 CHAPTER XXX. through some of its XXXIII. Unavailing between the houses of the Pontifical States and those the efforts of Alphonsus to bring about a re-union oi lution. 472 CHAPTER The Congregation. in his retire 441 CHAPTER XXXI.CONTENTS. His anxieties the houses in the Pontifical States.. His zeal Signs of Alphonsus approaching disso for the salvation of souls continues un abated. suffering. Alphonsus charity in relieving all kinds of bodily His detachment from all self-interest. He leaves and returns to Nocera. XI CHAPTER XXVIII. .

. . 580 . 548 CHAPTER XXXVII. and . 526 CHAPTER XXXVI.XII CONTENTS. ALPHONSUS. Alphonsus last illness and Death. CHAPTER XXXV. . The 561 BULL OF &quot. . The Ceremonies wrought of the Interment. The . graces by which God attested his sanctity... Many Miracles are through the intercession of Alphonsus. process of his Canonization. favors . PAGE Alphonsus suffers great interior trials..THE CANONIZATION OF ST..

the Almighty has raised up men to supply the wants of humanity . or turned into derision A . to fight against to awaken Jansenism. the life-spring of Catholic piety.CHAPTER all I. Illustrious by his birth. moreover. incessantly watching over the welfare of his Church. ages of the world. Joseph was. overstrained and rigidity had united to under tury. Joseph de Liguori. and Anne Catherine Cavalieri. and kindle love. Eucharist. in its source. impiety servile fear had expelled mine the edifice of the Church. a man of exemplary piety. the sacraments. had an object of dread and the spirit of Christianity . God gave to his Church and passing away. His wife was a woman of 2 . . watched over it : to the world. Birth and Childhood of Alphonsus. and the public offices which he filled with integrity and pru dence. D. as also by his military talents. faith. IN extraordinary he has. every succeeding century. and by his devotion to the passion of our Lord he obtained many signal graces. provided chosen In the eighteenth cen defend and edify it. a man after his own heart. Alphonsus Liguori. were abandoned. in vessels to and. those fountains of the charity of God the divine life. the Sacrament of the altar. of an ancient patrician family in Naples. become seemed But the eye of an omniscient Providence to confound impiety. of an equally noble family from Brindes. were the happy parents of Alphonsus.

and This little child will live to a great &quot. From the hour of his birth. that in in her an advocate all his necessities he might find Shortly after his birth. Mary of Virgins in Naples. . reciting with them the Rosary and other prayers in honor of different Saints. and how useful to his Church. loving the poor. ceived the following John Francis Cosmas names: Alphonsus Mary Anthony Damian Michel-Angelo the first of which were given him in memory of his ancestors. the others in honor of the Saints on whose respective days he was born and baptized. and taught them the ele ments of the Christian faith. and was to be found most frequently in the house of God. his mother superintended it herself. related that every morning after having blessed her children. singular virtue. ALPHONSUS.&quot. even until ninety years for Jesus perform great things . foretold his future sanctity. St. destined to procure the salvation of souls and promote the glory of Jesus Christ. foreseeing with a prophetic eye how dear to God.&quot. Devoted to prayer. where his parents had a country-house. She was careful in preventing them from associating with other she wished that grace should anticichildren of their age the . He blessing him. and two days after. The brother of Alphonsus. and every evening she assembled them around her. He re tion. : he age. Francis Jerome. he was baptized in the Church of St. the early education of Alphonsus was not confided to strangers. the Blessed Virgin. . and mother. said took him from the arms of his mother. of the Society of Jesus. she practised self-denial and mortifica abstained from worldly amusements. the infant would become. D. and will Christ. and instructed her son in knowledge of religion. in the vicinity of Naples. Alphonsus was born on the 27th of September. Contrary to the usual custom among the nobles. 1696. he was placed in a special manner under the protection of &quot. and descended from parents equally remark able for their piety and their rank. Gaetan. at Marianella.14 LIFE OF ST. she made them pray to God. will be a bishop. Alphonsus was henceforth regarded as a special gift from heaven.

of the Superiors. might say. and even over-anxious in his desire to He regularly confessed to F. the Fathers of St. so early did he show maturity in his devotions. hearing see this young child on mass with singular devotion. received holy com was then an edifying spectacle his knees. He was born with a heart so ready to receive the impressions of grace. old. attentive and recollected dur full of a holy avidity for the general instructions. that in him virtue anticipated age. that One piety and love of virtue seemed natural to him. be taught to hate to confess to her and that they might early she therefore took them every week own director. it. but placed all his delight in erecting altars. in age. It was thus she guided her dear Alphonsus. Jerome directed a fer vent Congregation. . ALPHONSUS. Pagano. F. having for fare of the young nobility. Even in childhood. and although so young. and when arrived at the munion from to his hands. and pouring out his heart in holy affections before him. and a filial confidence in Mary. Thomas Pagano. and approaching the holy table with the He prepared himself always by the aid of greatest fervor.LIFE OF ST. Above all. profit by them. pate in 15 them the malice of sin. He came early every Sunday morning to the Congregation. he might be seen continually presenting himself before God. Thus he so early began to receive those precious graces which God bestows on souls destined to the highest degrees of sanctity. of the Oratory of St. and made him truly holy. and celebrating in his childish manner the When he was more advanced feasts of different Saints. The parents of Alphonsus when he was only nine years and his exemplary conduct and great piety were the admiration of these good Fathers. At this time. It proper age. he was docile and submissive to the slightest command ing the devotional exercises. Jerome. she en deavored to kindle in his heart a tender love for Jesus Christ. he knew not the ordinary amuse ments of infancy. its object the spiritual wel placed him under their care. and had tasted in the practice of piety the sweets little of celestial communication.

she took care to instruct him herself in the manner of performing his devotions. : adding in his you who did not know the game. of hell which it merits. for his joining his admirable in him. Jerome were in the hatyt of taking the young gentlemen of their congregation. and he gained thirty : This success made his companions jeal times running. and one. They called . As Alphonsus advanced in age. was his con When the hour arrived in some devout practice. : God be offended for the sake of a little miserable money ? Take back your money!&quot. nor was he less punctual in other pious exercises. eye-witness. the young people began to amuse themselves with a game called the game of oranges. &quot. The Fathers of St. when he heard it.16 little LIFE OF ST. and the young people he was nowhere to be found. every Sunday after vespers. Fortune favored him. which he devoutly held in his hands. Alphonsus was asked to join. however. and with an air of severity turned towards his companions and said How is this. and of the great displeasure the slightest fault gives to the heart of Jesus enormity of Christ. Alphonsus reddened. books of piety. What was most mother stancy in his devotional exercises. It was ous. ALPHONSUS. and throwing on the ground what he had won. was it anger a very indecent expression. exclaimed in a rage &quot. older than he. but excused him self on the plea of not knowing the game his com panions. it was sublime as is proved by the following very remarkable occurrence. shall !&quot. sin. related by an . On one of these occasions. his prayer was not only more than ordinary. and never retired without kneeling long to make acts of thanksgiving. to some country-house for recrea tion. urged him so much. he turned his back on them with a holy indignation. When were to return. he pre sented himself before her. which he imposed upon himself. that at length he consented. and acquitting She spoke to him of the himself of his other duties. evening came. his all her solicitude: not content with mother redoubled he learned under these excellent fathers. When he had attained his twelfth year.

that there was any thing good in me. and every one went to seek him. To the latest period of his life. for the great If I care she haft taken of him during his childhood. notwith standing the noise his companions made. and that I was kept from wickedness. I shall not have the courage to refuse going to assist her. and so ravished in God. but they called in vain. and had placed upon a laurel He was quite absorbed. when they discovered him on his knees. offering to which nature claimed from me God . &quot. I duty. as well in reference to science. the sacrifice of a but when my mother dying. a native of Calabria. 2* .&quot. CHAPTER II. JOSEPH would have him continually under from every their own eyes.: &quot. and that intercourse with other young men might tarnish lustre. sheltered occasion of cured him excellent private masters to His grammar master was the learned Dominic lettres. in his education his naturally happy disposi for virtue. Alphonsus continued &quot.&quot.. and a man of piety and irreproachable morals.At the death of my father. is refused to go to Naples. Buonaccio. he was wont to say. Jllphonsus applies to Studies. 17 him. as to His mind was quick and penetrating. before a picture of the Blessed Virgin branch. fearing that in a college the innocence of their son might run some danger. must admit. I owe it entirely to the tender solicitude of my mother. D its and D. which he had with him. ALPHONSUS. Anna. and pro teach him bellessin. much abridged the lessons of this good priest. to acknowledge his obligations to his mother. as a child. But what was their surprise.LIFE OF ST. His master found : little difficulty conducting tion and inclination spiritual matters.&quot. if I am not otherwise prevented. that it was some time before he came to himself. He once said.

wished him. Alphonsus was great reputation in Naples. He Jess successful in this new career. Charles Cito. at whose house he passed an hour in the evening. was with D. when they gave him masters in drawing. and gave orders that he apply himself three hours daily to the study of with a master. looking at the harpsichord. that even in his old age he wrote and composed wonderfully well.&quot. ALPHONSUS. This his talent apparent in the numerous hymns he composed. ihave been. when his philosophy and other studies were finished. said he one day. As the father and mother of Alphonsus wished not only to make their son a man of letters and a good Christian. Fool that I spent in acquiring this accomplishment. docility with an ardent desire for instruction. D. memory faithful and retentive. his his twelfth skill. but also an accomplished gentleman. he would have it so. all the recreation he permitted himself to take. sometimes of the infant Jesus. and architecture. Thus before Alphonsus had attained also to year.&quot. among which are many that force us to recognise in them the hand of a master. by the talents with which he was adorned. His father. but it was right to obey my father. Joseph. and he combined great With these excellent qualities.18 his LIFE OF ST. to apply himself to civil and canonical who enjoyed not gave him two learned masters. they took care to adorn his mind with every other species of knowledge He was yet necessary to form a distinguished education. to play at Among these . graved several of them for the use of his congregation. * to have lost so much time on that. ambitious of seeing his son distinguish himself in the magistracy. In later years he touched the harpsichord with great he regretted the time he had &quot. wished him it should excel in that art. and gave great satisfaction both to master and parents. He succeeded admirably in all these arts: even in his old age he sketched pictures. numerous occupations. or of the blessed Virgin and had en . law. he made rapid progress in his studies. He excelled so much is both in music and poetry. who was exceedingly fond of music. painting. a child.

and on fencing. except on days when he was dispensed from study. and strive more In punctually than ever. D. to obey his father s injunctions. having pre viously obtained a dispensation of three years and nine months. that before his sixteenth year he was master of it. cards with other 19 young people of irreproachable character. but had never indulged in it. to the study of jurisprudence. wishing to mortify him. Joseph wishing that they might be rather a means of advancing. that the birds were fortunate that had to do with him. He might from that time be seen constantly before the tribu nals of Naples. and nothing else was necessary to make him blush. that at the same time he had been very fond of hunting. when his son stayed for it sometimes happened the appointed time beyond On one of these occa that Alphonsus was rather Jate. . and we believe his parents were wise enough to interdict other accomplishments usually taught. for. being little more than sixteen years old. adding. ALPHONSUS. Alphonsus felt this mortification most sensibly. his old age he mentioned.LIFE OF ST. he rarely killed one. They looked upon dancing as an amusement perilous for the soul. amidst general applause. tarding. and regarded by worldly persons as indispensable. Such were the useful and interesting occupations of the young Alphonsus. and substituted for them packs of cards. amusements had very strict bounds. he removed all his books from his table. listening with an ardent avidity for instruc tion to the numerous decisions of the counsels. He received his degree on the twenty-first Alphonsus devoted himself so successfully of January. than re who visited there. -him in his stu-dies. while the morals received no damage. and smch like. 1713. in which the mind found recreation and ex These ercise. ombre. The favorite games of the young gen tlemen were tersillio. so much . then usual in good society. and that the short relaxation might enable him to resume them again with renewed always displeased. He was sions. as exposing both soul and body to many dangers. notwithstanding all his endeavors. vigor.

20 LIFE OP ST. at that time. At first his father placed hirn respected in that town. a celebrated advocate. side by side with the most His father s family. knowing the talents and good conduct of Alphonsus. rejected their conclusions. when he saw himself surrounded by numerous and seated before the tribunals. in which they treated the most difficult questions. : . united all their endeavors to procure him distinguished clients. His house was then a kind of academy for studious young men. where the most virtu ous and learned in legal matters used to meet. after whose death he was placed with another jurisconsult not less esteemed. and his desire of advancement. His Father s Alphonsus follows the Profession of Law project of marrying him. a man as pious as he was learned. with Peronne. that in a short time the most important causes were confided to him. These men of quality. The rules by which he regulated his conduct as a lawyer. and inferior to none in the science of civil and canon law. while the president adopted or called Jovene. Dominic Caravita. The president did all in his power to render them skilful in dis cussing points of law. Every evening he held conferences. had many friends and relations among the principal sena tors. They were as follows . distinguished advocates. A JLJL LPHONSUS had not yet attained his twentieth year. clients. ciated only with the president. It was about this period that he began to deny himself all kinds of amusement. and even to renounce He asso the agreeable society in the house of D. the whole face of society would be renovated. CHAPTER III. and he himself knew so well how to gain public esteem. cannot be too generally known for if they were imitated. ALPHONSUS. and in the choice of proper words. Cito.

necessary to be truth sincere. truth. that he gained an ascendancy over all hearts. ALPHONSUS. and so enchanted his audience when he spoke. established in the same house of the Fathers of the Oratory. it wondered at. diligence. Justice not have leisure to prepare his defence. To implore the assistance of God in order to succeed. fidelity and Guided by such rules. and reasonable. defend a cause by illicit and unjust means. 3. or for which he foresees that he in this 8. In the defence of a cause ful. accept unjust causes. burden clients with superfluous expenses. 7. as being pernicious and hurtful to honor.LIFE OF ST. A lawyer. he advanced from the Congregation of young nobles to that of doctors. Two years after justice. Such must ever be the ultimate effects of truth and honor. is not to be receiving the gown. 10. he must reimburse the loss caused way. and probity should be the characteristics of a lawyer. If the dilatoriness and negligence of a lawyer prove prejudicial to clients. 1. If Alphonsus desired to strike out a brilliant path for himself as a lawyer. Besides frequenting . The qualities requisite for a lawyer. are knowledge. 6. To defend the causes of clients with the same care as Never Never to to one would 5. but even his adversaries. that not only the judges. A will 9. because he is the protector of justice. 21 Never to to conscience. who tracts the clients. often ranged themselves on his side. respectful. 12. lawyer must not undertake causes which surpass his talents or his strength. and he ought to preserve them as the apple of of his eye. con all the losses of his 11. To study draw carefully the details of a process. his own. obligation of making up it is loses a cause by negligence. otherwise he sins against justice. 4. in order to arguments from them that may effectually help the defence. 2. he was no less anxious to increase in virtue and render himself dear to God.

when going to movement bed in the After evening. will only be yet . into a kind of etui made of paste-board. that. Joseph. in order to prevent during his sleep even any involuntary contrary to it. no one ever re marked. ALPHONSUS. so dear to the Son of God. he put his hands. by which he edified all around him. as commander of the galleys. to which he joined the mortification of his passions and his senses. holding a cross of wood in his arms. he daily made more and more progress. in his conversations sign. as having made a great impression upon him. the Congregation. whom he regarded as his guardian angel. far from relaxing in his piety and devotion. before he had heard Mass. he exposed all his doubts and fears. He frequented the sacraments. One of the most precious of these was an especial love for the holy virtue of purity. He was so jealous for the conservation of this virtue. a shadow of impro priety. had sevin the edification it of others. Every thing about him proclaimed his modesty. he used to sleep. and although all the good resulting from known in heaven. During the whole period of his youth. and thus. and he never deviated from his counsels. has pleased Providence. Gaetan related. kept for this purpose by the Jesuits. and finished in the church his other devotional exercises.LIFE OF ST. as his brother D. and of his having drawn from them the most salutary fruits. Alphon sus afterwards spoke of 4hese retreats. D. Pagano. or in the house of the Missionaries of St. life so exemplary could not fail to produce the most A abundant it fruits . he often visited F. his father was at the same time anxious to con firm him in these dispositions. He wished him annually to make with him the spiritual exercises in the house called Conocchia. or a word. that one instance should be upon record the conversion of a slave in his father s house. and loved prayer. that could indicate a with young companions. which he did to the end of his days. he visited the sick in the hos pitals. wards. his spiritual To him director. Vincent of Paul. While Alphonsus gave himself to piety with so much assiduity. He never went to the lawcourts.

every one prognosticated. the only daughter of D. saying: St.for I must go &quot. for it is impossible that that religion can be false. The . be baptized. &quot. who was also nearly allied to the family.Let that he was not sufficiently instructed. and. the choice of D. and they have told me I must be baptized now. surrendered his pure soul into the hands of his Creator. Prince of Presiccio: he expected thereby to acquire for Alphonsus a considerable fortune.This immediately to Paradise. Joachim. which makes him lead a life so pure and holy. enhanced by all the qualities that could be wished for in a young nobleman. These rare prerogatives.&quot. F. he requested to and have seen our Lady. your rever I am prepared ence interrogate me.LIFE OF ST. and then told to repose a little after the fatigue. undertook to instruct him but soon after. is not a time to rest. clination to become a Christian. utmost precision and accuracy to every question. and joined to irreproach able conduct. Mastrilla immediately. In about half an hour this poor slave. seeing the progress he daily made in the career of the law.&quot. In fact. &quot. that with such distinguished talents. One evening he expressed a great desire to see hospital. F. a rich heiress. because they wish to have me in Paradise. ALPHONSUS. Upon his arrival.&quot. Francis de Liguori. &quot.I priest replied that his illness was not dangerous. he replied of my young master has made a great impression on me. Theresa. Alphonsus was now approaching his twentieth year. made the first families in Naples anxious for him to form all Among a matrimonial alliance with their daughters. his countenance radiant with joy. and such powerful family interests.for and besides. : . he replied with the to answer all your questions. St. Joseph.&quot. wait He &quot. The &quot. the parties who presented themselves. he would soon attain the highest dignity in the magistracy. and when asked what had The example made him think of such a thing. Mastrilla r of the Congregation of St.&quot. eral 23 one of them was selected to soon after manifested an in upon Alphonsus. replied the slave. he said. He was baptized. Joseph fell upon D.&quot. Jerome. he became sick and was sent to the slaves in his service .

At the end of a few months. who no longer found in the marriage the advan His tages he had originally contemplated for his house. the infant died. or of St. he withdrew himself entirely. ered as arranged. at the request of the Superior of the convent. but full of merits.&quot. the matter. I was not considered a suitable match for Alphonsus de Liguori but now he is sals. but Theresa would not listen to these new proposals. wish to have nothing more to do with it. contrary to all expectation. Joseph. from the moment she entered the convent. wrote the edifying life of her. 1719. 1724. the mother of the ing. Theresa. One evening there was at the house a party of ladies and gentlemen. I it advisable it is I know enough fortune they seek. and and this incident changed immediately the designs of D. princess.&quot. . &quot.&quot. ardor cooled. and she please Him. and when she was brought to bed of a son. and spared no sacrifice in order to Her life was short. and took the veil on the This rupture between Alphonsus and Theresa was an arrangement of Providence. said she. Mary Magdalene de Pazzi. and to speak of his original propo Although they felt themselves aggrieved. gave herself entirely to Jesus Christ. who had been intended for his wife. after her A circumstance occurred about this time which shows the perfect submission of Alphonsus to his father. the prince and princess were willing to renew the negotiations. dead. he took no part in showed not the least intention of marry While this affair was in progress. She entered into the convent of the Nuns of the Holy Sacrament. eighth of March.i. and the affair was consid As for Alphonsus. became pregnant. I desire to take Jesus Christ for my spouse. the 30th of October.24 LIFE OF ST. and the father of Alphonsus began again to frequent the house. died in the odor of sanctity. prince regarded it as an honor for his daughter to become the wife of such a young man. Alphonsus.When my brother was alive. of the world and now my . they think and not myself. &quot. ALPHONSUS. Soon death. &quot. and it happened that one of the domestics . to with draw both of them from the dangers of the world.

he took part in a private play. often. Joseph the guests. But the watchful eye of Providence 3 failed not to send him timely aid. but said not a word. as to give his son a blow in the face. that. every thing flattered his passions. amusements. he could not have avoided soon falling into some great sin. The hour of supper came.&quot. frequented the theatres. This speech displeased &quot. though innocent. and. and if the fault of his son had wounded him. express his displeasure with showed to his father: Alphonsus was sorry for the man. the compliments which were showered upon him by ladies and their relations: in short. embraced and blessed him. begged she would intercede for him. His father obliged him to accompany him and into society . the slightest cause was sufficient to make him omit some one of his pious practices: he has said himself. Added to these. longer in this dangerous position. you can never end. affected by his sub to forgive him. were the applauses he received on all sides. and. yet he did not cease to him as he went and came. mother went to call him. towards his deploring the want of respect he had shown He confessed how wrongfully he had acted. ALPHONSUS. his heart was tainted. and obtain forgiveness. and father. 25 D.LIFE OF ST. yet dissipating. withdrew immediately to his room. who so far forgot himself. and his D. and he lost his first fervor. he confessed in his old practice of virtue age. . Alphonsus was confused. In this state of spiritual coldness. D. Joseph. he went to his father. deeply humiliated. the proposals of mar riage. but found him bathed in tears. rny father: when once you begin. his piety became cold. Joseph. Accompanied by his mother. that if he had remained much. Alphonsus had never ceased to distinguish himself in the asked him nevertheless. mission and repentance. he was more touched and consoled by seeing him so sincerely humble. although always out he of obedience. and reproached him with his inatten tion: it was an involuntary fault. at this period of 4iis life. stupidity in attending to scolded the servant. and that he was in danger of losing his soul and his God. . and as he did not appear. and said What a noise you make about it.

1722. made him enter into Alphonsus was on terms of the most intimate friendship Duke of Casabona. that he had never committed a mortal sin. himself. that this retreat had been for him one of the greatest blessings he had ever received from the Divine Majesty. which he had so inconsiderately engaged in. in the house of the Missionaries of St. solemn promise to God to quit that mode of life. and wishing to rekindle his own fervor. and over which he lamented and wept. On I have fre one occasion. that. in following the world. The . profited most.&quot. under God. with his friend and some others. Vincent of Paul. F. he said. which absorbed all my attention. to imagine he had lost his innocence. with a peculiar and paternal care. that. for I went to hear the music. every one regarded him as a young man of pure and irreproachable nanners and one of his intimate friends. Alphon sus. making him feel how he had fallen from his first fervor: he saw. on being asked. ALPHONSUS. and made a pitious moment. proposed that he should join him in making a retreat during Lent. Grace knocked at the door of his heart. &quot. thanks be to I never com but the theatres God.the service of God. Cape-Celalro. The Divine Light penetrated his soul at a pro He deplored his tepidity. went there on the He was among those who twenty-sixth of March. quented mitted even a venial sin there. and hindered me from thinking of any other thing. we have the testimony of many who directed his conscience. The young nobleman. at the first glance. and that he was loving God but in an imperfect manner. he was pasturing on vanity. From the manner in which he sometimes spoke of this period of his life. alarmed at seeing his friend beginning to be negligent in. but it was not so. and often said. Even at this time. that he had not been the slave of the world and a prey to his with D. . a young man of his own age. own passions. speaking of himself. . He always acknowledged. he owed it to his friend Cape-Celatro.26 LIFE OF ST. we might be led. Saints always speak in exaggerated terms of their faults and besides. .

who he knew would be very indignant at his refusal. he at made proposals to the Prince. was an especial and tender confidence in Jesus present in the Blessed Sacrament. he went every day to visit the Holy Sacra ment in the Church where the forty hours adoration was made. in contemplation. he did When all D. projected another treaty of marriage with the daughter of Dominic del Balso. No. during than ever to God: he determined to yield his birth-right to in his resolution his brother to Hercules. but for hours. : a most virtuous young man : I should blaspheme. he was always replied. if I said other fruits which Alphonsus gathered from this retreat. they withdrew together to the house of the same Missionaries to make an other retreat. ence of his son. He received more graces. . but fearing to offend his father. He often purchased flowers to adorn the altar of his parish church and preserved during his whole life this devotion for ornamenting altars. without consulting his son.LIFE OF ST. which he had made the last and of consecrating himself more retreat. 1723. he frequented the house of Presen to once agreed them. and thought only of the moment when his . Joseph saw the indiffer in his power to overcome it.&quot. otherwise. that in the midst of amusements there. 27 whether he had ever perceived any lightness in his conduct. bowing his head respectfully &quot. an amiable and noble lady. and cul tivating them himself to embellish the altars of the churches of his Congregation. Joseph. The following year. although he had not yet decided abandon the law. . for he loved to see the altars ornamented with the finest flowers. not a few minutes. March. martyrdom would end. ignorant of all this. edifying every one around him. his father being in Naples. ALPHONSUS. although very unwillingly and he often said after wards. he felt as upon thorns. This same practice he recommended to the Rectors of the houses. and. Duke of Presenzano. and there he remained. who This displeased Alphonsus. Among many Besides approaching thenceforth the holy table several times a week. D. and was confirmed in of observing celibacy. zano. procuring the rarest seeds.

but the others were edified by his admirable Yet D. . and so saying. D.&quot. Alphonsus was much her to persuade his father to cease his importunities.modesty. not to displease his father. modesty no one could suspect what was passing between the fami lies. seeing his coldness. he opened his mind to his mother. marriage. perceiving the was offended. At last the young lady herself. in a when the accompany him : The young Princess. . and the displeasure his refusal would cause him. than he dental. truth. But he expressed his resolution to throw all possible difficulties in the way of his father s negotiating any marriage for him. thinking it acci no sooner had she done so. while Alphonsus continued to excuse himself on again turned from her. His father attributed all these excuses to his chest. taking part in the conversation with so much and reserve. Seeing at length that his excuses were unavailing. she said: It would seem the young gentleman has suddenly become moon-struck. thinking his indifference proceeded from contempt. and turning to the company. and tried to persuade him of the advantages he would derive from his father s arrangements. Anna was vexed at her son s determination. and continued to take him often with him to the house of the Duke and. On every occasion he behaved with the greatest cir cumspection. It happened one evening at the Duke s house. but occupied himself with anything but striving to please the lady. ALPHONSUS. she withdrew. declared her unwillingness to marry a young man who would hardly look at her. Alphonsus immediately turned his head to the other side. Joseph did all he could to hasten the . begi. that he was invited to play the harpsichord he : thither.fl LIFE OF ST. that Alphonsus accompanied him young lady proposed to song: she rose and stood near him. turning her face towards him. the plea of bad health. and she. bashfulness. but Alphonsus excused himself by saying that weakness in and tendency to asthma. warned him not to think of marriage. &quot. moved round willingly consented.

Joseph tribunals of Naples were at this time all occupied with a feudal process of great importance be tween the Grand Duke of Tuscany arid one of the most powerful nobles of the realm about six hundred thousand ducats depended on the decision. Alphonsus to continue his eloquent address to the end as soon. which constituted the right of the adverse party. tha? It was in vain that the Presi every one saw his emotion. and knew his integrity. who had other THINGS designs for Alphonsus.LIFE OF ST. he believed he had discovered facts so evident. Alphonsus retiresfrom the Bar. in his hand. or under the French law. and reasons so strong. whether the fief were granted under the law of Lombardy. however. and said with cutting coolness &quot.&quot. who loved him. he rose. &quot. filled him with consterna tion. it was found that the Grand Duke s advocate was in the right. and The the worldly hopes of D. at IV. and the fear of being accused of unfair dealing.&quot.&quot. he was completely mistaken regarding the sense of one document. as he had finished. have advanced. to quit the world. so much so. The paper being examined. that they could not client. I discovery so unexpected. when God. and resolves in this state. The advocate of the Grand Duke perceived the mistake.&quot. fail to gain a decision in favor of his Notwithstanding he had carefully examined over and over the details of the process. Alphonsus undertook the cause of the nobleman. one blow changed the aspect of affairs. &quot. &quot. . I have been . you will it to be: you examine replied paper atten all find there precisely the contrary of Willingly. ALPHONSUS. : Sir. &quot. said Alphonsus. dent Caravita. if the case will is not exactly what this you the Alphonsus decision depends on this question&quot. 3* A am wrong. 29 CHAPTER were demolished for his son. and covered him with confusion. you suppose tively. Yes. holding the paper mistaken. but he allowed . and after an entire month : passed in the most careful study of the case.

My friend. Alphonsus would listen to nothing. on several occasions. For myself. seemed to him more bitter than gall. his door. as he afterterwards declared. and lived in the house of his father the life of a hermit. Next when D. I will quit this career. I know again. they knocked at his door.empire ibis days partly in the Church and partly in the Hospital of that. day. and to read books of devotion. Grace daily gained more over his soul. never shall you see me He drew to World. overcome by his mother s tears. it it accident. chamber. he immediately went to his son s room.* renounced his intimacies. mother did not they his When the dinner hour came. and distress. was not precisely the cause of his leaving was rather the occasion of his doing so at this time. that was evident he had already resolved and dangers. and his greatest pleasure was to spend &amp. we lead an unhappy life and run risk of dying an unhappy death. his wife recounted to him her vexation. For. thee now: with courts of law. Joseph returned.&quot.&quot. These occupations daily gave a new charm to his soul. he )f its difficulties had spoken to his friends in such a manner. above all.&quot. in the pre sence of his Divine Saviour.30 tried to LIFE OF ST. but he would not reply. He to quit the profession on account said one day to D. notice own know house. but it was. Gelatro: &quot. console him. he said he would eat nothing.made the forty hours adoration. breast. When rest had calmed his spirit.World. which does not suit me. called him in vain. Joseph Cape- our profession is too full of difficulties and dan gers. for I wish 40 secure the salvation of rny soul. to converse with God. he consented to open They pressed him to eat. It was not until the third day. incessantly repeating to himself: thee now. that he enjoyed a foretaste *This the bar. but was refused it was to medi on the lives of the Saints. . and with difficulty persuaded him to take a slice of melon. however. they insisted. overwhelmed with confusion. but. in the churches where they %he Incurables. The hour of supper passed in the same manner. ALPHONSUS. he took leave of his clients. his head sunk on his he said to himself: his I &quot. which. or tate . if he did remain at home. and shut himself up in his his His father was absent.

he left the room.&quot. and only continued to repeat: &quot. but his father continuing to insist. Joseph wished to assist at the ceremony of kissing hands. my father.No. a day ever memorable birth-day of the was celebrated. Anna. and go where you will!&quot. that the Empress Isabella. which D. desiring him to examine to some other person. Joseph will. &quot. Aiphonsus. and replied: &quot.Alphonsus is too he would not believe it.Do this answer.&quot. and take complete possession of his heart. Joseph a subject of the greatest affliction: he imagined his son was out of &quot. I am ready to go with you. seeing his refusal had pro voked his father. was too angry to listen to him. sharing his uneasiness. he replied shortly: &quot. persuade him. and D. ALPHONSUS. however. subject. and he burst into tears. This reply. he his resolution. prepared another trial for him.What Would you have me do there? all that is vanity. Joseph hardly expected. ject can he be meditating?&quot. There was a grand fete at the court. Joseph. and turning his back.&quot. said he to his wife. God. me. &quot. the wife of Charles VI. of Paradise. Alphonsus. It was on the 28th day of August. 31 uncon This behaviour of Alphonsus was for D.&quot. their son would return to his former occupation. henceforward tribunal past. and often he was so absorbed as to be scious of all around. he will not change &quot.Go where you will. but said. He coldly excused himself. over- . fell on him like a thun His wife tried to console derbolt.the &quot. replied it A the next day.&quot. felt some scruple. D. who wished to withdraw him entirely from the world. which interested the family. in the annals of Alphonsus. Joseph brought to his son a process.What pro his mind and had become good for nothing. could throw no light on the few days after the events we have related. and D. drove straight to his country-house. obstinate.LIFE OF ST. do what you will!&quot. and stepping into his carriage. Irritated by &quot.Do not said in a transport of rage: what you be annoyed.Give it I will occupy is no longer a place for myself only with the salvation of my soul.&quot. D. the crisis should be and to that after him. and ordered his son to prepare to accompany him. D.

Forsake the world. of the poor and needy. he nevertheless continued but when he was about leaving the hos assisting the sick pital. Alphonsus. exclaimed: My &quot. and drawing his sword.&quot. He cast himself at the foot of the altar. Weeping.&quot.LITE OT ST. He stood still. declaring his resolu tion immediately to join the Fathers of the Oratory. rable day. said his director. do with me what Thou pleasest. dedicated to Blessed Virgin. like another St. as a pledge of his fidelity. whelmed with witnessing the chagrin. and then. &quot. act!&quot. the house again seemed falling around him.This is not a thing to be decided hastily. he re nounced the world.Lord. and had reached the staircase. I do wrong. and give thyself entirely to Me.Forsake the world. and went to the Hospital of the Incurables. He quitted the hospital. the building seemed to be over thrown. I have too long resisted thy grace. because of a magnificent image of the Virgin which was there. and give thyself entirely to Me. In great affliction. to the divine call. if I resist. Almost overpowered with his own sorrows. and proceeded to the church of the Redemption of Captives. he exclaimed: &quot.&quot. nor ever afterwards vis ited Naples. gave himself up . promised to give up his birth-right. solemnly engaging himself to enter into the Congregation of the Oratory of St. Awed and as tonished by what had occurred. a favorite resort of his. Paul. and he heard a loud voice saying to him: &quot. Philip Neri.&quot. without going to this church to return thanks On the evening of this memo to his divine benefactress. and offered himself a perfect sacrifice to his Saviour and his Blessed Mother. saying: &quot. house. imploring the assistance the of his Divine Mother. and he heard the same voice. F. he left the if I I . in the hope of finding some consolation. he laid it on the altar of our Lady of Mercy. greatly distressed at vexation of his father. Alphonsus went to his confessor. He never ceased to call this day the day of his conversion. he was striving to assuage the mise ries of others. know not how to do worse I consent.. here I am. and confided to him what had happened. Strengthened by her aid.I . ALPttONSXJS. God. &quot. Pagano. when in a moment a light shone around him.

&quot. 33 must think &quot. the resolution of of such expression feelings quickened said he to himself. father s sentiments. before I give you a reply. These scenes were repeated daily. He had not yet declared his intentions to his father. but him soon after: &quot. he relapsed into an opposite. having turning refusal to eat. summoning courage he said to how much you grieve on must assure you I am no longer for the world.My father. him to proceed slowly. with all a father s tenderness. offering himself without reserve as a living sacrifice to the Lord. but when he saw he made no impression. to pointing out to him the loss his refusal would occasion to himself and the whole family.Am such horror to my father! Then God is my only friend. for I have no longer the courage to look at you!&quot. He resume his place at the bar.&quot. can cdmprehend how they rend the heart. Alphonsus. ger. said to him in the bitterness of his heart: &quot. and again began to importune him on those points on which their views were so urged him. I have formed the resolution of entering the Congregation of the Fathers of the object of Alphonsus. and at what he considered the inutility of his present mode of life. F. cried over during a year. he tasted no food. will not wait another day. on re overflowing with the manna of heaven. was extremely vexed. I see I my account. advised hoping for a favorable turn in his happened one day.I Pleased with his fervor.Would to God that I were re moved from this world. or that you were withdrawn from The it. For three days after these remarkable events. he would do penance for not having sooner obeyed In the mean time his soul was filled to the call of grace. . very much provoked at the thought of his son s splendid talents being lost in inaction. &quot.LIFE OF ST. from henceforth I must be satisfied with him alone!&quot. ALPHONSUS. &quot. that D Joseph. He I. &quot. of his son s heard from his country-house.&quot. fully and those only who have experienced them. His father.A it year!&quot. with the other fathers. who. Inspired by God. but Alphonsus continued firm: he daily saw his director. It then renewed his vows. and yet. Pagano said they both should recommend the important affair to Jesus and Mary.

Jo call of God. beseech you not to be offended. his uncle. God calls he replied: &quot. phonsus urged on him the propriety of employing his talents for the honor of his family. then. heart. of considering the interest they pos sessed with the Austrian Court.34 I LIFE OF ST. and then bursting into groans and lamenta grief. being then in Naples. but to give me your ben 11 At these words. Alphonsus remained firm. could I advise your son and my nephew to do the contrary. I cannot resist Him. his father stood motionless with consternation. finding himself vanquished by the resist ance of Alphonsus to the storm. but his constant reply was: &quot. I am convinced me out of the world. which would be so entirely overcast. plunged in profound The devil.&quot. and not to the wishes of my father. . and the mediation of friends. he replied: &quot. without risking his salvation and my own?&quot. de Miro. and when de Miro insisted. Alphonsus applied to him for protection and support. respond to the D. supposing Al was merely influenced by a melancholy humor. He engaged on his side F. if he persisted in his present plan: he finished by affirming it was no divine inspiratio n which guided him. seph employed other friends to intercede with him.Have not I renounced the world and my right of primogeniture to se cure my salvation? how. who. Mgr. ALPHONSUS. he withdrew to his chamber. but an illusion of the devil. determined to undermine his resolution by the more dangerous temptations of the tions. Sir.He wishes me to embrace the ecclesiastical state: I ought. and the brilliant prospects of his brother. and from this time his father employed the most tender entreaties.Rev. the tears. When his parents endeavored to engage this learned pre late on their side of the question. Cavalieri. ediction. be assured.God has called me.&quot. and I will.

Cardinal Pignatelli. Joseph come uttered a piercing cry. doing all in her power to soften the feelings of her husband.What. for hours before the Blessed .&quot. 35 CHAPTER the midst of these trials. INers Alphonsus had many defend of his cause. J^lphonsus enters the ecclesiastical State. and justify the conduct her son had pursued. who suc at ceeded After father. become this decisive step. and several ecclesiastics. this forced acquiescence. ALPHONSUS. but too true that he has taken this resolution. he could not avoid present ing his son to the Archbishop of Naples. the canon Peter Gizzio. For a whole year after this occurrence. One of the first fruits of Alphonsus Porpora: this priest when he saw him prostrated was the friendship of the Rev. a hundred fold. and threw himself on his bed. Anna recognised the will of God. D. Joseph had often been edified by his devotion. passed him as a person un worthy of notice. and suddenly appeared one day clad in ecclesiastical costume. and cheerfully submitted to it. however. his uncle the bishop. generally tries by the loss of friends those he as surely recompenses the sacrifices him. Even after a priest?&quot. another uncle. found means to get what was necessary. He would money to furnish his ecclesiastical dress: Alphonsus.&quot. D. he continued to throw not supply him with difficulties in the way.&quot. But if God whom made he for calls. & is your son who wishes to &quot. His Eminence was struck by the resolution of Al &quot. the presi dent de Maio. while the tears stood in his eyes. The world in general con demned him: the lawyers and senators who were formerly his friends. sacrifice. V. that length in obtaining a reluctant consent from his he should enter the Congregation of the Oratory. he never once spoke to his son. phonsus: said he. is replied his father.It &quot. in particular. At this has pleased God it should be so. now accused him of egregious folly.LIFE OF ST. over with grief.

now spoke loudly in praise of his generosity in sacri ficing such brilliant prospects for the love of God.36 LIFE OF ST. and on feast-days assisting at every cere mony. and carrying the crucifix. so lately had electrified the tribunals by his eloquence. John Mazzini. and soon discovered who he was. in composing sacred hymns for the use of the peo ployed daily lessons from r ple. them preparing But as virtue only is not sufficient for a preacher of the Gospel. receiving D. and every day afterwards he might be seen serving at mass. the Rev. but without knowing him. that which excited the greatest admiration.&quot. all. and. that he could siastical habit. but was re human respect. Alphonsus at the same time applied himself with : ardor to the studies befitting his new position he frequented the company of the most learned ecclesiastics.And I also. He wished to strained by a feeling of make his acquaintance. friendship. His devotion and modesty at length turned the tide of public opinion. exclaimed: &quot. Angelo. and lead them to the church to be catechised: nothing con trasted so strongly with the who remembrance of the advocate. however. have but one heart and one soul. Sacrament. and mutually excited each other to advance in the path of perfection. At length he saw him in the ecclesiastical dress. and those who had proclaimed him a fool. and soon had the satisfaction of seeing them replacing . ALPHONSUS. he felt such an ardent desire to share his no longer restrain himself. one of the most emi nent theological professors. But him singing hymns. After Cardinal Pigriatelli had given Alphonsus the eccle he attached him to the parish of St. was to see on Sundays perambulating the parish. suddenly darting From that moment they seemed to to belong to you. Above he was most indefatigable in instructing and for their first communion. One day. seeing him conversing with an intimate friend. who w as afterwards elevated to His musical and poetical talents he em the episcopacy. every day they met to gether before the Blessed Sacrament. to assemble the children together. He immediately went to offer his services to the curate of the church. Julius Torni. I wish forward.

A Archbishop of Nazareth. he was pro moted to minor orders. year after Alphonsus had assumed the ecclesiastical habit. Every Saturday he fasted on fasted. then entered as novice in the Congrega There he applied himself. and he associated himself to a Congregation called that of the White Monks. he accompanied the missionaries in the country. to be edified by their good at least He 4 ought to spend prayer. Vincent of Paul. with re to the markable diligence. Thus bidding adieu to the vanity of time. 2. which guided him as a candidate for the We priesthood: 1. with a dispensation. and in Decem ber succeeding. in order to follow more closely the steps of his Divine Master. all used the discipline. his clothes as plain as possible: for some little time. . in quent the society of holy example. tified Prayer and study occupied him alternately: he mor his senses. in honor of the Blessed Virgin . On the 23d of September following. bishop 1724. ALPHONSUS. proving his zeal in endeavoring to procure the aids of religion for condemned criminals. in order to live in fervor one hour daily in mental and recollection. he received the tonsure from the hands of Mgr. But he did not confine his assistance to this Congregation. to please his father. and enriching his soul with treasures for eternity. 37 dangerous and loose songs. order to sanctify himself.LIFE OF ST. Javitti. he became the edification of the whole city. of Satriano. his mode became stricter ever. He tion of the Missions. catechising the children. and to keep his body under subjection. but were soon disembarrassed himself of this encumbrance. he frequented the house of the Fathers of St. he allowed himself to be followed by a footman. wore hair shirts. the clerical From of life the time he assumed than habit. give here the rules. on the 23d of December. refusing them every species of indulgence. The cleric. Mirabello. He tised bread and water. and prac kinds of penitential exercises. observance of all the rules and practices of piety. ought to fre priests. was made subdeacon by Mgr.

He their 9.38 3. to avoid famil with laymen. the Cardinal J_J Archbishop. T71DIFIED by Alphonsus holiness of life. that is from sin. to furnish him with rules for his conduct. and consecrate himself particularly to her service. and excite him to imitate them. sanctity. and commu nicate oftener. sustaining the honor of the ecclesiastical state. the mother and queen of the Church. He ought to be obedient to his superiors. to be quiet and gentle in the house. John at the Latin Gate he preached his first sermon. He still ought to confess every eight days. or severity. His first Labors. fulfilling 7. commands. He ought to take the greatest care of his reputation in all things. and. iarity ought to fly worldly conversation. ALPHONSUS. 11. and edifying in the church. because He He ought ought to it is the will of God. It was in the church of St. affectation. to say. 12. to practice every CHAPTER Jllphonsus Zeal. 6. 1726. to be modest without 10. He ought to read the lives of holy priests. is ordained Deacon and Priest. fastidiousness. He ought to honor the most holy Virgin Mary. and particularly with females. ticularly it is He ought where to visit frequently the 5. wear the cassock and the tonsure. to live free he ought to have negative sanctity. from these words of . In short. Holy Sacrament. gave him permission to preach in all the churches of Naples. namely. and Success in the pulpit and the confessional. exem plary in the class. LIFE OF ST. satisfied with his zeal and talents. VI. par solemnly exposed. gave him deacon s orders on the 6th of April. 8. by dispensation. and he ought to have positive virtue. 4. particularly during divine service.

and eagerly asked them to bring the large statue of our Lady of Mercy. his body sank under it. the miraculous statue without delay. descend ing from the akar. and one night they sent in haste for a priest to administer the In this extremity he placed all his confi Blessed Virgin. that the physicians lost hope. that he did not preach in the church where the Blessed Sacrament was exposed. again by dispensation. he might be seen rushing like a lion on his prey. The Fathers of the Mission sent him also into different parts of the kingdom. On the 21st of December in the same year.. the waters fire.. him Every where he wa* now sought after. and it rarely happened. at the foot of this statue. curates desired to preach in their churches. from the church in which. to the priesthood. Isaias: &quot. felt better. where he attacked vice with such eloquence. 1-2:) and the fire of his eloquence was directed to show the amaz ing love of Jesus Christ towards us. gratitude towards God. and he became so ill. his They brought it and placed before bed: his prayers were heard. before burned with zeal to promote the glory of and if he God. that that Thou wouldst bend down . he had renounced last sacraments.0 39 the heavens. The Cardinal. Ixiv.&quot. and our monstrous in Such was the effect of this sermon.LIFE OF ST. from henceforth this fire seemed to consume him. because of the num bers who attended. struck by the prodigies of grace which he ope rated. to promote the glory of God in the salvation 9 Overcome by constant exertion. he was ele vated. he did much of souls. and his Eminence had good reason to congratulate himself on his choice. in the dence the world and consecrated himself to God. to attack the strongholds of Satan. and the benediction poured out on his labors. Congregations besought . and come would burn with (ch. that invitations to preach poured in upon him from all quar ters: his usual subject was the dogma of the Eucharist. ALPHONSUS. appointed him to give spiritual exercises to Jthe clergy of Naples.. he immediately and was pronounced out of danger.

full of such thoughts he returned home. either in the city of Naples. said: my son.when I go to hear you preach. or the adjoining districts. and embracing him tenderly.O . I listen with pleasure. laughing: contempt &quot. Nicolas Capasso. used to attend these sermons. a man cel ebrated for his learning and talent for satire.I probably about to publish some satire against me. that it should be served by a single individual. and that the person appointed should be the most indefatigable of the Institute. or negli any duty to which he was appointed. it is you who have to-day I bless you a thoutaught me to know God! I bless you &quot.&quot. and to add all that his for the world. he was chosen by universal consent to undertake the charge. he knew how energetic. before long he was moved to tears. and see you always at my sarmons. &quot. his was solid and most eloquence persuasive recollection. and scarcely had Alphonsus entered the house. and al though Alphonsus was the last who had been admitted. where he was frequently sent on mission with the Fathers of the Congregation. he preached Christ crucified. on one occasion Alphonsus met him. His time was fully occupied. ALPHONSUS. because I see that you forget yourself in or der to preach Christ crucified. To a style simple and popular.40 LIFE OF ST.No. The Congregation enjoyed a benefice attached to a chapel. &quot. replied the other. you are said. and many monasteries de sired with avidity to participate in the fruits of his powerful eloquence. Animated only by the Spirit of God. him to give spiritual exercises. It was about this time that his father happened to pass be fore a church. What rendered was his his modesty.&quot.&quot. he felt an irresistible feeling of curiosity to enter and listen. when he ran to his room. he avoided with the utmost care the vain ostentation of a superfluous erudition. what do I not owe you. his profound humility. and far from studying fine phrases and elo quent expressions. and touched to the heart at the recollection of his violent and harsh conduct towards him. for which the testator had made it a rule. and hearing the voice of his son preaching. and he was never known to gently to fulfil excuse himself for want of time.

the repose which Jesus Christ recom mended to his apostles. than he saw himself surrounded by persons of every rank and condition. without including the time spent in reading the lives of the saints. to spend three or four days in peniten exercises. In order to tighten the bonds of had. and a little statue to of the Infant Jesus was placed as if presiding at the table. which he used to said call &quot. whom each one made an offering of part of the food which was served him. Every morning he mass with so much devotion.&quot. where there was an oratory. and commune with his God.&quot. whose views and feelings were in ac cordance with his own. contracted an intimacy with several priests.quiescite pusillum. and renewed the fervor of their spirit. besides long preparation.&quot. already seen. 41 sand times agreeable to for having embraced a state so holy and so his incessant labor to God. before they again resumed their holy meditations. that it occupied a con siderable time. Not a day passed without his visiting Jesus Christ in the church where the forty hours adoration was made. Their recreation was singing hymns. gave a country house. and there he might be seen. They afterwards occupied a house still more retired and solitary. he was the first 4* . sometimes for hours. in which was Once a month placed a beautiful statue of the Virgin. he from time to time suspended his apostolical labors to &quot. as charity more and more. and returning thanks afterwards. when he received from Cardinal Pignatelli faculties for hearing confessions. shut the door. with unceasing satisfaction. one of them.LIFE OF ST. de Alteriis. he did not neglect his own: every day he consecrated some hours to meditation. contemplating his divine Redeemer: never forgetting the &quot.enter into his chamber. he received all with unexampled charity. where they employed themselves. Their repasts were simple. D. Notwithstanding promote the sal vation of others. Alphonsus had been one year a priest. tial He we have they retired thither.&quot. ALPHONSUS.the Gospel in practice. No sooner was he seated in the confessional. in the care of their souls.

and he persuaded the heads of houses to recite it regularly of obligation. and. when. &quot. and lead it into the arms of Jesus Christ.he will never re &quot. of meditating on the pas For this purpose sion of Christ. He received all sinners with kindness. and afterwards abandon easily.&quot. it. the more compassionate was his manner.&quot. The be such as to inspire horror for the sin. to take his place in the confessional. to with their family. visit He also imposed.&quot. he wished to make his peace with God and the more a soul was sunk in vice. to recite the Rosary in her honor.42 LIFE OF ST. In his old age he said. and less apt to produce vain For priest. was full of compassion for the sinner. Thus he frequently enjoined penance. that he did not remember ever having sent away a single sinner without having suc ceeded in reconciling him to God. he said. &quot. as penances daily the Blessed Sacrament. or on some eternal truth.If the penitent be contrite. is repulsed. than any other priestly function. he composed a small collection of meditations. the penance of returning to confess. instilling into them a great confi dence in the blood of Christ shed for them. and pointing out to them the the sinner way of withdrawing from their sins. and penances this kind. said he. and gave penance ought to but not for the them often to his penitents. by confession.the penance they will perform willingly. without sinners greatest excusing the sin. he might counsel them occasionally. &quot. or some image of the Virgin Mary.&quot. that the office of confessor is more profitable to souls. and the grace of Jesus Christ is applied to them supera glory in the Severe towards himself only. As to fasting. sincerely repenting.&quot. but let us beware of loading them with obligations they would ac cept with repugnance. .Let us solve to abandon his sin. of frequenting the sacraments. disciplines. much less of ever hav ing treated one with harshness and rigor. he treated the bundantly. of . &quot. in order to draw it from the fangs of Satan.If he used to say. give to penitents. ALPHONSUS. and the last to leave It was his invariable opinion. but never commanded them. with inexpressible meekness. sinners are immediately reconciled to God. of hearing mass daily.

ALPHONSUS. The first is that of Peter Barbarese. he threw himself at feet. and prepared the elder ones for making their first communion. all his endeavors were now directed to inspire his pupils with the greatest horror of sin. deserve to be mentioned. who taught reading and writing. and attending to. and embraced a life of penitence. had often deserted.he 43 do these things of himself. entering himself. and at : . and burned with an ardent love for Jesus Christ. after which he made them meditate on some eternal truth. Again in the evening he took them to visit the Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Virgin. and thanksgiving afterward. conceived under his direction such a lively horror of sin. and finished by reciting the acts of faith. that they became instant in prayer. &quot. where the dregs of the people of Naples are to He delighted in seeing himself surrounded by the lowest. hope and charity. He wished also that they should go weekly to confession. the lazaroni. who tory.LIFE OF ST. assembled them every morning at an early hour. but his heart being his scholars. and full of repentance. and began a practice still in use in Naples. he enlightened them. instructed them. Lavinaro. forsook sin. suggested to them holy resolutions. Many of those who had been great sinners. had long lived in disorder and vice. in particular. if it be made obliga Thus he daily gained a multitude of sinners. full of evil thoughts. the others on such occasions. and such like. Among the almost innumerable conversions of which he was the instrument. Regenerated by grace. otherwise he will neg penance. and He con ducted them to church to hear mass.&quot. and disposed them to receive grace through the sacraments. He often went to preach in the market-places and at the will lect the be found. He was a poor school-master. instead of enlightening he corrupted their will. of the more advanced instructing. two. and relapse into sin. He was careful in instructing them to make acts of faith previously. He attended a sermon into his of Alphonsus. which moved him to contrition. The other was that of Lucas Nardone this man had led an irregular life as a soldier.

gentleman had detailed to him in confession the A greatest crimes with the utmost indifference.What. and damned.that is all! now do you not see that the only thing wanting to complete your career. These words. encouraged. powerfully to move sinners to repent ance. and soon became. saying. chased from the army with infamy. ALPHONSUS. then. Alphonsus asked him if he had nothing more he coldly replied. that I cannot commit greater?&quot. par for the forty ticularly in the church where it was exposed hours adoration. of ardent zeal. is to put on the turban and become a Turk? what more could you have done than the crimes which you have just con fessed? Tell me now. that is all. meditation or prayer. what evil has Jesus Christ done to you?&quot. and lived covered with shame. scribed prayer. He affirmed there could be no true and mortification. he bewailed his past disorders. placed himself in the hands of Alphonsus. gaining many souls to Christ by dragging them from the toils of Satan. and led ever afterwards a most exem plary and devout life.He mortifica He pre who prays will certainly be he who neglects prayer will as certainly be But above all remedies. and to practice tion. and led to the right path. and loaded with sin. a filial confidence . length was about to be condemned to die. saved. to say.&quot. &quot. when some one obtained his pardon. my child. tion. Nothing.&quot. He exacted besides. The means Alphonsus employed to lead his penitents to perfection. and touched by grace. &quot. consoled.44 LIFE OF ST. however.&quot. He one day heard Alphonsus preach. &quot. prayer without mortification. sought an audience. pronounced with the force Have I. said he to himself. he prescribed frequent communion. a furnace of divine love. He was received with open arms. &quot. The following is an instance of the unction Alphonsus simplest words had. as it were. the spirit of prayer was indispensable.committed such sins. went directly to the heart. and daily visits to the Blessed Sacrament. and penetrated with the deepest contri &quot.&quot. may be reduced to two. answered Alphonsus. &quot. He was. When he had finished.

city. and was careful to propose some He recom devotional practice for each of her Novenas. who came. persons low in the eyes of the world. and on the eves of all her feasts. . and the instruction ofpoor people in general. and of the lower class of the people. and as he had no time to give many fervent souls the instructions he judged necessary. influence they possess over others. Angelo. which belongs to the Minims. but great in the sight after their day s some a considerable distance. composed of part in the good work. and first chose a spot near the con vent of the bare-footed Carmelites. he wished that all should daily Rosary in her honor.LIFE OF ST. mended to others to fast. rather than not have him for their director. he thought of as for instruction. for evil or for good. to /CROWDS \J advance them sembling them the in the way of perfection. beyond the summer convent of St. in the 45 Divine Mother Mary. coming thus from every quarter to obtain the benefit of his direction. as he practised it himself. his confessional might be seen persons of all con and the highest did not disdain. Jilphonsus establishes public Meetings for the advancement of his penitents. to await their turn with the lowest. afterwards. and have a picture of her at the head of their bed. and. work. during evenings. ALPHONSUS. submitting willingly to any inconvenience. CHAPTER VII. The assembly consisted not of the noble. every Saturday in her honor. from different quarters of the Other priests also took In this assembly. visit some church where her image was placed. at last. in some solitary place. He required of all his penitents to communi recite the cate at each of her feasts. fixed on a site before the church of the Star. considering the great Around ditions. he did not refuse to direct those of higher rank. Although he preferred to devote himself to the service of the poor. but of the poor.

who ordered a captain of the guard to dis- . Information was conveyed to the Governor. if they would advance in perfection. each one passing the joke to his neighbor. showing them the horrible nature of vice.if it. and began to laugh.&quot. and he was confirmed in this opinion. any one gives you four cut The mul lets. and added. cealed themselves behind their windows. when D. laughing. who ate nothing but raw vegetables and roots. &quot. Joseph Porpora took up the word and said: God wills that we should eat in order to live. some of whom had already been seized. ALPHONSUS. though obliged to work hard to support his family. The other priests spoke alter nately to the people. some of these poor people were so anx ious to do penance. that they fasted rigorously. to whom these meetings seemed not a little strange. Now. and the misery produced by unrepressed passion.&quot. and a band of heretics.46 LIFE OF ST. they con evil. They reported the matter to Car dinal Pignatelli. his Eminence supposed they must be evil-disposed persons. showing them the necessity of mortifying the flesh and of self-denial. of God. There were some individuals. you will do well to take advantage of titude were much amused at this. they took it for granted they must be In the hope of confirming their suspicions. and the sublime beauty of Christian virtue. eating. and be cause they were new. The listeners. came to the conclusion that they must be a club of Molinists. At other times they would talk of imitating Christ crucified. to hear what was going on. going still further. and the circumstances seemed equivocal. thought the people were &quot. As the accusation referred to nocturnal assemblies. and. thus exciting them to virtue. pointing out to them the different de grees of the love of God and our neighbor. and propose for their example the life of some Saint. He began to reprove him for this excess. and one evening a poor artisan was pointed out to Alphonsus.cutlets. in consequence of several small bands of Lutheran soldiers having formed themselves in different parts of the town.&quot. Alphonsus daily preached the truths of religion. hear ing the words &quot. residing in the neighborhood. an assemblage of libertines.

heard of the affair and the proposed arrest. and ordered both priests and laymen to be arrested.Comrade. among whom were the two formerly mentioned. &quot. who came to receive in struction from D. The poor people had scarcely arrived. they replied.I am well satisfied Jesus Christ was bound with ropes. &quot. they heard the sound of bells announcing that the holy Viaticum was being carried through the street.&quot. what they did at the place of the Star. es corted each by an archer and a sergeant. &quot. at once the two pri- . and Alphonsus. in proposing some pious practices honor of the infant Mary.&quot. When name of Liguori. It was however.God claimed: conducted of the their to the house of the Governor. to warn every one. Alphonsus.this piece of politeness is perhaps not much to your taste. ALPHONSUS.&quot. replied Barbarese.&quot. In consequence of his report. made use of certain expres sions. Alphonsus de Liguori and other priests. happening to be at the palace of the Cardinal. when they were surrounded by archers and sergeants. While the Governor questioned them about the pious practices which they were taught. then in the middle of the Novena of the Nativity of our Lady. and go to one of the meetings. said Nardone to the other. and we are treated much more civilly. which seemed mysterious and suspicious to the cap in tain. were conducted done. and those who came as usual. you have alarmed the two courts. that they were poor ignorant people. The Procurator having ordered them to declare . only a simple cord at the arm. Peter Barbarese and Lucas Narimpossible. he hastened to warn his penitents not to assemble at the usual place. and carried off to the guard-house. the ecclesiastical and the civil!&quot. the Governor and the Cardinal were persuaded it could be nothing good. They were then the Procurator heard the &quot. from whence the two prisoners. and not doubting it was his own meeting.LIFE OF ST. Next morning.On the contrary. where the mention name of Liguori was at once sufficient to establish innocence. 47 They were guise himself. he ex forgive you. lived at a distance. before the Procurator of the court* The good penitents took the matter calmly: &quot.

thus encouraged. after led the lives of saints. and many of those who had attended them. when he heard what had happened. and alone deserving of punishment. &quot. Alphonsus. to embalm it by the The two most remarkable were An virtue. he said. crying out: is our Lord.are too critical : we must be careful that wolves may not cover themselves with sheep s clothing.soners turned their backs on the Governor. in the priest who saw the good he was do meet his little flock in a neighboring chapel. Peter. who sold eggs through the town. and several others. their death. began to instruct the little porters or errand boys.&quot. went through the streets with his ass. ALPHONSUS. the devil seemed complete when these were put down. but notwithstanding advised The times. Alphonsus suggested to Peter Barbarese and The triumph of a few others. thony Pennine. &quot. and found means. but here. to draw many souls from perdition. and every evening about sixty young people attended. him to discontinue these meetings. went it is our Lord !&quot. After his death he appeared to several persons and converted them.48 LIFE OF ST. but dismissed them with tears of tenderness and consolation. Leonard Cristano. in suitable places removed from public observation. that they should give instruction to the lazaroni and other people of the same class. without counting those of a more ad vanced age. Lucas Nardone. His Eminence soon quieted him by expressing his satisfac tion at the good he had done. to do mischief un der the shadow of your name. ing. odor of their while others remained in the world. and ran to pros trate themselves at the balcony. . while pursuing his avocation. acknowledging himself as the author of the mischief. they had been. as elsewhere. next day to the Cardinal. Alphonsus did great good in Naples by these confer ences.It The Governor asked no more questions. he did so. &quot. he found meetings Convinced by experience how useful himself defeated. and sold chesnuts both of them performed miracles during their life and after . The other.&quot. ever Some entered into religion. advised him A to . pursued shop of a barber.

Peter willingly resigned his place. the penitents of Alphonsus were busy in drawing souls from destruction. that he should instruct the people himself. ALPHONSUS.LIFE OF ST. instructing and catechising the ignorant. these meetings. Delighted with what he had seen. In after times. ceased to be held in shops and private houses. and still more The work continued to increase. on his part. and leading them to the love of the cross. and agreeable to God. and the Archbishops of Naples find them Barbarese lived to an advanced age.Come with me. numbering each about three hundred persons. The most zealous priests are attached to them. I wish to give you an agreeable and led him to where Peter was instructing his surprise. a walk in the neighborhood where Peter Barbarese taught the most nu merous of these assemblages. protected by the Cardinal him self. they amounted to a hundred. and winning them to Jesus Christ. Romano could not resist detailing the whole to Cardinal Pignatelli. his body retained invaluable. and said: &quot. The meetings began to multiply. who was so pleased at the good that was done. and were transferred to public oratories and churches. In 1834. Canon Romano was taking every quarter of Naples. in almost One evening. that the over throw of one good undertaking had been the very means of producing another much more extensive. He.&quot. After the death of Barbarese. exhorting them to perseverance in the service of God. such an appearance of 5 life. he never came to Naples without visiting these favorite meetiilgs. hearers. that for t some time they hesi- . and in gaining conquests to Christ. was careful to visit and superintend these meetings. that he suggested to the Canon. when a friend met him. and so did Nardone. and at length. before long. and the good they produced among the working classes was incalculable. the fervent penitents of Alphonsus might be found. both persevering to the end in their pious labor. animating them to pursue the great work of their salvation. Thus Alphonsus was consoled by the thought. and immediately commenced assembling in another house more lazaroni and porters. 49 the same course. so that in different quarters of the town.

he could enjoy that calm and delicious peace. and sharing. the rare merits Benedict XIII. formed the resolution of joining F. behind him a great reputation Nardone. with the consent and authority of Pope Alphonsus. 1729. he longed for a solitary cell. with the poverty and privation which they endured for love of God. to be found only in solitude. and four young men of zeal. he had not. they opened the house of the Chinese Mission. as did also his fellow-laborer. than he gave . considering the excellence of of its founder. and gives mis to live retires into the Chinese College. D. ALPHONSUS. Matthew Ripa. Ripa. sions in the country. delivered from the surveillance of his parents. and the great fervor which reigned there. than as an angel sent him by God. retired from the world. however. He left for sanctity. Painful as the separation was. who deeply re gretted the loss of the society of one whom he now con sidered less as a son. celebrated missionary. the this institution. Al- phonsus occupied himself also in establishing schools for women a well educated lady was placed at the head of them. No sooner did Alphonsus find himself in the college. had lately returned from China. A resolution so unforeseen vexed his father extremely. with the intention of founding at Naples a God blessed the enterprise. courage to oppose so laudable a design. was against his will that Alphonsus continued ITin the house of his father. CHAPTER Alphonsus VIII. as a pensioner of the house. and he himself visited them from but this good work did not last long. in the fervor which animated this new society. to direct the others. 1729. and college for the Chinese. . tated to bury him. He entered the college about the middle of June.50 LIFE OF ST. God soon furnished him with an occasion. on the 14th of April. where. he had A full brought with him a Chinese Doctor.

and fasted every Saturday on bread and water. varied occasionally with a few pears. Coppola. Bishop of Cassano. he took the discipline until the blood flowed. holding his in his hand. their bread in general was of the coarsest kind. such as myrrh. and indeed the new-born Congregation wanted not for opportunities to practise poverty. that they might become more holy and agreeable to God. ALPHONSUS. they had ordi Sometimes they could narily but a salad of mushrooms. a pilchard with their vegetables was a feast to them. and keeping little stones in his shoes. boiled with a few coarse biscuits. Mgr. they frequently had no meat at all. but stood while he studied. of the fruits of which the others partook. Although their rule limited them to the use of vegetables and a little boiled meat. that his penances surpassed even those of St. and the examples of the saints. Alphonsus on the con in it. In the meanwhile he continued to draw new strength from prayer.LIFE OF ST. it was always the cheapest that could be found. and generally ate in a kneeling position. He was clothed in sackcloth. Peter of Alcantara. The wretched food which he ate was not sufficient for his love of mortification. only afford to buy bones. Besides. And so far from ever showing the slightest trary rejoiced repugnance to all this. and when these failed. and for months they lived on ground these roots. Besides the . aloes. but he added to it wormwood. During Lent they scarcely ever had fish. 51 dom and himself up to the practice of mortification with more free ardor than ever. In his chamber he would not allow book himself a chair. and encouraged the others to suffer with pleasure. several times a day. said. from which they strove to extract a miserable soup. Their evening repast usually consisted of the remnants of dinner. or not at all. he never exempted himself from the privations imposed upon all the members of the community. They sowed beets in a little plot of attached to the house. and when they did buy fish. and often the scraps which appeared on their table were stale. or sitting on the floor. and wore chains of iron . and ate but little. He bitter ingredients.

after the exercises of the crowds who thronged He of the forty hours adoration. During the time he remained in this college. every Friday he discoursed on the glories of Mary. without being impelled either by the hope of heaven or the fear of hell. and recited with the people the chaplet of her sorrows. the church.and He me. rest sometimes in And the little he granted to nature was given grudgingly. and not many contrivances to render it as little agreeable as possible he often lay on the bare ground. his prayer was arid. which made him resolute in seeking to please God in all things. the titular patrons of the college.My God! my God! why hast thou forsaken me?&quot. I have recourse to the Blessed Virgin. or the holy family. and repulses &quot. before his meal the church during those took time to eat. he continued to give the greatest proofs of his zeal. he used to enter the church with a train of penitents. naturally be supposed. God permitted him to feel the nature of our Saviour s anguish. but it was not thus with our Saint. ALPHONSUS. go to Jesus. His heart enjoyed no consolation. Every year he gave retreats.I she listens not to me. he daily spent an hour and a half. he sought God.&quot. &quot. meditation of the community. that amidst these bodily austerities undertaken and endured from pure love of God. In the evenings.52 LIFE OF ST. when he exclaimed. during which he preached in honor of the Blessed Virgin. and found him not. and often scarcely was over. Crowds came to the church to confess to him. He celebrated several Novenas in the course of the year. He spent whole nights in watching. or on a hard It might board. before the Blessed Sacrament in the church where the forty hours adoration was held. He was deprived of all those favors which render every trial light and easy. before the Blessed Sacrament. to the great bene fit holy exercises. All he did at this time was done by the mere light of faith. He believed he had lost all devotion for mass. his mind would be enjoying that foretaste of hea without . numbers were waiting for being heard in confession. whose confessions he heard until . at least. ven which nothing worldly can give. sometimes in his room. &quot. he said.&quot.

touched to the quick. in the confessional. he did so.&quot. of inspiring his penitents with compunction. She besought Alphonsus to pray for the conversion of her daughter. Ripa. 53 F. but before long she A became more giddy and thoughtless than ever. ALPHONSUS. Although not aggregated to the mission. a priest eminent not and general qualifica only. We will rejate more fully one instance only of a very remarkable conversion of this kind. It would be impossible to enumerate the number of ob stinate sinners. The first sermon he preached. and many who had lived ordinary good lives. strongly represent ing to her the danger of her position. was a source of great anxiety to her pious mother. for their sins. he has nevertheless the desire. and began bit- 5* . models of perfection. at her earn est entreaty. for his birth Alphonsus de Liguori.We have for pensioner the noble D. young lady. with sorrow. whom he reclaimed. in his memoirs of the Congregation. to go to China. writes thus of Alphonsus: &quot. as he has to his director. who. and the young girl seemed to be reformed. who was afterwards eminent for her sanctity. under his direction. kindling within their obdurate hearts a tender love towards their He possessed a peculiar gift. to the exclusion of every thing serious.LIFE OF ST. and she. when once giving a retreat. He converted a celebrated courtesan. when they felt their hearts touched Saviour. as her heart and mind were filled with the world. and scarcely had they knelt at his feet. inspired fifteen young persons with the resolution of giving them selves to the service of God. that regards the pulpit and the confessional. and holds himself ready. old in crime. he has acquitted himself to the great advantage of souls. spoke seriously to the girl. late. Assured of his zeal more than once declared and his talents. to induced a renounce themselves to God. I gave and in all him the entire care of the church. named Mary. He also number who were occupied the world and consecrate in worldly pursuits. became. Again the poor mother had recourse to Alphonsus. but for his excellent conduct tions as a missionary. retired to a corner of the church.

Alphonsus. they soon recovered. said the girl with much en instantly. however. his labors were so incessant and multifarious. giving retreats. he was ever the first in anointing the sick. ergy. a different kind. to withdraw souls from the power of Satan. was invoked by many. He was sitting with the other fathers during recreation.54 terly to LIFE OF ST. called her back: &quot. before he said quitted the he. About this period.Then. &quot. said he. you sincerely give yourself God?&quot. to thank God for their escape. ^wounded in the throat. In the spring of the year 1731. after her death. she instantly replied. but again his beloved Mother performed a miracle in his favor. Carmelite. and going on missions to the neigh he yet found time for all. without encroach boring towns. took the religious persevered. hearing confessions.Yes. that we can scarcely conceive the possibility of one individual accomplishing the half he performed. either on his studies or devotions. &quot.&quot.&quot. cut off your hair. by this occasion to sacrifice himself more and he profited more. and the brothers of the Congregation of Apostolical Be Missions. and devote themselves with renewed . he continued. &quot. They were saved by an evident inter position of Providence. the Puglia and the neigh boring provinces suffered exceedingly from an earthquake . She obeyed.go and become a habit. with my whole heart. amongst sides. At this period of his life.Without the slightest re serve. he opened a mission in the large church of the Holy and took advantage of the time.&quot. ALPHONSUS. and worked several miracles. Preaching in various churches in Naples. &quot. and.will confessional. while Alphonsus and others fell down senseless. &quot. which brought him to the gates of death.zeal to his service. seeing to this. when a tremendous thunder-storm came F. and a bolt fell in the midst of them. &quot. he was seized the following year with a pulmonary complaint. a ing frightful epidemic ravaged the city of Naples. and with your whole heart?&quot. his life was also exposed to a danger of fatigues. bewail her sins. In the year 1729.Mary. In consequence of his great Spirit.But without reserve.&quot.&quot. Ripa was -on.

but the God who smote them. rition who came to venerate the picture. while the multitude were kneeling before this picture. from which he could hardly turn himself away. came in crowds to place themselves under the pro mother of mercy. at the side of which was exposed the miraculous picture. as usual. by giving them a miraculous proof of his love. touched to the quick by the dis . and the . invited the brothers of the Propaganda. having no per mission from his superiors to prolong his stay. they were not sufficient to hear the confes sions of crowds. courses of Alphonsus. the colors of which being almost obliterated by age. it was glazed. The concourse of people was such that the greater part could not enter the church. and seen tection of the by crowds. to a The people. The effects were ex entreaties from traordinary. the Blessed Virgin showed herself to them under the appearance of a young woman. insisted he should give a Novena in honor of the Blessed Virgin at first he refused. that the opportunity might not be lost for call ing the people to repentance. On this occasion. and many were reclaimed and The town of Foggia had been almost reduced mass of ruins.LIFE OF ST. On the morning of the 22d of March. Faccola. turned from their wickedness and wished to be reconciled with God. converted. they therefore erected a pulpit at the door. Mgr. The bishop. and beyond description great as was the num ber of priests. They venerated in this town a very old and miracu lous picture of the Virgin. a very re markable event. One day. ALPHONSUS. His delight was to remain near the miraculous image. during this Novena. but at length he yielded to the circumstances of the time and the urgent . Alphonsus and his com panions went to visit the miraculous picture. terrified by new repeated shocks of the earth quake. There happened to him. who. This appa made a great noise throughout the kingdom. and when their mission was finished. 55 The bishops. and covered with a curtain. when the people had withdrawn. Alphonsus. would also comfort them. and this miracu lous manifestation was repeated for several days. all sides. pro duced a miraculous effect.

he should re fixed upon. in which he was joined by about the occurrence. they met . but scarcely had he placed him self in front of it. John Mazzini. reprimanded him strongly in presence the Congregation. CHAPTER Alphonsus is called to IX. He was accompanied by Joseph Jorio. -and When they had arrived at Amalfi went to pay their respects to the Archbishop. thirty persons who had witnessed He afterwards attested having seen the Virgin Mother under the appearance of a young girl of thirteen or fourteen years of age. The place Pansa. his friends began to have serious apprehensions for his health.56 image. wearing a white veil. tion. he got up on the altar it more nearly. he described his vision to a painter. intoning the &quot.&quot. re joiced to see himself mortified before such a respectable assembly. he descended from the altar. ALPHONSUS. found a Congregation of Missionary Priests. when he fell into an ecstasy. which lasted The Virgin would fully satisfy his devo nearly an hour. Julius Torni. was a hermitage in the neighborhood of Amalfi. and the picture drawn at the time is still preserved at Ciorani.Ave Maris Stella. LPHONSUS being exhausted and worn out by his la- bors in the provinces. was replaced in the church. but. 4 JTl. whether he really blamed him for giving a Novena at Foggia. on the contrary. inebriated with joy. LIFE OF ST. When the vision disappeared. and accordingly it was deter retire to the country. the Canon D. until mined he should cover his strength. crowning his happiness by showing to him her face to examine radiant with celestial beauty. and moving from side to side. On returning to Naples in the middle of the month of May. he did not speak. or whether he would only try his of all humility. and two others. situated on a hill near the sea. The next morning. Alphonsus did not attempt to excuse himself.

tave of the Blessed Sacrament.LIFE OF ST. in the month of St. and preached one sermon. The superior of the nuns of St. This was . During the Novena of the Mount. and the bishop. which produced all the effect of a It was on the Sunday following the Oc regular mission. and this sojourn in the coun to catechise the try dant became an uninterrupted mission. being without the sacraments and the word of life. he gained new strength to his soul in the presence of his beloved Saviour. ALPHONSUS. He accepted the invitation. to preach in that town. had to be instructed in the first rudiments of faith. to be celebrated in the Cathe dral for the feast of the Holy Redeemer. who were The proposal was willingly agreed to. and for detesting sin. It was now that Alphonsus became acquainted with the extreme destitution of the people Altered over the country. Mary of the Mount this was the name of the hermitage. who often lived without the knowledge neces sary for salvation. and the bishop was so delighted. and while Alphonsus was recovering strength of body. he urged upon them such strong motives for loving Jesus in His Sacrament. that the whole congregation were dissolved in tears. many. September. He was soon invited by the inhabitants of Scala. their plan. which he did with his usual success. Saviour besought him also to preach in their church. accompanied by John Mazzini. with the other inhabitants of the country around. Saviour. and heard their confessions. 57 who to a and go would be at the same strongly urged them to change hermitage near Scala. the neighborhood. They began poor shepherds and goat herds. and they established themselves at St. until September. where they time useful to the poor goatherds of destitute of spiritual aid. that he engaged him for a Novena. which produced abun fruits. he gave a retreat to the nuns of St. They had obtained permission to keep the Blessed Sacrament in the hermitage. He continued to labor among the good shepherds of when he returned to Mary Scala. before they could make their confession. the Vicar-General. and their sobs and groans resounded in the neigh borhood.

of such an institution. who were employed in the care of thousands living in villages and scattered hamlets. so much to the glory of God In the meanwhile. &quot. institution of the kind is upon said you?&quot. in the con great work. Alphonsus. of the vision she had had.&quot. she saw in a vision a new Con gregation of priests.I sanctity this of the nun was undoubted.&quot. Fearing it was but a vain illusion. it. Yielding to his friend s desire. &quot. argued his friend. Mazzini. &quot. but persisted. and treated her as a visionary. she saw Alphonsus at the head of this Congregation. Alphonsus reproved the nun. in the . ment of his mercy towards the inhabitants of the country. &quot. &quot. and the more he repulsed her. to choose some one to labor with efficacy among the abandoned people of the country: the nun knew nothing of what was passing in his mind but on the 13th of &quot. answered Mazzini.I approve much.&quot. Alphonsus had often be sought God. I am sure &quot. seeing his trouble On his return to the house. to make known his will to Convent a nun of great sanctity.and I foresee the glorious fruits what can I do myself? Where are my companions?&quot. when Father Mazzini said: know you have had a dis pute with one of the nuns. destitute of spiritual aid.&quot. the more she assured him that God had chosen him to be the instru him.and will be found willing to consecrate themselves other of but priests to a work which must contribute !&quot. much wanted in what knows who and designs God may have kingdom.Besides. Bishop of Castel- . possessed of supernatural gifts.&quot. F. fessional. and heard a voice which said: &quot. asked the cause. for I heard you speaking loud. ALPHONSUS. He hesitated to tell him. moment God had There was chosen. she told him.58 the LIFE OF ST.Here am I for one.This is the man I have chosen to be the instrument of my glory in this A few days after. and agitation. and far from treating it lightly. Mgr. even with tears. Mazzini The did all in his power to persuade him of its truth. Alphonsus told him what the nun had said. notwithstandin^the remarkable conformity between her vision and his own thoughts. She humbled herself before him. and of the designs God had upon him. Falcoja.

died the 14th of September. Some said that he was mad. but in all other rope. it Their opinions coincided with that of F. the vision of the nun strengthened their confi sincerity at the dence. both of whom were much venerated in Naples. for their sanctity and wisdom. sister Celeste Castarosa. . ALPHONSUS. F. he sons. his Alphonsus returned to Naples. arrived at Scala. advised Alphonsus to consult with more enlightened per He accordingly spoke with F. and in America. call of Heaven. Pagano. and taking courage. Mary entire Convent of St. 1745. he was a prelate of eminent sanc skilled in the science of spirituality. The nuns open the coffin and clothe the body anew. even ples was known. and after several days spent in narrowly examin ing the subject. perior of the Mission of St. to accomplish. 59 lamare. This nun. and that his brain must be affected others treated to prevent its being begun. that such an un dertaking could not fail to promote the glory of God and the salvation of souls. yea. that was the will of God. her body is still and uncorrupted. could not fail to ers of hell. and Bishop of Scala was not inferior to him. he consulted others. Vincent Cutica.LIFE OF ST. and F. The presence of these two saintly men raised Mazzini s hopes. and finding all of same mind. hesitated not to declare his opinion. he gave himself unreservedly to God. every time any of the sisterhood dies. she being a person peculiarly favored by God. Saviour. and they urged him to respond to the Still unconvinced. them all. he could no longer doubt. if possible. and he urged He accordingly told Alphonsus to consult* with them. and immediately opened whole heart to his own spiritual director. at Foggia. This sage director. viz. all Na arms against him. they both agreed that the inspiration came from God. Manua Jesuit. whose and love of truth were undoubted. But a work which was intended by God to promote the salvation of eminent the souls. su lius. Pagano. not in Italy only. As soon as Alphonsus determination seemed to be in . stir its kingdoms of Eu up all the pow overthrow. after a careful consideration of some days. and the tity. Vincent of Paul. but doubting his own judgment.

he meekly re his uncle. was.I regulate it by the Gospel. his schemes. vision of the nun.It you blindly follow the reveries of a nun. See ing. &quot. that all his endeavors to dissuade him were in vain. and useless. even if they should succeed. the Propaganda Having heard of the was the sole basis of and were shocked at his allowing himself to be led away by what they called the reveries of a young nun.&quot. At last his uncle went so far. &quot. who was then at Rome. It was in the College of the Chinese he found his greatest adversaries. F. Ripa.&quot. The Fathers of also ranged themselves against him. his companions there loaded him with blame and ridicule. but bowing his head. while he only replied that he would do nothing disapproved of by his director.I plied. and should hope all.&quot. &quot. he chose to believe with the others that his head was affected. that. on his return. ALPHONSUS. to your word the Church to be present.&quot. But what afflicted Alphonsus most of all. &quot.&quot. One day as Alphonsus entered the sacristy of the cathedral.&quot. who happened you have promised her. Rector of the Seminary. and do you not see that you are the victim of an illusion?&quot. they imagined it his enterprise. They assailed him on every side. . all in his power to convince him that his plans were impossible. replied he.can do all. and reproached him both privately and publicly with what he pride. Julius Torni. and that he was the victim of some delusion. that these opinions were taken up by his uncle Matthew Gizzio.and make haste to show those new institutions and foundations which now. however. is not God who directs said ypu.Keep said they. do not regulate my conduct by visions. several persons of consequence began to abuse him before others in authority. On another occasion his uncle jeeringly asked him if he ever expected to realize &quot. in him the presence of some other canons. &quot.He who trusts in God. &quot. as a fanatic and a visionary. he treated as a fool whose brain was turned by self-conceit. did. him called his extravagance. humbled himself interiorly.60 LIFE OF ST.but &quot.&quot. Alphonsus said nothing. and by the Superior of the Propa ganda. some affirmed it was pure and that he had been spoiled by too much praise.

LIFE OF ST. Fiorillo. &quot. on whose decision the himself to seemed depend. by whom he himself was guided. while they were about it with the nun who had had the revelation. to Fiorillo. Louis Fiorillo.Not I would ask the same said from you. he met him one Fiorillo saw him. A singular fact now occurred some several of the nuns. 61 After some time. is cured.&quot.&quot. but on his afterwards repeating to F. yet satisfied as &quot. He recommended the prayers of many holy persons. but soon day at his uncle s.&quot. One day. ALPHONSUS. would consider Alphonsus had after. seech God : to enlighten his directors. will believe nun when Mary Magdalene This sister had been deranged for several years. Yes.&quot. the moment F.God is not it were. asked six months from Si. Pa^ano what had passed. believed that God would not establish Congregation. saying.God wills this work.I replied a it more incredulous than the others. they prayed. his uncle insisted that he should take advice from F. man God Lewis Bertrand reflect. six months only. 6 . by inspi with you. disputing she cried out in an ecstatic transport. When the Alphonsus had made known of to F. He wishes be altogether His.&quot. but from that moment all she per fectly recovered her senses. it accomplished!&quot. and a time and place of meeting was agreed upon. He now began to perform the most severe penances. &quot. exclaimed. Theresa to . they fasted.In a similar conjuncture. Alphonsus. that he God. Fiorillo s decision as the voice of never seen F. you to you. All the convent joined with her. he ration : F. and expects great things from Alphonsus took him aside. yielding to the opinion of ill-disposed persons. praying continually lighten affair that the Father of lights would en His servant F. Fiorillo. he urged him to follow his uncle s advice. and told him of his desire to consult him. giving an answer &quot. but above all to the nun at the monastery of Scala. the and you Sister will see &quot. before replied: &quot. At first he declined. a learned and pious Domini can. St. they gave themselves the discipline for half an hour each day all united to be .

he feared no and began in earnest to look about for companions. throw yourself into the arms of God. I act con- permit such a thing replied : Then Alphonsus You are deceived supposing that . he begged Alphonsus to conceal his appro Satisfied now that he bation. &quot. in opposition to F. a days after. they attacked him more violently than ever. You will encounter contradictions. take courage. was great. and fearing to scandalize the clergy. Pagano himself would oppose it. ? How in can your conscience calmly. Bishop of Ischia. Fiorillo. ALPHONSUS. and finding him unaltered in his views. and would not bear to hear him spoken of as one of them. but place your confidence in God. Fiorillo would never approve of it. doubtless. acting in consequence of such visions. hardly had he entered the house. whole Some when the venerable Father in the valley. uncle. F.Say what you will. as a stone which falls from the mountain &quot. saying. was acting according to the will of God. In the meanwhile the Missionaries of the Propaganda blamed him every where.Go. and not to visit him again. when &quot. self. the as tonishment and scandal augmented every day.&quot. The Canons Torni and Gizzio were extremely annoyed by the slur which Alphonsus project seemed to cast upon the Propaganda. who was then absent from Naples and on the other hand. embraced him with joy. his embarrassment rely. scandalizing all Naples by your obstinacy.take year. who might overturn them. and that at last F.0*2 LIFE OF ST.&quot. but am ruled by the word of God. When he carne to see the two Canons. this work is divine. however. &quot. but firmly. Pagano advised him not to keep the secret any longer. I assure you I am not farther contradiction. Meeting Alphonsus one day. so also did the Bishop of Cassano. Fiorillo had many good works on hand. he was bound not to betray F. He will help you. and acting . and guided by those on whom I ought to In circumstances such as these. Amato.Are you not ashamed of your they attacked him again. They hoped that F. whom he consulted on the subject.&quot. and Mgr. he met him again. At this time. F. Alphonsus meekly replied: &quot. Fiorillo ?&quot.

said Torni. some of his most distinguished subjects were inclined to follow Alphonsus. Fiorillo. But Cardinal Pignatelli. &quot. I want no other testi of my Congregation. he wrote. where he was certain to be most useful. be prepared for their position in everlasting . He believed himself justified in opposing plans which would remove him from Naples. ALPHONSUS. and as he ceased speaking. who has many niches in Paradise for the statues He fashions upon earth. Falcoja. although he had been prejudiced against Alphonsus. this gift belongs only to that divine Providence. and on earth He new establishes different studios. said he.&quot. trary to the advice of F. 63 is my conduct the result He had provided him of the counsels he has given me. Alphonsus expected to have peace.that it does not belong to a spiritual Father to give his penitents any voca tion which may happen to please himself. and Torni.But this is not sufficient. Ripa. After could although now persuaded that he acted in accordance with the advice of F. no sooner discovered the truth. he placed it in his Great was the confusion of both Gizzio uncle s hands. and above all. &quot. Fiorillo.&quot. &quot.Now. and wrote a very bitter . would see the original.LIFE OF ST. than he warned the Canon Torni to beware how he took any steps against Alphonsus de Liguori. letter to Mgr. whose reply is too admirable to be omitted here: &quot. ceased not to accuse him of vi sionary schemes. Alphonsus gave it to him.You know.&quot. Pagano and F. F. His brothers of the Propaganda refused to be reconciled with him. and threatened to turn him out of their Congregation.&quot. &quot. He quarrelled with F.I this. sufficient for the honor this is mony. Fiorillo . self with a copy of the letter Fiorillo had written to him on the subject. on the other hand. as he no longer be blamed for acting contrary to the opinion of wise directors. where those to perfection rational statues daily open are to be moulded that they may according to His most holy will. useful to the Chi nese College besides. and is ing ones.&quot. holding it in his hand. &quot.&quot. but the enemy of mankind would not yield without a farther struggle.

that he cannot go astray. and less in man. But true. inasmuch as Alphonsus has fol lowed this letter. You may argue that a spiritual Father can be deceived but I would reply that God. to the will 11 continue faithful set themselves in opposition of God. you say view of cannot . I wish. this enterprise comes from God. heareth me. whom He has appointed to enlighten others. He who hearetb you. But you say. but on the contrary. this enterprise. that the opposes it as the will of God. ^and founded four different Congregations.lory. as he has done on a . we may believe that she cannot go astray. The Congregation of Pious Workers had scarcely been es tablished. When a God and His holy words. men. those therefore. the venerable Fathers. I see from your you judge and condemn me.. another equally divine. when four of their most excellent members left them. my dear Father. what assurance could we have in deciding on what was God s will? Now. this new work will take away some of your most valuable subjects. that the work of Alphonsus no suggestion of the devil. Charles Carafa and Anthony de Colellis. . my it the case. for if it were not so. you would put a little more confidence in God. ALPHONSUS. to .64 L&amp. Is the arm of the Lord shortened ? Is He not able to sustain your Let Congregation and many others at the same time ? God perform His own work. is ft is not the province of a spiritual Father. who is charged perish. and with it. for a work which comes from Him may is whom who had devil left. will dissipate itself. Not withstanding. were not annoyed by fearing that the contrary hap would be ruined their Congregation pened. LIFE OF ST. : overthrow your Congregation.. but according to if he. and ruin a valuable work which owes all to your labors but fear not. you say. who oppose it. if then you lose nothing. to to do any thing else than soul faithful approve or disapprove. the Father of the family sent to replace those Be persuaded. who is always will not fail to make known His will to those faithful. it increased more and more by the arrival of other . as one who would rule. but cannot destroy.

divine Mother listened to her favorite child. many of whom had treated him so unjustly. and never was a child more obedient to a parent. this letter produced no on F. Alphonsus resolved to apply for aid to his blessed Mother. when he saw the good he was doing in Naples. pro mising to do nothing without his advice. and held in great consi The feast of the Assumption ap church so dear to him. complains bitterly of him and all who had any hand in When approving or forwarding his projects. the church of the Redemption of where her statue was exposed during those nine Captives. . He notwithstanding his repugnance to .&quot.LIFE OF ST. and God poured out His benedictions on his 6* obeyed his Superior. if they continued phonsus. when he foresaw that an insti tution would have the effect of destroying his empire in the It world. rather increased. in the name of the Cardinal. effect seems incredible. Having no hope of directly succeeding in opposing him. and even in his Memoirs of his Congre gation. Ripa. as he could not bear the idea of Alphonsus services being lost to Naples. instead of abating. and made the Novena of the feast in the sanctity. he began an indirect attack. ALPHONSUS. The. trusting that. and enlightened him regarding the course he ought to pursue* He placed himself in the hands of the holy prelate. proaching. days.tppear before those. yet it is true. to bear the blame of giving counsel to Al therefore strongly urged him to put him self entirely under the direction of Mgr. who continued to blame Alphonsus for his inconstancy. to give a retreat to the clergy of Naples. gave him the charge of several important matters. in his quality of He Superior of the Congregation of the Propaganda. they began to fear for the success of their own immediate affairs. the Fathers Fiorillo and Pagano saw that the tempest. a man of They undoubted wisdom deration by all arid Naples. The Canon Torni came also back to the charge. In the be ginning of October he commanded him. 65 thousand other occasions. Falcoja. he would give up the idea of going elsewhere.

The third was D. multitudes from all quarters flocked to hear him. declared their willingness to accompany him One of his first companions was D. those who had opposed him his lauded now. when they saw the blessings of heaven accompanying his work. theology. In spite of the outcry made against Alphonsus by many influential individuals. for the Holy Spirit labors &quot. and de layed to give him his parting benediction. and an second was Don Janvier Sarthe Chinese man of eminent virtue. he was sent suc cessively to three other churches to give Missions. a gentleman of the town of Troja. But notwithstand ing all this abundant harvest. also one of the Chinolli. may easily see he is a vessel of election. as before.LIFE OF ST. but those days of delay seemed ages to Alphonsus. wished to put his constancy to farther proof.them humble. that he exclaimed. son of the Baron of Ciorani. Because they loved him. a noble Calabrian. Vincent Mandarini. more abundantly than ever. ex an was he Mandarini secular. and a great friend of and in versed and well cellent man. a pensioner in The excellent theologian. sometimes permits his ser into similar mistakes. Many were the contradictions and annoyances he ex perienced during the last days he remained. siese College. forcibly to withdraw him from an enterprise they considered extravagant. In after time. God. still a Tosquez. and was so moved. particularly from F. Mgr. to keep fall . of great talents. in impenetrable Providence. it may be. seeing that the storm still coja. they thought they had a right. The Cardinal himself attended. College. and crowded round the confessionals. when. continued to rage. After this retreat. Ripa and his uncle Gizzio. Falhowever. both natural and acquired. enterprise. ALPHONSUS. He was.&quot. there was still a number of zealous on priests his who arduous mission. like Alphonsus. jurisprudence besides being a Silvester : . and as a means of advancing the sanctity of his vants to both parties. We speaks by his mouth. Alphonsus was longing for the for him moment when the arrangements would be completed to commence his new Congregation.

ALPHONSUS.&quot.LIFE OF ST. &quot. turned in astonish ment me to Sportelli. and told him that this was Alphonsus Liguori. that I stood at the foot of a high and steep mountain. gentleman named Vitus Curzius. Sportelli had not communicated to him his design of quitting the world. that he wished to be ber. and of the num . which many priests were trying to I wished to imitate them. 67 His other companions were men equally estimable and en in number.&quot. when one day Curzius told him a dream he had had the previous night. instantly recognized the divine will. The young man unhesitatingly declared. whose vocation was evidently miraculous. I thought.&quot. but at the first step I ascend. and mentioned his own intention to join him. &quot. gave me his hand and helped me to ascend. Mazzini would have joined him at first. Sportelli saw the mystery of the dream. taking compas sion on me. when Cur zius. who was about to found a new Congregation of missionary priests. as they were walking together near the Chinese College. In the course of the day. who had never before seen him. seven order to prove his vocation. as a lay-brother. still a secular. in lightened. said he. I fell backward. &quot. was the first who He had joined him in quality of lay-brother. but to my great annoyance. had not his director insisted on his delaying.There is the priest who gave his hand last night. they met Alphonsus. I tried to mount slid always several times. A been secretary to the Baron of Vasto. Not willing to give up the attempt. I back. and was very inti mate with Sportelli. one of the companions of Alphon sus. exclaiming. took. until one of the priests.

and returned to his father s house. pressed him in his arms and exclaimed: &quot. he had quitted the Chi nese College. do not abandon me. almost destitute of furniture.&quot. accorded in every respect the Santoro. and one day he entered his room. Alphonsus. when he had laid down to take a little repose. and three little rooms containing palliasses and scanty coverings. On arriving at Scala. Joseph. who loved him made. Bishop. and departed from Naples on the 8th of November. My this trial. Taken by this intensely. D. without acquainting either friends or relations. This last completed the numerous sacrifices he had already finitive all renunciation of Since the month of August.&quot. I do not deserve that you should cause me so much misery. to delay. repeating always. besides a small oratory.My son. less as a son than as a spiritual father. he was joined by only eight of his companions. was miserable at the thought of losing him. un having received the benediction of the Fathers and Fiorillo. as the most terrible he had ever had to endure. 1732.68 LIFE OF ST. hired a miserable donkey. and the entire disruption of the ties of flesh and blood. It Alphonsus establishes his Congregation at Scala. for the better arranging of his affairs. He afterwards spoke of son. from The dwelling prepared certain circumstances. he completed two sacrifices the de AFTER Pagano . why will you abandon me? My son. di The day on recting his steps towards the town of Scala. which he left Naples. Alphonsus suffered most scene lasted during three hours. and father holding surprise. by was an hospice belonging to a con and inconvenient. and throwing himself on the bed beside him. small with a few earthen dishes for the table and the kitchen. there were only a parlor. the splendors of the world. ALPHONSUS. with their wishes it vent. his him in a close embrace. . trial. Sarnelli and Tosquez were obliged. Mgr. CHAPTER dergoes a severe VII.

they embraced every opportunity of mortifying them selves. and as he knew nothing of cookery.&quot. eating. their hearts overflowing with love to Saviour. As for Alphonsus. long of a Congrega for the establishment God Spirit. and remained for a length of time with their arms extended in form of a cross. Such was the life these missionaries led at Scala. and the general prayers of the commu nity. they and after a placing it under the protection of the Chief of all Missionaries.The Holy The day after their arrival. that these Some holy men signalized their love of mortification. The care he bestowed on his own perfection and . hung a heavy stone round their neck. and besides Mass with a long thanksgiving. seemed as it were nothincr. or laboring to save souls.LIFE OF ST. those hours points. he gave himself the discipline twice a day. and crosses armed with sharp points. that the utmost the others could do. They now applied themselves sincerely to prayer and penitence. and small chains with sharp But it was at the hours of repast. He o sometimes seasoned his food with such herbs. thanking tion so ardently desired. They ate kneel kissing the feet of each of his brethren. while others. chanted the mass of the Holy meditation. His application was constant. ing. to make the mo fore ments of eating still more uncomfortable. Their poor and scanty food they seasoned with bitter herbs many would not taste meat. They gave it the name of &quot. or sitting on the floor. chains. he spent hours in adoration before the Blessed Sacra ment. or abstained from fruit. He carried his austerities to such an excess.instant in reading the Lives of the Saints. Their food was of such a quality that the poor hesitated to accept what they left. God. kissed the ground others knelt. he occupied himself with God only. he spoiled . they wore sack-cloth. ALPHONSUS. be . prayer. that those who were near him could hardly endure the smell. and not content with wearing sack-cloth. every thing he attempted to prepare.&quot. and asking for His benediction upon the work. 69 assembled in the Cathedral. &quot. another made the round of the refectory. when the world seeks after sensual enjoyments. Vitus Curzius was cook.

every evening. continuing to load him with contempt and ridicule. The Fathers of the Propaganda. showed them selves more and more embittered against him. each of these Confraternities received a particular instruction. Scala was in a short time thoroughly reformed. was soon attacked. Persuaded that honor and purity. and seeing his ancient brethren striving to despoil him of them. Alphonsus gave about. he preached on the glories of Mary. Seeing himself so well seconded by the zeal of his companions. and giving making visits to the Blessed Sacrament and the Virgin Mary. by the renewed violence of the other members. They clamored against Torni. the to the great satisfaction of Mgr. Their conduct deeply wounded Alphonsus. 1732. and in sisted. and rather exciting than preventing them. instead of becoming reconciled to the step taken by Alphonsus. he complained in a letter to the Canon Torni. and every Sunday. he instructed the people on their individual He established two Confra duties. He introduced the custom of a meditation in the Cathedral. did not hinder him from attending people of Scala. one for gentlemen and another for artisans. are the true riches of a minister of God. and two others for the young people of both sexes. with rectitude of judgment. they affixed to the . and he was grieved to see pious and zealous servants of God partaking in all the pre judices of the world. to the great joy of all. Every Thursday. and deprive him of the chaplainship. He was forced to yield. companions. he gave a sermon with exposition of the Blessed Sacrament. and on the 20th of February. so that the missions to the different towns and villages round renown of the new Congregation began to spread every where.70 that of his to LIFE OF ST. that he should expel Alphonsus. and every Sa On Sundays turday. ternities. every morning. who sent him a reply full of the most friendly assurances. and catechized them. while many even offered them establishments in their diocesses. and bishops were constantly be seeching their assistance for their flocks. But the peace he had found in the friendly behaviour of Torni. Santoro. and feast days. ALPHONSUS.

&quot. and that he continue to enjoy his chaplainship it. and it will prove a glorious thing for you.&quot. but still determined never to recognise him as a I forbid member of their Congregration. certed. His Eminence was much said he. on the 23d instant there the on following questions: Whether the brother gation D. to tell him what had been done. &quot. when God wished to try his servant still more severely. extremities? either God will bless the enterprise of Al phonsus. only to prevent the vexatious proceedings going farther. In order to pointed day.LIFE OF ST. they proceeded se prevent any his and the with expulsion was unani scrutiny. animated with incredible rancor. and I desire that Alphonsus de Liguori be rein and stated.Let vexed. I do not see how you can find dishonor in am Superior of this Congre He concluded by saying. and some of the principal members went to the Cardinal.&quot. The Cardinal was exceedingly opinion of its you proceed to such &quot. his in interference favor.According to the will be a general investi Superior. Alphonsus de Liguori should be expelled from the Con gregation whether he ought to be deprived of his Torni had yielded. The storm was thus subsiding was in Naples. cretly mously decided upon. gation.but fear nothing.Why. or He will overthrow it. though it had proved unsuccessful. without his knowledge. he said. displeased. them deliberate. &quot. In any case. but he would not hinder the convocation. and then all that could be said would be. but did not The deputies retired. unknown to me. &quot. and Alphonsus living in Scala. by permitting discord .I . and settle every thing in the most expe The Congregation assembled on the ap dient way. that it was a good work. 71 order of our door this announcement: &quot.&quot. any steps being taken against him. But they could not register this de cree. silenced and discon extinguish it.&quot. ALPHONSUS. expressing his ? And chaplainship?&quot. &quot. I will pro vide for the result. This firm conduct arrested the flame. the Cardinal having forbidden any steps to be taken The Superior against Alphonsus. and secretly informed the Cardinal of what was about to be done. in profound peace.

it the spirit impossible mother of poverty. particu larly in the country and small hamlets. They disliked practising poverty in all its rigor. not to for emolument and for them- . ALPHOJfSUS. jected sleep which they would not submit. because the Jesuits and other religious orders supplied this want. insisting that each should sell every thing he possessed. and the perfection which commu nity life exacted. as v the end of the institution was to imitate Jesus Christ. giving them spiritual exercises in convents. thine are found will result . by means of mis sions. and lay the price of it at the feet of his to disliked the recitation of the office in Superior. since there would be too few laborers to undertake both branches. that the spirit of the Institute finding itself divided between two objects so and giving missions. yet it was to community life that Al phonsus principally held. and it would be observe the common life. Tosquez went into a contrary excess. they should occupy themselves in teaching. insisted.the words mine and the brethren.72 LIFE OF ST. and procuring also the salvation of destitute souls. to of Christ would be wanting. Mandarini proposed that. Alphonsus wished that the new Congregation should be occupied only in laboring to promote the sanctification of clergy and laity. He added. as these were the colors our Saviour is said to have worn. but said he. &quot. though without chant. as being a good means of reciting the office He insisted on the vow of poverty. and would embrace the reform of the most austere mendicant order. and D. among gain souls they will go to. The others had different as teaching fulfilled in each his individual opinion. Some common. but Alphonsus opposed this. great inconvenience on the mission not for God. going still farther. that.If. Tosquez.&quot. both would be an imperfect manner. besides the missions. which is the &quot. others ob on as to also other austerities to straw. because without well. Alphonsus approved of establishing a choir. it was necessary to be dressed in a dark red cassock and a mantle of celestial blue. to arise in the bosom of the new-born Congregation itself. Christ.

was received with marked coldness. Pagano. and a diffidence in himself. but on the other. He stood bal ancing between a confidence in God. and he had time to explain the object of his visit. Mandarini persisted in his scheme for teaching.LIFE OF ST. who all looked upon it as a stratagem s Mandarini They decidedly opposed plan of teaching. they shut their ears to all he said. and formed a separate Congregation called of the Most Holy Sacrament. and the result proved the wisdom of acting thus. ALPHONSUS. while at the same time he neglected no human means. He consulted Mgr. sought him at Castellamare. the devil as sailed him with suggestions full of despair. Falcoja. he spoke. and trusting with his assist. This separation is supposed to have taken place about the month of March of the year 1733. and house at Tramonti where they opened schools for youth. These dis the others joined him in sustaining this point. Though he had endured the blow caused by these divisions with all the strength of a soul which rest? on God. and the Canon Torni. four months after they had met at Scala. cussions lasted long. he supplicated. He . notwithstanding which. Fearing a total shipwreck. affliction. these opposing sentiments could not to dis turb his serenity. which never deserted him. he placed his confi dence in God only. F. he thought of Mgr.&quot. which bowed him to the however. all of the devil. if it be His will that this work should go on. founded a . he had recourse to prayer. be cause the others were of his opinion. has no need of you and your companions. and thought Alphonsus ought to yield. God sus tained him on the one hand. Although Alphonsus thus saw himself abandoned and almost alone. he did not the less feel a bitter sorrow. In the midst of his Falcoja. the bishop Vultis et vos abire God addressed him in these words: &quot. He will raise up other 7 . Before affair. certain of find ing strength and consolation. selves all 73 fail . ance to weather the storm but God would not give him this comfort: he found the bishop disgusted with the whole earth. He remained firmj and at length all left him but Sportelli. in vain.

He &quot. he could not re ties member. Alphonsus stood stupefied by this reception. who had blindly lent himself to the dreaming fancies of a woman. dis gust. dreaded the effect this No sooner was it rupture would produce in Naples. he threw himself on his knees. or of my labors.My continued : &quot.&quot. He knew whence those temptations came. and depression.&quot. his director. suddenly changing his manner. I am well convinced that the Almighty has no need of me. this interview D. without then sustained . and singly and alone as I am. I have not renounced the world. On the whole. Lord. even if he remain altogether alone. This reply touched Mgr. and one day when they were at their height. I shall yet succeed. and when Al phonsus found himself alone on this desert mountain. he said : . anxiety. notwithstanding. I be lieve it to be His will that I should proceed in this work. hope. who. and consolation. than every one laughed at and ridiculed the whole proceeding.&quot. . ALPHONSUS. God evidently blessed from that moment his fears and anxie this heroic action . a shudder.&quot. assailed him more strongly . condemn ing the fanaticism of the pretended head of the Congre gation. and he felt himself filled with courage. Falcoja deeply. not without reason.I have not left Naples. and that the society was dissolved. to gain the glory of founding a new order. and solemnly vowed to consecrate himself than ever. Dominic Corsano. so different from what he had expected but immediately regaining courage. but to do the will of God and promote His glory. and he will certainly bless your good intentions. vanished. Even in his old age. said: &quot.74 laborers LIFE OF ST. were the two most dreadful trials he had ever undergone. should irrevocably to the salvation of destitute souls. Sportelli was often necessarily absent. to fill your place. that this. known that the new founder was abandoned by his com panions.Put your confidence in God. the terrible struggle he had and he said to F. he returned to Scala much comforted by but the devil would not leave him in peace. For a moment. They went the length of affirming. He had also. and his separation from his father.

he desired the Canon Torni to recall him to Naples. and touched by the embarrassment in which Alphonsus found himself. condemn him. refused to see him or hear his The Canon Gizzio name mentioned. my first companions have deserted me. to what an extent even the most favored individuals can go astray. who wished to retain Alphonsus at Naples. who had once to the do with him. Fiorillo alone saw that this was the work of the devil. and how much it must have cost him to return at such a moment. esteem. that is no reason why other zealous priests should not be found but be that as it may. F. He went accompanied by the Canon Torni. he said. The Canon. Cardi all nal Pignatelli pitied Alphonsus. &quot. were silenced by their own share of the contempt and mockery which they received. But Alphonsus replied with entire confidence We have reason to be convinced that the devil is the author of what has happened at Scala. even his friends the precepts of humility. than &quot. and to forget At this crisis. because the demon has come across my path.but There was nothing reprehensible in who can know the judgments of God?&quot. and continued to be convinced that God would uphold his own work. for the good of the destitute souls scattered through the . He would not have withdrawn the means of carrying it into and that surely he could be more useful at elsewhere. Ripa many others. and it was the same held him in the highest Cardinal. Even the pulpits resounded with anathemas. the preachers pretending to show.LIFE OF ST. by these events.&quot. when they allow them tablishment of such selves to be caught in the snare of the devil. and forbidden the es Congregation. but it must not be said that I have allowed myself to be con If quered. On all sides he saw himself condemned and turned would have nothing with to into ridicule. : . re marked. . but did not it. even alone. to sacrifice myself execution Naples. This wise prelate was afflicted to hear of the number of lies that had been circulated against him. that if this work had been pleasing to God. that the 75 Pope himself had a interfered. F. ALPHONSUS. I do not hesitate. Every one can imagine the reception Alphonsus had to expect in this city.

the Congregation. God and perfectly to con form themselves His About called who this time. but equally poor with the first.&quot. and In this solitude^Alphonsus reposed in the bosom of God. but they embellished it as well as they could with roses and bouquets of artificial flowers. and hamlets of this kingdom. altar was also poor. that . and Alphonsus placed The it in a box ornamented with ribbons and silk drapery. thus Our novices think neither of country nor friends. they quitted the hospice for a house One Anastasius. all their desire to is to love will.&quot. 1733.&quot. he said: &quot. The Cardinal could not help admiring the heroism of this speech. D. : ing. describes it as follows: &quot. erected a crucifix so beautifully carved. ALPHONSUS. who aspired to enter still himself. Rejoicing to find his hopes realized. abandon Scala order to just yet. and it drew tears from the eyes. who At who was a layman. for help He opinions expressed by his Eminence disconcerted those railed against him. Alphonsus returned to Scala full of hope and confidence. and reduced them to silence. passed the greater part of repose on the bare earth.There was one small in which Alphonsus had made an oratory. The bishop had arranged for the church a square apartment under ground.Trust he continued: it is in God. saw it. in man. Al phonsus and his companions the night there. nor even of suffer &quot. which looked more like a burial vault than a chapel. Poverty reigned every where in the house and in the church they had not even a ta bernacle for the Blessed Sacrament. and It will not do to turning towards the Canon. and advised him against a reunion with those who had separated themselves from him. parlor. God in Then encouraging Alphonsus.&quot. . while the &quot.&quot.76 Tillages LIFE OP ST. Consoled by the sentiments of the Cardinal. Vitus Curzius. approved his con stancy. the lay-brother. put no confidence you. Scala their number consisted of three. Sportelli. in July. let us have recourse to know His God who holy will will. and he soon had the consolation of seeing his convent frequented by new subjects. he wrote to a friend. taking a little before the Blessed Sacrament.

Alphonsus gives Missions and founds the Houses at the Villa He abandons the former. and in January lowing. who. us before . extremely well suited for the Congrega tion. established in for was most anxious. as At the side signalized himself among the others. excited They spent but the most ardent longing for their establishing a house there. At Formicola. The general reformation in manners which followed. was a house with a church adjoining. ever he returned to visit Scala. and accom panied him to the territory of Ciorani. in the principality of Columbano. who had received priest s orders. dei Schiavi and at Ciorani. Alphonsus. a young nobleman.LIFE OF ST. he had been fol joined by the priest Sarnelli. others. of Ciorani. the Blessed grotto. where every day he submitted his body to the most rigorous penances. exclaiming: body. and bestowed upon him many special favors. ALPHONSUS. being called by the Bishop of Cajazzo to give a mission in his diocese. each to imitate one feeling himself impelled usual. among it. The inhabitants of this country never a lost the remembrance of this first visit. sent an architect to arrange for the necessary alterations and 1* . 77 CHAPTER VIII.0 my why can I not enjoy thee now to give missions in the Christmas of that year. Xavier Rossi. when Alphonsus found himself in a position &quot. the spirit of all his companions had quitted penance and prayer reigned there breathed self-denial and mortification. that while he was in Virgin appeared to chastising When him. There is it a tradition among his the inhabitants. to see them He exerted himself to the utmost. neighboring dioceses until the In the mean time. he yielded to his pressing solicitation. of the house was a half ruined grotto. Four months had scarcely elapsed since the departure of Mandarini. as in times long past!&quot. my beloved grotto. he went to see his beloved grotto. few days there. but they were not yet sufficiently numerous. Mandarini and AFTER Scala.

about nine cents of our money. saw the accident from a distance. level lainly but little with which to found an establishment of missionaries. dis tinguished from others only by a belfry. and contented himself with a small and poor house. after the example of St. the people eagerly assisted in the svork. that is. were given to the missionaries. This foundation exactly suited the views of Alphonsus. -equally large one thought who from the building upon her head every the blow was mortal. and a thickly peopled the beginning of March. when one morning he served the mass of Alphonsus. but Alphonsus looked out only for souls. but he gave so many proofs of strong determination. No sooner was the house established. and even some of the neighboring nobles might be seen mingling with the others Al in carrying materials. While the building continued to go on. and saw in him at the altar. with a revenue from each.&quot. that a poor woman was carrying a large stone. the building was so far advanced that they could inhabit it. It happened one day. Alphonsus by delay. he replied share of merit with the others. fell .78 repairs. to follow him. resting against the church. than he undertook different good works to promote the salvation of the people in the neigh borhood. being situated on the confines of four dioceses. ALPHONSUS. gentlemen Dimple This is nothing. At with the ground. Theresa. and soon the work was begun at his own ex He afterwards. and gave frequent missions. that he soon admitted him his sincerity to his novitiate. laboring phonsus on his insisted the when and workman. of one carlino a This was cerday. and four chaplainships were as signed to them. and died as a having rendered the greatest services. surrounded villages. I wish to have my stopping. LIFE OF ST. whom he loved to imitate. that . entered the church. led by a sudden movement of grace. would prove He became afterwards a corner-stone in Saint. a like the to set the first was example. in spite of himself. felt pense. after the new-born Congregation. when another : *&quot. Four apartments by a great number of country. impelled. but a seraph. not a man. but Alphonsus.

&quot. and said God God. could hardly walk . Such was his opinion of this Father s virtue and wisdom. the odor of sanctity. blessed Michael. he took it pri vately every day. seasoned with bitter herbs. : 79 his prayer and addressed himself to the Blessed Virgin was heard.&quot.&quot. of Panecocoli. a talented and promising subject was. who was so much irritated at this. to take his son away by force.The Villa dei Schiavi. And in became this the scarcely had Michael returned. them much. on his he ate knees. violence will cost Alphonsus obeyed. that he with the life he had led that every round his . I have taken one from hand of God. and here he had the happiness of receiving John Mazzini. the woman rose up unhurt. that the Cardinal. cleric. Alphonsus remained until the month of August. time. and after in he died having labored in it zealously and indefatigably.This his family. He returned to the Congregation afterwards. &quot. a stone served him . ment the at this. with a heavy stone hung day neck his food usually consisted of a simple pottage. had retired into the Congrega tion without the consent of his father. and God has now taken the other from me. saying: fact. persuaded of the divine vocation of the young man. he never drank wine besides taking the discipline in common.&quot. An eye-witness reports. when his eldest brother The unhappy father recognized in sick and died. saved him from their hands by sending him away during the His father and other relatives were so full of resent night. The life which Alphonsus led with his brethren in this new house. counselled Alphonsus to send young man back &quot. was equally admirable at Scala. taken from him by violence. near Naples. that he imme At the same diately made him rector of the new house. who had so long been wishing to join him. : . ALPHONSUS. who in leaving had but obeyed : his director. though yet a Michael d Alteriis.LIFE OF ST. and the walls of his room were covered with blood the hair cloth he wore was so heavy. that he sent armed men to the house of the missionaries. his sleep was short. to prevent worse consequences. and made such to a noise. however. Alphonsus.

1735. he never used a razor. his father. After an agreement was made with the Archbishop of Salerno. and another to the nuns of St. Al- . hav ing learned the good that was done in the neighboring parishes. that the he never went original form could hardly be recognized . At this time. gave him great consolation. Such was the mode of life led by Alphonsus and his companions. rather unwillingly. and set himself about to procure the means of car rying it into execution. he gave with impatience. D. to preach the Lent in the Cathedral of Scala. was still an uninterrupted con ference on spiritual subjects. he had received a sufficient rent for their maintenance. visit ing the house of the Villa dei Schiavi. January. the Curate of the territory of Ciorani. and by the month of April. Santoro. that he might be said to sleep on boards. Cataldo. he kissed the feet of all. Sarnelli. but cut his beard with a pair of scissors his cassock was so worn and mended. when he also gave a retreat in the parish of St. he was con tinually in prayer. His humility was extra ordinary. observed in the and the hour of recrea house. and his straw mattress was so thin. At the request of Mgr. ALPHONSUS. Sportelli. and spoke only when it was absolutely When their new foundation was sufficiently necessary. as a pillow. . which he A profound silence was said was good enough for him. Alphonsus returned to Scala. awaiting him In the course of the autumn. Baron. now Father. he consented. both he and his flock desired ardently to see a house of the missionaries established among them. on horseback. he returned to the territory of Cajazzo. No one entered more into the spirit of this plan than the He persuaded the brother of F. Catherine. of the immense advantages that would result. but always on foot or on a mule. Andrew. where he remained some time. generally tion after their frugal meal. which was increased by finding many candidates for the novitiate. before and after meals. and.80 LIFE OF ST. In several missions in the neighborhood and elsewhere. besides the three meditations which they made every day. The good that had been done during his absence by Doctor. consolidated.

their oratory being for them a little heaven. and the conversions were innumerable. next day. habitation which the Baron had given the mission besides a sort of cellar. At the sight of Alphonsus. that the church. reserving the three The furniture of the whole was miserable enough. though spacious. 1735. they were obliged to cross an open court. After a while he gave aries. and. small oratory. at the sight pulpit. particularly in winter. In one of these rooms. they estab lished the same pious practices and confraternities as at Scala and Villa dei Schiavi. which served for a kitchen. a neighborhood riot exactly suited for men of prayer and retirement. that every heart was On the evening of the penetrated with compunction. absolute necessaries were wanting. no one could resist him the hearts of all. Arrived at the parochial church. He and his compa nions rejoiced in these discomforts. that Alphonsus poured out his soul into the bosom of God. It was there. The them two other apartments. but an immense concourse of them at the awaited entrance into the barony. with people the Curate and his clerics. were . through the chinks of which the cold wind entered. so full of the spirit of God. ALPHOKSUS. but in passing from the one to the other. they were situated above a public house and a prison. The exercises were made in the parochial church. formed their equipage. consisted only of two large rooms.LIFE OF ST. he opened the mission. these places had only planks for the exterior wall. so far from having superfluities. After the missions. with Fathers Mazzini and Rossi. could not contain them. so poor. In addition to these annoyances. Alphonsus mounted the for the subject of his discourse the mo of coming the salvation of their souls he preached with such powerful effect. 81 phonsus. tive and taking his of such a multitude. oftener than during the day. which was a great inconvenience. Alphonsus erected others for their a own use. in so humble. touched. The people ran thither such crowds. besides. but the concourse of people being . during the night. came to Ciorani Four miserable donkeys in the month of May. even of the most abandoned.

Having weighed the matter maturely. Quarrels and hatred were aries.It is true. and disturbed the poor old Curate. &quot.&quot. Alphonsus was at the expense of repairing the old church the signorial palace. but I doubt whether these promises would ever be realized. &quot. he at length wrote a definite tablishments.02 LIFE OF ST. annexed to the people there. but pious canticles which Alphonsus com posed himself. banished . to the great It the sick and the infirm. and what we re tract to-day. The Archbishop of Salerno. of Sophia. became pure.&quot.Praise be to Jesus and Mary. As all comfort of was not long before the barony was completely reformed. the missionaries had As the people carne very scarcely time to eat or sleep. and the affair was forever broken off. he sent mission St. at the same time. we recommence to-morrow. Tosquez and Mandarini now began to recognize the pernicious effects of their divisions. and met the inhabitants of the neighbor ing villages could not come to Ciorani. and all improper games were for bidden. the public house in the was deserted. they saluted each other. command ing the curates. and when the cooled. spirit is all. and the very small expense necessary to lodge the missionaries. early in the morning. No village more imprecations were heard. struck by the good which was done by the missions. saying: &quot. the language arid behaviour of the young men the young women no longer sang loose and profane songs. The inhabitants began to re semble the first Christians.that it promises much. First impressions are not easily effaced. since they were con tent with a morsel of bread and a corner in the sacristy. and continually wrote to Alphonsus on the subject of a re-union. gave Alphonsus license to go where he wished. Above he remembered the advice of Cardinal Pignatelli against this re-union. Although they had the of the Pontiff for their es got approbation sovereign they were not successful. When the inhabitants met.&quot. the fairest promises are forgotten. he said. ALPHONSUS. every day as great as on feast days. to show them every re- . answer. on Sundays and feast days.

Notwithstanding. for in spite of the annoy belonging of Alphonsus. and also that those gentlemen who were too far distant from home. me then. by mentioning a future period when the mission might be held. the Baron gave up to the missionaries a building in another part of his property. In consideration of the inconveniences of their habita at Ciorani. many persons. : held at that time . but I condition to receive stand these words in the .&quot. labored almost as hard and building advanced as if by enchantment. and added some ground for a garden. . you will not be in a The curate did not under prime of life. One might brought ances of the locality in which they dwelt. Many persons of quality. was in this retreat that the young priest Andrew Villani. Some carried stones and wood. was then in Naples. bishop. he tried to palliate his conduct. both priests and laymen. and the sons of the Baron. came to place themselves under the direction to say that the practice of the holy exercises was to perfection at Ciorani. ALPHONSUS. Alphonsus calmly answered Your Reverence believes the mission can be &quot. and the fruits were seen in their redoubled ardor for the souls of men. but before the time appointed. Alphonsus had fixed the day for giving a mission in a parish on his arrival the curate met him. San Severino and the neighborhood. and the priests. refused to per mit him to give the mission but fearing to offend the Arch : . others constructed a furnace to make bricks. than men tion women came from all quarters to assist. and even repulsed tl%m. Many ecclesiastics assisted at this mission. although he had paid the debt of nature. On one occasion. assure you. 83 spect and attention. there were some who received them with an ill-grace. with the cuate and as the people.LIFE OF ST. seeing the effect produced upon others. Alphonsus obtained permission to give the mission in the great hall of the castle. No sooner was this done. might remain all night. while the gentlemen returned home to edify all It by the reformation of their lives and manners. and without asking him to dismount from his ass. ardently desired to have As the Baron Angelo a kind of mission for themselves.

prelates with their clerics. for all conditions of men. The Curate of Ciorani was asked to lend his aid. and not only did they look upon Al phonsus with an evil eye. that as so many curates profited by the labors of the missionaries. to make retreats. By this time F. that under pretence of zeal and devotedness. and all rejoiced in the good they produced. He afterwards in and a foundation stone the became a model of new-born Con gregation. Sarnelli. each should contribute a trifle to wards their support. accordingly he had. but they set themselves by all means to have the missionaries chased out of the territory. even before the foundation was approved of. but the good old man replied labor incessantly in &quot. sanctity. While such glorious works were progressing. they only sought to enrich themselves at the expense of the legitimate pastors. became and the Archbishop definitely authorized the foundation. but chiefly in Lent. a descendant of the thaf*the world is Dukes of Sacco and full della Polla. Alphonsus took every care to make the people love the holy exercises. Many came ecclesiastics came during the year. 1735. They then reported to the Archbishop. took the reso and consecrating himself to God in this new Congregation. convinced deceitful it. who. and the fruits which always accompany them prove his wisdom. : What ! these holy priests who my parish. who began to doubt whether he ough* not to suppress the house. besides many He attached the greatest importance to the holy exercises of a retreat. The parties interested keenly op posed the measure. on the 12th of December. But in the end they quiet. ALPHONSUS.84 LIFE OF ST. excited the jealousy of some neighboring friars. suggested to the Archbishop. and princes. and too great an anxiety for the support of the Congregation. also. The Archbishop . and that they ought to be imme smiled diately expelled from the diocess. curates. lution of quitting of snares. nobles. joined by some mendicant beset the Archbishop. the devil could not look quietly orx. would you have me deprive my people of such great help?&quot. and magistrates. out of an injudicious zeal.

and that if he has any anxiety. all In sacerdotio peccasti. those to who profit . son had been assassinated. it is not about temporal in but to gain souls and secure his own salvation. his director. refused to pardon the that. as he me began at the foot of the altar the psalm. he concluded by quoting the words of St. After this mission. a poor Amalfi. ALPHONSUS. Alphonsus. She went to hear Alphonsus preach. at the press ing entreaty of the Superior of the Propaganda. At these words. as the work to which they had de voted themselves was most advantageous to the souls con terests. fided to his care.LIFE OF ST. she brought pardoned the criminal. went to Naples for the mission to be opened in the church of the Holy Spirit. an ecclesiastic replied. who for fear of his refusing had addressed himself to Mgr. periisti. at this I &quot. had constantly murderer. to the great scandal of able who heard him: &quot. 85 . on the 26th of October.Judica he dropped down dead.&quot. Speaking one day of the enormity of priests. he and I know Alphonsus de Liguori and said resemble each other in reference to fortune T know He : : has quitted the world not from necessity. a how God watched over him and protected him. without taking any repose. This miser the consequence: next morn ing. It has been said that a volume might be filled with the con versions he made on this occasion. and was so touched by the sermon. striking event occurred to prove sin in In the course of the retreats he gave about this time. John Chrysostom. and declared that he took the missionaries under his own immediate protection. though the most influen tial persons had besought her to do so. &quot.Nego man soon experienced Deus. and publicly laid it at the Throughout the neighborhood he 8 . &quot. he proceeded immediately to visit In this place.&quot. were most opposed by his labors . a written declaration that she foot of the crucifix. and thence went to Masuri. In the course of the year 1737. This storm having abated. consequentiam.&quot. Falcoja. the woman whose same evening. but from choice. Alphonsus were the first to and the fruits he gave missions in the different parishes of his zeal were as abundant as ever.

which reclaimed multitudes of sinners. The inhabitants were but &quot. de Lignori. which already numbered more than two hundred members. and united themselves into a Con gregation. retreats. and repairing scandals. All the wealth a life : of this brought house consisted of the four chaplainships. Lucy. withering those blossoms which promised such abundant fruits for eternity. which each a carlin a day. whose zeal and fervor made them missionaries throughout the neighborhood. They carried their resolve into execution. But all at once. he conspired the ruin of the missionaries. his uncle. gave missions. The frequentation of the Sacraments became general. and getting money by extra masses. much more . At to St. They were visiting the country aroundi give sin and planting virtue. grace Abuses were extirpated nothing was spoken of but pardoning injuries. . and were soon joined by many others. many individuals were arriving at a high degree of prayer. this where sin abounded. very immoral did time he was called by Mgr. and doubtless instigated by the devil. of the merit of chastity. a man who led openly immoral not enduring to have his conduct animadverted upon. a storm arose. under the direction of a zealous priest. ALPHONSUS. in the diocese of Cava. making restitution. attracted by their noble example. but would consecrate themselves to God. the buildings at Villa dei Schiavi were and the missionaries had already begun to nearly finished. and so well did he convince them in their lives.&quot. under pretext of defend began of the country. that upwards of fifty young ladies protested they would no longer think of marriage.86 LIFE OF ST. this man ing the interests of the priests to declaim aloud against the missionaries for coming thither to eat the bread belonging to the inhabitants. to which the legitimate . and impelled the virtuous to strive after a higher degree of sanctity. There were in the country certain individuals who could not bear to have their vices censured. among others. abound. A Congregation of extirpating artisans had been established. and this At time.

missionaries. and force open the door. ALPHONSUS. defaming Alphonsus even more than the others. and this wretched creature lent herself to the calumny. This situ . went to the Baron. These calumnies made little impression upon Alphonsus he knew that persecution always accompanied works un dertaken for God and contented himself with prescrib still to the more circumspection. one of those filthy hermits and immediately dismissed him . Pecuniary interests being thus brought into play.LIFE OF ST. Alphonsus. was met by one of the wardens. he per mitted these words to escape What have we here. This scene was soon reported. and without exception in terdicted all communication with those within. and sent him back to the house. They went so far as to say that the missionaries intrigued with a woman. their morals were attacked. : ?&quot. to prevent approach. and the most gross and injurious expressions were employed against them. ple they forced the keys from his hands. loaded with re But fearing the people might take part with the proach. and showing presents. and received her into the convent by night. &quot. accompanied by several peo . they placed persons with loaded muskets on the belfry. . the clamor became general. and. which she pretended to have received from them. The wicked man and his accomplices at last succeeded in prejudicing the Baron himself. The calumnies augmented. to claim his protection was too late. going in the morning to the church to sound the Angelus. and filled the enemies of Alphonsus with joy. They also besieged the house. Alphonsus himself was pointed out as one who made a traffic of his pretended sanctity. they took bolder steps. They now no longer confined them selves to outrageous words. as soon as he saw him approach. and solicited the tribunals of Naples to interfere in various ways. seeing the storm thus increas but it ing. locked the church. with still greater contempt. . and community ing more frequent recurrence to prayer. at length. 87 pastors had a right. though without success. They at last had re course to open violence. One of the lay-brothers.

died the despair. lying dead under his bed. that she could not receive the sacraments she was seized with . and : the surrounding villages were in mourning. ALPHONSUS. when a tremendous storm arose the lightning flashed. maniac.LIFE OF ST. had her tongue eaten by worms. they shook the dust from their God did not permit this wicked shoes. died in impenitence. one of the principal persecutors. Another. the missionaries determined to abandon the place the bishop wept with regret. he would not recognise the : warning but before long he fell into disgrace with his within a year. . and bathed in blood. the most dreadful remorse of conscience. one morning. and was reduced to such a condition. who had been bribed to attest fifth. A fourth. some he : little When it stunned him. He remained deaf even to a warning sent him from heaven. and was found. terminated his in the most third. and a thunderbolt fell at the : feet of this for man. alone seemed to have escaped. the poor people were not less disconsolate. and left the Villa. individual. had his hand withered. and his only son died soon after he then became an idiot and expired in great misery. tion becoming every day less endurable. uttering terrible most frightful cries. A a after healthy young man. he prince. 1737. On the night of the 10th of June. For scarcely had the missionaries quitted the Villa. and howling like a out the false witnesses and written down their testimony. all the calumnies. was ill-used and persecuted. fell down dead immediately The chief instigator the departure of Alphonsus. and publicly avowed that all she had said was but an infamous calumny. after in One soon life who had joined in the conspiracy. ness to go unpunished. came to himself. arid as he sat in his room time he remained without sense or motion. A who had sought : convulsions. The wretched woman who had accused Alphonsus and his companions.

usual. same time Shortly after. in the house 8* . little village of Ajello. unfortunate women . 4 LPHONSUS continued to give missions throughout J\. and rested on the head of her chosen servant. and there was not a house in which they did not say the Rosary in common. . taverns were traordinary graces. The whole town breathed an air of devotion. and rupted morals. Sophia. and in it ple. many devotional exercises. as deserted. Here he established. every where reaping the most abundant But it was in the Barony of St. at the rays cf glory proceeded from a statue of the Virgin. a in town which was great want of spiritual succor. which necessarily cor He took with him nine companions. because of the great necessity of the peo among whom were many smuggling was discouraged and the magical practices in use among the sailors were abolished. It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. especially in that of Naples. He abandons Scala. he was ravished in ecstasy and raised some feet above the pulpit . the churches were crowded. he visited Castellamare. One evening. the country. and exciting the people to honor her. George. at the harvest.LIFE OF ST. CHAPTER XII. sions in various places and Dioceses. while he was preaching on the glories of Mary. that the Blessed Virgin was pleased to give to Alphonsus a public testimony of her love. Multitudes were converted. Mis Apostolic Courses of Alphonsus. and the churches filled. ALPHONSUS. and the Sacraments frequented. and the small church erected. its maritime commerce bringing strangers from all parts. thai God poured out the most ex Scandals disappeared. It was also at this place. By this time the new house of Ciorani being finished. before which so often poured out his heart in those retreats which he made with his companions at Naples. Alphonsus placed he had that beloved statue of her. remained long. they abandoned that of St.

removed from Scala. so that soon jealousy. Francis de Vicariis. Alphonsus. who succeeded him in March. such as were seen Penitence and mortification in the house at Ciorani. and was a new occasion of his zeal. . This was a began in by Mgr. without loss of time. the devil was as busy in at no house at to destroy it. their hand to the erecting one but scarcely had they put Several indi ensued commotion work. of D. drew ordination. the Archdeacon. wished to shun new misfortunes. thought of Scala. AI. Until then they had had tempting in concert with the Bishop. D. counted among their cenobites contemplatives. having their turn to murmur and :o excite others. viduals. Bar tholomew. the ex ample of their Superior and model. de Alteriis. by the same motives. for the inconveniences of the former habitation had made this im The deserts of Nubia and Thebes perhaps never possible. especially so that Alphonsus and his companions missions. were the two virtues to which they attached themselves most. Alphonsus. caused many to regard the missionaries with bitterness. It was reported that o the night when they de- . which in creased the concourse of for the exercise visitors. 1737. when a general had what learned happened at the Villa. the 24th of August..90 LIFE OF ST. Rejoicing at the establishment of this house. when on the eve of St. drew them after him in spite of themselves. candidates for numerous ecclesiastics and laymen. Saritoro. Alphonsus exerted himself to make the rules strictly observed. house. and. If on his part Alphonsus was doing all in his power to esta-Blish the Congregation. imt the envious triumphed. At the death of the Bishop. as the necessary preparation for prayer and contem plation. general had often to sleep on the floor in a common apartment. the missionaries left blow deeply felt die town. forward putting aided by interest. The good lamented. in The conveniences there at all afforded by the new strangers times. Alphonsus. warned by what had hap pened at the Villa. named Al phonsus Grand Penitentiary of the archdiocese. If there were brethren who did not excel.PHOKSUS.

the Pious Workers went to preach a mission there. Crucifix. and such wonders of grace were ope rated by him. Two years after. were so animated with fervor. At Calvanico. they often approached the holy table. fields in lowing autumn and of salvation. Having during the summer re- . and that all sorts of pious practices were already established. as is now not unfrequent. did not forget Scala he sent some of his missionaries to give the novena of the . the departure of the missionaries arresting the good they had been doing. besides the clesiastics. the ec was usual. or singing the hymns which Alphonsus had taught them. that some of them fol lowed in his suite to assist at the missions. ALPHONSUS. to produced in the people. and frequently might be met in groups carry ing their burdens. a violent storm destroyed the harvest. that persons frequently came a distance of seventeen miles to confess to him. on which the poor chiefly Many considered this as a punishment of the wic kedness of those who had forced the missionaries to retire. a practice which fruits most wonderful whom. The year thing Coperchia. 91 parted from Scala. had succeeded a even the porters had been reformed. The name of Alphonsus had become so celebrated in the diocese of Salerno. when one of them the among people declared. country consists of chestnuts. which On in the that live. however. for to the scan dals horror of sin had once been so common. that . there was heard throughout the town a noise made by evil spirits shouting and dancing. They celebrated a great victory. Alphonsus. and of the weakness of the greater number. which Alphonsus labored during the fol winter. and reciting the Rosary. that they passed the night in the church. and at 1739 was opened by a mission in the village of Prepezzano. who had not opposed it. occurred at near Salerno. that the ligious exercises. were not less fertile in the He preached penance in many dis- Castaglione the concourse of people was so The same great. nuns might not be deprived of their re The *Vuits *ricts.LIFE OF ST. he also gave the exer cises. that they had not found one voluntary venial sin. 28th.

he re turned again to Ciorani. and all at once the air was obscured by clouds. thunder was heard. ALPHONSUS* turned with his companions to Ciorani. The country of St. When Alphonsus saw it. No layman. to regulate the affairs of the Con gregation. can perform the good done by a priest. and refresh his spirit in retirement. were bandits and murderers. He knew endow a solved to the place had re house of missionaries he therefore that the . to give a little re laxation to a body overpowered with fatigue. zealous priest of Nocera. to have a house established in that town. had previously reigned. the same year. gave themselves fervently to God. at a time specified an abundance of rain would rain. and one day Alphonsus foretold. : that. if possible. the inhabitants of Acquarola invited Alphonsus to their fervor was give a mission towards the end of July great during the exercises. and reanimate his brethren by his example in the observation of the rules. Dean of .LIFE OF ST. To obtain the divine mercy. from great drought. shedding the bene dictions of Heaven on many villages where great disorders Satan. Many priests. prostrating himself on the ground. he overran the country. fall. he again gave missions with his usual success. he issued forth again with renewed strength and redoubled vigor to attack the strongholds of In the beginning of 1740. Among the number of those converted. as if to invite its approach. After the spring missions.&quot. Severino suffered. and then. how ever holy. The at day came without any appearance of when all was seen above Salerno. he extended his arms. and during five hours the rain fell in once a very small cloud torrents. who used to frequent Cio A rani.The conversion of a priest gives more glory to God. resolved. during the summer of this year. than that of a hundred seculars. accompanied by eleven missionaries. as also in the be many villages ginning of 1741. a circumstance which always rejoiced Alphonsus. the lightning flashed. he besought the divine mercy in behalf of the people. who used to say: &quot. who had been In the autumn of in cold and indifferent.

ALPHONSUS.It of the Congregation. Plans were formed. that God called to himself the first member is a lay-brother. Spinelli. for Alphonsus to His Eminence. and every one designated Alphonsus the &quot. whose mother was subject in to convulsions from an excessive pain she had in a shirt her arm. had the greatest as success. and arranged that It should mission there. joy. Providence had destined a new cultivate in the spring of 1741. All the virtues seemed excellent subject. He lodged in the house of the aforesaid priest. He was he died in transports of : exclaiming: I who will carry the standard.&quot.&quot. Al phonsus only took from his own Congregation the Fathers Sarnelli and Villani. by the death of Cardinal Pignatelli. of the vir his companions. the best missionaries of the Propaganda. Cardinal having become Archbishop of Naples. invited him to supply the great necessities of his diocese. Joachim Gaudiello &quot. by making the sign of the cross. 93 spoke they to him and to tues of Alphonsus and give a the principal inhabitants. they opened the coffin. but the designs of Providence were not accomplished until a later periodIt was on the 18th of April in this year. often curing fevers and other diseases. and above all.LIFE OF ST. anxious to have the missionaries established was immedi people more than ever among them. and eleven days after his death. The Cardinal wished it should be so. in order that the others might learn from him his other missions . of faith in his sanctity. to his body was field flexible and entire. in the hope that his body was still uncorrupted. She wrapped herself full belonging to Alphonsus. and persisted in claiming his services. and All this made the ately cured. but chose the elite of all the Congre^ gations in Naples to assist him.Apostle. He certainly to enjoyed all many supernatural spirit gifts: he knew how touch hearts: he had the of prophecy and the gift of healing. : have taken up their abode in this They had neglected to take his portrait. so that at last he was That obliged to yield. and found their expectation justified as if still alive. might suffer as little as possible.

that the people would be gained rather by ex ample than by words. and notwithstanding the heat of the summer. in the month of May these missions commenced Fragola. in order that at good done might be lasting. he dismissed the Ne apolitan missionaries. himself. he remained with his own at St. The most common bread only was permitted. into the neighboring ham exhorting the people to penance. I am It was the person to appoint the chief. At Christmas. he instituted conferences. which lasted till June. where they continued to crowds. ALPHONSUS. he all quarters. and since the missions depend on me. although his guests were often Canons from Naples. be held every eight days. his Propaganda to submit themselves to a man. this occasion. who came from preach and hear the confessions of On feast days. The Cardinal. he sent them away. When they wished to supply his table with rare dishes. and I am complained. when they am your Archbishop. they followed the same rules which had been established for the interior of the Congregation. but they were mistaken. they expected some relaxation in Certain persons atthese rules.94 to LIFE OF ST. to him belonged the right of de ciding who should be the chief. replied: &quot. was the unwillingness of the members of the that. besides the divers pious prac tices and exercises he was wont to establish. conduct missions with more success.&quot. whom they had so lately wished to expel. with his brethren. . to which the On missionaries might retire to recruit after their fatigue. went lets. in order to render the priests more skilful in the confessional. and where. in which were discussed dif ferent cases of conscience. the Superior of the Propaganda pretended Congregation having a pre-eminence over all the Congregations in Naples.I Superior of the mission. as well as of all other Congrega tions in the diocese. Alphonsus holding the maxim. country-house in He placed at his disposal a the Barra. and other persons of dis tinction. After the mission of the to Casal Nuovo. but the true motive of his opposition. Angelo. where Alphonsus opened three at once in three parochial churches. On these missions.

But this was far from according with the views of Al phonsus. missionaries.When my said he. He allowed the other missionaries to travel in a carriage.LIFE OF ST. perhaps.Your Emi at nence is not in want of able workmen Naples to em ploy in the care of the diocese. says: to report I the facts in particular.&quot. fascinated at by their noble penitents. . : risk on that occasion. he again began the missions in the country. proposed to estab lish them in the Barra situated in the centre of his diocese. and have ladies and gentlemen for their penitents. would only make use of asses. he made them serve return &quot. No more indecencies women no longer dressed . as he explained to his Eminence: &quot. because they were not accustomed to do otherwise but he and his brethren several additional force-meat balls. all An eye-wit &quot. they would fill volumes. and during the season. considering the abundant blessings Al phonsus arid his missionaries produced. In the beginning of November. but other Bishops have not this advantage it is not from Naples we can draw mis . said to him on their Your Eminence is. not aware. The Cardinal. In the diocese of Naples.Were ness. speaking of the effect of his labors. During the Holy Week of 1742. be very willing to leave this place for the hamlets and the mountains ? And who knows fix but. that Alphonsus gave us a treat on Christmas. will be settled at the Barra. although in the service of Mgr. in the great church of Corpus-Christi the effects of which were most . were committed in the church . the Father D. Alphonsus banished scandals and abuses without number.&quot. 95 tached to the service of the Cardinal. at the of ruining his household economy. During the octave of Easter. he gave more than seventy missions. Spinelli. the missionaries met again. consoling. they may greater part of the year?&quot.&quot. to give the exercises in honor of the Holy Sacrament. themselves He Naples for the continued: &quot. Alphonsus could not refuse going to Nocera. and recommenced their pious labors. ALPHONSUS. besides spiritual ex ercises. will they &quot. sionaries for villages and remote hamlets.

During this summer. and for a few days only. giving retreats for nine days preceding any of her feasts. and encouraged those who persevered. to those places where missions had already been given. short. . Every thing came well to him. which he originated. example. Well. ALPHONSUS. At Casal Nuovo.ass. were abolished. they having been unknown be fore him. produced much fruit. and kept for When himself a miserable ruin. In long journeys. con time was had the firmed the people in their pious practices. never gave himself the least solace. and during the exercises of a mis harvest and If . struck by the beautiful words which they heard. Taverns were no longer frequented. it was due to his extraordinary labors and fatigues: his body and his mind were continu no one could understand how he managed to ally in action do what would have overpowered any one else. said to each other. ticles replaced the licentious songs so vintage. self the worst bed and the most incommodious chamber. whatever his fatigue might be. certain dances and pastimes. people said he often preached twice. formerly in use. raised those who fallen. the peasants. provided he were mortified and humiliated. what will it He always reserved for him be when the others begin?&quot. and those who did not know him. Alphonsus sent his missionaries in small numbers. . One day when he preached at the opening of a mission. He was also the originator of these . the heat of summer had increased. to give scandal. and occasion the weak to sin. He always travelled on aii. common during the Alphonsus operated wonders on the morals of the people. LIFE OF ST.&quot. he gave up to his com panions the only three rooms that could be had. &quot. sometimes he lived by miracle but he preached even more by his three times.96 in a . They re-animated the fervor of the confraternities which had been established. in one day the time he gave to sleep was and He ate little. These renewals of mis sions. he labored incessantly to promote devotion to Mother of God. and the harvest at hand. he never lessened his bodily austerities. pious can manner . . sion. often mistook him for a domestic. if the cook can preach in that manner. long uninhabited.

The measure being resolved . A delicious fruit gives pleasure to him to whom we present it. 9 . the The vow. but. considering that in a so ciety the spirit of religion decays rather than increases. time. ALPHONSUS. which continue to produce such benefits to the souls of all who engage in them.&quot. when by vows. it be to him as an anchor to preserve his vessel beaten and tossed by the winds. he returned. Oppositions he encounters. with his Companions.&quot. they should have sacrificed their own will. he added. in the beginning of July.The renouncement of our own will. makes Vows.&quot. He represented to his companions the merit they would acquire before God. will be as a buckler in the hand of the mis &quot. procures more glory to God than all the good works we could do from our own choice. and form his Congregation into an apostolical community. for a short CHAPTER XIII. The most of his companions needed no importunities to induce them to make the gen erous sacrifice on the contrary. the three Religious Jllphonsus. and despoiled themselves of worldly wealth: &quot. to Ciorani. &quot. with the fruit we give also the tree that produces it. offering acquires an infinitely greater value.&quot. but. upon.LIFE OF ST. After terminating his labors in the Barra. sionary against the devil and his own inconstancy will confirm him in his vocation to the service of God will . Alphonsus thought only of the engagements by which the members of his Congregation should be bound. he said. He founds the House of Nocera. if &quot. TTITHERTO XI was Alphonsus and his companions had vows. lived together free without binding themselves by All and spontaneous. 97 Novenas. they never ceased to urge him to put it into execution. now so common in Naples and other places. Alphonsus determined to retain and fix the spirit of piety by vows. it .

Always distrusting his own light. without distinc unless tion of merit or rank. after The joy was unanimous. and what would comes a Hell by diversity of feeling and sentiment. been a Paradise by concord. only.&quot.&quot. no title. to unite the hearts of all by the vow of obedience to the will of one Superior. a true religious cannot tion are wanting. &quot. and that they should refuse every thing of kind. or benefice. 174*2. He determined that they should bind themselves to accept no ecclesias tical dignity. Mary Magda in re lene. and Alhad no legitimate character of Superior. dispensation could be obtained. from the sovereign Pontiff or the Superior General. As was not yet confirmed by the Pope. and bind them together by the disinterested ties of charity. whilst the Congregation would be always free to send away any one whose conduct should not be edifying. All approved . above all. and consulted with many pious persons. the Institute phonsus constant prayer. employment. in order to unite them closely in God. thanks to God. and Alphonsus. to their consideration arid at treat. banished interest and cupidity. on the ha-ve and dying cause to termination of his novitiate. Falcoja. he desired above all. by these rules. be live. he recurred frequently to God.When obedience and subordina of a religious house. but in case of a sufficient act otherwise. agreed to make their vow in his quality of Bishop. that every one. should renounce the temporary use of it.98 It LIFE OF ST. accept. as he took such a deep interest in the Congregation. and the most rigorous silence. after three days passed with Mgr. and animated his having returned . of the plan submitted length it was resolved to proceed to the profession on the day of St. in preserving his wealth. and who should be incorrigible. out of the Congregation the . He established by unanimous consent. he used to say. commanded by the Pope himself to He prescribed a life in common. they of perseverance to Mgr. ALPHONSUSr was determined that each. the 22d of July. should take the vow of living in the Congregation. this virtue of obedience being the guarantee for the existence &quot. After having. however. Falcoja.

ALPHONSUS. it was yet with regret that he labored there. when the Canon if The Cardinal was much first spoke with him. and de Alphonsus left. and led him into his chamber. a man of much merit. 99 departed with F. the Cardinal came out himself. He prayed. to obtain his consent to withdraw from these missions. he disci plined his bt)dy. F. went straight self in to Alphonsus. But it was only on clared that condition that F. Fontana persisted however. on the 3d of Mounted on a sorry mule. archiepiscopal palace while others mocked at him and laughed. that the missions could be carried on successfully without Alphonsus. MAJOR . in order. Villani. displease Unhappy he might be delivered from this subject. reflecting that the good could be as done by the numerous zealous and pious missionaries the Cardinal had at his own disposal. filled an obscure corner of the ante-room. and explained to him his anxieties on the subject. Villani for the Although Alphonsus saw the great good which resulted in the diocese of Naples. He placed him . and the extreme satisfaction of the Cardinal. Sarnelli should be left to superintend at last them. he would not faithful. join with and exhorted as he his brethren of Ciorani to him the in prayer. CHR!ST! REGIS BIB SJ&amp. he traversed the streets July. that the Cardinal consented to part with This arrangement being made. he would discontinue the missions altogether. requesting him to speak with his Eminence. yet it was impossible to remain was on much longer in his present condition. brethren to be Barra. and in the end persuaded him. Sarnelli Alphonsus. the good they had COLL. if possible. took him by the hand.LIFE OP ST. He spoke of the missions. He applied to the Canon James Fontana. who had a great influence with the Cardinal. In a few minutes. Alphonsus took leave of the Archbishop. of Naples with F. and alighted at the gate of the some were edified by his humility. remained at Naples until 1748. annoyed. He thought continually of the want of so from his mission many easily other places. which was with gentlemen and dignified ecclesiastics. that Naples.

he went to St. returned to Ciorani. to the . place the Archbishop. labors by fever in consequence of fatigue he left the without By order of uttering a word of complaint. expressed his intention of living in the house with them while they. 1742. on their part. and took leave of him still more rudely. Alphonsus set about giving missions in the destitute parts of the Here. and begged his continued protection for the Con then proceeded to Barra. his ardent zeal and apostolic were crowned with the most astonishing success. and af terwards. promised to care for him as if he were one of themselves. received. who pretended he could not lodge him. Villani. he turned him out of the monastery. were appointed to be with him. The Superior received him with a very bad grace. F. and thanked him he had shown in the cause. The projects of the Dean of Nocera now began to take gregation. as elsewhere. on his thanked him for the favors he had Alphonsus. notwithstanding his being at country. Alphonsus tried in vain to calm his bad humor. promising to give at effect. was made and and the Fathers Mazzini rector. where he had promised to make the novena of the Assumption. although he was Here also he was rudely received scarcely convalescent. in October. He Clergy and laity were equally desirous to have the Congregation established there. and at length a no- . Thecla. he obtained with great difficulty a lodging in a monastery.100 LIFE OF ST. and testified the greatest regret at losing him. accompanied by F. In one of the numberless villages where he gave missions. ALPHONSUS* for the zeal produced. meekness and humility. part. where the Archbishop had ordered him to be received. tacked . great satisfaction of the inhabitants. Mgr. by the Curate. God also furnished him occasions for exercising patience. his death a further He legacy of three thousand ducats. As soon as the mission was terminated. and the Bishop. The Dean Contaldi gave the house and furniture. and that he had sent a message to tell him so. sighed for the day of their arrival. Sportelli Jourdan. Having disembarrassed himself of Naples. All was finally arranged. Dominicis.

and when Alphonsus arrived. for will come at an hour when we least expect. the world did its best to attract him again. the Curate would not have a mission there.&quot. Joseph. he em ployed every invulnerable to artifice. To obtain this. who wit nessed the proceeding. al though the Archbishop of Amalfi had commanded it. Confess often. he was refused admission to the house. &quot. Dominicia obtained the sanction for the establishment of the house 9* . His father. while Alphonsus only wished to see his father obtain great glory in heaven. refuge A always more and more disgusted with the world. to keep yourself more closely united with God. did pen ance at Ciorani. whether we watch or not: I recommend you to hear mass our Lord I every day. after the course of these missions. D. Mgr. I will in have a rule in our Congregation to stantly refuse it. he wished to see him occupy a dignified position in the Church. gentleman. Without being disconcerted. tary. and this mission also had wonderful success. received the missionaries into his own house. D. gave in his him and companions accommodation own house. ALPHONSUS. and have your accounts ready. could not endure the thought. all wrote to him. Joseph desired to see his We son raised to dignities in this world. he quietly took in a corner of the church. 101 who was his present. for who knows how soon you may be called from this world ? That day will come.on Alphonsus. indignant at such a behaviour. He wrote to him about this time as follows: beseech you. you succeed &quot. refuse all such dignities. &quot. Again at Correa.I my dear father. for I fear much for your eternal salvation. Speak no more to me. even if but for in obtaining a bishopric me. While Alphonsus.&quot. Think of your advanced age. on his part. but without your co operation she will do nothing. hope the Virgin Mary will assist you. that his brilliant talents should be employed in the country among poor peasants and shepherds.LIFE OF ST. This mission was attended with great results. he the subject of the episcopate.&quot. was attacks. While affairs were prospering at Nocera. and labored for the salvation of men.

102 LIFE OF ST. despoiled themselves of their jewels and ornaments to contribute towards the establish ment. all had been reformed. . He went there in the month of November. Dominic. there was not yet at Pagani a house and church suit able for the new missionaries. well as unmarried. 1743. you gave me the stockings. and a priest whose life bad . whose daughter obtained from a lay-brother a pair of stockings tinged with his blood. She preserved them very devoutly. as ducats. she gave them away to a poor man whose legs were swollen with dropsy. each other all rival in contributing towards its erection . stone of the new establishment was tion all was hardly commenced.&quot. the Dean himself giving the benediction. He lodged in the house of Laurence Rossi. Alphonsus being still alive. Alphonsus gathered in there were in this women there iih-in of was three embraced ibeeri most wonderful fruits. he returned to the house entirely cured. when the people of Angri found out the good Alphonsus was doing everywhere. as if by miracle. and the seven communes voted one hundred ried. and was received as an Apostle. The construc laid. ladies of quality. each striving to procure some object that he had worn or touched. Some days after. when materials flowed in from Men and women strove to quarters. and the religious life. in July. More hundred young girls bid adieu to the world. in and As the mean time. gentle united to hasten the progress of the work. Mar own hands. he issued the letters of authorization. they labored with their men. they insisted on having a mission. When the the first chapter of the cathedral and the four curates of the Dean attended. About this time. scandalous. the church of St. but a religious reproving her for doing so. became a siucere penitent.From the time the swelling has this mission the disappeared. he replied: &quot. They calculated place one hundred and twenty-eight but when the mission was finished. and when she expressed her astonishment. the bishop granted them. ALPHONSUS. the town no longer one. and souls. the place containing about five thou-.

gt. wishing to Miserable her scapular. l&amp. During tified also this mission. He exhorted the faithful of the parish to erect Immedi a statue to our Lady of Dolors. appeared to him in a dream. 103 He cera. and amend thy heard of Alphonsus. When &quot. hi* our good Mother has sent you to eyes filling with tears. and fled The following night the Blessed recompense the slight homage paid to felt . . most had the women pre ately brought every thing they cious in gold and silver. and being. they solicited him to preach in the church of St. &quot. said Alphonsus. and knew nothing of the mission fiext morning he went to find a kind of fortune-teller.&quot.Al he ran and mission. arrived. go to confess The young man had never to him. that F. . ALPHONSUS.&quot. &quot.&quot. Virgin. the offerings were so numerous that a considerable sum remained. thou hadst respect for my scapular. He had a repugnance. and recounted to him the whole story. he was thunderstruck phonsus. himself drawn back. the most glorious Virgin tes her love for him by operating the most extraor The evening he dinary conversions at his intercession.So then.&quot. When the house they opened the mission at Ciorani. but before lift opened his mouth. he from the spot in terror. an unfortunate young man arose during the night to engage in a sinful transaction. He reconciled him with God. in haste to the dwelling of Alphonsus.&quot. &quot. and his life ever afier was most edifying. to have his dream interpreted. in the church. which was given to the poor. a parish containing about six thou sand souls. Alphonsus will come here to give a mission. she said. know sion ?&quot. however. me.LIFE OF ST. thou hadst no horror for offending my Son to-morrow F. had not yet been in the centre of the town of NoBut as soon as they heard the wonders he had ac complished at Angri. they found much too small to receive the numbers of clergy . Matthew. but when he commit extended his hand. this person addressed him with: &quot. he took it to sin with the scapular about his neck : off to place it in a hole in the wall.ut Alphonsus has arrived to-day to give a mis the young man heard the words &quot.&quot. &quot.Do you not life.

One day.&quot. there fore. independently of his own liberality.&quot. the Archbishop wrote a circular to incite all the diocese to contribute to wards the work. and never was seen again. laity and who came to make retreats. when he was called to Naples. and F. In consequence. Scarcely mid he done this. forwarded to them. and animated by the confi dence of Alphonsus. but he had never cause to regret his obedience. In withdrawing to pre pare for admission. we ought not to build as seculars by begin amassing money. He on a wretched mule. and afterwards expect from Providence what is ne &quot. we ought first to build. ami rudely repulsed him. His clothes were shabby.104 LIFE OF ST. On another day. considerable sums were cese. do. Rossi admitted him provisionally. who cessary. he began with only one sequin in his pocket. said he. to find a hundred gold ducats. On attempt ing to enter. Alphonsus. proposed to ex tend the buildings. for. Rossi. When it was signed. he put into the hands of the father some pieces of money wrapped up in a paper. and ordered them to get up a petition to Jesus Christ in the Most Holy Sacrament. Alphonsus called together the young students. Rossi obeyed. but what was his surprise on opening it. but he could not be heard of. and arrived at Porta Nuova. who was Superior. asking him to say mass for him. a young man presented himself to be re ceived into the Congregation as a lay-brother. The paper seemed to contain about ten shillings. Rossi being dispirited because of the expense. and then set to work: we ought to follow an opposite rule. and these were not confined to the dio There happened also two remarkable instances of Providence. at the suggestion of the Archbishop. He immediately sent after the young man. his . instantly set out the seat of Porta Nuova. because of their want of funds. F. differ ing from him in opinion. F.My father. the guard mistook him for gome vagabond. ALPHONSUS. for the suc cess of the newly begun building. adjoining his own petition to that of the young clerics. &quot. but F. to vote for several gentle men who wished at to receive the order of Knighthood. he deposited it in the tabernacle.

he lived like a fervent anchorite. and serious alarms suc ceeded to the dawn of its morning hopes. sufficed to finish the building. and advanced to meet him. He returned to Naples an altered man. About He pervaded every thing. as an humble laybrother. It filled his mind with thoughts of eternity. and detached his heart from worldly things. and attacked fill it immediately through the envy that began to the hearts of some in the neighborhood. But Alphonsus. but remain in it to edify by his example. ALPHONSUS. but respectfully kissing his hand.LIFE OF ST. though delighted with the humility of his father. renouncing his rank. and waited quietly until the chevalier in waiting perceived him. following his counsels in all that concerned his sal the church. not with the . He prolonged his stay at Ciorani. Not content with being a pious and exemplary nobleman. meditating vation. the great astonishment and confusion of the guard. 105 beard unshorn. Joseph Liguori came to Ciorani to admired the edifying life they led. assur ing him that it was not the will of God he should leave the world. nevertheless. The devil feared the increase of a work so contrary to his designs. he wished to be felt He a holy envy at the to his pressed him come a saint . and living under the direction of his son. he took the reso lution of forsaking the world. but about this time it became obscured by clouds. He kept up a regular correspondence with his son. the silence which reigned. They sue- . visit his D. and blessed the Lord for the benediction showered upon his house. and every day more taken with the humble and peaceful life of the fathers. happiness of his son s life. praying in and reading the lives of the saints at home. a present so considerable. and the odor of sanctity which son. and besought admission with tears in his eyes. bosom. and his hair in disorder he smiled at the mistake. On thai this it occasion he received this time. The sun still shone which had enlightened with its beams the birth of the house of Nocera. dissuaded him from his purpose. to usual forms of salutation.

Struck by these mysterious accidents. he and to show how shut his ears to all their representations v^ocate.106 USE OF ST. and diminishing the respect in which the public had held the missionaries. and his diocese. to join priests. . he tried a second and a third. This fact made great impression on people of sense. but as for me. Twenty-five curates entered into a league with other religious mendicants of Nocera and Pagani them. tore the paper in pieces. ALPHONSUS. but the fire was too strong to be put down by such feeble means. accompany him to preach to caused two of the fathers to the people and fill the other In spite of this check. I will have nothing more to do with any business against these missionaries. and blotted all he had written. They employed another adand God permitted the affair to proceed. the the crusade. he. they would fain have per suaded the bishop to concur in their views. When the plot was formed. with the gentry. and those of Montevergine. continued to favor Alphonsus.&quot. it would not write. joined They invited the fathers of Mount Olive. but rather increased. the first move was to endeavor to prejudice the king. In order their end with the king. chose one of them for his visited own confessor. instead of throwing sand upon it. Indignant at their wicked designs.Em ploy whom you will. much he esteemed when he offices. the courage of their enemies was not abated. lifted the ink by mistake. but none on the enemies of the missionaries. but all to no purpose he at length succeeded in writing a page. . in spite of the mal contents. but their ef forts were vain. to gain . ceeded in alienating the minds of many. he exclaimed: &quot. The friendship and pro- . They employed a celebrated advocate to write out a memorial of their grievances he took up a pen. he. but God made known his displeasure in a singular manner. of the order of Citeaux. There remained but two of the curates of Pagani not op posed to the missionaries. but they were horror-struck at the proposition. but when about to turn over the leaf. Some priests. and so saying. which ended at last in irritation and contempt. the missionaries.

did not prevent them giving themselves up to all sorts of excess.LIFE OF ST. they had thrown themselves on this country to devour it. on and who had aided him in the . he The knew petition addressed to the king had no too well the merit of Alphonsus and his disciples. be gan to abuse him grossly the brother continued to dig. . 107 tection of many excellent priests and wealthy gentlemen of the neighborhood. who continued abusing him a long time. If any of the fathers appeared in the town. he was assailed with taunts and loaded with day. but his humility redoubled the audacity of his adversary. During the silence of night. they would come howling under the windows. ALPHONSUS. . that he jumped into the garden. but knelt down and offered the other cheek insults. his ministers know ing the probity of the missionaries and the favorable dispo sition of the king. accusing him of coming with his com panions to seduce the inhabitants. banished from their own country. and gave him a violent blow on the face. They went to Contaldi. while preparing to say mass in the paro one of them had the amice pulled out of his hands. to allow himself to be deceived. The Brother Anthony de Lauro. At these odious words. phonsus was then at Ciorani. No more success had another. The lay-brothers had their share in these outrages whenever any of them appeared in the street. Being thus defeated. to eat the bread of their children. he came thither with all speed. but as soon as he heard what was going on at Nocera. Alsinging indecent songs and using violent language. and that being but miserable wretches. they began to seek help in Nocera itself. The holy brother showed no re the sentment. But how different was his reception now from what it had A person came to the house and addressed formerly been! him as a vagabond. One chial church. success. ran up to him. being one day digging in the garden. whom Alphonsus leant. AIphonsus humbled himself. covered with confusion. man withdrew. addressed to the Viceroy. during the absence of the king in the Abbruzzi. as if he heard nothing. and this so irritated the man. a man passing on the other side of the hedge.

at length aroused the zeal of several gentlemen of Nocera. decided that the missionaries should be defended arid When this manifestation of good feeling was re upheld. and ceased not to go on with the missions wherever he was asked. their daily cavilings. selves in favor of the communities. and continue to fight. He went also to Castellamare to consult Mgr. establishment at Pagani. But by this his enemies became more and more embittered. continued to rage with redoubled violence at Pagani. and began to repent of what he had done for Al- phonsus. they desired to blot out the Congregation from the face of the earth. with the exception of those of Pagani. went : angel Michael. Michael will protect you/ He then advised him to dedicate the house and the church to the arch to &quot. Falcoja. The three general. he Naples to consult with those enlightened and pious friends. he burst into tears at finding the good he had done among them appreciated by the most important class. Pagani. Aiphonsus inquired diligently to know the will of God. particularly of religious houses. and while they were talking. the bishop suddenly casting his It ig eyes on a small statue of St.108 LIFE OF ST. . it is the devil. that Knowing from what had happened at the Vi la. and other who boldly declared them Alphonsus and his companions. far from abating. where places in the neighborhood. His enemies continued their hostilities. he besought the prayers of many holy souls. and not content with attempting to ruin the house at Pagani. that he allowed himself to be gained. and soon there was hardly one respectable family who did not take their part. by whose advice he was guided in his difficulties. hold firm. they were threatened with a similar misfortune. Michael. The tempest. 1744. all ported to Alphonsus. exclaimed the devil. convoked therefore an assembly of the inhabitants. ALPHONSUS. But their con tinual intrigues. Alphonsus prayed and mor tified himself. Vice assumed the appearance of virtue so successfully. God and St. and seven special syndics of the seven municipal communities of the district of Nocera. and in the beginning of June.

and 10 . that is to say. In consequence of this. Mgr. he collected the means of defence. and with the civil law in his hand. ALPHONSUS. structed Cardinal Spinola to obtain exact information from the Bishop of Nocera. Thirty-six of them undertook. and to pro cure an advocate and procurator. sev eral curates. than . 1744. and after having combatted their calumnies. the end for which Alphonsus proposed to found the Congregation. and twenty-three ecclesiastics of Pagani. Corbara and Egidio. declared themselves to the Pope. no sooner learned of this new attack. they armed themselves to defend Alphonsus. Benedict XIV then occupied the Holy See. and showed in what circumstances At Rome. to charge them selves with the conduct of this affair at Rome. the lives of the members of his Congregation. he recalled the ancient spirit which had animated him at the bar. but the gentlemen of Pagani. and obtained favor with the Pope and the Cardinals. : 109 chiafly at they attacked him both at Naples and Rome tempting to prove that the existence of the Congregation was contrary to civil and canon laws. Dominicis replied the 3d of August. in favor of Alphonsus. Sovereign The memorials he produced pleased the Naples. and by As to the calumnies&quot. and hearing thus of an institution lately established in the Church.~against the authority of canon law. he would not notice them. the chapter of the Cathedral. they had re course to the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regu lars St. knew equally well how to reduce his enemies to silence. confounding them by bulls of Sovereign Pontiffs. at for they were sufficiently contradicted by public notoriety. the clergy of Nocera. he proceeded to the most important point. At the same time. When Alphonsus saw that with the branches they would destroy the roots also. he a convent could be called lawful or illegal. established the reasons which proved the rights of their cause. Nocera. the 16th of July.LIFE OF ST. After having shown that the complaints of the malcontents were unfounded. After having been defeated in this attempt. he wished to He accordingly in inquire into the merits of its founder.

they hastened to the commis &quot. St. an order was transmitted to the Syndic of Pagani. She forced by unexpectedly into the accompanied . know the intention of the king. This time. and tell him the true state of the case. In spite of all their successive defeats.&quot. who was persuaded that Alphonsus in On the building a church had gone beyond his limits. He ordered one of the clerks of the bureau to produce the a house with egister. ished when he heard of this. but a Tocess was commenced in the name of his sister. to com pel the miFsionaries to i. repulsed at Rome. &quot. and with this in their hands. to the Minister of State. barrassment. to discontinue the building at Pagani. for The Marquis was aston he remembered that the king had expressly given leave to build a church.&quot.erself abandon the house. Beaten at I Naples. make king the permits the erection of a house with a church.I fraud that had been committed. sary of the king.he was necessary to submit.&quot. the commissary despatched an order to Nocera. not knowing how to proceed. to permit the pro gress of the building.LIFE OF ST. for he suspected &quot. wicked triumphed. they altered the words from to &quot. the Mar quis Brancone. 16th day of July. Severino to Naples. and request the his assistance to remove it. finished by an eulogium on his sanctity. to king permits the erection of a house without a church. turned to their own confusion. house. to inform him of the obstacle. They got possession of the royal decree. like their r ormer fraud. Contaldi would not appear against them in person. and ordered him to go instantly to inform the commissary. ALPHONStJS. and on the 21st of and Alphonsus was in great em He sent F. It &amp.&quot. and wrote in it with his own hand. which. saying with a tone of severity. a church. The bad success of this last attempt was not sufficient the malcontents renounce their enterprise. and by bribing the un the derlings of office. they appealed to the tribunals. and the high esti mation in which he was held by the Cardinal Archbishop of Naples and many other bishops. the malcontents were not proof against a new temptation.

to be treated as a robber at In the Nocera month of August. but warned by experience. and . meekly replied Alphonsus. provided the mission evacuated the premises and quitted Pagani. In the mean time. hastened the approbation given by the Court of Rome in favor of the new Institute. and.LIFE OF ST. a person of rank. came immediately to Nocera to consult on what was to be done. the Congregation might work of Providence. and rob people &quot. Mgr. A celebrated advo such a trick. I have left my house be God. exhibited itself in their resentment. On the other hand.&quot. they no longer attacked Alphonsus. and the pretended proprietor the confusion of ship of the sister was soon exposed. This roused all the most respectable inhabitants of Nocera and Pagani in their favor. Domi aries nic. ALPHONSUS. before whom she declared that the house was her property. The three general Syndics took upon themselves the expense of defending the Congregation at Rome.If to Alphonsus you will act the thief. that cause annoyance to the fathers. when he heard of this. said &quot. Ill twenty other persons and two notaries. and also of the All this was the Rossi. Naples. Alphonsus. again charged Cardinal Spinola quiries of Cardinal to make new in Spinelli at Archbishop of Salerno. Mgr. Benedict XIV.Blessed by force. belonging to the clergy. in order that become known to the Sovereign large . if they would not. upon himself and force them the to live as simple individuals. at Rome. to those who had attempted far to play off But from being checked. they made another attempt !&quot. : &quot. could every thing One day. the proposal was agreed to by both parties. the brilliant testimony rendered by these two dignitaries of the Church. cate undertook the cause. but when Contaldi stated that he would take the debts contracted. Pontiff and the world at in reality.&quot. but confined themselves to defaming his com panions. Dominicis attempted to arrange the affair by arbitration . why do you not go to the highways. he would shut up the church of St. when the bishop and other friends advised him not to yield. the in greatest indignation bishop broke up the meeting.

Mgr. during eight months. painting the Canon had There had devotion. This mission had the usual suc cess. D. on the 12th of November. to join in the invitation. and establishes a Novitiate. CHAPTER to have his XIV. Alphonsus. of Aragon. and to the great dismay of the disaffected. who was equally well disposed towards the missionaries as his predecessor had been. James Casati. the bitter chalice of tribulation.&quot. dispatched at the same time a canon of his Cathedral. a great neighborhood resolved on establishing a community. Jllphonsut founds the Houses of Iliceto and Caposeh. Matthias Miroballo. Dominicis died on the 22d of August of this year. Prosecute your cause at Rome turning to the fathers said and at Naples. Lucci. to the between the church and any inhabited place was very . WHILE tempest. stood an ancient church. Mgr. acced ing to the demand. on a small elevation. besought Alphonsus to visit his fief of Iliceto. dedicated to the Virgin. destined to receive seed no less The productive than that which had hitherto been sown. because the distance under the title of Mary of Consolation. called the Vallin-Vincoli. to give the inhabitants the instruction and consolation of which they were so much in want. : . Alphonsus how ever hesitated to accept the proposal. and Alphohsus with the house of Pagani was thus agitated by the his companions. the Bishop of Bovino. He seeks Congregation approved by the King. At the corner of a wood. arrived there with his companions. God opened a new field to him. prince of Castellaneta. His first Publications. he was succeeded by Mgr. Volpe.LIFE OP ST. trust in Cardinal Spinelli God will protect &quot. you. longed of the the which faithful for the of Virgin Mary. ALPHONSUS. It had once be the church and in was a large Augustinians. drank. But the Canon had a further object in view.

ALPHONSUS. for Madugno. opportunity of hearing mass. that Alphonsus. foundation. had seldom an assistance. and ill baked. and cultivating a great number of whom rarely received any the ground and. and departed towards the end of the same month. he was so captivated. 1745. to distribute to them the bread of life . had invited him to give a mission. being determined to found a house in this place. one morning. A priest who was there during that winter. while celebrating mass in the church of a monastery. having himself no heir to succeed him. for this new on the 9th of January. profes sor of music in the Cathedral of Naples. he advised Fiori to make arrangements the with the fathers of St. even on feast days. 10* .LIFE OF ST. and not wishing to interfere with this After their return from Madugno. so great were the wants of fatigue his native . Near Iliceto there . where D. house. having heard that king had granted them an establishment in the neighborhood. new establishment at Besides their voluntary penances. spiritual . Touched by their destitu tion. to the great joy of all the people. he assembled his companions. as in the religious attested. probation Having arranged the affairs of this house. Vincent of Paul. considerable 113 but when visiting the picture. the inhabitants. was raised several feet from the ground. As for the foundation of a house the place. said in a letter. were vast domains of the crown. Alphonsus sent his companions out in different direc and he tions. It was in this mission. and to settle there at once. Alphonsus and in their his companions suffered much Iliceto. they experi &quot. mixed with bran. that the Fathers Cafaro and St. enced on all sides suffering and affliction. Severino easily persuaded him to accept the offer. the bread was of rye. Dominic Fiori. black as a coal. and cost much labor and it lasted forty days. where thousands of men were employed in keeping flocks and herds. looked forward to the house of Iliceto becoming the place from whence these abandoned people would derive spi His Majesty gave his ap ritual succor in time to come. This mission was a difficult one.



and sometimes the} had none at all, and were obliged to accept the charity of an old man, who lived on the produce of his goats and the culture of a small field near his cot For pottage, they had a species of broth or panada, tage. or bruised beans, so old that they had the color of bread.

They never

tasted meat, except when some sheep or cow died of exhaustion. They had no fruits but wild chestnuts

or crab apples. They rarely had wine, and then but in small quantity, and very bad. On feast days, they had a large cake made of the same flour as the bread, but sea

soned with a little cheese and salt, for sugar or pepper were luxuries they could not afford. They had no linen, and no money to buy it. They were almost shirtless, arid could only change once in two or three weeks. There never was a religious house where greater poverty reigned: their clothes were ragged and patched. The house was an old convent, suppressed during the pontificate of Innocent XI, and but a mass of ruins. The wind blew more keenly within than without, the walls were full of
. .

The windows cracks, the partitions brick without mortar. were of oiled paper instead of glass. The roof was bad, the cells without ceiling, so that the snow covered the beds
of the fathers
during winter; in short, the misery was so great, that one lost courage, and returned to the world." Among all these miseries, or rather in consequence of them, Alphonsus had the misfortune to lose his dear Vitus Curzius. During the month of July, he was sent out to

beg for a little corn. Although the good brother was unaccustomed to traverse the country during the burning but one evening, heats, he nevertheless obeyed cheerfully for one, he he had where a refused applied lodging being was seized with a slept in the field, and, during the night, Not being able to drag himself to his con violent fever. into the house by a charitable priest, and taken was he vent, ifter forty-nine days of intense suffering, went to receive the reward of his labors in the mansions of the blessed. This death afflicted Alphonsus deeply, though he was con

soled on the other hand, by the reflection that he had died



An abridgment of his life has rich in merits and virtues. been written by Alphonsus himself. The fury of the disaffected of Pagani was not abated, and new plots were invented to ruin the missionaries. Contaldi, finding himself disappointed in obtaining his ob ject through the instrumentality of others, threw off the mask, and openly attacked them. Scarcely had Alphonsus returned from the Pouille, when he openly revoked the donation he had made in their favor, and in concert with his sister, called them to appear before the council of the Not knowing how to justify his steps, he pYetended king. that the missionaries had deceived him in usurping the title of Congregation, when they had neither been recog he demanded, in conse nised by the king nor the Pope quence, that they should be forbidden to build, protesting that he had made the donation not for a religious commu But the royal council, nity, but for a college of priests. having sent an auditor to verify the facts, the claims of Contaldi were found insufficient, and on the llth of Janu

ary, 1745, the

auditor, in


name of

the council, con

firmed the missionaries in the possession of the property,
the donation being found valid and inviolable. This disappointment did not abate his animosity.


presented a claim to the king, filled with malignity rather than reason. But the Syndic of Pagani and three other Syndics, undertook the defence, and the indubitable integ rity of Alphonsus and his companions, made his Majesty
all his numerous It was attempts against them. that these men acted at the insti however, entirely plain, For they introduced two barrels of gation of the devil. gun-powder under the foundation of the house, and had


not one of their accomplices, stung by remorse of con science, revealed the plot, the whole \vould have been de

From that moment, they were obliged to keep a watch nightly. Alphonsus was then at Iliceto, and far from being discouraged by this barbarous attempt, his confidence became greater from having escaped so many imminent dangers. Until now, the fathers had lived under



same roof with Contaldi, and were, therefore, placed under a continual restraint. At last, on the 24th of Sep

tember, 1745, they resolved to remove to the new building, without heeding the risk they ran from damp and other

Alphonsus, at Iliceto, heard of he rejoiced exceedingly, and wrote to urge them tp a stricter observance of the rule, which had been somewhat interrupted by all the previous proceed ings, assuring them that God would bless them and make



them become
rule in


only inasmuch as they observed the



The malcontents, provoked to see them established in new house, again conspired against them, and ob

tained an order from the council, forbidding them to do any Their intention was thus to interdict their en thing new.

trance into the church of^St. Dominic, where they had till now, exercised their -ministry, and to prevent the comple
in progress of building, hoping them thus of every opportunity of per forming the functions of their ministry, they would force them definitely to abandon the foundation. Informed of all this, on the evening before the day on which they ex

tion of the

church yet

that by depriving

pected to receive the formal orders, Father Sportelli be sought some gentlemen of Nocera to detain the king s

one night only. This was done, as he had de and during the night he sent for the workmen, and in spite of the protestations of the architect, he boldly took away the props, smoothed the earth, erected a por table altar, and arranged, as well as he could, a sort of confessional. They ornamented the altar and the walls with hangings and tapestry, placed garlands and artificial flowers about it, and having, the evening before, obtained
officer for

permission to bless the church, at day-break, he celebrated mass, preached, confessed, and gave communion to the

During the proceedings, the officer arrived, fol lowed by a crowd, and calling for F. Sportelli, and those of the household, he declared to them by order of the king, that no one must have the temerity to attempt any thing




at the risk

of incurring the penalties mentioned in

will do nothing new," replied^F. Sporconform to the order you bring, but I telli, the Holy Sacrifice has protest that this edifice is a church been celebrated in it, we have preached in it, and in it the holy sacraments have been administered to the people." Thus they were outwitted in their attempt, and hell had to

the decree.





yield the victory.

While Alphonsus was

at Iliceto,

another circumstance
of the people.

occurred to second his zeal

for the salvation

Benedict XIV, convinced of the great good produced by missions, conceived the project of reforming, by means of them, the whole kingdom of Naples. By a brief dated the
8th of September, 1745, he delegated Cardinal Spinelli to

superintend this work, with full powers to send whom he would. Many bishops, upon this, solicited him to send
into their dioceses Alphonsus and his missionaries, to which the Cardinal agreed, well knowing the good they did. When the time of the vintage was over, Alphonsus, having received the necessary commission from the Car dinal, and provided with particular graces from the holy

At Father, began his mission in the diocese of Bovino. of a terrible the the Pouille, example ot capital Foggia,
divine justice occurred, and served as a powerful warning to sinners. One of the Fathers went through the public

places to call the people to the church. Happening to before a he invited the drinkers to take part in tavern, pass
the mission.


tipsy fellow, holding


his glass, called

is my mis and putting it to his lips, he instantly dropped down dead. Another circumstance which happened, gave a high idea of the sanctity of Alphonsus. One evening he was preaching before the image of the blessed Virgin of Seven Veils, which they had exposed on the altar. When he spoke of the glories of the Mother of God, the people believed they saw an angel rather than a man. A bright ray of light darted from the image, and rested on the coun tenance of Alphonsus, who, at the same moment, fell into




Father, would you like to see what





an ecstasy, and was elevated several feet into the air. At this spectacle the people uttered such loud cries of joy, that crowds from a distance ran tumultuously towards the church. More than four thousand persons witnessed this


In a rich and commercial town, great numbers of chari persons are to be found. Many purses, therefore, were opened to Alphonsus, who earnestly sought out the

most necessitous. Young girls were succored, whose them in danger; others were placed in poverty placed orphan houses. Asylums were procured for repentant sinners, and the aged were assisted in their necessities. Christian charity reigned in all hearts, and the town was
delivered from


sources of sin.

During the mission at Troy, one day, when on the point of mounting the pulpit, Alphonsus was told of his father s


remained some time

in prayer,

and then


commended him
heard of his
tolic labors, that

to the prayers of the




but was so much occupied in his apos he sacrificed the feelings of nature to his God, and continued the mission. When at St. Agatha, he was seized with fever; but this did not prevent his preach-


and when he appeared

in the

pulpit, the sight of


alone produced compunction in the hearts of the people. After this mission, he was called to Iliceto, the Canon Unable to ride because of Casati being dangerously ill.
his fever,

he was obliged to take a carriage, and arrived He had left all he the evening before the Canon expired. of Consolation, Most the to Mary Holy Virgin possessed

and at his request was buried in the church, at the feet of the Virgin. Alphonsus, full of gratitude for his donation, celebrated his funeral with the utmost magnificence, and
had one hundred ducats distributed



month of March, 1746,

to the poor. a great drought


desolated the Pouille, and the seeds sown were almost de The inhabitants of Foggia besought Alphonsus stroyed. to give a novena in honor of the Blessed Virgin, knowing

how much he was

beloved by her.

He was


at Iliceto,



of a fever, but

when he heard how

afflicted they



Foggia, he immediately set out, and was received as an angel from heaven. The novenahad scnrcoly commenced,

when his fever suddenly left hi:ii the usin fell in abun dance, the seed was saved, and pi (Minced a rich harvest. During his sojourn in this town, God prepared the foun

dation of another house in the diocese of Conza.


Archbishop, Mgr. Nicolai, regretted to see himself at the head of a vast province in the greatest want of spiritual


gregation had rendered to so

he had learned the services the Conmany dioceses, he sent im
Rossi, to







by no means anxious to embrace the proposal, circumstances not seeming favorable, but at the request of F. Villani, he consented to give a mission there,

He was

order to see more clearly the will of God.

During the

mission, on the third of June, he went with several gentle men to visit the church which was offered him, and which

bore the


of Mater Domini.

the situation, being in

rounded by many
ritual aid.

He was pleased with midst of an archdiocese, sur other dioceses in great want of spi
at Calabritto, a

The Archbishop being then
Alphonsus went
to visit

few miles


a mule, he ar rived at the house of the family del Plato, where the Arch


Mounted on

bishop was staying.
into a

Hearing he was at dinner, he went small chapel in a wing of the palace, to say his While there, the eldest son came to shut the door,

and seeing

man covered

with rags, and with an unshorn

beard, he took him for a vagabond, who was waiting to beg from the Archbishop, and told him to go out, as he was about to shut the door. Would you have the good

ness to wait until

I finish vespers," said


it is






young man,


we had

a napkin stolen,

only yesterday would be too much to have

another stolen

Alphonsus was forced
the street.



finish his vespers in



time, he

presented himself

at the palace,

and the Archbishop, hear-



ing of his arrival, mark of esteem.

and his was a noble Neapolitan gentleman, and Superior of a mission. Alphonsus appeared not to notice the young man s confusion, but continued the conversation, and after
having arranged a meeting time for the evening sermon.

came out and received him with every The young del Plato looked confounded, confusion increased, when he found Alphonsus

Caposele, he returned in

God showered down many benedictions on this mission. The humility, the modesty, the contempt of himself, shown
by Alphonsus, touched all hearts as much as his sermons. At this time he suffered such violent tooth-ache as to

Notwithstanding this, one evening he spoke for two hours, and at last overpowered by fatigue, he had to be carried home, from total inability to walk. Generally, in his sermons, he seemed to be ravished out of himself, and one evening, while he preached, God made him see in spirit what was passing at Iliceto. We are with here the he and at this mission," said, occupied
cause convulsions.


the devil




poor children



Next morning,

spoke with him enduring there. The Archbishop came to Caposele, and arrived during a sermon on the blessed Virgin. He was so much touched that he wept, and determined to assist daily at the sermons.

a lay-brother came to see him, and for three hours of the miseries they were


archpriest Rossi arrived at this time, with several other gentlemen, who resolved on contributing towards All seemed the establishment of the Congregation there.

go well, but it was necessary that the devil should at tempt to overturn it. A party among the clergy, addressed to the Archbishop a protestation against the new project. like to see op When Alphonsus heard of this, he said

apprehends defeat, God will triumph." When the Archbishop went to hermitage, accompanied by the gentlemen friendly to measure, a priest, a very learned man, who had great fluence with both clergy and people, attended to oppose

it is



that the devil

the the




foundation in the
the church to

the chapter. Having entered the Blessed Virgin, as he approached the altar dedicated to the divine Mother, he was struck

name of

with apoplexy, and his mouth was twisted on one side. He the recognised the just punishment, and turning towards Mother of my God, I protest that I have no Virgin, said


longerthe intention of opposing the foundation." No sooner had he uttered these words, than he recovered, and his mouth

resumed its natural position. He immediately joined the others, and far from resisting, he now seconded the pro

On the 4th of June, 1746, posal with all his eloquence. the establishment of the Congregation was decided upon. When the news spread at Caposele, that the missionaries
were to be established in the diocese, every one testified most unbounded joy. A noble family in the neighbor hood put their forests at their disposal, to supply the wood The inhabitants had another consola for the buildings.
tion in the fulfilment of the

prophecy of


John Joseph

of the Cross, that at the end of twenty years, a devout and zealous community of missionaries would be established

among them.

The twenty

The Grand Council having repulsed them, Contaldi tried to obtain satisfaction from the commissary of the king, and
In Pagani, they were
this magistrate,

years had just expired. not yet left unmolested.

tion of certain rents that had

being deceived, had ordered the sequestra been assigned to them, and that they should be given to others. To embroil matters still more, Contaldi made to a priest who was related to him, a donation of a certain property he had already given
missionaries, and by these measures ceased not to

to the

keep them

continual disquiet.

Alphonsus could not

see without sorrow the vexations his companions had to endure, but this did not lessen his zeal; he continued to givtmissions in the country round about, which were always

attended with the greatest success, vice disappearing, and
virtue reigning in its stead.

Towards the end of December, 1746, Foggia him again, and he eagerly yielded to the request


but on



his arrival, he found that a theatre with foreign come dians had been opened, and that certain gentlemen had bound themselves to support it. This new occasion of sin
lie did all in his power to engage them to send the comedians away, but without success; upon which he left the town, and when they would persuade him to stay, he replied We cannot at the same time serve God and the devil. Foggia will not listen to me, but God will lay his heavy hand upon her, and

grieved him exceedingly, and


chastise her for her


Scarcely had he departed,

town was shaken with a violent earthquake they sent after him, but he would not return at that time. The building of the new house at Caposele was now begun, and carried on with great ardor. On the. 1st of May, 1748, the first stone was blessed by Mgr. Amati, and


gentlemen commenced to superintend the different works, each placing himself at the head of a division, arid The in the evening arranging the work for the next day.

Blessed Virgin deigned to testify her approbation of this establishment, and to show in a special manner, that the There lived in a neigh missionaries were her children. boring village a wretched being, loaded with sin, who had
for three



years been confined to bed by a most painful every night he saw the devil, under the form of a

goat, place himself on his breast, and press his throat and One morning when his sides until he was almost choked.

he awoke, he saw the Blessed Virgin appear in his cham ber, radiant with glory, and accompanied by two angels. how hast thou still the she said to him, son," "My

to-mor boldness to live in sin? quickly change thy life row thou shall see my children of the house of Mater Domini. Confess, and repent of thy sins, and Jesus will pardon thec." The vision disappeared, and the sinner felt

re-animated, but without knowing what to think of what he had heard, for he knew nothing of the mission, nor of Next day, he heard the the establishment at Caposele.
bells ringing, and on asking what it was, they replied that the missionaries had arrived; full of joy. he said he must

see one of them instantly.



Matthew Criscuolo went

him, when he related what had occurred, and made his confession amid torrents of tears. The father asked him if he had been in the habit of practising any devotion to the

he had made a vow to Rosary daily, and that he had never omitted it. He died during the mission, giving evident signs of a true repentance. Until now, the Congregation had not had a regular no vitiate. Hitherto they had received only clerics, who had, in a manner, been professed before they became novices, subdeacons only being admitted and these made their
Blessed Virgin; he replied, that
recite the

novitiate in following

year before, eighteen, as being less

Alphonsus from village to village. A they had decided on admitting young men of

with the spirit of the world,

and consequently more ready to receive the impressions of grace. Alphonsus then thought of establishing the novi tiate in the house of Iliceto, but because of the extreme poverty of this house, the young people were discouraged, looked back, and withdrew their hand from the plough,

some even, not having
ness to F. Cafaro,

the courage to declare their


who was master

of novices, fled secretly,

escaping by the windows, as the door was shut. Afflicted by the inconveniences of ihis house, and the inconstancy of the novices, he removed the novitiate to Ciorani, the 1st
of February, 1748.


blessed the

arrangement, and

there were soon twenty novices under F. Villani,


conduct caused great consolation to Alphonsus. It was at Iliceto Alphonsus first began to write and pub lish. Until then he had labored only for the countries in which he was placed, but this was a field too narrow for his burning zeal. He wished that all Christians should the reflections he had made. He had long been profit by over the indifference of men, and their estrange groaning ment from the adorable mystery of the Eucharist; he re solved to publish the sentiments with which he was pene trated towards the Beloved of his soul, and arrange them in the form of visits for each day of th-e month, and as his

affection for the


most Holy Virgin was only inferior to that he bore to her Son, he published also his sentiments of affection for her, in order to induce the faithful to love and
serve her.

This little work was every where received with applause, and fully answered the purpose for which it was intended, for before long, almost every one had it in his hands, not only in the kingdom of Naples, but throughout

In 1777, Alphonsus received a French translation



taken from the

fiftieth Italian edition.

Next he pub

lished another

work, entitled "Reflections and Af fections on the Passion of Jesus Christ." Since he had
ecclesiastical state, he had taken St.

embraced the
for his


special advocate, and often in his spiritual wants had experienced the efficacy of her intercession. Desirous

honored, he published several meditations, in form of a Novena, in which were comprised all the beautiful things that could be said in her praise. In order to awaken
to see her

the Bishops, he composed a little work on the precise obli gations of the episcopate, which he transmitted to all the*

bishops in





wrote to him, thanking

him and complimenting him on the occasion.



time also, he had publicly proclaimed his opinion regarding certain cases of conscience. This gave offence to a priest


to a religious

of discussing


house in the Pouille, who, instead the subject, wrote to him thus: "Who art comest out of the woods, with the pretension of


And thyself Doctor, and giving laws to others?" him as a else to he treated and heretic, say, having nothing accused him of condemning vocal prayer. Alphonsus
replied, and, having abundantly refuted the falsehood, fin ished his letter, by thanking his accuser for the advice he had given him, without testifying the least resentment.



missions in


phonsus went

in April, 1747, to Ciorani;

Pouille were finished, Al there he found

the novitiate filled with virtuous

young men and



and sanctity. He then returned to found the church frequented by persons where he Pagani, of all conditions, the pious practices taught by the Confor learning

their vigor, and a confraternity of found persons eminent for were artisans, The success of the two houses was a sub their sanctity. him shed tears ject of great consolation for him, making

gregation existing in


among whom

of joy.



that the

argument constantly

the Congre brought forward by his adversaries was, that to deprive order in the authorized was not king, by gation them of this pretext and insure the existence of the houses

already founded,

he resolved on going to Naples, deter



the necessary spite of every difficulty, to obtain


Arriving at Naples in the month of June, he immedi
ately addressed himself to the Marquis Brancone, Minister of State. Before he would hear him say a word, the Mar


his determination of making him a confounded by the proposition, said: Bishop. Alphonsus, If you love me, never again speak to me of such a thing. I have abjured the world; its dignities can only inspire me





said, besides, so

Marquis promised
After having


much, that torment him no more on


length the

this subject.


him the

interests of the

Congregation, he addressed himself to the Chamberlain, to obtain for him an audience of the king. He had not long
to wait;


one day as he was walking

in the cloisters


Catherine, occupied in saying his office, he was told the king waited for him. He wore then, as usual, an old

his beard unshaven it was, however, miserable condition, that he ran in all haste to the Introduced to his Majesty, he exposed to him the palace.

patched cassock, and

in this

multitude of souls deprived of spiritual succor, how ar dently he desired to remedy such an evil, the zeal with which his companions burned, and the reforms they had but that the mis already produced in so many dioceses


could not sustain themselves


precarious, and

being daily engaged


a position so struggles which

threatened their existence, it was necessary that his Ma jesty should now recognise their institute for a regular He presented to his Majesty the rules cf Congregation. 11*

He was often not well received many refused him an audience. soon learned what was on. and through influential persons. Alphonsus refused to &quot. but be sure. but doubting his own judgment.&quot. To-day. he took notes with his own hand. he began to look about for some influ ential person. the remembrance of your liberty torment you and your brethren. ALPHONSUS. and the contagion of insubordination and regret would seize upon my own will yield will Congregation.126 LIFE OF ST. The grand almoner represented to Alphonsus. recommending him to examine them and make his report without delay. on reflection . who would interfere in his favor with the king and the grand almoner. and in the offered to embrace name of himself and his makes vow of obedience. and on his explaining to him the motives which inclined him to refuse. of the pious monarch was touched. At the same time. the almoner cut him short by saying I wish Although much alarmed. to-morrow your fervor the own will. . he is ready to sacrifice his but once bound. Superior of the Congregation of the Most Holy Sacrament. The heart explaining them in a few words. the Institute. F. Alphonsus did not tfive up hope. It is thus misfortune would menace two communities. and others listened coldly . his grand almoner. he will begin to repent of hav You are sincere in ing submitted his opinion to another.He who has been accustomed to agree to this. and placed the rules. . will have much repugnance to see him self poor and deprived of his liberty. and going to more anxious than ever for a re-union. Celestine Guliano. wishing to submit to me. God. before he Ciorani. Mandarin! applied to the grand almoner. yielding himself entirely to the will of : it. unreservedly the rule of Alphonsus. he had re course to prayer.&quot. with the petition. in the hands of Mgr. went companions. Thus repulsed by Alphonsus. persuaded him *o endeavor to promote the re-union. and we ought to guard against this. possess and to command. and to submit to his authority. Vincent Mandarini. that he ought not to reject the proposal.

masses were said. &quot. always calm and spect said &quot. and only said: &quot. ALPHONSUS. yet he did not lose courage. while they them Al selves redoubled their penances and mortifications. her him.&quot. 127 and if when he came he was received once. phonsus went five times to obtain an audience of the refused. bidding him rest as- . bowed his head.&quot. however. phonsus. the grand almoner declared on the 21st of August. hy the valets of a certain prince.&quot.&quot. he wished them to unite with that of Mandarini. with marks of profound re in either case. permitted. He went a sixth time. he was unmoved. when the princess. the king what he considered the advantages that would re sult of its from authorizing the Congregation . against his This declaration afflicted Al petition for authorization. to wait in the ante-chamber. upon you Many ing others received him.LIFE OP ST. back are from Calabria. she said. and they ex posed the Blessed Sacrament in the evening. divided. when he knew so well how to plead his cause. but was always refused. He put his confi dence in God. How &quot.Fiat voluntas tua. present precarious Alphonsus. who knew him. I do not under Ah. Seeing him so poor and ragged in appearance. that his Lordship could not refuse prom He. at last admitted. Many re ligious houses united with them in prayer. placed before ising to protect him. he was refused admittance One day he had with difficulty been again. serene. turn Alphonsus. The king re gretted this decision. then. That night he was unable to sleep. happened to pass. learning this decision. in consequence. so that at last point the council of state was not very it was decided the affair should its stand over. and continue to rest on basis. but in the event being authorized. Notwithstanding all the pains taken by Alphonsus. adoring the will of God. sent a message by the Marquis Brancone. dirty you &quot. . and in order to comfort him. are!&quot. The different and was almoner. and tried to obtain from heaven what man houses of the Congregation com menced regular prayers. she exclaimed: stand you. and Upon this also upon certain other conditions satisfactory.

and the poverty of the parts people. delighting to animate the young men with love for Jesus Christ. pretended&quot. try to we must furnish make them some demand is said them with some sub just. Abruzzi. for the purpose. that not a moment was lost. they consequently got nothing.sured LIFE OF ST. and gave re treats in different monasteries. and his Majesty insisted that Al phonsus should succeed him in that see.&quot. . yet another attempt in favor of the but it also fell to the Congregation. Mandarin! on the other hand. saying to Marquis Brancone The Pope makes good promotions.&quot. at the request of the director of the seminary. and having sent for Alphonsus. It was accordingly arranged. and continue to labor with the promote the glory of God and the good of to insist the state. he devoted himself to every work that could promote the glory of God. He often visited also the college of the Holy Family. : make one still better than the Pope. Rossi. ceased on the union of the two Congregations. He fre quently visited convents of nuns. a storm But while he was enjoying these delightful labors. The Marquis was pleased with the election. &quot.The allowance the king. ALPHONSUS. He explained to the king the impossibility of giving missions in many Alphonsus made of the country where the spiritual destitution was great. He wa?. ground. and applauded it as a divine in spiration. and requested his majesty to &quot. who desired to have the affairs of their conscience regulated by him.&quot. and husbanded his time so well. made known to him his Majesty s determination. was preparing to overtake him.The church of Palermo became vacant in the July of this year by the death of Mgr. but the individuals who had the there were no surplus revenues . He often went. because of their own poverty. but I will &quot. and zeal for the salvation of souls. to animate the young people by his exhortations. established to promote the conversion of China.128 . During his stay at Naples. revenues of the the the surplus that they should have chapels of the Castelle de Sangro in management. sidy. of his zeal to same protection. as it were.

thousands of souls awoke from sin. though quently . During his discourses on this occasion. that he was far more useful as a missionary. but to explain the refuse all dignities. Alphonsus was in a continual At length the Marquis succeeded in persuading his fright. seeing and promised to help him with the king. both of which happened during his stay at Naples. were he The Marquis. Mission . his brethren at such a juncture. the houses of the Congregation to pray for him. and the ruin it to vow he had made to would cause. Although unprepared. hour and a half. The ^Superior of the Apostolic had invited him to give a retreat. This alarmed Alphonsus he fore saw the king would be supported by the Pope. into entered the of affliction Alphonsus. Cafaro. he had not the and the result was as miraculous as courage Each of his sermons occupied not less than one usual. Alphonsus had left Naples to go to Ciorani for a few days. his abandoned resolution. and penetrated with a lively repentance. his feelings. to refuse. but the prince abandon would take no refusal.LIFE OF ST. turned to Nocera. returned to God. During this Novena. while he redoubled his aus and penances. During the whole month the king persevered in his resolution. and the thought of being forced to accept the dignity. and he wrote to F. Majesty. when. Towards the end of September. and with tears begged him to return his he proposed con grateful thanks to the king for the honor ferring on him. he was requested to preach the Novena of the Assumption in the church of St. ALPHONSUS. he spoke to them of the obli gation they were under to make known Christ crucified. recourse to many holy souls and religious houses him by their prayers. his director. he re John Major. that he would sooner conceal himself in the depth of the omit here two instances of the true apostolical liberty of Alphonsus. than he and he conse ever could be as Archbishop of Palermo with much regret. repose by night or by day. all time to and had to help terities He wrote at the same than be made bishop. left him no . We ought not . immediately on his return. 129 thunderstruck.

when he ran hastily to the sacristy to ask what wretched priest had said mass. Dei. the then induced him .Have you lost the use of The gentleman.130 LIFE OF ST. that the king was dissatisfied. and advised him to take advantage of the fa vorable feelings of the monarch towards him. Instead of this. presented a new petition to obtain the confirmation of his institute. immediately knelt. and to present the petition himself to the king.&quot. and were filled with a salutary con fusion. turning to wards the assistant to give communion. a mark of disinterestedness which pleased him. At another tirne. when treating of moral He spoke with vehe subjects. quite your limbs.Fill with evangelical truths. and obtain a to Naples. but exhaust the preacher in seeking for your discourses. ALPHONSUS. . He con demned the measured style and far-fetched expressions which some made use of. he was celebrating mass in the church of the Fathers of the Oratory. &quot. said. person of reverence towards this confused. or the lives of the Saints. Alphonsus returned Marquis Brancone then informed him. he said. above all. Alphonsus subsidy for the Congregation. but when he heard the name of Alphonsus de Liguori. by his manner of preaching had showed himself an enemy of souls and a traitor to the word of God and he blamed some among them who strove to imitate him. when. and not to preach to make themselves known. he felt greatly ashamed. he observed a gentleman seated having said: sitting in the choir with his legs crossed. he &quot. but the political views which directed Tanucci.&quot. he exclaimed: &quot.&quot. saying to the Marquis. that the council of state had refused his request. that he wished for nothing else. them. After still &quot. he began to cough and make different noises until the end of mass. but excessively provoked. but afterwards they recognized the truth of what he had said. mence against a celebrated preacher lately dead. which pro duce no fruit.Agnus and seeing and showing no sign the Holy Sacrament. who. without embarrassing yourselves with vain ornaments. that you cannot kneel ?&quot. This language offended some of the young mis sionaries at first. At the beginning of the year 1748.

131 minister. ALPHONSUS. and Alphonsus was Naples. who. and at any moment. all that his . and again the business fell to the ground. and who would misrepresent him to his subjects.LIFE OF ST. When speaking one day of the extreme goodness shown by our Saviour in the Sacrament of the altar. who was soon undeceived. yet. bade him continue his apostolic labors. and to ingratiate himself with his majesty. assuring him that the king knew him too well to lend an ear to such a report. where he is always ready to give audience. : . empty. and represented Alphonsus as a man discontented with the king. They both spoke to Tanucci. and was almost dead. he nevertheless came give advice and consolation to those who to him on affairs of conscience the house was never . both of whom. and fear nothing. and then to Marquis Brancone. ! And then no one can speak as he would wish to do. he used the following words of St. and had continued to to keep his bed. Theresa Ii is not thus with kings on earth audience they give only a few times in the course of the year. he began again to It was about this time preach and give spiritual exercises. The accusation was listened to by Marquis Tanucci. that he heard of all this. the king. and from that time held him in the highest esteem and veneration. Immediately after his recovery. He was scarcely twelve days in Naples. disrespect to his sovereign. that he became the object of a very malicious calumny. being unac quainted with his integrity. and how much it costs one to obtain an audience &quot. threatened to banish him from The affair became public. looked upon as a guilty person about to be banished for It was not until six days after. person present construed these words into an insult to A added wickedness could suggest. to implore his protection.&quot. He went immediately to the Cardinal. did not accord with the pious views of the king. nor with the same confidence with which all may go to Jesus certain Christ in this sacrament. convinced of his respect for his sovereign. when he was seized with an asthma so violent that he could not speak. He was unable to say mass for some weeks.

and he. On the 7th of April. The effects pro peared from among the soldiers. He procured for them book? of devotion. for having often remonstrated with him because of the irregularities of his life. and such was the change produced on his mind. Mazzini heard. one evening. and entered religious houses. When the prince saw the effect produced on the officers. and lewd women banished from their quarters. of March blasphemies were no longer heard. the exercises terminated scandals had disap . and gave two hours more to the soldiers. which when F. in order to sustain it against the attacks of its ene mies. and as they could not afford to purchase them. The king. labored to disabuse the Supe- . which he opened on the 28th Prince Castropignano assisted with the state major and many other cavaliers. bidding him take courage and rely upon his protection. when he strove to convince him of the necessity of his approbation for the new-born Congrega tion. when an event occurred which brought peace at last to the Community. although he suffered much from the excessive cold of the church. he ran in all haste to render him assistance. Before leaving Naples. duced on the officers were still greater. His conduct disconcerted the malcontents. The other fathers were also assiduous in their attention to him. and continued to assist him with the utmost care until he was convalescent. and five among them quitted the service. He was carried into a neighboring convent appa rently dying. when he was returning home. he furnished a little library for them. was beaten on the head with some who had been sharp instrument by one of his relatives. that he could think of nothing but how to recompense their ser vices. A Dean in the neighborhood. ALPHONSUS. prejudiced against them. The Congregation at Nocera was still agitated by the tempest. He consented.13*2 LIFE OF ST. pleased with all he heard. he besought him to give the spiritual exercises also to the men. Through Marquis Brancone he obtained another audi ence of the king. in concert with Mgr. Volpe. dismissed him. he was requested to give a retreat in the barracks at Pizzofalconi. taverns were deserted.

as a favor. or to reform their conduct. and consulted the missionaries on all occasions of He gave audiences in their house. The generosity of Alphonsus soon consolidated it. esteem thus shown by the Bishop. His labors were not 12 draught of fishes.LIFE OF ST. Mgr. In the king s council had decided in and against Contaldi. He ordered difficulty. on a former occasion. having the tran than its tempo quillity of the Congregation more at heart ral interests. to . Anna de-Palazzo. He com menced by opening a mission in the church of St. through the endeavors of F. and it seemed as if he had only to cast the net. with all the demands made upon him. ended in conciliating the respect and veneration of their greatest enemies. Alphonsus. he could never cease expressing his admiration. in which numbers were converted who had never approached the tribunal of penance. to pay a debt of nine hundred This disinterested con ducats. continued rection. the unfortunate women of the town had been compelled to withdraw. not having been able to comply. to receive the miraculous preach which. stitute in every emergency. to be The instructed in the rubrics. Volpe contributed much to the establishment of peace. ALPHONSUS. After his return from Naples to Ciorani. Alphonsus. contracted in building. in every di and with his accustomed success. and peace was shortly restored. succeeded in persuading the Bishop to allow him to resign at once the donation made by Contaldi. and ever after continued to be a powerful protector of the In the month of October. he frequented the A house. a great number to come to it for spiritual exercises. duct gained him more than ever the esteem of good men. in vited by the people and neighboring curates. his warfare against the strongholds of Satan. only requesting him. his favor. and as for the Dean. After this he was sent for to penance in the suburb of St. he came to make a retreat at Ciorani. riors 133 of religious houses and the few priests who still stood out against them. on his last visit. Sarnelli and partially of himself. Anthony. In October he returned to Naples. just appreciator of the merits of Alphonsus and his children.

for his Congregation the support of so many Bishops. and At length Althis even among many professed infidels. LIFE OP ST. Difficulties with some subjectt. of criticising his sermojn. Alphonsus penetrate to the heart. others were taken care of by charitable persons. Alphonsus determined to apply for a petition to Benapprobation to the Pope. houses of religious women.&quot. numbers were placed in houses of refuge. ALPHONSUS. crimes. when entering into himself he recognised his deplorable condition. that eternity only can disclose the wonders of grace then operated. He publishes his Moral Theology. speak but to the mind but the sermons of F. He immediately went to confession. Alphonsus obtains the approbation of his Congregation at Rome. and is elected Other Rector Major. both of the priest hood and his office laity. were pre He also visited and preached in many paring for it. At the town of Vietri. for the purpose.&quot. CHAPTER XV. difficulties in Naples. had not listened long. so that he had difficulty in finding leisure to and perform his other devotional exercises.134 unfruitful . though not yet engaged in the ways of sin. he. while many.The sermons of other . He holds the first General Chapter. a man renowned for his infidelity. He addressed ENCOURAGED and having obtained . daily came to him for instruction and ad recite vice. former blindness. he said. to distribute the bread of eternal life to the more destitute. &quot. went one day into the church. and persevered to the end. many of these poor creatures. touched by detest their grace. by the pious disposition of the king. and full of repentance. Cardinal Spinelli desired him to give a retreat in the ca thedral. besides. He detested his preachers.. phonsus departed for^the country. the multitude. during which the church could scarcely contain An eye-witness has remarked. began to who. a great number of young girls were saved. said &quot.

who was accompanied by another Father. as superfluous. the prefect. the Abbe Blaschi. Villarii. When tion. it. but he concealed his humility under the pretence of his infirmities. fearing for the health of the subjects. viz. and confided the whole affair to the man agement of F. the Con of once Cardinal ordered at Gentili. for examination. All three admired the wisdom with The Cardinal. said to F. which every thing had been arranged. a prelate whom his The Holiness honored with his particular friendship. the vow of placing themselves at the disposal of the Pope. besides those in whose dioceses the Congregation was established. When to Rome. wished some alterations. they had wished for Cardinal Orsini. Vincent of Paul. with regard to fast ing. when undergo ing so much fatigue. he was thus assured of the approbation of Car dinal Spinelli.&quot. and the missionaries of St. Villani. he remarked &quot. that by this appointment he secured for them a man of still more weight. prefect Pope gregation of the Council of Trent. Puoti. wrote to give them fa vorable testimony at the court of Rome. and his auditor. exerted themselves also in their favor. the rule was presented to the Sacred Congrega they retrenched. edict 135 XIV. whenever . and then with regard to the number of consultors. but Cardinal Gentili. to be sent. which number Alphonsus had deter subject. instead of twelve. to imitate the College of the Twelve Apostles. by the hand of Mgr. and gave them Canon Simede. ALPHONSUS. wishing to have the number limited to six. and the religious house gave Abbot of another ance. Basil. Many Bishops. Cardinal Bisozzi them great assist was named Reporter. and they had letters from the most distinguished personages to the Car dinal Orsini. however. and the Duke of Tora. to charge Cardinal Spinelli to take information and declare his sentiment on the to the His Eminence asked for the rules. every one advised Alphonsus to go himself mined upon. The general of the the Order of St. : You have now two instead of and afterwards went himself to deliver the request into Bisozzi s hands.LIFE OF ST. and when Orsini was told of one.

that a work of so much magnitude should be universal.&quot. It is but just. to &quot. to preach to the heathen. which exalted the great good done by the Institute.&quot. &quot. Alphonsus. We sup said the Cardinal. and its utility to the kingdom. ALPHONSUS. the house of the Cardinal Prefect &quot. but to obtain his sanction for the Congregation throughout the whole Church. yours. ing of mine.136 LIFE OF ST.&quot. having fixed that the rents of no house should exceed the sum of twelve ration. might it not be done in &quot.&quot.what cannot be done in the Congregation. : &quot. and two thousand for the house of novices and stu dents. and full of admiration for the rule.&quot. But the Cardinal. have some thing to say to him that concerns If you would succeed your affairs. Villani went to Cardinal Orsini. he added. fixed the hundred ducats. obey the first religious orders are al signal given by the Holy Fa all Besides. said the Car dinal. nothing was yet decreed. in consideration of unforeseen expenses that might come upon them. But the devil would not allow things to pro ceed without his interference.&quot. since you say so.But. The auditor of Cardinal Bisozzi. they unanimously approved it. pretended that this meant it should be confined to the kingdom of Naples.&quot. wrote to inform Villani of the news.&quot. with his own* hand.&quot. and the Cardinal. -At length. .&quot.begin by speak said the Cardinal. replied Villani.&quot.&quot. he should be pleased. Villani. though admiring his mode maximum at fifteen hundred for ordinary houses. ?&quot. for I &quot.and Depend on it. &quot. Although all was in train. and in I will go to him immediately. towards the end of February. myself. said F. &quot.) F. &quot. &quot. said that Alphonsus had not applied to the Pope for the kingdom of Naples only. &quot. this morning the Sacred Congregation has had one of the most difficult conferences. &quot. that ways ready ther. &quot. the decree of approbation was given. the Cardinals. (1749. True. having been consulted. recommend my business to God with That same day. in order to take from his Con gregation the means of amassing wealth. They were satisfied with every thing else. who said to him Be comforted. having read the approbation of Cardinal Spi- nelli. pose.

F. That is what I wish to examine. &quot. for the The same institute sent another Father same purpose. sustaining such a charge. for thor of evil could not hinder the his approbation. and by gratitude. F. I believe you bound by duty. ViHani being presented to the 137 to Pope thank him for his approbation. often gation bore the Seeing that the Congre Holy Saviour. &quot. and reflecting that there was a Congregation established at Venice. which already bore that name. having been gained by the 12* . Since your Reverence is named perpetual Rector. But if the au too late.&quot. &quot. he wished them to take the title of regulars.&quot.&quot.&quot. The following day he read the decree and He was particularly pleased to find that the offices It of Rector Major and his Counsellors were perpetual.LIFE OF ST. and ask the confirmation of it. We have already seen that the Sacred Congregation approved the rules and the Institute. replied that it was an He nexed rule. and sent with all haste one of its mem bers to at Rome. his Holi ness inquired for the decree. Holy Father -from giving he tried at least to paralyze it.Most Holy Redeemer. met with among name of the the The Pope named also AIof the phonsus perpetual Superior Congregation. express ing in the humblest terms his weakness and incapacity for &quot. Villani wrote to him re peatedly on the necessity and propriety of continuing Rec In one of his last letters on the subject. * said the Pope. speak no more on the subject. beheld with a jealous eye the success of Alphonsus and his Congregation. that hinders parties and divisions. to the rule. but he wrote back that he had come every thing was already concluded to the great satisfaction of both Pope and Cardinals. he says tor. : it is My are the Father. ALPHONSUS. but he could do nothing. Alphonsus wrote from Ciorani to beseech them to obtain for him deliverance from so heavy a burden. A at Rome to oppose him as much as possible . Now. said he. Hearing of this. necessary to have patience and submit to the yoke. There had been still another attempt made to crush affair respectable Congregation Naples. the person charged with the arrangement of the minutes. &quot. so is this.&quot. by justice.

time. was very indignant. When he received this news. wrote. and departed for Ciorani. When it became known . all the others present following his example. he made no difficulty in receiving him. his God for thanked in this mercies. and the agreed to. laid aside his insignia. on the 25th of February. so that. the Abbot mentioned before. it and the services he had rendered to the Congregation. to the confusion satisfaction of receiving from Rome. seeing the ruse. to Cardinal Orsini. and his holy Mother Mary. and even encouraged. of the fervor whichreigned among them. wished also versed of a man admitted. took the habit. &quot. &quot. wrote. But the Pope. In con sequence of this. by redoubled fervor in the exact observance of the rule. with the consent of Alphonsus. and in love towards Jesus Christ The approbation of . He was great merit. be admitted into the order. at the feet of St. Altutum. ALPHONSUS.Regula et Insti of the malevolent. when. Peter in the Vatican. this determination. Though Alphonsus had made a rule never to admit into his Congregation any nor any one who had ever lived in community. the Te Deum was chanted. Two applied to curates renounced their About the same benefices and quitted Rome for Ciorani. distinguished for their virtue as well as for their science. when the decree was presented to him. yet regular. all the church. after proceeding to which !A1- phonsus exhorted all to correspond to so great a grace. profoundly in science. 1749. after having. and taking the pen in his own hand. made the vows prescribed by the rule. the confirmation of the Rule and the Institute. divine and human. and cast himself with his face to the After earth. non Institutum. a great number of subjects.138 friends of the LIFE OF ST. The Pope. and the great good they did.&quot. by a brief. in consideration of the distinguished merit of the Abbot.&quot. he burst phonsus had the tears of joy. Regula et envoy mentioned above. they posture having into rang the bell of the community. Abbot. as having been useful in to be obtaining the approbation of the rule. the Institute made a great noise at Rome they spoke of nothing but the new Congregation of missionaries approved by the Pope.

renewed his solicitation to be admitted. Alphonsus opening of it. and kneeling in the same the held his first General Chapter. they should vote before God they thought best qualified to the office. in him whom electing the Rector Major. and asking pardon for all that had been amiss in his past conduct. in short. D. but Alphonsus be F. he neglected no means for exempt The rules were read. as and established the necessary regulations for the no also for the house for studies.LPHONSUS. determining the . and renewed the vows of poverty.LIFE OF ST. chastity and obedience. and although the Pope had confirmed him in the perpetual Rectorship. vitiate. All obeyed. thanked the as to sembly who deigned thus to honor him. he was the first to give the example. that they might recommend themselves to God. At midst of the chapter. through F. and above all. presented themselves also for admission. In the month of October of the year. that each one should first divest himself of the office he held. he suggested that all should for fill make a retreat of three days. he invited all the members. and submitting the divine will. Cafaro. prince of Castellaneta. they proceeded to the nomination of the Rector Major. He scrutiny Alphonsus was unanimously elected adored the judgment of God. as also to those of his subjects who requested individually to be received. Matthias Miroballo. but he refused again to yield to his entreaties. After the three days retreat. again took up the heavy burden. humbling himself before them. and all ing himself of the burden. joyfully accepted them. laid down his authority. a great many excellent young men and distinguished The priests. A. Mandarini again lieved himself bound to refuse him. with the oath of persevering in the Congregation until death. and in order that the suffrages might be free. and at the first for life. he in sisted that. at 139 Naples that the Congregation was confirmed by the Pope. began to solicit a re-union. They proceeded then to the election to all the other charges and offices. Afterwards. of Aragon. and to proceed to a formal election to all the offices in general. to accept the rules. who opened the meeting.

in a thousand places.&quot. all When Alphonsus gave an extraordinary example of submis His beard had been clipped with scissors the previous evening.140 LIFE OF ST. embraced a peaceful and pious life. him to transfer the students quested favorable They to the earnestly re house at Pa gani. a few grani are necessary to have you shaved. Abbot professor of philosophy and theology. for which office his vast erudition rendered him eminently qualified. signalised himself among them by his generosity. ALPHONSUS. de Novelles invited him to give a mission at Sarno. and from that time.Notwithstanding our wish to be . by appointing the F. They had seen. At the opening of the Jubilee in 1750. was during the sitting of the chapter. Alphonsus recommenced in the autumn his course of missions. taking the interest in the education of the students. placed in the hands of the missionaries their daggers. The Bishop. were quite deserted. and its irregularities were and cassock. the young students walking in the neighborhood. in the teaching of bellesThe chapter finished philosophy. their pistols. and Dominic de Mayo. Alphonsus consented to this. that the heart of Alphonsus. at the same time. God showered abundant graces on this mission in particular. promising that if the Congregation would not support the expense. and they all sub scribed certain annual sums. the Dean. said eco laughingly: nomical. and bayonets. was gladdened by the determination of some gentlemen of Pagani. both mended quite in keeping with his mantle that sion and obedience. he made a &quot. saddened at the temporal poverty in which they were plunged. the It was during this mission taverns. A great number of bravos by profession. they would willingly contribute to it them selves. that for ten years after this. Mgr. so I will pay for you myself. The Bishop also contributed largely. some months be fore. system and authors to be followed lettres. and theology. wishing to try him. It is on record. greatest was regulated for the interior of the Congre gation. and from their modesty and good behaviour. formed a very It judgment of the Institute.

and blood was drawn from his veins. he said &quot. Alphonsus visited Ripacandida. and when the barber came.Kiss the hand of our Rector for me. when he shall receive at Malfi the news of my death. however. and the fittest . although it was eighteen years since a razor had touched his chin. their bodily austerities. he had finished the mission in this town. 141 Alphonsus said nothing. died in the odor of sanctity. he must recommend my soul to Jesus Christ.&quot. he presented himself to be shaved with the most perfect indifference. strict observers of the rule.LIFE OF ST. and say to him that. he had employed himself to choose from among the works of holy Fathers and Theologians. he finished and published in the course of this year.&quot. in the Pouille. in which Having returned &quot. accom panied by fourteen missionaries.&quot. It was the fruit of years.that I should find on this rock gave. Cesar companion in the Congregation. his precious work entitled the Glories of Mary. I did not believe. 1750. &quot. to Ciorani. because of the circumstances attending his death. and estab lished some relaxation both for the body and the mind. when they opened the coffin in presence of the ecclesiastical judges. the saintly Father had foretold his death. sign to a servant to call a barber. the most conclusive proofs in favor of the prerogatives of Mary. but he had to rejoice. in which he wished them to use more discretion. He gave them a retreat from which he drew not less profit than he He modified.&quot. Busti had invited him to preach cathedral. where Mgr. and God glorified him He by many miracles. the body was found uncorrupt. and when one of the Fathers set out to join Alphonsus on the mission. in his When During his sojourn at Malfi. ALPHONSUS. This loss was a heavy blow to him. &quot. he commenced to go through the whole diocese. the day to him. his first heaven of F. he said. such a beautiful flower. where there was a convent of Carmelite nuns. In the course of his missions in the diocese of Malfi. Six months after his death. A month and the hour of previous. Alphonsus learned the happy passage to Sportelli.

the gain is not little. The contradiction which counter so many young men had to en joined the Congregation. by the brilliancy of his talents. and pointed out the means of preserving the vocation. He presented these two &quot. The Father Ab bot was scarcely settled at Ciorani. and each day a sad reverse came to change and consolation into bitterness.&quot. The Fathers in general rejoiced in his success. and that. Alphonsus was enjoying the greatest happiness in seeing his Congregation approved by the Pope. when.&quot. in which he showed that a divine vocation is not to be subjected to the will of rela tions. I can hinder one vocation from received. and their hearts also by his edifying conduct. ALPHONSUS.142 to LIFE OF ST. If. sometimes . his joy making new progress.Advice re who garding a Religious Vocation. and it was every where favorably said he. &quot. being [9. about this time. little works to all the novitiates in Naples.Advice to Novices. but his fervor did not last habituated to com mand. induced Alphonsus to write. This last point he treated in particular in another little work called &quot.&quot. had been sent with twelve of the most talented to Pagani. he could not humble himself to obey. but Alphonsus feared that the pre-eminence of belles-lettres would hurt the spiritual advancement of the young men. we must obey Him. and the learned languages. is scarcely to be credited. when Besides philosophy. when God calls us. The applause with which the book was received. with the greatest suc cess. to aid them in persevering in their vocation. He showed the excellence and advantages of the religious state. The commencement with the Abbot had been good. lost. he taught them. he had gained the admiration of all the stu He dents. . the want of liberty preyed upon his mind. in his conversations with the young men.&quot. which is the most certain way of salvation. a small work entitled &quot. the elements of sacred and profane history. he would sometimes disapprove of one thing. and the number of editions through which it has gone. The rule became a restraint for him. faithful to engage the devote themselves to her service.

when Alphonsus said to him firmly you must obey. and then agreed to give the exercises. &quot. . he summoned the Abbot to Ciorani. 1750. representing to him the great evil that might result from diversity of opinion in a newly established institute but seeing that this only embittered him against F. he withdrew the latter from Nocera. . seemed re-established. Maz sad news. 143 would modify another. Mazzini. friendly warning. Alphonsus tried another expedient. in month of September. The Abbot did not like this. Not to com promise every thing. sent him back again to Nocera. He recalled him to Ciorani. and wrote at the same time to the Ab bot. The Fathers Villani and Cafaro interceded for him. and as they were giving a retreat to the young men preparing for holy orders. were in his opinion but grim aces.&quot. and among the students one was of Paul. at which produced no effect.LIFE OF ST. however. and with regard to certain practices of devotion. The Abbot recommenced his instructions. and considered them as being useful for promoting humility. but the grace. When Alphonsus saw the evil thus the grow worse. though on his first arrival Ciorani he had practised them himself. and ceased not to ligious life. entered into leaving the Congregation. that they formed themselves into two opposite parties. he would not even suffer them. his heart was oppressed. Every Congregation. why should not we try to he. . himself and became humble. and showed great Either discontent.&quot. or you are free to return to your own &quot. Other prac tices of exterior humiliation. F. not wishing to Peace disgrace him. he troubled the minds of things did not take a better turn the students to such an extent. but it was only a truce. but declared his intention of He. He passed the night in consideration. being informed of all this. and Alphonsus. another of Apollo. &quot. he gave him the charge of it. zini to be prudent. Mazzini. that he might not think of returning to Pagani. ALPHONSUS. : Order. believed he ought to give him a Abbot received it with a very bad spread maxims contrary to a re at When Alphonsus heard Ciorani of this He advised F. said has an asylum at Rome. Notwithstanding this.

and the same evening Alphonsus assembled a council. when the four young men presented themselves to Alphon sus with staves in hand and mantles under their arms. but all was useless. That same morning Alphonsus sent an order to F. and on the 14th. they turned their back on him. there with another Father. The order to justify himself. was exceedingly displeased. and after that to make their decision. and engaged in arranging all things for the journey of the Abbot. God granted to Alphonsus. Alphonsus was igno rant of this plot. establish an hospice there?&quot. Alphonsus threw gushing from his eyes. de manding dispensation from the vows. the tears strove to convince their dispensation. they all There was a circumstance which showed four departed for Nocera. which they said was full of grave disorders. had drawn up a memorial signed by these four young men. without having obtained himself at their feet. but the very next day they changed their resolution. and with an air of contempt. ALPHONSUS. beginning to see the reason why Alphonsus had taken this resolution. he had already taken leave of his friends. the flower of the whole. Four of them. him it was agreed to send But the Abbot. They arrived in the morning. and yielding to the temptation. He pro posed to them to join with him and go to Rome. Fiocchi. as he them of the snare into which they were falling. to inform the . but that his Holiness would advise them to enter the institute he proposed to form. and all at once proposed the expulsion of the Abbot. he proposed to them to make a retreat of eight days. Finding them obstinate. And meditated the ruin of the students altogether. in a striking Abbot. in which they stated a thousand lies against Al phonsus and the Congregation. deter mined to follow this new founder. and addressed to the manner the protection in Pope. he was students opposed.144 LIFE OF ST. He was to depart for Naples on the 15th of October. Rector at Nocera. Thus he flattered himself he should not only obtain a dispensation for the four students. where they would found a new institute on a footing altogether different. Alphonsus had made the twelve come to Ciorani.

Fiocchi followed him and told him the decision that had been come to. Al phonsus attributed the discovery of the plot to the special for life to the first protection of St. and that the Pope had himself designated the four students as so many apostles to gain the palm of But the Abbot soon the four set out alone for martyrdom among the infidels.LIFE OF ST. he troubled the whole order by dividing the abbeys of the kingdom of Naples from those of the Pontifical States. and fully unmasked. Perpetual Abbot in Rome. how ever. Some time later. come when he will make you weep Indeed. partly tempered by the return of one of the four young men a few days after. and commissary-general abbeys in the Pontifical States. who threw himself at his feet. and F. he said to one of the fulfilled prophecy. and abandoned cion of young victims without their having the least suspi Alphonsus on this occasion made of him a a few years later. The affliction special affection. 13 . in whatever spot he might be found. causing many other annoyances to the convents in both kingdoms. a time will also. for all happened between the and second vespers of the feast of that saint. under the pretence that he had already established at Rome his new Congregation. Such were the consequences of the conduct of a subject who had repaid with ingratitude the high estimation in which he had been held. He had not the presence of mind to return to the house and remove his papers. Rome. Fathers of the same order: &quot. At Naples. Theresa. -ALPHONSUS. to-day. and ever after showed them a principal patrons. and the memorial just alluded to was found in his table drawer: so he was minus his memorial. He received them both as a tender father.The Abbot has made us weep it. where he seduced a young priest in the College of the Holy Family. Since that time the Congregation has taken her for one of its of Alphonsus was. The Abbot had gone to take leave of the Bishop. 145 Abbot. a second followed his example.&quot. he joined the four students. and making himself be declared by the Pope. that he was no longer a member of the Congregation.

and however holy it may appear. but go and discover it to your Superior. tem. Had they declared themselves not to any one indif ferently. ALPHONSUS. but and he would not suffer it. as that introduced by the Abbot to the detriment of For nothing can be more strong than the spirit of piety. he said. he said. as in regard to the priests of &quot. Again to : &quot. for this rea If son.During a temptation. we have more need of sanctity than of science. &quot. if to give to spi rituality you retrench something from your studies.Sapere. His motto was: proper application to science.&quot.I keep your conscience closed.My dear would earnestly recommend you not brethren. they would not now be where they are. When the temptation is upon us. never take a resolution. and instantly.&quot. We have been called to succor poor destitute souls in the country.A laborer without science. and this as to the students. puts before our eyes treacherous spectacles.&quot. et sapere ad sobrieta- The Abbot had introduced among &quot. not as they are in themselves. . well in regard the institute. are not holy. and abandon ourselves into And again: &quot. He conceals himself under a veil. we should instantly recommend his hands. forced application to study. for if these unfortunates who have gone out from us had manifested the state of their souls to their Superiors. far from a we being sorry. the recommended. ourselves to God. we do not recognise that it comes from the devil. are still on record: &quot.&quot. after his departure. the terms in which he in the rules. I shall on the contrary experience great con All this must be understood of a forced appli cation. and cannot deceive us. whatever the case may be. making us see things.I the students a Alphonsus. all this afflicted am not sorry. Several of the counsels Alphonsusgave to the young stu dents on this occasion. we are exposed to the peril of falling into thousand imperfections and a thousand impatiences with this sort of people.&quot.&quot. this had not happened. but to him who holds towards us the place of God. at other times as also . &quot. If we would avoid the snare.&quot.when I see you retrench from your studies and give more time to prayer. I repeat once more. solation.146 LIFE OF ST. but according to our passions.

to the houses the following circular: &quot. we preach Christ crucified. are now out of the Congregation. you know among my that I am not afflicted I am touched by it. I when hear of some one life. those for which you have been reprimanded. . ceases to be a member of the Congregation. we are certain God will not abandon us. and people say they have never had a mission such as ours. arid above If corall. but I am comforted. and then God knows where they will end. because if we conduct ourselves well. and blood. the devil employs every artifice to make him lose his vocation. and who pays little regard to the rule. who is negligent in obeying. and Theresa. What will their end be? I cannot tell. some who have been with us. they will lead a life of continued misfortune. ALPHONSUS. to learn that there is among us one who is vicious. Mary. beseech you to avoid faults of deliberation. I am even consoled by seeing that we are delivered from a sickly sheep that might have infected others. and go each one is attentive to acquit himself of the charge im- to another brethren being called because I am a crea ture of flesh . is like a soldier without all He my wrote. rection leads the delinquent to amend. wherever we go on mission we &quot. at the same time. because of his faults. the fault will be nothing. because he has died in a Congregation of which I am certain all the members will be saved. the grace of God. Neither am I afflicted when one among us. My brethren. Far less am I afflicted because of persecutions.I . But of this T am certain.By perform wonders. poverty.LIFE OF ST. &quot. they will live in trouble. they will be torn by remorse of conscience for having left God.&quot. My very dear Brethren. on the contrary. In mental prayer. and thus they will abandon it. for they have abandoned their vocation. man of prayer. and die without peace. . 147 though he be a arms. &quot. but when he will not amend. Brethren of the Congregation of the Most Holy Blessed be Jesus. they inspire me with courage. you know it.To Redeemer. And why? Because we go by obe we in dience. But that which alarms me is. Joseph.

The conversion of these malefactors was a subject of great consolation in the town.&quot. believing Al But reflecting by him would satisfaction.. and at Montemarano. to be trodden under the feet of immediately..148 LIFE OF ST. the inconstancy of this Father had produced a great sensa tion in the Congregation. I have been deeply grieved to learn that some among you. . Offended by a reasonable and moderate correction from his Superior. All the efforts of Alphonsus and others. to induce him to return. than if there remained a thousand who were imperfect. were una This happened on the 25th of July. the mis sions will do little good.I on the 27th. had scarcely returned to Nocera. continued to give missions in different quarters. in which place numbers of criminals came to him. touched by re morse. such as preach But what fruit could he produce. 1751. preaches from pride ? It is a thing which I have in horror. and were placed by him in the right way. and still more in the neighboring country. Alphonsus all. phonsus give the way on the inconsiderate step he had taken. have been desirous of obtaining the more honorable employments. I would to impress it upon the heart of each one of you. He who refuses to be as potters clay. . and as vailing. and let if him fly The Lord will be better satisfied there re who are truly humble and mortified. never . who ing or instructing. and who was very useful in the missions. he again wrote a circular to all the houses it: &quot. and not He feeling the courage to present himself before Alphonsus^ he directed his steps to his own house. he communicated to no per son his temptation.. or rather they will do none at Towards the end of the autumn of 1750. when on mission. If the spirit of ambition enters the Congregation. and set off for Nocera. the departure of an ancient Father whom he loved much. chiefly in the diocese of Salerno. main but two also all. ALPHONSUS. let him fly. Among other things. when his heart was pierced by a new sorrow. he says in pray God that he may immediately chase from among us all those proud and haughty spirits who cannot brook a reprimand.. posed upon him.

ALPHONSUS. and they found his body enveloped in sackcloth. he wished to pass He alighted at the door of through Naples on his return. and his clothes ragged and worn. and then he began to come to himself. his beard neglected. he would not sup. my dear brethren. Alphonsus took it all with great good humor. him to be undressed. Fatigued and weak though he was. D. he resolved to return in the morning. Those who are truly zealous. which were not less fruitful in conversions than the former ones. Hercules came to visit him. 13* . where he had first seen the light. but mistaking him for a vagabond. When the people saw a man riding on a white ass. but when he came. worn out with fatigue. disorder or inobservance. otherwise we shall do nothing. They bled him. Alphonsus had not yet risen he returned after a while. . because of the least to take count faults. by continual prayer. and ran to obtain help. the small hospice given to him by his brother Hercules. 149 speak riors. made them understand he was the brother of D. Hercules. evil The of the conduct or any thing else of the Supe in-discreet zeal of some does far more harm than good to the Congregation.LIFE OF ST. they did not recognise him. they began hooting and ridiculing him. he nevertheless consented to give a sermon to the students of the Archiepiscopal Seminary. he bitterly complained to the brother for having permitted such a thing. they are the tive. but said to the lay-brother that he would lie down. &c. Seeing that he was discovered. let them Be atten tell it in secret to the monitor of the house. and having giving missions in the territory of Marianella. forced open the door. but fearing to disturb his sleep. He found him extended on his bed in a The doctors ordered fainting fit. and fearing some accident. which hindered him from breathing. till a merchant calling out his name. and prayer. sustain ourselves by vocation. and visited seve ral monasteries where he was invited. when they remark some little foxes the devil makes use of to devastate our mind. After the apostolic courses of the year 1751. and render us incapable of being solicitous to preserve our Let us.&quot. It was evening when he arrived.

&quot. of misery and persecution. January that the King. having fallen heir thousand ducats. &quot. made in the several houses. Deceived by what he had heard. consequence tions they had jesty.The Lord will make the Congregation prosper. to the protection Alphonsus had recourse of God. saw the house of the missionaries. &quot. and tried to obtain mercy by in creased mortifications. cipline &quot. but by means of poverty and con tempt. when have we ever seen whole Congregation. which threatened ruin. which is built on an emi nence. everywhere they spoke of the wealth the missionaries had acquired. not by the applause. the acquisi of orders in certain.and they have to no less than sixty will of the late others: a good hit there. is the house of F. and every one talked of their ambition and the certainty of the order be tempest so unexpected alarmed the ing suppressed. This same year a new annoyance had overtaken Alphonsus unexpectedly.Ah!&quot. by reciting in all the houses the psalm. while hunting in the territory of Iliceto. and caused him It happened towards the end of great anxiety. Qui habitat. But his Ma who could not doubt the integrity of Alphonsus. to as object of research to notaries from Naples. dence in God. said to his brethren: the works of God begin in the midst of applause?&quot. exhorting at the same time his brethren to join him in penance and prayer. He referred to the Canon Curate of Iliceto. their affairs were the and their subalterns. full of confi &quot. and asked one of his courtiers to whom it belonged. Liguori s missionaries. he replied.&quot. Con to he fiding in the integrity of his conscience. went Na ples. then are just they set themselves to acquire wealth. however. A Alphonsus. which was men said the King. all the court soon knew it. ALPHONSUS.&quot. was . the King conceived an unfavorable opinion of the scarcely do they begin.these made tioned above. he found the ministers too much prejudiced against the Congregation.It &quot.&quot. when Congregation. and taking a dis to those appointed in the addition in in common. like the &quot. They multiplied their alms and offered many masses. and the protection of princes.150 LIFE OF ST. In these critical circumstances. rule.

151 not slow to reflect on the improbability of his suspicions. and went to preach pen ance in the Archdiocese of Salerno. they thought of diminishing those already in existence. Among these was a celebrated bandit. reduced it to much less. but he did not lose courage. and abandoned the interests of his Congregation to the He piety of the King and the protection of Providence. Alphonsus was without any human support. Alphonsus could not get rid of uneasiness. particularly many of whom were seen deposit ing their daggers and pistols at the feet of the Blessed Virgin. and his great sincerity confirmed the King more and more in the high opinion he had of him. ALPHONSUS. After Easter. weeping so as to cause the whole people to shed tears of joy. he said that the souls of the blessed would defend his cause. he went to Gragnano. But even when calumny was exposed. procession to erect the calvary. attributed The reports made by the local authorities much less to each house than Alphonsus had done. All were inclined the to abolish it. accompanied by twenty-two mis quitted Naples. and rather than to consent to the establishment of new ones. 1752. carried one of the crosses on his shoulders. in the among the malefactors. the ministers were yet asking whether or not the Congregation should be suppressed. posele had each about five hundred ducats of revenue. in all a arrario-e O an account of the revenues of the different Alphonsus declared that the house of Iliceto had yearly rent of three hundred ducats. they thought the kingdom had already more than sufficient religious establishments. and said to the Marquis Brancone. and withdrew to sionaries. Nocera to prepare for the missions of autumn and winter. The Marquis embraced every opportunity of speaking with his . In the course of these missions. Alphonsus had written to the Marquis Brancone to intercede with the King.LIFE OF ST. and that the deductions made in consequence of different charges upon that those of Ciorani and Cait. who. Prodigies of grace were performed. and a small bit of garden ground.. that Alphonsus himself should houses. but that Nocera had only the bare walls.

showing him how very far become rich. &quot.I he was from wishing his Congregation Jo am persuaded. thousands that had been converted in his own royal domains that each year they had given more than forty missions. seeing . but was now Superior of a Carmelite Convent at Caporea. he represented to him that the Archbishop of Conza and Salerno. to urge upon them the im to secure through the celebrated Jesuit. and after listening with marked . but that it was also necessary that the ap probation of the sovereign should be given. he opened his heart to the King. who had been his penitent in the world. He visited also the ministers. told him how. &quot. and at length wrote to Alphonsus that matters were so arranged. I seek only to procure a modest livelihood. which he accordingly did as soon as the missions were fin He presented himself to the King. of the Pope. had approved the Institute for the whole Church.&quot. ALPHONSUS. in promoting the salvation of multi He spoke to them with tears.&quot. the good produced. to insure the As for the acquiring future existence of so^great a work. had established houses of missionaries and that the Pope. and seek only repose. and I beseech your revenue. informed of in their respective dioceses. beyond which we may course to the intervention of the according to the intention Majesty to establish a fixed He also had re not go. illustrious birth and extraordinary merits were not sufficient to protect him from insult. of what had been done. and the spade. Some rejected him with unpi- One minister in particular treated him tying bitterness. Francis Pipi. that he should come to Naples himself.that wherever abundance reigns. he and his companions had visited the most remote and destitute villages of the kingdom he told him of ished. of riches. . as this was the sole obstacle that the ministers could oppose. for nineteen years. to which the Queen often resorted. with the utmost rudeness. and the Bishops of Bovino and Nocera. Majesty. portance of this affair. he said.152 LIFE OF ST. the laborer will abandon the axe. which he managed and Mother Mary Angela of Divine Love. I would not wish that opulence should reign in the Congregation. Queen. but his tudes of people.

&quot. he had many masses said. &quot. 1752. incivility to &quot.&quot. He often preached in the Chinese College. and that this approbation will not be Indeed. His hope being thus fixed on Him. the special St. This decree caused great embarrassment to Alphonsus. Theresa. writing to believe. the king furnish ing each priest and lay-brother with about twenty cents (of our money) a day. the benedictions of Heaven. &quot.My Alphonsus bowed his head. because he feared the existence of the houses was still which their insecure. In the midst of these difficult affairs. the surplus revenue being to be distri buted to the poor. and wrote to many monasteries.Jesus Naples.&quot. to St. fited Joseph.&quot.&quot. the ministry. begging for prayers and novenas. as it were. affair He made finally was again proposed in the council.&quot. and the moveables already acquired be ing to be adrninisterered by the bishops of the dioceses in their houses were situated. not talk nonsense to almost turned him out of doors. who replied in the most contemptuous man Christ has no cause in the royal chambers. during which. I recommend to you the cause of woman. he wrote.I . on condition that they acquired no new revenues for the future. many old hundreds of infidels abjured their errors. and re-assured him on the subject. he did not forget the work to which he had devoted his life. On Jesus ner. ALPHONSUS. tially fulfilled prophecy he had made before. He gave a retreat in the church of the at Pilgrims. but the Marquis Brancone viewed it in another Thus was par light. and they were approved in November.that God will mortify my pride. Even his sojourn in that capital was a continual mission. and many convents pro by his labors.and tell your me. said. the king not recognising houses or colleges as ecclesiastical communities. besides the conversion of in sin. another occasion he said to one of Lord. in whom it can never be confounded. and multiplied his pen ances.&quot. he stories to some and said nothing.Do 153 what he old said. When the negociations approached a close. to force. it was not until the given until after I am dead. a Mary Angela of Capua: &quot. which detained him Christ.LIFE OF ST. and vows to the souls in purgatory. &quot.

In the year 1748. Alphonsus published his Moral Theology. and when he was not convinced. not satisfied with consulting the Fathers of his own Congregation.154 LIFE OF ST. which they wished to have printed. pernicious to souls. he left the reader Whenever at liberty to choose between them for himself. wishing to make every thing sinful. ALPHONSUS. as the organs of the Sovereign Pontiff. fruit of a pure zeal for the glory of the salvation of souls. At a later pe riod. after he was dead. the decisions of the most indulgent. this He was exceedingly careful to avoid the extremes of a re laxed probabilism. at the request of the Fathers of his Congregation. Attaching him self to no party. . but he followed throughout the line of exact equity. he sent to Rome and Naples for the opinions of the best the ologians. several times reproached the decisions of the most rigid theologians with relaxation. he When passed entire months in examining different opinions. next reign. whose images he had always before him. nor did he ever take up his pen without recommending* himself to Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin. and while he labored at it. and published it in two thick volumes. he respected all. he hesitated between two opinions. as too rigid. he never embraced or rejected any opinion without having This work was the God and double object in view. and hesitated not sometimes to reject. notwith standing his grave and multiplied embarrassments. and from that easy and accommodating spirit which gives liberty where there is precept. might consult them with facility. and principally to the Sacred Congregations which are at Rome. he enlarged this work. he had a difficult case to consider. enriched with notes. he had. but above all he revered He reason. equally free from that rigid spirit which turns into precept that which is not. or a rigid austerity. and made the authority of the Church his law. both of which are. who gave that they it Busembaum his approbation. that the Congregation was placed on a proper footing. which he dedicated to Benedict XIV. besides meditation and prayer. Towards the commencement of the year 1753.

seek not my own glory. to examine it with still more reflection before publishing a second edi tion. &quot. this great Pope would not give a &quot. when him a celebrated Neapolitan missionary came to consult on a difficult case. &quot. with out being disquieted by the reform.Let Some them say what they will. but contented himself with replying: the Father Liguori at Naples. such a high esteem for his wisdom. Their plan was. charmed with the zeal of Alphonsus. The Pope spoke prophetically. and the salvation of souls. he reviewed the whole. showed during this year how he was satisfied with the labors of Alphonsus and his companions. the ancient religious being permitted to retire in certain of their convents. this being Benedict XIV had case in these our times. did not agree in his retractations. also said these retractations credit. should take the habit and the name of the order in question. The King and the Queen were delighted with the idea.LIFE OF ST.&quot. proposed to his Majesty that he should undertake the reform of it. The project was advantageous . that he and his companions. have The King.&quot. respectable and very ancient order had and a holy individual. in order that the Congregation might thus be legally erected into a religious order in the kingdom. he corrected it in several points. Alphonsus begged the Marquis to give him time to consult with his companions before replying to the King. ALPHONSUS. A fallen into decay.I which we live shows how much and in what manner God blessed his labors and upright intentions. The respectable Congregations of Naples. but in all other countries. consult him. as he himself an nounces in the preface.&quot. 155 Notwithstanding the favorable reception the first edition of this work met with. Charles much III. bable. not only in Italy. and proposed to the Marquis Brancone to mention it to Al phonsus. to perpetuate the work of the missions. however. judging that the opinions which he retracted were sufficiently pro were not to his he replied. I seek only the glory of Jesus The present time in Christ. when he assured him of literally the universal approbation. that on one occasion.You decision. without abandoning their own rule.

besides some many dangers and contradictions to which the enterprise would expose them. though overpowered by at previous fatigue. and so much so. let us have recourse to God. sion. would only be seriously impeded. said: &quot. who laid his command on him and furnished all the expenses him self. The physician sent to his neighbors. Alphonsus refused. who had invited them. during the Novena of the Mount Carmel. a con Mari afterwards attested that siderable quantity remained. but they recognised that. They afterwards went at into the royal territory of Per- sano. the astonishment of Mari. Saragnano. In the feast for the favor his sovereign of month of July. he requested Alphonsus to dispense with the rule and allow him to serve fowls. applied to the King. and as they were not expected. and that if the King died before every thing was settled. put the meat you have on &quot. whose good . Alphonsus. but as he could get nothing. ! after the whole party had been abundantly served. and God will supply what is wanting. The autumn and winter of this year were fruitful in mis The inhabitants of Resina asked for a mis sions as usual. powerful considerations. the meat had increased at least seven-fold. said he smiling. the to her.&quot. respects. he had accepted to give Virgin.give yourself the table. instead of progress ing. ALPHONSUS. they saw the pieces becoming visibly larger. no further trouble.&quot. his Mother.No.&quot. but because of its proximity to Naples. although deeply grateful had shown him. one Thursday immediately before dinner. which.156 in LIFE OF ST. And lo while they were cutting the meat in the kitchen. the work of the missions. however. that. nothing was prepared for such a large party. showed how agreeable he was They were lodged in the house of a physician named Fran Twelve Fathers arrived cis Mari. always the expense of his Majesty. the ancient order con tinuing to exist. &quot. 1753. no. the people. they might find themselves some day nei From these and other ther missionaries nor religious. and never doubt his providence. he abandoned all idea of the scheme.In all embarrass seeing ments.

that Mgr. Joseph Fusco. the weather was beautiful and calm. but before they had proceeded far. whose example drew others to sacrifice them selves for God. Borgia s feet. sent them also frequent subsidies. To arrange matters. a thunder-storm came on. in order to second the measure. and the rain fell in torrents. It was in the year 1753. The two travellers expe rienced a special protection of God s providence. ALPHONSUS. who had offered to accompany him. Various Jllphonsus founds a house in the Pontifical States. who set out for Benevento with Mgr. loved and esteemed him. this year. to mourn over the death of F. Alphonsus sent F. Villani. the Archbishop of BeneA LTHOUGH XL to vento. Alphonsus had. 157 heart delighted in affording his subjects means of grace. Nicolas Bor gia. He besought the prayers of all. regarding him as a model of he roic sanctity. but the hour was come. . CHAPTER XVI. Bishop of Cava. approved by the Pope. who died at Caposele on the 13th of August. the Congregation had not yet entered the Pontifical States. that this great support of the Congregation might be spared. He himself wrote a short abstract of his life. he was persuaded so to do by his Vicar-General. convinced of the greatness of the work. adoring the decrees of God. and Alphonsus bowed in submission. and many bishops contributed liberally towards the expenses of the mission. D. Sicily. When they set out. Prayer and mortification were his two in separable companions he was the director of Alphonsus. He Cafaro. to supply the necessities of his vast diocese. He founds a house in apostolical courses and labors. Twice within a short time a thunderbolt fell at Mgr. the light ning flashed. applied Alphonsus for the establishment of a house of the order in it. without 14 .LIFE OF ST. The Marquis Brancone. Pacca.

and thank him as the author of a work so salutary for the people. by the hair of his head. The Archbishop was first so charmed with the resujts of their labors. Angelo della Coupola. which he agreed to do in November following. there was such a concourse of priests and gentlemen. It was at this time a discussion took place between Al phonsus and a polemic. a retreat given to the students. he would confide the interests of and offered every assistance in his power to promote the building of the establishment. He invited him to give a mission at Benevento himself. regular and secular. who slept four in a room. when he was only Archbishop. with a gag in his mouth. that he went to Nocera to visit Alphonsus. that hearing one of his soldiers swear by the blood of Jesus Christ. set \ . and another given in the cathedral during a great drought. and resolved to pass the night before the door rather than not hear Alphonsus. hurting him in the least. God.158 LIFE OF ST. but at her power. The Archbishop declared that it was to him. 1755. ALFHONSUS. but they would not return. that his adversary. F. the Fathers were to lodge in the mean time in a country-house formerly in habited by Benedict XIII. Alphonsus having now resided at Nocera several years. As soon as his arrival was known. after his diocese. nor his companion. and to prevent delay. and also to a part of the seminarists. in the corridors. in which they were established on the 6th of April. who was displeased by his cen sures on Muratori for having shown himself too reserved in exalting Mary and speaking of his answered attacks mildly. to warn them that there was no more room. At Bene~ vento it was decided they should be established at St. Rossi invited him to give a retreat at Ciorani during Passion Week. Alphonsus the snme time so convincingly. The Prince of Castellaneta was there with twelve officers of his regiment. a disciple of Jansenius. he condemned him to be tied to a pole. that mes sengers had to be despatched in different directions. for a whole week. or on mattresses The Count d Aguila was so touched by grace. three hours morning and evening. and anany gentlemen.

himself all at once to attack his Moral Theology. reformation of manners of this mission were so great that the renown of it reached Rome. and entire resigned to the will of God. and fortified ments and As he could no longer full of joy. in three volumes. he asked days. not sparing But the moderation with which Alphon- eus confounded his adversary. drew upon him the esteem of all Italy. It was at this time that to render priests. more skilful in hear ing confessions. and Cardinal Orsini wrote to Alphon sus. became models of arrived at &quot. and adding three interesting appendices for the direc tion of souls. Alphonsus went. He went by Naples. and still more by fatffrue. The work met with great applause at home. .LIFE OP ST.&quot. where he found ill. her by his counsels during three delay his mission. and numerous malefactors. ALPHONSUS. so that a general succeeded. In the course of the autumn. as he had promised. that the Pope had been so satisfied with what he had fruits The heard. when they saw him there. He piety. 159 his very person. particularly thrffee in remote parts of the country. 1755. to give a mission at Benevento. giving it a new but abridged form. that he spoke himself to the tain Duke of Cerisan to ob from his Majesty an exequatur to the brief of approba tion given to the Congregation. Alphonsus published his Moral Theology in Italian. Benevento has been sanctified. A prelate who was present wrote thus: is long since we have seen such truly apostolic men one can form no idea of the effects they produce. his mother dangerously but he had the consolation of seeing her delivered from ly the scruples which had formerly tormented her. that her son left her only to conquer souls for Jesus Christ. The voice of the holy missionary was weakened by age. and set out for Benevento. con soled by seeing his mother dying the death of the just. Benevento accompanied by twenty missionaries. All souls profited by his labors.It . her parting benediction. He administered the sacra to her. but the sight of his zeal was sufficient to soften the hardest hearts and melt them like wax.

and when for it became known out of title in foreign countries increased. in order to kiss his hand but he humbled himself interiorly. but above all. exercises in a hall of to give the spiritual the palace to the ecclesiastics. and entire religious communities. who knew the talent God had given him of touching hearts. The Cardinal Sersales. and also those who kept them in their houses] . he pointed out to the Cardinal the great evils produced by the introduction of impious books. the young people of the seminary. this occasion saw canons.160 LljE it OF ST. he insisted on his return ing to preach to them once a week. to confirm them more and more in the good resolutions they had formed. caused by the doctrines of the materialists and deists propagated in Italy. as guilty of grave sin. those who sold such books. and experienced indescrib able satisfaction in seeing such a concourse of penitents. besought him He expected only the known young students. The directors of the seminaries in the town and in the diocese Alphonsus on arid . and enveloped himself in his mantle to escape observation. superiors of orders. condemning. and the demand he wrote a similar one in Latin under the of &quot. also entreated him to grant them the same favor. so that he often preached two and three times in one day. Homo apostolicus. pressing to the door of the saloon. there ran thither such multitudes of canons. and urged him to remonstrate with the King rfnd the ministers on this subject. The disorders of which Naples. To inspire the people with horror for such productions. which passed from Naples into the pro vinces. that the number of those who attended was not less than a thou sand. When the Cardinal saw the effect he had produced on. Italy. but as soon as he was to be there. like all other capitals.&quot. caused much pain to Alphonsus. ALPHONSUS. missionaries. the increase of homicide. Deploring the sad consequences which he foresaw would accrue from these doctrines to the Church and the State. was not free. His Eminence assisted. even bishops. Different affairs connected with the Congregation obliged him to go to Naples towards the end of February. 1756. he spoke openly from the pulpit.

The court was then at St. but scarcely had he reached the house. left him no repose. he spread is it over his bed. see now. the invitations of curates for Triduos.&quot. his learned treatise of the defence of Religion and of the State. Lauro. Father.&quot. and obtain at length the On the tenth of the exequatur of the Apostolic brief. and the convents.&quot. They invited him to visit a beautiful reliquary they preserved in their church. ordering a Novena to be made for the success of this affair. adding: &quot. and he wished of the Congregation detained him at the to assure himself more and more of the protection of the King. He 14* . a work which was well received. and while he bent forward for this purpose. it very short. On this. large piece off his mantle. Galdieri. 1756.The fact is.&quot. replied the &quot. and found to be particularly useful against the sophists who tried to pervert the minds of the people and sap the foundations of their faith. who had accompanied him: &quot. against the materialists and deists. he replied. In the beginning of July. in walking. as on former occasions. Alphonsus returned to Nocera in Holy Week. when he was called away by the queen-mother. . in confusion. he wrote to the different houses.It mantle your own. as it was cold.Yes. he said &quot.I prehend how.Lauro wished to obtain a piece of his clothing. The nuns of the monastery of St. he went again to Naples. 1756.LIFE OF ST. one of the pensioners came behind and cut a In the evening.the Nuns have played you that trick. who wished to consult him on affairs of conscience.&quot. but finding is it yours?&quot. is &quot. always felt something striking against my leg. 161 he spoke also to the most respectable ecclesiastics and confessors. ALPHONSUS. and a discipline every evening. advising them to devise means to warn the He also published faithful against the anifices of impiety. They hit on the following expe dient. I thefts were committed when he stopped in any place. interests The court. and instructions for the people. I could not com not mine. and begged him to give it to each of them to kiss.This to F. &quot. it would require an old clothes shop to mend It was not seldom such it. same month.

and had the pleasure of despatching a number of his mission aries to Calabria in November. This work was so much admired. says of it: &quot. In salvation of souls. Alphonsus.. method and wisely Alphonsus remained at Naples during the following month. we see the wise follows a man who seeks the He reasonable. and moderation. 1756. entitled. Confessor to exercise his Ministry well. the opinion of Mgr. as a physician. of his History of Literature. gentleness and moderation.&quot. proposed to send the missionaries at his own expense into Calabria. At time Carmin Ventapane. gentleness.It And Fr. rejoiced exceedingly. Among others. Galiani. each of these characters.What a precious book! the poison contained in the Instructions to Confessors and Penitents. he himself went with fourteen God blessed it in a others to give a mission at Amalfi. and under bull. who knew the destitution of these provinces. . a wealthy and zealous man. all is Men. console Alphonsus. and as a judge. we . . published by Occhi. took several opportunities of assuring him that he might rely on his continued protection. speaks thus It is an antidote against it: &quot. one of the first physicians in Naples. should But the King. which smooths the way just for penitence. as a teacher. While they labored successfully in that province. most remarkable manner. Zaccharie.&quot. charity. but notwithstanding all his endeavors. &quot. Liguori breathes a it but charity. prevailed. it pretence that the King. in the 12th vol. in granting the exequatur 10 the would not be free to suppress the Congregation.. the Grand Almoner. The see&quot. The author of the Dictionary of Illus breathes a divine unction. there were two . most learned men went the length of saying that he could not have composed it without the special assistance that the trious of his guardian angel. it . in practice of F. the only pro vince of the kingdom which had not been benefited by the this labors of the Congregation.162 LIFE OF ST. to degenerate. giving rules of conduct proper to for the published also at this time a little work.Method In it he considered the Confessor as a father.&quot. ALPHONSUS. the petition was refused. what a difference between of these two books! divine unction.

who amused themselves by imitating the tone of his voice and his gestures. peopled entirely by women of bad character. another shock was felt. thither. do you know how many Bishops are damned because of the Seminaries? This will be your fate. which were He preached characterised by libertinism and effrontery. so violent that the flambeaus and the chandeliers were over turned. The Bishop was for reforming these disorders by gentle means. was converted.. that they seemed too great to be remedied. soon as we shall be gone. He went. ALPHONSUS. 163 suburbs in this town. when a terrified all ran violent shock frightened the whole town. Tamborines and streets. who were the ruin of the inhabitants. without exception. and the fled to the people and while he recalled to them the prediction of Alphonsus. amendment. The evening before they Alphonsus said in his sermon We are as much fatigued in laboring for you. and ordered church.LIFE OF ST.Mgr. lous God was left. in which the disorders had risen to such a deplorable height. him in the reform of his Seminary. The most awful truths of hell and eternity were but subjects of ridicule for many.&quot. a devil will come down from the mountain to destroy the fruit of this mission. and look well to it. was set loose for the to the ring. Lislen to me. who was the play begun. with such force against these disorders. and the con tempt for it which they had shown. It is attested that every one. for you will draw upon yourselves Next day a buffalo the chastisement of an earthquake. The Bishop ran the priests to give absolution to all. but to-morrow. way in order to pleased to concur in a miracu confirm the good done in this place. that the young people piled these instruments in front of the cathedral and burned them. but Alphonsus said: &quot. but for several to aid From Amalfi he was days he might as well have preached to the walls. and a scourge to all strangers. if you . Carracciolo. called to Nola by Mgr. Thus a new testimony was given to the truth of the words of Alphonsus. and persevered in her the guitars were common in and gave occasion to scandalous dances. The Bishop himself became alarmed. but scarcely amusement of the people.

continued his work without paying any attention to what he said.&quot. but when the Bishop heard it was Alphonsus. The reform was general. and when Alphonsus repeated his request. all were suddenly seized with terror. and a day of retreat each month. he was told to inquire his name. Alphonsus rose without showing any annoyance.I went on sweeping. that becoming manner. most turbulent fled. again begged he would inform his master. he began to mutter in bad humor. and what he wanted. he estab morning meditation. with other practices of piety. to inform his master of his arrival. learning began also to flourish. and. why don t you rise?&quot. On arriving at the palace of the Bishop.&quot. and when he had finished sweeping. do not change your system and employ rigor to banish the evil. and the practice of Christian mortification. he requested a servant who was sweeping the saloon. to From Nola he went the diocese of Cerreto. calling first to to another for different articles of attire. ajid the remainder were filled with humility and repentance. visits to the Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Virgin in the evening. A change so unexpected was regarded as the fruit of his prayers and penances. seeing an ill-dressed individual with a long beard. and when the exercises had nearly finished. lished Alphonsus. during his long life. The valet.164 LIFE OF ST. The man. He continued to preach. always took a deep interest in it. must finish this. ALPHONSUS. if he could not go in person. he said: &quot. . in spite of the ridicule which still con Four of the tinued. and &quot.Don t you see me here. sent his missiona ries every year to give a retreat. and this Seminary became after wards eminent for the learning of those educated there. he got up one and then he might receive him in a in a great hurry. others asked to be dismissed. as he approached where Alphonsus sat. All began to frequent the Sacra ments. When the morals were thus reformed. and even those who had been among the worst. He prescribed Novenas in honor of Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin. The servant went and merely said a poor man wanted to speak to the Bishop. went to communion several times a week.

hand. followed by gelise his Towards poor vassals. but while praying. when the with tears avowed what had happened. asking pardon for what he had done. the Prince John Filomarino having besought him to send them to the more remote parts of it at his own expense. to recommend herself to God. he had been at the same time present at Nocera. Alphonsus laughing good humoredly at the whole affair. the missionaries returned from numerous letters of thanks and sup for more missions. who called her to the door of the sacristy. Before their departure. know he is and gave me this money in her When the porter denied this. In the month of November plications he sent again two detachments into the same province. here. How and you have told Naples. but after being called repeatedly. you have said the superior was at here. the end of May. seeing all this. he came and threw himself at the feet of Alphonsus. ing in when he was confessing in the house and preach the church at the same moment. the and she showed what she held The porter. at first he Monsignor sought for the Bishop. demanded an explanation.I lies? is it that people call you a saint. Alphonsus valet to could not be found. she heard her protector. From Cerreto he returned to Naples. The valet desiring to say mass. gate her. astonished. ran to inform Rector. and convinced themselves that while laboring in Naples. and Alphonsus gave them his . 165 ran in great fear to hide himself. A woman whom life. A similar miracle happened in one of the missions at Amalfi. The woman on leaving the church said to the porter: &quot. for he called me just now. who came with others of the Fathers to interro .LIFE OF ST. sad and disappointed.&quot. It was whilst he Was staying there that the following example of bilocation occurred. she went to the church. abandoned for alms. serve him.&quot. and gave her the accustomed alms. to evan Calabria. was in the habit this Being told he had reclaimed from an of coming every Saturday time Alphonsus had gone to Naples. beseeching her to re main faithful to God. the Blessed Sacrament was exposed. ALPHONSUS. and he is she said: &quot. stopping the woman.

which was pre Martyr served there. I who have offended God so much. I myself owe the grace of being enabled to quit the world. The fruits of this mission were of long standing. benediction.&quot. to the light I then received. &quot. ask to come and you live.166 LIFE OF ST. This was sufficient. the support of the house of Ciorani. and one of to his oldest companions. but notwith standing. called to Naples. Father had formerly been miraculously restored to health by the prayers and faith of Alphonsus. Alphonsus having requested this favor from . came to cast themselves at his feet. and the greatest sinners. desiring to vene rate the blood of the Stephen. Father Galdieri.&quot. In January. who accompanied St. almost envying their happiness at being sent on such a mission. &quot.&quot. touched to the heart and deeply contrite.Invoke When him that the doctors despaired of his recovery. ALPHONSUS. bless this malady and chase it away. Long after. he went himself with twenty of his companions to Salerno. In the course of this mission. and gave Gaudiosa there occurred a circumstance too remarkable to be omitted. F. when I see this holy religious doing penance for me. Alphonsus was many monasteries. But if he had reason deplore his premature death. sobbing convulsively. Alphonsus had to bewail the loss of F. Pento had become bishop of Tricarico.The benefit was great and permanent. the aspect of the whole town was changed. His voice was too weak to be heard through all the extent of the cathedral. Xavier Rossi. During Lent. that greater effects could not have been All agreed produced even by the Apostles themselves. him. he had more reason to This same rejoice in his having died the death of a saint. the geople were dissolved in tears. In that of St. the conversions innumerable and astonishing. he wrote to he was told him: the peace of Jesus Christ. I will that and labor for the Rossi was cured. One in particular. when Mgr. he wrote in reference to this mission: &quot. 1758. exclaimed. beginning with the highest and going down to the lowest. retreats in Congregation.How should I not weep.

when the blood liquified and became of a vermillion color. Wait a little. F. especially by this said in which you have taken your passage. and in a few days a priest came from Mormanno. and I shall see her to-morrow. and brought him another in . the duchess will recover. as the following instance proves. this time. and you can return on his mule. Invited by the Provincial of the Jesuits to dine at their convent. and all happened as Alphonsus had said.&quot. they 167 relic. and also when Alphonsus had still to to correct some proof-sheets which the printer waited for. to the was never great astonishment of all present. and desired instantly to speak with him. and that of the discovery of his relics. Alphonsus in censed it. recite One evening. in a few days some priest or other will arrive who has travelled by land.&quot. went in procession to bring the precious and placed it near the tabernacle.Go. he was sent for in all haste to assist a certain duchess who was believed to be in ex He tremity. On account became of all these extraordinary Alphonsus the object of universal veneration and respect. but he only humbled himself more and more. and had recourse to the following contrivance. was wrecked in the Gulf of Policastro.. that the for Calabria. and tell the duke I am prevented from coming. ship. and all on board had perished. : . But this was not all the vessel in which he had taken his pas sage. replied to the messenger: &quot. gifts. although the case the duchess recovered. ALPHONSUS. these Fathers were anxious to have something that had been worn by him. his office. for this miracle known to occur except on two occasions. and two minutes had scarcely elapsed. A few days after. was thought desperate. an event occurred much similar to the It was about &quot.LIFE OP ST. the nuns. but bid him take courage. sail same Father being about to one evening Alphonsus called him and I wish you would not go by water. foregoing. the day of the celebration of his martyrdom. Galdieri obeyed. During the night. They remarked that his cinc ture was completely worn out.

their eyes to the truth. darted from the statue of the Virgin and rested on the figure of Alphonsus. who was elevated some height from some grace. of the sect of the Nestorians. an4 a novena for Christmas. Being besought by the inhabitants of Amain to preach the novena of the Assumption. fastened the new one around him. he went. and in of these people. and caus many remarkable conversions. many of the people of Asia. their intention to re-unite themselves to the Catholic faith. This letter was responded to by all. and as usual gath ered much fruit. One evening. Joseph. he prayed to the Blessed Virgin for all present. having opened. in a work entitled &quot.&quot. should inform him of their desire.168 the LIFE OF ST. The Cardinals of him for know ing the zeal of Alphonsus and the devotedness of his mis sionaries. asked workmen to labor for the salvation He agreed to their proposition. It met with great success. hope of retaining the old one. Roman Church. every one . at the end of the sermon. producing ing throughout the kingdom the effect of a mission. like a sunbeam. him more the About this time he gathered together the most important maxims of our holy religion. He gave then also to the public nine discourses with meditations for Advent. and be instructed in the the Propaganda.Prepara tion for death. St. all of which works In the year 1758. asking that those desirous of gaining the crown presented to them by the Lord in this work of so great difficulty. to in July of the same year wrote to the different houses form them of the circumstance. and considerations for the seven days which precede the feast of had wonderful success. to excite a tender devotion towards the great mystery of the Incarnation and make its grandeur be comprehended. but Ire. declared to Clement XIII. ALP-HONSUS. when the pulpit. without taking off the old. giving appearance of a seraph than of a man. and then besought his auditory to beseech her to bestow upon him instantly a bright light. his face glowed as fire. guessing their design. also a novena in honor of the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

and had till it always mind to claim their services. resembled children. going his to Sicily. for he was careful to inquire regularly at the postoffice for the expected supplies. and Alphonsus was rilled with consolation at witnessing such zeal. the circum stances which interfered to prevent it are unknown. A to write in his name to different dioceses. requesting pe cuniary assistance. which had been attempted by different zealous priests. 169 being eager to give his life for Jesus Christ. applied In the year 1759. with the aid of another very important work. Alphonsus shed tears on 15 . rather a stable for the body and a hell for the soul. in to Alphonsus to have the assistance of his missionaries in his diocese. this About missionaries. and with twenty ducats. which was by mismanagement reduced to a most miserable condition. This project however was never put in execution. viz: the reform of a royal hospital for female foundlings at Gaeta. the younger to the care hundred in number. about four . so that every thing about the place breathed only misery and sin and this establishment. The case being represented to the King. being entrusted of the older ones. both temporally and spiritually. and liberally furnished with every thing from the hospital of the Annunciation at Naples. he. ^Alphonsus undertook. wrote their letters with their own blood. charged them with the reform. Bishop of Girgenti. He had met him in previously in Naples. the following curious circumstance made him think of it in earnest. but without success. ALPHONSUS. how ever. Sicily. knowing the zeal of Alphonsus and his missionaries. and large sums were obtained in this way.LIFE OF ST. and thus the cheat was dis covered but the correspondence ended in the missionaries . he was forestalled by the lay-brother who had charge of their affairs at this prelate Naples. Thirty of the Some even novices offered themselves also for the work. who received a letter from to Alphonsus wrote him to thank him for his bounty. time. founded by piety. On one occasion. Lucchese. swindling Neapolitan took advantage of the veneration in which Alphonsus was so universally held. Mgr.

replying also to the objections of adversaries who refused this power to the Pope. hearing of such misery. On the other hand the incident made a great noise. in which he demonstrated the necessity of interdicting the sale of dangerous works. He himself says in the preface to it. Alphonsus sending often Fathers who remained there six months at a time. The Marquis Tanucci was displeased that such a work had been printed. and all virtues were practised. the Great Means of Prayer. sent the Fathers Mazzini. and after a Gajano. one in the hands of each. Prohibition of Bad Books. 1st.. tion vexed Alphonsus. 2d. Vincent of Paul. he accepted the commission. may be it said to be the essence of the soundest was regarded as a chef-d oeuvre by the most theology learned theologians of Naples and Rome. at Naples. had not ceased to prohibit and destroy them. which had been previously so little known. . and without the slightest other This representation intention to give offence to the King. 1759. work not of months but of years. who represented to the minister and members of the council. to the delight of Alphonsus and the great satisfaction of the King. and produced immediate benefit. was as water thrown on the fire. Of the just in order to be able to place &quot.170 LIFE OF ST. this asylum was at length con verted from abandoned wretchedness into a little paradise. and sent immediately the agents of police to the This persecu different booksellers to seize all the copies. a learned dissertation entitled. that he wished to have the means to print as many copies of it as there are men in the world. with the aid of four skilful sisters from the hospital of St. was the eagerly sought after. as the best qualified to carry it into execution and. and proved that the Church. the neglect of prayer being the cause of the ruin of all the damned. that he had published the work only to obviate great evils. several works calcu lated to promote this end. silence and recollection reigned. from her birth. that the booksellers raised .&quot. and the book. Fiocchi. and arranging a plan. Always burning with the desire of saving souls. Alphon sus published about this lime. This book . where prayer and mortification.

but also to seculars. and the Fathers. 1760. and to animate them in making it the object of their be under the title of Silva of Matters to he preached. the Spouse of Jesus Christ. but the more they endeavored to reach the Sicilian shore. they set sail a second time. secretly printed in the course of many True more copies two nights. they were overtaken by a violent tempest. and of the virtues proper to the ministers of Jesus Christ.LIFE OP ST. simply stated according to the writings of the Holy Evangelists. Blasucci. the more the powers of hell seemed to set all in the sea a storm . to aid preachers in acquitting themselves with success in the exercise of preaching and giving missions. where they were forced to run aground. and the vessel was thrown back into the Gulf of When Naples. Superior. notwithstanding his weakness caused by excessive fatigues and many infirmities. They embarked under a cloudless sky. published while he was in Naples. and others. gave an admirable work. during Lent. which drove them into the Straits of Procida. and F. its end and sanc tity. 5th. 4th. when they were opposite Palermo. having now been agreed upon. to 171 supply the demand. Reflections and affections on the Passion of Jesus Christ. 3d. published about this time a collection of instructions extracted from the Holy Scriptures. the Canons. give the exercises in retreats. by means of which ecclesiastics could meditation. In it he treats of the practice of all Christian virtues. Alphonsus sent a colony towards the middle of September. The third part contains the principal rules of pop ular eloquence. only to monks and nuns in particular. price.LPHONSUS. Francis Pentimalli. but at the moment they were about to land.&quot. composed two of F. All the arrangements necessary for the foundation at Gir- genti in Sicily. and their gives lessons by which all may profit according to state. In the first and second parts he treats of the sacerdotal dignity. A. became calm. useful not retreats in several convents . &quot. and the vessel was soon in sight of Palermo . and. but again came on. they made a third attempt. and. a book admirably calculated to imprint deeply in the hearts of the faithful the Passion of Jesus Christ.

then turned away. when he was seized by a violent This loss fever. seeing it impossible. Two vessels from the Levant had been shipwrecked near the port of Messina. All this was seen by Alphonsus in spirit. ALPHONSUS. F. and at the moment of their danger. halted at St. like an old soldier who wishes nothing so much as to die sword in hand. this scene could not comprehend it. but another annoyance awaited them. and they said so to Alphonsus in order to calm him. a third tempest was let loose upon the unfortunate boat. which carried him off in three days. that the passengers were hopeless of escaping. while he raised his tearful eyes to heaven: &quot. Pentimalli being one of his best missionaries. went to . to proceed. and sighed. After their departure.My poor children!&quot. Alphonsus. dren The tempest lasted more than twenty-four hours. he was heard to cry. &quot. to motion oppose them. the vessel when being so much damaged. On the third day the vessel dead than alive. for they believed the Fathers had arrived in Sicily long before. He approached the window. and the joy of be imagined. he still continued to sigh and to repeat. ing at length of the safe arrival of the and their joyful reception. afflicted Alphonsus deeply. and for fear of the plague all communication with Sicily was forbidden.My poor children! my poor children!&quot. The missionaries had hardly taken a little breath in safety after their fatigues and dangers. but without success. Euphemia. Again they neared Palermo. being tossed about. more prayers of Alphonsus. &quot. for the moment. when he saw his dear children Father Pentimalli. looked^at the weather.My poor chil !&quot. his native place. at length was nearly lost between the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia. with great difficulty reached Baja. But this affliction was softened by hear others at Girgenti. still Those who witnessed repeating.172 LIFE OF ST. their safety was an evident miracle wrought by the The terrified missionaries. when they were ^gain despatched to embark anew. but scarcely had he arrived. Alphonsus may once more in safety. which. took the way to Nocera.

&quot. ALPHONSUS.&quot. Galdieri to give him the shirt the Saint took off after the sermon. He Lent. and during the voyage by sea they passed several fishing vessels. Catharine. Marcellina. 173 The Lord. whose crews had been The poor people com casting their nets without success. and besought Alphonsus to bless the sea. wish to Alphonsus then made the sign of replied the young girl. fidence in the merits of Alphonsus. cut pieces from his mantle. when the fish appeared in myriads. in order to show the favor with which He re garded him. strangers. a saint. vent of St. The town was ravaged by an epidemic which seemed to A canon who had great con defy the power of medicine. Catha rine Spinelli. who precipitated themselves upon him to get his benediction. while some. she became a nun.&quot.&quot. and their vessels were loaded. he was the object of such veneration. and returned from. and preached with great success. he visited her &quot. : phonsus shirts have immediately been cured. the church.You will live. as well as . the cross upon her and said: &quot. war against the enemies of God. armed with scissors. &quot.I he said. She was instantly cured after some and attained a high degree of . Al so. when she was almost on the point of expiring. he found one of the pupils. He accord At the con ingly went. time. The nuns of Conca besought him to come and give a sermon to their community. and scarcely had he done so. begged F. &quot. After finishing the exercises at Amalfi. several convents of nuns at Naples besought him to visit them. performed several miracles through his hands. would you wish to live. but you must become sanctity. on the old field of Amalfi. dangerously ill . plained bitterly of their ill-luck. When he went to. he replied During this mortal epidemic. or die?&quot. all those who have put on one of F.LIFE OF ST. live. He did another always being brought in exchange. that the canons were obliged to escort him to save him from the pressure of the crowd. to a when he gave a retreat great many students and 15* returned again to the capital during the following in the church of Purgatory priests. On being asked what he did with them.

had long struggled against the grace that had been calling him He applied to himself the words of to a religious life. He published also a letter addressed to a religious. a work in which he showed the necessity of observing the holy rubrics. : here. When dying. and who flatterest thyself that thou canst be saved in the world as well as in a convent. and his extreme desire that all should strive to excel in the same. attentive to the fitting celebration of the holy mysteries. he told his friends what had happened in the church of the Holy Spirit. ALPHONSUS. he sud preaching thou who enterest denly exclaimed in a transport sion. At that moment. he published. and every one admired the high degree of sacred eloquence which he possessed. He also gave missions in theMiflerent parishes.174 LIFE OF ST. On one occa the the church of in Holy Spirit. who. how far thou art wandering! but ere long thou shalt come to a deplorable end. unhappy that thou art. on the manner of preaching Jesus crucified. But and yet Alphonsus. &quot. a young Calabrian had entered the church. He sent this of religious orders. and letter to all the superiors avoiding the vain ornaments of a florid style. with evangelical simplicity. he dared to smile at the menace. during this visit to Naples. led away by his passions. and scandals disappeared. . so as to preach Jesus Christ and effec tually gain souls for him. a month had scarcely elapsed. Inflamed with the desire of seeing priests Neapolitans.&quot. he preached penance in the barracks. when he was killed by a musket shot. and gives salutary instructions on the dispositions with which the holy sacrifice ought to be celebrated. Besides this retreat.

irre sistibly forces us. what purpose have we withdrawn into the Congre &quot. saying: which makes us respected by the people it is this which gains and attracts sinners. heard to say to them and for What have we to do in the world.&quot.The war? It makes me ready to die. &quot.&quot.Our the same as that employment. He who has not the spirit of Jesus Christ. &quot. A _1JL LPHONSUS Laden with was now nearly seventy years of age. and missionary. exercised by Jesus Christ himself and His Apostles. particularly relating to his quality of Founder of a religious order. we follow him in this new career.LIFE OF ST. as he had successively been a perfect model of a fervent and become perfect layman. but God had ordained otherwise. however haughty and proud .is I see a priest in any thing that concerns the honor of God. since he has given for anxiety enemies without His life for us. If sin be not pursued by us. ALPHONSUS. let us relate But before some of his maxims and Superior and His first care was to inspire his missionaries with a true Therefore he was often zeal for the salvation of souls. if not to devote ourselves to the glory of God ? are his adopted children.&quot.lphonsus XVII. ecclesiastic. and more than all others We ought to fight in the first ranks against his life or death. viz: that he should be raised to the episcopal dignity. And love of Jesus Christ constrains us. nor the zeal of the different about Apostles. : gation. to love Him and make others love Him.It is this virtue Next he required humility. actions. infirmities. against whom shall we make again: &quot. when &quot. he wants . he believed himself already at the end of his course. he used to say. and a perfect model of a fervent and zealous bishop. 175 CHAPTER J3. If the missionary wants humility. they may be. in his quality of Founder Maxims and Conduct and Superior of a Religious Order. is riot fit for this ministry.&quot.

not put ourselves entirely under them. in have already seen how much he insisted. our missions. &quot. and if we do. him who resists possible. &quot. humility towards each other. Having heard.&quot. Every other his eyes. We .&quot. superior. speaking of the humility and submission due to bishops. he punished him immediately. result a vessel guided by several pilots can hardly escape shipwreck.all he said. had been appointed for he since that it was plained long This was enough. at Another characteristic he exacted from his missionaries. the principal sermon in the evening. for is how can God he said. and sent him at once to make the fullest apology for his conduct. with whom they came in more it is not immediate contact. . . He was willing that every diffi culty which he might not have foreseen should be pointed inexcusable. LIFE OF ST. without obedience is wanting is .If in a religious institute. forward. but he required that it should be the least intention of resisting.176 all. and more especially towards have respected and failing superiors. possible that God will bless &quot. He also exacted from his missionaries. &quot. confusion.&quot. and particularly curates. that he abandoned the Congregation. he was not allowed to preach at all and he was so vexed for disorders. on one occasion. if we fail in respect and humility towards the heads of the churches. on mortification and austerity with regard to He gave once a severe reprimand to and imposed a food.&quot. and trouble will be the wanting. that a missionary had shown a want of submission to a bishop. and I know not whether the evil he not will do will not be greater than the aid good he pretends Him?&quot. he considered them unfit to be employed.It to do. was a spirit of mortification and a love of suffering. or at least she will make a very dangerous It was enough for any one to push himself voyage. A Father once com in order to be forgotten.&quot. Resistance out to the done simply. the possibility of never appearing in the pulpit again. whose will he would fulfilled irl was pardonable without delay. With out these qualifications. missions. but this he considered on this point was always filllowed by expulsion. ALPHONSUS.

He forbade with the same severity. when they would have been surprised. the capital of the missionary. said becomes with regard to food or lodging. they will be edified by your firmness. he. I will no longer send him on missions.&quot.&quot. whom they ought and without this is necessary if holy reproach we would produce good. and forbade the others to interfere. He disliked less &quot. will even appear displeased. we let them perceive in us a thousand faults.I recommend. that they may conceive and also It one whatever. and rigorously exacted that no discontent should be shown if that fails. he said. and a most zealous missionary.&quot.not to seek relaxation with any necessary to be civil. between what was are in their house. for a very slight deviation from &quot. above all in him who preached the evening sermon. and a Father took the liberty of asking that his morsel might be roasted. whoever he might be.&quot. Health. and above all they remark the &quot. still all familiarity and intimacy with laymen. had you yielded.Men the regulations he had established on this point. as preserve esteem for the missionaries. . Alphonsus reprimanded him on the instant.&quot. conduct of missionaries. At the mission of Salerno they had every day rancid cheese. He distinguished. Father Villani. they fail. He abhorred the slightest appearance of delicacy. but always decline. and talk of things not spi ritual. bankrupt. 177 penance on. unworthy as it is of the sacred character of the ministry. well in missions as at home. And again: &quot. in to find men . of the world. pay more attention to what is done than to what is said.&quot. all species of unnecessary visits.LIFE OF ST.&quot. &quot. When we hold too much conver sation with people of the world. although he was an old man. &quot. however. ALPHONSUS.They will not and entreat. &quot. he is said. and could he endure any species of idle discourse. but also to be serious. and perhaps have made you the subject of raillery. and a reasonable care for health. which hinders the success of the mission If any one neg lects to correct himself on this point. with every one. if you refuse what they offer. to insist when you he But he charged the Superior to attend to that.

and he compared to balloons filled with air.He who does not preach Christ crucified. He insisted on reasons and v not on words. said. known for their loose and his simple eloquence.&quot. Alphonsusdeceives himself. and clear and solid reasons too. ALPHONSUS. preaching Gospel. &quot. Miserable wretches. Preaching being one great means of laboring for the conversion of sinners. and many who study Dante and He was will expiate their folly in purgatory.&quot. Carnovale having once been present at a sermon of Alphonsus. while yet very young. (and how should they.When the devil wishes to hinder the prehend of the he makes use of such he said. puifed up with their own impor fine discourses which they could hardly com themselves.This when he heard is time mon was bitterly.understood rhetoric better. he beheld thousands . chose ordinary comparisons in His parables the preacher ought to propose to himself is to persuade and to move. He desired they should in every sermon preach Christ crucified.&quot. &quot. preachers. preaches himself. &quot. Alphonsus was anxious that his missionaries should acquit themselves well in this work. weeping and sobbing crowds of young men. but He disliked studied and as far-fetched com to the recommended such were suited people. made &quot. not for having hidden their talents in the earth. he &quot.&quot. Mgr. parisons. were converted by finished. If the people be not convinced. good.&quot.Jesus Christ. &quot. He The end What would Boccacio suit Boccacio.178 LIFE OF ST. as we have already seen. no He tance. and they will not forsake sin. but for having drawn no profit from them. to paralyze its effects. than we. those who. yet to be better comprehended by the multitude.&quot. if they do not understand?) they will form no good resolutions. and as is confirmed by the following testimony. if he thinks But when the ser to touch rocks with such mild words. &quot. himself. violates his ministry. lost. will not suit in a preacher of the Gospel. he said. himself a perfect model of this apostolic simplicity. irregular conduct.&quot. and does required a simple and popular style that every one could understand. they will be condemned. he said to his simple and gentle manner: F.

he delayed giving him faculties. and cer tainly have neither the spirit of Jesus Christ. he be came restless.&quot. as from their decisions there would be no appeal.*&quot. but examined them himself. and also to abstain from saying mass. He inculcated upon con fessors. and almost im mediately he interrupted the sermon by intoning the &quot. But this correction did not stop here on entering the house. . &quot. he said. . and spoke of the times pre vious to the birth of Mary.&quot. to use the greatest The spirit of charity and gentleness towards sinners. the young Meo was appointed in his place. he was to preach the sermon of the Blessed Virgin. who do much more harm than good.&quot. he con ing reproved impropriety demned him to remain silent during three days. nor that of those apostolic men whom we honor on our altars. as he had vowed always to preach in her honor on that day of care. ALPHONSUS. Alexander de : answer. They knew not what to F. who had been brought to the choir in spite of his fever. He was scrupulous and even rigid in the examination of confessors. Alexander went on in the same style.&quot.Is it thus they preach here!&quot. as the thing most essential of all. on his return to Nocera from Naples. he knelt. the of him for his sermon. Not being prepared. and would not confide this to another.LIFE OF ST. brother. When Alphonsus. but being suddenly attacked by fever. and said &quot. . and F. and leaning towards the others demanded &quot. . and if he did not think the candidate fully capable. He exacted from confessors the greatest prudence and the most profound skill. interrogating them upon all they had been taught. and falling on his knees.and to a layGo. he enlarged on several learned subjects not suited to the people. heard these words. is what distinguishes the Jansenists. . he sat down. the poor Father met Alphonsus on the After hav stairs. sometimes employing ten or twelve days. He the week . 179 watched over the young preachers with the greatest One Saturday. AiI must phonsus rose. : make him come down immediately. begged pardon. and introduced the Sybils and the Argonauts. harshness and rigor.Tanturn Ergo. said he descend instantly. tell him to . &quot.

said. Either obey. On another occasion he said: it happens getic &quot. and before he . he The confessional preacher sows. all. There was a young Father whom he had been at great trouble to educate. to loves not the confessional. He could not suffer the least shadow of gallantry towards any woman. because with your irritability you will cause your penitents to commit more sacrileges than you will do good to them. to another house. &quot. so that he be at the same time full of hatred for his sin and of confidence in his Con fessor. Ladies of quality will make way for themselves. He resisted .&quot. but the confessor is the touchstone of not souls. it is. and was expelled. the true laborer. and recom that you feel yourself mended the greatest reserve with them. Show charity. This displeased Alphonsus.&quot.180 LIFE OF ST. he &quot. he was authorized to enter the confessional. he said: &quot. immediately changed his residence.The gathers the harvest. and the merits of His grace. to encourage the timid. he noticed a Father much sought after in the he church. but take care of them.&quot. we not the missionary s business to ought to be equally at the service of and ready to receive every body with kindness. but this ener word must not be repulsive.withdraws. loves applied there the blood of Jesus Christ. and whom he loved for his excellent talents. or leave the Congregation. all the world being equal before God. wished to send When When number of young penitents came him &quot. who. fearing unpleasant consequences. apparently at tracted by his gracious manner. In the sacred tribunal who is whom .If overpowered by bad humor. ALPHONSUS. but Alphonsus said He would not : submit.but not partiality. He regarded as a scandal having respect of persons in the confessional. Neither would he permit any preference to be given to a gentleman.&quot. a great to him. he must be calmed by kind words. and inspire all with a great desire to help souls by means of the con fessional. On the other hand. leave the confessional on the instant. An energetic word is sometimes necessary to make the sinner comprehend the gravity of his crimes.&quot.

as professor. but seeing his efforts useless. chastising 16 him in a departed. a breath of make the preacher return with his hands empty. ALPHONSUS. vanity does not enle He could not endure there. If we do good by a sermon. al gant though they have never been disciples. they amending. Alphonsus employed the mediation of others to convince him of his errors. and hinders he said. study. otherwise in the confessional. shows us our own ignorance. and hesitated not to combat &quot. priests desirous to seek out those abandoned He exacted from the priests of his Congregation a pro This found and continued study of moral theology. and encourage them to return to them again. he ruined souls. listen to all.&quot. They wish to be considered masters. haughtily demanded a dispensation from his vows. he took his office from him. but patience is necessary. but God was not very short time a horrible . The unfortunate man was offended by the correction. but tremble. the opinions of Alphonsus. &quot. as a great fault. hence they are so extrava on the science ignorant and absurd. he misled the young students.LIFE OF ST. A member of the Congregation. but all in vain. and for refusing to listen to such persons. for you will make low a miserable in end. who sought pretexts this He considered and insisted that they should willingly and that if they could not give them absolu should at least point out to them the means of tion. Alphonsus labored long to correct him. sent him to another house. a learned and talented professor. length &quot. As confessor. and forbade him to hear confessions. condemning the wisest authors. had constructed for him self a most incoherent system. and speaking of them with contempt. of morals.My you Congregation. vanity can It is the idea of a confessor being shocked at the thought of hearing a very wicked individual. He . The Rigorists and Jansenists of our day are us from erring. it is not so with the pulpit. and not having the courage to suffer mortification.&quot.&quot. At he said: the abandon son.&quot. He was especially delighted when he saw any of his young souls. fascinated by the opinions of the Rigorists. 181 we gather fruit for ourselves and for our penitents. and you persist in your errors.

vilified.&quot. that a Father chanced to use the expression. priests.&quot. he used to say. When Alphonsus heard of he wrote to his Superior: &quot. sive zeal. sideration of his condition. better it would should be destroyed. ruins daily multitudes of laymen. and finding peace nowhere. In con was granted by F. his request Villani. uttering cries of despair. my brethren. there was a the Congregation. but he does not seem to know forbidden to meddle with things out of the confessional. accursed be &quot. to be de said he. and many into hell. and religious. Father diocese which was dissatisfied with its bishop. In phonsus. all To &quot. Rizzi s zeal led him to write to the bishop to inform him of what had happened. &quot.&quot. Humility at all times and in all He who has places. He which may cause embarrassment to others must say three Ave Marias as a penance. I beseech God to destroy it.LIFE OP ST. If this if it spirit comes into the Congregation. : Alphonsus being then bishop. &quot. that he might not die in despair. he ran about the streets. &quot. and to remind him of his duty. spised. inspire with a true sense of humility. The very name of pride and self-love was odious to him as blasphemy. &quot. my honor. like Jesus Christ. and he dreaded the odium that they might cast on To give an example.This accursed self-love.&quot. Father Rizzi. humility all fails.Our honor. cancer appeared in his face. This was worse than heresy in the eyes of Al the next conference he continually repeated.Tell it. it sends numbers into purgatory. opprobrium Alphonsus never approved of the indiscretions of exces he thought them a cause of unnecessary pain to and it is necessary in the house.&quot.&quot. and when his him go to him privately lordship comes to the house. he said Humility is necessary in the mission.On my honor!&quot. ALPHONSUS. let . When about to die. if we would please God will have but without humility sanctity. the of men. On one day. he besought with tears to be re-instated in the Congregation. that he has done wrong. It happened the moment such sentiments are tolerated. and the abjection of the people. and to be. &quot. He has acted that we are through zeal.

reprimanded him. and given a blow to charity and the common life in others. heard that F. eyes. his sons. broke.&quot. ALPHONSUS.thinks of the quality of things. and erty. even in the he who is poor and professes poverty. he immediately wrote to him to say that he must sell all these dishes. &quot. 183 and throw himself at his feet. less austere orders no example of such vanity.Oh.&quot. and vigor. and he saw any Superior was negligent in procuring what was necessary for the subjects. was told that. wished indeed that poverty should reign amongst not such a degree of misery as to be contrary to decency. therein in full attacks. and had only St. poverty and misery. he replied. He was particularly dissatisfied when he saw a Superior act with indulgence towards himself on this point. and even chastised him for it.Pov pottery. in place of earthenware ones. ought to be poor Father Sportelli. who forgot the magnificence and the grandeurs of the world. that the latter immediately if understood his meaning. he became excited by a holy zeal. in all things. he saw a young cleric in a pair of shoes which were thoroughly worn out he did not speak. that which suits it best. One day. but . and with how many he exclaimed. It He was in vain that various reasons for keep ing them were alleged. and the house was that he as earthen There is . severity towards others.&quot. Peter of Alcantara s cave before his the increase.&quot. Superiors will be damned at the Day of Judgment for hav ing themselves violated the vow of poverty. when . &quot. &quot. they would sustain it against that fervor would continue constantly to be all on Although all about them had an air ot it was still too sumptuous for Alphon sus.&quot. is that which is the vilest and coarsest. Poverty and obedience were the foundations on which Alphonsus erected the whole structure of his Congrega tion he said that if these two virtues always remained . and ware dishes easily far from a &quot. confessing his indiscretion and asking for forgiveness. Fiocchi had caused pewter dishes to be used in the house of Iliceto. He but he cast such looks at the shoes and at the Superior. they occasioned great expense every year.LIFE OP ST.

Alphonsus remained firm.While F. answered he. the choir or in the library.&quot. he exacted also to those of all other Su- . who must submit to the consequences of this vow. in a tone of great reproof: that I do not choose to have any ornaments either &quot. and that is required by poverty. he immediately forbade them to do so again. of the Fathers told him that common cloth was not durable enough for the mantellas and capotes. and that this rnaterial was prejudicial to poverty instead of favoring it. in You ought to Cajone. that brass lamps would cause less expense than earthen ones. buildings. as soon as Alphonsus saw it. which easily break and cause the oil to be wasted. but Alphorisus as a luxury he wished that nothing but the if . and not the houses. know. If began to use snuff-boxes ef varnished paste-board or of yel low leather. and a new library was put up. Cajone was Superior at Caposele. as we have seen above. F. Poverty loves what is simple and neces but not what is Some of the Fathers sary. because his only motive for not yielding was that brass was a luxury. and not the houses and it is we.&quot. while earthenware was more conformable to evangelical poverty. choir.&quot. as before. &quot. superfluous. asked LIFE OF ST. and let all be quite simple. and that the houses of the Congregation would gain by buying cloth of a better quality. than he wrote to F. he approved of a cornice which had been the edge of the roof. and wished wooden ones always to be used. Ferrara represented to him several times. The brother put little cornices on the stalls in the and round the upper part of the library. you have put any.who have made the vow of poverty. All these reasons were unavailing. You must submit to this. ALPHONSUS. commenced under blamed this unpolished stones should be seen on the exterior of the &quot. is we. fect obedience which he exacted to his own orders. The prompt and per .It . Common cloth humbles and abases. the choir of the church was put in order. &quot.184 building. you must take them away. One day he saw a hat which shone more than the others that was enough to make him Some prohibit its further use and consider it as a scandal. Alphonsus no sooner heard of these trifling ornaments.

the sub16* . and we shall see One of the most nothing but disorder and confusion.LIFE OF ST. I must. that &quot. but he eight days. for.&quot. he wrote on one are unpardonable faults. &quot. blamed. however. obedience no longer exists. reasonable to approve. for this was a fault which he never pardoned. Many things may appear absurd. ALPHONSUS. I not attended to. but one tormented at times by a fretful temper. He deprived the two chief subjects of the habit for a considerable time. when things do not appear to you to be done as they might be at any other time.&quot. therefore. is not wonderful. he con demned them to dine on their knees. which it is. He was accustomed to say that obedience works miracles. distinguished of the Fathers. whatever maysbe If his personal merits. this is Alphonsus heard of this.&quot. beg you. and deserve a severe occasion. because their motive is not known. Alphonsus wished their penance to be so also. and then do nothing beyond writing to tell me what you think is wrong. mischief is done. you have given vent to some observations in regard to your Superior which were not at all right. on the other hand.&quot. some regulations which his Superior had made about a mission. winter. and not to receive holy communion oftener than every Intercessions were made in their favor. he nevertheless wrote to have been relieved to hear him in the following terms: of your recovery but I have been distressed to find. The lay-brothers once complained of hav punishment. but wish an equal submission to be shown to whoever presides over any exercise. to state your opinion with simplicity. he often said. He was still more alarmed at hearing that the subjects of the Congregation had united together against the will of a Superior.I . as their discontent had been public. periors. if I am obeyed.&quot.It 185 &quot. was inexorable. and although he felt compassion for him on account of his illness. to do without fruit or meat. when it is exercised with promptitude and submission of mind. been deprived of the siesta after dinner during the ing &quot.Public murmurs against a Superior. &quot. and that. If each subject wishes to do what seems to him to be the best. he holds the office of Superior. in a n t of melancholy.

and not to increase the never consented to any foun had before he dation. &quot. : This rule is the rule of saints. we shall become through tears let the Following of Christ says that it is the pious soul profits much by silence and repose them that she penetrates into the secret things of The author of .&quot. of through dryness and want little to men. and to reiterate the same thing at every following hour. the thing when he tries commanded. he said &quot. Alphonsus. that some dispensed them selves from assisting in the choir at the public exercises in the morning. ordered the brother innrmarian to take them a cup of tea after prayers. LIFE OF ST. rather than see any want of discipline in he was importuned by requests to found new he houses. Why should we wish to found new replied monasteries ? Where there is no family there can be no observance of the rule. us not complain we and he will act differently towards us. feel which wash and purify if My fathers and brothers. notwithstanding all the trouble its establishment had cost him. all the ills vanished. ourselves to be imperfect Let us speak recollection. What I am anxious for. He often said that he would prefer to see the Congregation dissolved. who attributed it to idle sloth. and not to any real necessity. He once in the house of Nocera. so as to be able to converse much with God. he was careful to see it always kept up in full vigor.186 ject goes astray. rules. With regard to the observance of the rule in general. or under some other pretext. if we observe it faithfully. Speaking one day about the necessity of silence and of interior recollection. either on the plea of not having slept well. is to see it. It happened number of houses. and the choir was filled before the time. and to to set himself up to judge of deviate from the will of his Superior. This had the desired effect. enough subjects to form a community in which the rule would be perfectly observed. it is there that she finds the source of those her. When : fervor increase in the Congregation. every morning afterwards. and will raise us up . the Scriptures . ALPHONSUS. ordering them not to get up before the doctor s arrival.

not from a zealous wish to win souls to God. &quot. Alphonsus desired that his missionaries should be Apostles in ought to sanctify others. life. have a stronger desire to labor than the most fervent subjects. With regard to tepidity. The incorHe made use of rigibles often caused him loss of sleep.LIFE OF ST. until he saw that the case was a desperate one.&quot. and they go away distracted they lead a mise rable life. &quot.&quot.&quot.&quot. the spiritual exercises. but when within. He made use of three methods for delivering the Con gregation from these incurables. and Carthusians in the house.My fathers. nor enjoying the world. He called them to him.there can be no . you must sanctify yourselves. and asked for a dispense from the oath of perseverance.The rebels. and those who go to the choir in this disposition of mind. The second method was to keep them in the house. they come distracted. as a father. ALPHONSUS. go to torture every instant seems an age to them.&quot. When hemet and warned them. he one day said &quot. retreats for some days. and not the least efficacious one. but to enjoy greater liberty. he said. and pen ances. When you are without. by mortifications. because of being either the most incommo&quot. he also often said. and betake ourselves to herself. he did all he could to cure them. to a state 187 mind. and to live a holy and happy with any who were afflicted by this malady. neither possessing God. he said.&quot. In a word. . and reite rated warnings. The first was to torment them by frequent punishments. the tepid soul is an object of let us drive away tepidity she is a burden to the community and to disgust to God Let us reform ourselves. our former fervor. of their danger. &quot. When they found themselves treated so severely. consisted in causing them to change their abode. if we wish to please God.&quot. : : . The third. . and did not give up his efforts. and to forbid them to practice any apostolic works whatever. to the Congregation.&quot. of holiness.Without recollection of spirit of prayer. and in sending them to whatever monastery pleased them the least. &quot. these miserable and unenergetic subjects declared that they would not bear such a burden. to be a comfort &quot.

of itself. In fact. and his corpse was exposed to examination in presence of the officers of justice. after some months had elapsed. they were also subjected to the pains and privations of the first two methods. and obtained it. without fixing the time of their return. that vocation and predestination were one and the same thing. off the old &quot. If they were dangerous and likely to cause trouble in the Congregation. who caused him to swallow poison at the altar on Holy Wed nesday. the least frequented. time. after having committed several excesses. and themselves renounced the Congregation. which. and that the having been chosen by God to form a part of a rising Congregation. was a grace. Thus abandoned. that they had nothing some gregation. they returned to the world. Alphonsus pronounced his expulsion from the Congregation.God has not conferred a merely ordinary grace on us. Repeated correc tions and charitable offices had had no effect upon him. and pre dicted that he would come to a most miserable end. We understand the value of must therefore pray that Almighty God may cause us to this grace. he let them know after more to do with the Con There was one who caused great torment to Alphonsus. required in us a great degree of perfection and holiness. to encourage them to correspond with it and put man. he was buried as an infamous person. the unfortu nate man perished a victim to one of his enemies. or else. for if we do not corres pond to so holy a vocation. He asked for permission to go and see his relations.In and thus he said. Alphonsus tried the effect of leaving them in a sort of abandonment. he said. calling us to this state. &quot. and a crowd of spectators.&quot. we shall run the risk of eternal . to which they had no further desire to return. To inspire his sons with a high idea of their vocation. but one which is as great as it is uncommon. Besides the constraint which they experienced from this change.188 dious or LIFE OF ST. he gave them leave to return to their families. and to several Superiors. and on Good Friday. when all the bells were silent. ALPHONSUS. by not appearing to take any further care of them .

We longing to him. if we do not aim very high. and to rescue souls from the grasp of the devil.&quot. where the truths of faith are always put before our mind by frequent medita tions. he .&quot.LIFE OF ST. to great holiness does not satisfy the heart of Jesus Christ by a low degree . know not the secrets of ditions He may He who is called nor on what con he said.&quot. ALPHONSUS. he pitied their distress. All these things are a great help to us in difficult whereas those who are in the world. . by giving up to them the fees of their masses. he said on &quot. to enter into His house. God. and led us for having taken us out of the world another occasion. that charity can never fall into excess. He was not satisfied with ordinary holiness in those be &quot. spiritual reading. he wished them to aim higher. have caused our predestination to depend. of mourning. have few thinking amples. 189 God has chosen us to be coadjutors of His Blessed Son. : good ideas and many depraved ones in their imagination which cause them to give way on the least temptation. We ought to be most thankful to God. the pious Superior felt a mixture of sadness and joy. ruin. and that God repays all that is His affliction was extreme. when he saw one overcome by temptation and ready back. on account of the poverty of the Congregation but Alphonsus replied. and good ex &quot. and wishing to preserve us. from only positions and speaking of the things in the world. Some of the Fathers thought that such instances of charity were excessive. he did so on many occasions.&quot. pious discourses. instead . given in his name. &quot. he wept for the loss of a laborer.&quot. we shall not easily succeed in reaching the end which God has appointed for If any reverse of fortune had befallen the parents of any of them. but he rejoiced much more at see he therefore wished that the day of his ing a saint die death should be one of common recreation at table. of the great want under which he himself labored. their vocation. in spite he did not hesitate to relieve their families. If these to fall combats were caused by temptation. When any one of them was on the point of death.

Alphonsus did often riot hesitate an instant to free him from the oath of perseverance.190 LIFE OF ST. But when he was convinced. I feel pity in seeing the say the same thing to you. very well. he even forgave him some impertinence. ALPHONSUS. Anthony the abbot. carried away by excessive attachment his mother. In such a case he wrote to one most graciously &quot. strife that has arisen in your heart: who ever sent you to Iliceto as a punishment? I shall And it then. Alphonsus took no further pains about those who left the Congregation in this way. who begged to open the door. said to St. as nothing succeeded in turning him aside from his purpose. that in any one these combats rather proceeded from malice of self-will. &quot. and restored him to peaoe. where he became the victim of God s anger and that of man also he was despised by all priests. or who had caused themselves . this is a new way of begging. pitied the subject. and accompanied the a he considered such act by the most fatal predictions. To one. and tried to aid him by his prayers and those of others. caused him the greatest distress of all.&quot. The unhappy man went away. although he did so with great regret. and he ended in a miserable out-of-the-way hovel. not you who have patience. it is temptation.St. on seeing his obstinacy.&quot. but who will give you ? Another time I you is will not be so angry. : the first him I hermit. But let us speak. deprived of every sort of assistance. ill. and therefore no longer cared for his soul nor for him. The prediction was fulfilled. and returned home. just observe to what you This is say: trust for it Otherwise ask for a dispensation. and you. you beg with a menace. Alphonsus at last said. or else he should die on the spot. and only gave it in tears. but you will come to a bad end. that I forgive These words drove away his temptation passed away. dispensation as a very passport to to the devil s house. wait till this noxious influence has I repeat. and a But his own mother prey to a thousand contradictions. for though he was : seriously his life. I give you leave. she turned him out of doors. Paul. and that he had lost the grace of God.

&quot. charity. est it is their parents in order to give themselves to right that they should be treated with the great There were three things which he wished first. We left are their fathers. caused their wishes to be granted.and the Congregation said he. it is true. them never to forget in the course of their studies like them to seek to know any thing but : .&quot. fathers. knowing that he never refused was asked in the name of the Blessed Virgin. ALPHONSUS. &quot. Of what good will knowledge be to us. speaking to their is their mother. The Blessed Virgin Mary moveable. perceiving what presented himself before Alfeet. 191 to be expelled from it. would not phonsus. one thing needful. in the second place. as we are laborers but we ought to be fully persuaded that the . Superiors. threw himself at his and . or bishops. and above every thing else. such as those of our oldest Superior.&quot.&quot. Any further intercourse with these deserters was forbidden.LIFE OF ST. he wished for a continual growth in virtue. that is that which Jesus Christ requires we should endeavor to be . No reiterated requests to be admitted again. he said to them. dents. and they were considered as so many heathens and publicans.consists in knowing Jesus Christ well. much more. if its end is not to seek after God? We must study. and always with suitable moderation. a deplorable state he prevail on the holy sent away. he did not what was useful and necessary. the prayers of the most influential persons. and there is no instance of any one of them ever having been admitted again by him. Since they have God. entreated him admit him again but he was im- This Father. he any thing But to pardon him for the love of Mary. &quot. does not wish me to father could not feel greater love for his children than Alphonsus did towards our stu The heart of the go most tender to hell for you.True knowledge. &quot.&quot. &quot. all bathed in tears. and especially in humility. him conjured Alphonsus replied vehemently. he objected to any boasting before others of more knowledge than was really possessed. to setting up for acquirements which one had not and in the third place. no interces sion in their favor. One who had been was to in.

otherwise it will only cause us to be a long time in purgatory. We must study. is obedience. God may give us the former even in the midst of our infi delities. said he. and openness of his He who is humble and knows own misery. even may to the torments of hell. nay. his maxim was. Alphonsus was not distressed. When a fervent novice for he repoint of death. LIFE OF ST. positions in a novice. who were in illness. and that as they were themselves pleasing to God. he felt sure that there was nothing With regard that those to novices who became sick. to try our constancy and to reward us proportionably. if we do not deserve it through prayer and good works. but our sole object in studying ought to be that of pleasing God. heart. He had also an extreme affection for the young novices. he can never go he blindly trusts to the guidance of his Superiors. who is pride does not suffer his artifices to be disclosed to a crea When he found these dis ture of earth. if all-powerful against the devil. which may God Let your aim then always be the glory of God and the good of souls. to fear.&quot. for the devil. When the noviciate was in the house where he himself lived. vanquished. &quot. and fear of losing it. such as man is.&quot. they drew graces upon it down innumerable was at the also. &quot. do not recoil from it. for it will not hurt lead some perhaps forbid.&quot. viz : humility. and God allows him tdfrtempt us. but we shall not have the grace of perseverance.192 saved as saints. assisted patient and pious the Congregation by their example.&quot. you. It is this crown which the devil wishes to take from us. novices. he was in the habit of say Vocation and ing: perseverance are two distinct graces. and when an opportunity occurs for seeming ignorant. . he always passed the evening recreation with the In order to inspire faithfulness in following the vocation. or half vanquished. A temptation which revealed to another itself. astray. all and above is if he is candid in confiding all that is he feels to his director. to insure their persevering arid triumphing over temptations. ALPHONSUS. Three things he required in the novices.

than in the midst of world. &quot. 17 . God in any better in the house of their wills that they shall die. they will &quot. 3d. Let us close this chapter by giving the wise rules Alphonsus prescribed to himself. he said. 2d. deceitful. The Superior who does not overcome his antipa thies.LIFE OF ST. he kinds of labor. and contradictions.If the doctors restore and remedies their health. and affable towards all. ought fatigue. to possess heroic patience. 193 If he only granted it with pain. ALPHONSUS. as well as the preservation of order in the institute.&quot. A Superior ought to lead an exemplary life. and to be persuaded that he will often meet with ingratitude from man. The Superior ought constantly to labor for God. Too severe a Superior makes the subjects imperfect and fear. 7th. and caused him to be an eminent Superior: 1st. it is better for it them the to die the Congregation. 5th.cannot not recover If parents. on the contrary a sick person wished to leave us. his government will be useless and dangerous. and always appear calm. and 9th. The Superior ought to bear all 6th. because they will act only through servile his 4th. for if he does not practice what he teaches. he always stands in need of prayers and counsels. 8th. it hinders and that of his subjects. falls is hasty in his judgments. joiced in the assurance that such a novice was happy. and to assist all alike in their spiritual and temporal wants. we have here. The Superior ought not to be so presumptuous as his govern the institute by means of own lights only. full The Superior ought to give every one a reception of charity and affection. and be all to all on all occasions. to try to into a thousand faults. or impressions caused by ill-temper. The Superior ought to be careful to cherish the same degree of love towards all. sympathies. Pride own sanctification makes a Superior odious to all.&quot. which directed his conduct.

15th. and that he might labor for His glory by new works. The Superior ought rule. The Superior must not judge things hastily. The Superior ought to be just. llth. ALPHONSUS. 12th. The Superior ought to be firm with the incorri and he must take care to prevent the contagion of gible. Agatha of the Goths. charitable. to be vigilant as to the observ into every thing with the greatest exactitude. if he would not undergo a terrible judgment at the tribunal of God. 10th. . His journey His Consecration. 14th. bad example. between BeneAbruzzi. but weigh them well. CHAPTER Alphonsus is XVIII. and in new combats The episcopal see of St. buik by the Goths on vento and Capua in the the site of the ancient Saticola. ance of the he must therefore inquire rule. were in the house of His holy Church. placed him on arrived at that period of the life of our in His wonderful providence. had become vacant by the death of Bishop Flaminius Danza. The Superior ought to punish offences against the but he ought first to give repeated warning. The Superior ought to provide for the spiritual and temporal wants of his subjects. to chosen Bishop. and to relieve them with all the care of a father and a brother. which should always be accompanied by charity. and vigilant. before giving any decision. mentioned by Titus Livius. Rome and WE are now in Saint. and reflect and inquire into them. -Loretto. exemplary. to enlighten all those who which God. affable. a town situated at the foot of Mount Taburno. the candlestick. 13th. prudent. chapter 8th. 7th Book of the 1st Decade. The succession to it was solicited by at least sixty candidates.194 LIFE OF ST.

in to him his election to the bishopric of St. Clement XIII. and proposed Alphonsus. among them. Many other distinguished personages. : One of Lord. Prince Piombino and D. The Pope. on the mercy of God in rescuing him from the world. when conversing with Bishop Nicolas Borgia of Cava. As soon as the community were informed of it. who had known Alphonsus Naples. being. but God had ordained family. and particularly the Cardinals Orsini and Cartelli. singularly favored at Naples by a very high person age. On reading them. were so rejoiced at this nomi nation.LIFE OP ST. enjoyed an This advice was esteem as general as it was merited. While this matter was being settled at Rome. his senses became and he could not speak. troubled. that they presented themselves in person to his Holiness. besides. the claims of one not the most worthy. and Cardinal Spinelli gave the advice to choose a man whose merits surpassed those of all the rest. much embarrassed by the number of competitors.&quot. they hastened to his room. at Gae tan Buon-Compagno. followed. Thus thought Alphonsus. inclosing one from Cardinal Negroni. consulted the Cardinals. with joy. from the lustre of his origin. science. A courier arrived at Nocera on the 9th of March. Alphonsus was thunderstruck. Nuncio at Naples. and the was such that many prelates. otherwise. went to thank the Pope. he that I said &quot. and sanctity. and even archbishops. the name of the Pope. a peril have had which I should had I remained with my avoiding. and congratulated him on having raised so learned and holy a man to the episcopate. and to end every anxiety. one day. 195 amongst whom were bishops. ereign Pontiff all those who satisfaction s knew decision being spread through Rome. the greatest graces is have received difficulty in from the that of having escaped the peril of being a bishop. filled the future bishop. 1762. ALPHONSUS. with a letter from Cardinal Socatelli. as being calculated to put to silence every pre The news of the Sov tension. which announced Agatha. and found him . who. the mind of Alphonsus was occupied with anything but this church and bishopric.

196 agitated. in Alphonsus in consequence wrote a letter to the Cardinalwhich he thanked the Pope for his goodness. the vow by which he had engaged himself never to accept any dignity. persuaded that his refusal would immediately end all. Corsano: &quot. and that the election was a mere mark of esteem which the Pope wished to give him. and o greater than the first. and to beg him to cause his refusal to be accepted by the Pope. and exposed his own incapacity. and neglected no means to appease what he considered so violent a tempest. his great age and infirmi ties. This threw Alphonsus into new con tranquil. but that he should be at when affairs should be liberty to renounce it afterwards. he became tranquil. that he would not give the Congregation for all the kingdoms of the great Turk. he Pope would make difficulty to accept his resignation. who wrote. when the decision was to be him from to given at Rome.See. saw that he had hope his brethren pray. he diminished his sleep. After recovering silent. The next day. he recommended his penances. Alphonsus cost me an hour and four ducats. In his sermon on the follow himself to the prayers of the ing Saturday. When the courier was said to F. auditor. He wrote at the same time to Cardinal Spinelli.&quot. he redoubled to a severe fast. who had much influence with the Cardinal. this storm has gone. alluding to the money he had had to give to the messenger. that come more &amp. LIFE OF ST. made he and in but left no God. and gave him a confidential letter from Cardinal Spinelli. Bishop Borgia came to see him. ALPHONSUS. Persuaded that the sternation. and bathed in tears. and the scandal which his consent would give in the Congregation. that the Lord would deign to exempt this punishment. He wrote at the same time to his friend. . he condemned himself people. to take him out of his embarrassment. the Abbe Bruni. to let him know the motives which had determined him to refuse the honor offered to him. As the time drew near. himself. the disquietude of Alphonsus that his Holiness wished he should immediately accept the bishopric. which he always acknowledged have deserved by his sins. he then added.

in formed of the state of Alphonsus. who would cause the motives of his resignation to prevail. : balancing between derance. bent his head in token of submission.&quot. becoming thoughtful. Cardinal Spinelli. he was heard often May the will of God be done. then he added It is the will of God. March. The Pope has declared himself in absolute terms. but the next morning he decided to the contrary.&quot.Do not Ah must it be that we shall separate. they got him to recite an Ave Maria with them. and said: & make explana tions. &quot. he fell into such convulsions.&quot. &quot.&quot.&quot. When he came to himself. were acquainted with the reasons alleged by Alphonsus. that he remained speechless for five hours. which do not permit it: I must obey. : ! ?&quot. and told him the Pope commanded him to accept. replied Alphonsus.The courier has returned. 197 but in spite of his extreme agitation. loved each other during thirty years On this he having was silent. ing of the 18th of March. especially dwelling on his age and his enfeebled frame. and when they saw the firm resolve of the Pope. Alphonsus felt his heart beat. The Fathers observing that he lacked not friends in Rome. the Pope seemed disposed to accept the resigna tion. &quot. ALPHONSUS.It is not possible. and said: Obmutui. many well qualified personages who hand. &quot. On the morn without any one knowing why he did so.&quot. &quot. for he would seem to me like an executioner with the axe in Tf the courier his At Rome. pleaded his cause him On the evening of the 14th of self. though with regret.&quot. &quot. He remained repeating &quot. Upon this he raised his eyes to heaven. after forget me. fear and hope. Fathers Ferrara and Mazzini opened the letters. quia tu fecisti. the messenger of the Nuncio appeared again at Naples. but before letting him know the truth. to Fathers Ferrara and Mazzini. he wrote to the 17* . he said: &quot. Then turning towards the Fathers. and his eyes became bathed in tears.LIFE OF ST. hastened to intercede in his favor. They confessed it. but comes. fear had the prepon he said several times do not let me see him. they went to Alphonsus. 1762. God sends me out of the Congregation for my sins. At these words.&quot.

one or two rooms on be enough for me to receive the people may wish to speak to me. all and this edification increased still more. then. that I should accept the bishopric on obedience. and how it is that the.As regards th house. and ihis director F. Alphonsus.198 LIFE OF ST. I have lost my sleep and appetite. and to submit to the will of the Sovereign Pontiff. about a carriage or livery. having shown him the necessity of . Alphonsus had caused a great sensation. who came to Naples. he rejoiced. that my ideas seem to have left me I thank you for your offer of advancing the money What do you wish I should say? you rejoice. morning. I have been so stunned by the command of the Pope. must submit. whatever I may wish. Villani.My dear brother. When D. To the lay-brother he I hope that I shall not return to Naples.&quot. may the will of God be done He desires the sacrifice of the rest of my . that he was ready to accept. I must follow the example of saintly bishops: do not speak to me. and hastened to offer such ser vices as might be necessary to him under the circum The refusal of Rome was edified. when his unreasoning obedience and complete submission to the will of the Pope became known. Alphonsus replied as follows: &quot. T can only weep. whilst I write. having accepted the bishopric. of such severity with me ? To conclude. I do not want to charge myself with the expenses. why my old age is to be afflicted by the painful labors of the episcopate. it is ask of myself. If I have accepted the bishopric out of obedience. Hercules heard that his brother had accepted the episcopate.&quot. Pope. and this evening. What good will it do to me to act the great lord in Naples?&quot. but in when any case four straw chairs will be enough for me. has adopted a tone seized this I me not gone. I ing with think that first the in. It being the custom of the bishops of the kingdom. floor will who : wrote &quot. ALPHONSUS. Cardinal-auditor and to the Nuncio. I am beside myself. who never gives such commands. I come to Naples. for my part. wrote thus to his brother: &quot. to establish themselves in a house accord Jife. a fever stances. I their high dignity. Bishops Borgia and Volpe.

&quot. wished testify to him the satisfaction he felt.LIFE OF ST.&quot. I I shall will use that of the Cordeliers for there. I am resolved to buy one. be in Naples this week or next. hearing at Naples of the dangerous state of his brother. &quot. his ]9 having a carriage. and will willingly choose a more worthy Agatha then he will send me back here to . but if The submission of Alphonsus to the will of the Pope had caused great joy at St. he so violent an effort. became so alarming. hastened to Nocera. and experienced such internal constraint. because I should have that much cheaper. for the short stay I shall make in that town I have no need to buy a carriage and mules immediately.) I am certain that then the Pope will have my pity on my person for St. ALPHONSUS. but their sorrowful surprise on . it &quot. on account to of the inclemency of the season.&quot.&quot. rejoicing at the obedience of Alphonsus.&quot. the Pope was extremely afflicted. we wish to have him in Rome.&quot. (and I hope prayers and zeal in fulfilling my duties may disarm in a few years. which might do. we shall give him our apostolical bene he lives. he consented to it. and in conse quence the Cardinal-auditor wrote to the holy man to this effect. that the fever which had seized him on the 20th of March. D. tjie visits I shall have to make made Great as was his submission to the will of the Pope. The Pope. diction. and then we will speak about it. bringing one of the most skilful physicians of that capital with him.I my sins.&quot. Agatha. die within these very walls whence I am now going out. and wrote to his Yes. One thing alone brought him was the hope of it is certain.that after God s anger that it believe is appeased.Just are the danger. signifying at the same time. but If he dies. The chapter deputed several canons to congratulate him. he exclaimed. that his life appeared in &quot. Hercules. : malady. being able to re-enter the order. that his Holiness had consented to his deferring his journey to Rome. but I wish to see beforehand whether the late bishop has not left a carriage brother: &quot. sorrows. judgments of God. he said. his serious Hearing afterwards of said &quot.the Lord casts me out of the Congregation for relief.

When his humility would its mind resumed oppose be a itself to the Pope. Agatha.&quot. news spread consternation the inhabitants. that he would deign to among Public prayers restore the health of their future pastor. He was accompanied by F. and set out for Naples. and in unison with the clergy they addressed their prayers to God. according to custom. was as great as their ardent desire o/ becoming acquainted with him whom God whose zeal had destined to be their father. without loss of time. were also offered to God in all the houses of the Con gregation. the members were greatly devoted to him. finding that of mind when.but I -am sure that my representations. . he was heard to say &quot. finding him in bed and in danger of death. this of On their return to St. escaped gained considered a real miracle. he begged all there present not to forget him in their prayers. in consequence of a pressing invitation. he stopped for a few moments. was strength. ric. I On &quot. in order that the Lord Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin might aid him to bear the After that. in honor of the Holy Virgin Mary. he said to them. brethren at Nocera. going away . passing by the Tower of the Annunziata. my dear brethren. ALPHONSUS. &quot. he was almost he took the sudden resolution of going to his bishop He then. and for my part I will bishop. in this disposition of Easter day. and he did it in so pathetic a tone. his its calmness. he load which had been placed upon him. entered into one of those miserable carriages which are called mantice. his body also re but that he from death.&quot. from whence he had to repair to Rome. he did not omit to preach. each feeling a deep interest in the life of him whom As he looked on as his father.Do not grieve. added: &quot.&quot. and and sanctity they had heard so much.200 LIFE OF ST. : God to wills that I should be a bishop. Villani. On the Saturday before his departure. that he affected all his audience in On leaving his an extraordinary degree. because I am promise that I will return here again to end my days. a family of which all I go to Rome. at the house of the Garganos. He was on themorning well.

On Monday. their eyes were bathed in tears. sus. it was adorned with a simple bit of glass. The expenditure of Alphonsus. I left the world in my youth. will be more when I me go and die me only a miserable am on the spot. Janvier Fatigati. old age I have to begin again to hold intercourse with Very touching was the meeting of Alphonsus with F. who. heavy!&quot.&quot.What! &quot. . for his equipment. the brilliants in his pastoral cross were also made of false stones. and the features of Alphonsus showed the bitterness which rent his heart.&quot. &quot. Alphonsus &quot. Janvier. When the jeweller gave it to him. to Jesus Christ. they were mutually silent. &quot. Some years before. Alphonsus in his turn received. replied the workman with astonishment. set out for Rome. heavy. when he finds He found fresh subjects carcass. was going to be elected bishop. Alphonsus.Oh what a heavy cross you bring me!&quot. after Easter week. Alphon He Villani. and &quot. at the time more are speaking of. accompanied by F.&quot. His episcopal ring cost only a few carlins.& not accept the episcopate. alas! so weighty that I know nothing more overwhelming. Fatigati depicted the compassion he felt for his friend. and met him on the threshold of the door. F. it is answered Alphonsus. said.Recommend me.&quot. the 19th of April. while those of F. the visit of his friend. and now my it. he required life. his virtue to bear this let new mode &quot. was really extraordinary.Yes. I shall never lose them. you will be damned. he said to him with ardor. went to see him one morning.LIFE OF ST. Unhappy in that I am. now. his friend. having heard that this. &quot. his respects to the ministers himself beset at of Being obliged to pay and magistrates. if you do. me be recommended by others very particularly.&quot. and finding home by the crowd who came to compli all ment him. he wrote to F. if I do not lose my senses Mazzini on the 14th of April. when at Naples. bendinghis head twice. of distress on his arrival at Naples. When they met. &quot. when at Naples.&quot. had been able to decline the we burden. ALPHONSUS. the holy Father among my brethren. 201 which have been powerless favorably heard will let in at a distance. fortunate than himself.

went to Cisterna to see Cardinal Spinelli.202 LIFE OF ST. begged him to lodge in his palace. Vincent to see him. was to visit the tomb of St. ALPHONSUS.&quot.&quot.&quot.&quot. &quot. have no quality which fits me in the least degree for a com bishop. The Cardinal related what had passed at Rome . Peter.&quot. please give my dinner to Jesus Christ s poor for me. and he stayed for a long time on his knees arriving at before image of the holy Apostle which is in the They were so prepossessed in his favor at Rome.I &quot. tinctly while I am at Rome. part with Cardinal &quot. and urged him to undertake the burden of the episcopate courageously. said to them. of Paul invited him to dinner one day: My Fathers. and offered him the use of his the Vatican besides. The Fathers of the Congregation of the Pious Workers wished to have him in their house.&quot. for your divine vocation is most certain. His humility made him quick in finding pretexts for ex cusing himself courteously from the most of the invitations he received. and hearing of his arrival. see that I am but a machine out of order. who knew that he had taken Spinelli in his nomination. Gae tan Buon-Compagno. but accepted the carriage. be sure of the assistance of God. Prince of Piombino.&quot. He remained before the altar in a sort of ecstasy for more than an hour. When the Abbe Bruni came Alphonsus. saying: &quot. which his weakness and great age rendered indispensable to him. and the Duke of Sora.&quot. being at Frescati.My lord. that he was welcomed every where with especial marks of esteem.he &quot.but I submit because the Pope mands. D. &quot. could not help gently reproaching him by representing his incapacity. he said. and God wills that I should obey him. His Eminence could not help smiling on seeing him but Alphonsus said at once: &quot. in order that He may let me see His holy will dis &quot. he said to the Abbe but I have come to let him Troppi.The Pope wills that I should be a bishop. carriage. a professor in Rome. The first thing which our saint did on Rome. The Fathers of the Mission of St. Cardinal Orsini invited him . &quot. you have not acted fairly towards me.My lord. concerning him. Alphonsus declined the dwelling-place.

&quot. &quot. he heard that the Pope was at Civita He resolved Vecchia. if I can have the satisfaction of visiting the house where the Eternal Word became man for me. Villani tried to dissuade him from it. he answered. ALPHONSUS. seems like a thousand years. to his table.The time which must pass before I can leave Rome. and in holy converse with F. he was told that he was in vain. made his I long to be free from all their ceremo nial!&quot.&quot.) but should put on a court-dress. proached.when will so favora ble an opportunity offer itself again ? Nothing will hurt me.I .My good mother Mary &quot.LIFE OF ST. F. that you should shame me. and led him in his cabinet. know. with a long thanksgiving .&quot. &quot. He did not attend to this advice. Alphonsus had suffered a great deal at Naples from the numerous visits and compliments. and passed the most of the time till twelve. preparing to go to the Cardinal s. &quot. Villani.&quot. he was told that the Cardinal had in When he was vited other great personages to meet him. gloried in wearing the habit of his order. The Cardinal added Alphonsus. . He said many prayers for the souls in purgatory. I am come as I was. (Al phonsus. answered the Cardinal then he embraced him heartily. paid a visit to the Blessed Sacrament and to the Blessed Virgin he then said the Rosary and Lita nies. He commenced before day-break a meditation and other prayers then he said the by long canonical hours. On his arrival. ashamed of me. and wished his servants also to recite the Rosary with uncovered heads. he said to him: &quot. he wrote to his brother Hercules. it 203 but Alphonsus wished to excuse himself again. He celebrated Mass every day. and when the hour ap . &quot. to save him from this additional fatigue. This jour ney. and when he met the Cardinal.Well my wish is. ought not to present himself there in such a dress.&quot.that you are smiled. will strengthen me. was to him a con tinual union with God. &quot.&quot. but it was worse at Rome. like that from Naples to Rome. therefore to go in the meanwhile to visit the holy house at Loretto. even in Rome. in singing pious hymns. &quot.My Lord. and would not return immediately.&quot.

circumstance.Villani to retire. and a tolerably large alms besides.&quot. together with a visit to Jesus and Mary. ALPHONSUS.204 after LIFE OF ST. in leaving Marino in a boat. sometimes. Mass in the morning. He experienced ineffable consolation. watched him through the crevices of his door.recited the Rosary On arriving at the inn. he said Matins and Lauds again. as if he had been the poorest of the travellers. left his heart behind him on that holy spot. which A swelled the stream of the river Tarni. morning. One of them coming before him half-naked. the three weeks . He never left the house to go to see the town. and . These details were given by his servant. the very scene of the accomplishment of which. It is here that Mary held Him in her arms!&quot. or rather meditated on. neglected saintly grims nothing in order to relieve their misery. it is here that the Word became man. and took his evening meal in a strange manner. he passed the at Loretto. one may say he On his return. smallest local He observed. heavy rain fell the night after his departure. that for his supper he took only an in fusion of sage. ate very little at dinner. claimed in unceasing rapture. &quot. it. His attendants were humility and He fasted in the poverty. The next morning. When he was obliged to leave Loretto. One day he told F. he had been visiting.It &quot. and when he was some dishes which the inn-keeper brought he always declined it adroitly. only going out to celebrate urged to take for him. wishing to contemplate which this cradle of the divine hu manity recalled to his mind. he did not cease to speak of the great mystery. an awkward evolution nearly . he opened his trunk and gave him his best shirt. he said Vespers and Compline he then made a long meditation. While he continued his route. sometimes without any support. The same servant related also. he never went to bed he remained constantly on his knees. for the following day. and to pay a visit in the evening to The pil the Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Virgin. he and man in came to the crowds. During all the nights he passed at Loretto. with that of his bed. he ex &quot. is here. who at his leisure the mysteries . for he went to the same table as the drivers.

Satisfied . He had been taken for a mendicant. for. and supplicated with tears to be exempted from a charge which his infirmities. and the Pope arrived almost at the same time from Civita-Vecchia. and told him all his trials. &quot. and questioned him you. Alphonsus fell into the water. the Cardinal was immediately informed. and embracing him. He went to do homage to him immedi feet. 1762. and he will assist He then made him sit down. blessing God for having been able to converse with a man so full of the Spirit of God. to wait till all who had asked an audience were in the ante-chamber. bishop of that city. and The received him with distinction above every one else. . made him sit beside him. but the servant threw himself into the stream. informed the Cardinal s servant who he was. the ately. who knew him. he wished. who passed the greater part of the night with him. sent his carriage to the hotel for him. and conferred with him on many affairs of much importance to the Church. Pope wished often to see him. so he staid humbly But Bishop Molinari. Alphonsus consoled the holy bishop. upset the barge 205 . and above all. ALPHONSUS.enables one to work miracles trust therefore in God. Alphonsus returned to Rome on the evening of May 8th. before making himself known. being informed of the passage of his saintly colleague. He opened his heart to him whose works he admired so much. being himself con fined to bed by gout. and disap peared in the middle of the river.&quot.LIFE OF ST. He con ceived the highest opinion of his virtues and science from 18 . as he bent to his Pope hastened to raise him. . and under great uneasiness as to the state of his diocese.Obedience. as to the state of Naples. &quot. Acqua. secretary of state. as he took his age. but Alphonsus threw himself anew at his feet. rendered him unfit answered the Pope. When they arrived at Spoletto. his incapacity.&quot. When going to visit Cardinal Torregiani. very great pleasure in talking with him. and miraculously succeeded in bearing him out on his shoulders to the other side. both in its political and spiritual relations he kept him for an hour and a half. happening to enter the ante-room. Mgr.

said Holy Father. having proposed the &quot. but either he did not understand the Cardinal or feigned not to understand it. he does : The Pope not hear. as &quot.Most repeated it a second time. he presented himself for the . he would not eat. he wanted refute his adversaries. and when he was asked on what treatises he wished to be examined. by the terms in which he wrote to his brother Hercules of what had passed between himself much so would be made a that a never spoke of him without admira rumor went about that Alphonsus and the Sovereign In -one of these tion fell Pontiff. who. upon frequent communion Alphonsus told him that he had been opposed at Naples on this subject by some men more rigorous than devout. examination. because he does not wish to hear. discouraged the faithful and kept them at a distance from it. visits to the Holy Father the conversa . begged him to raise his voice a little. and charged him to Alphonsus consented. Villani. ALPHONSUS. but as they insisted to to leave it to their own choice the contrary. so did the examiners and persons present. the thought of him brought on a sick head ache. He dis approved of the silence of Alphonsus. he took a little in obedience to F. . by exaggerating the dispositions which this sacrament requires. which the Pqpe received with great satisfaction. but Cardi nal Gallo. One of the examiners. Holy it. but one of them. so LIFE OP ST. and the next day. he named those de Mutuo and de Legibus. On the burden which threatened the eve of the examination. who knew how much he dreaded the . At the smiled. and during his stay in Rome composed and published a treatise on this subject. wished to propose a question which would it was this : &quot. tion. turning to the Pope. one of the Cardinals suggested to him that he should return thanks to the Pope . and indeed was incapable of taking anything however. which took away all his rest.&quot. He Cardinal. end of the meeting. in spite of the discomfort he felt.206 these interviews. Alphonsus himself seemed to confirm these reports. question. episcopate. He went to visit the examiners.Is it lawful to wish for the epis please him . copate?&quot.

self cast out of the Congregation desired the in punishment to . The Holy Father new bishop come to his at his last visit. said he. in private audience six or seven times bidding him farewell. when he was forced to be ordained bishop when at Rome. and had to struggle against the tender ness of a father who clasped him tightly in his arms the second. &quot. that I lose not my soul. Our Fathers.LIFE OP ST.&quot. he loaded him with kindness. : I do not intend that its it should suffer any harm from the founder. . 207 to said he then.I should spend money in order to contract a wicked debt that he . tion. by Cardinal It was an overwhelming Rossi. and that a vicargeneral should govern it in his name. for his sins. towards Jesus Christ!&quot. some one said to him that if he wished to enjoy the privilege of wearing a cap at the altar. when he left the world. assisted by two bishops. &quot. and &quot.&quot. who had believed him me. in the church of Minerva. had to united to entreat the Pope to grant them that Alphonsus might continue to be superior and rector-major of the institute. day for our saint.&quot. is a great elevation of consolation to grant all alleviate Thus his Holiness condescended to which helped in no small degree to the sorrow of Alphonsus. their wishes. and the account I should have to After the consecra give of it to God. for the great good it has effected in the Church and in the kingdom of Naples. Basil s day. Alphonsus was consecrated bishop. ALPHONSUS. he exclaimed. I was cast down by fear in For then.what a thing it would beif. Father. thinking of the burden I was loaded with. seeing what great harm might happen the Congregation by his loss. the 14th of June. &quot. Villani.&quot. &quot. He confessed to his director afterwards : had had two great battles in his life the first. pray God On St. He gave him his bulls . and seemed unable to separate from him he recommended the Church and himself to his prayers. to whom the Holy Father immedi I wish that this Congrega ately replied with kindness tion should go on and be well supplied with subjects. he must obtain a brief: &quot.&quot. This request was supported by F.since you have deigned make me a bishop.Oh!&quot.

and Cardinal Atitonelli. During all the time he staid in Rome. and a Mission in his Cathedral. His manner leaves Rome and goes to his diocese. In this journey. Peter. The great heat caused him to suffer much from his head he was asked one day to take an ice which was offered to him. and said to several Cardinals: the death of Bishop Liguori we saint in the Church. poverty was bishop. and contented himself with a glass of lemonade. excusing himself on the plea of his infirmities. not him rank could &quot. ples of his severity against hardened sinners. He was always dressed as a missionary. he inseparable companion . ALPHONSUS. have to honor another CHAPTER Mphonsus of life XIX. LIFE OF ST. though a sat at table with the drivers. Cardinal Orsini invited him a second time. and & broad-brimmed hat. He gives the Spiritual Exercises to as a bishop. He mortified himself at Rome as elsewhere.In not help telling leaving off high the habit of your order. and wore the Ro A person of sary at his girdle. the sacred places. After his consecration he revisited the tomb of the apostle St. without suffering any distinction to be made.&quot. He arrived at Naples on the .On praise his virtues. which is called fresh water in Rome. you have given a most edifying . Louis Gonzaga in the church of the Gesu. : example to Rome. but he refused to accept it.&quot. sistory. and placed him or to visit self and those committed to his care under his protection. . but Alphonsus declined the honor. The Pope himself shall did not cease to &quot. as in the preceding his ones. the 21st of June.208 gratuitously. Alphonsus led the most edifying life he never went out but from necessity. Some exam the Clergy. secretary of the con defrayed the other expenses. after celebrating mass at the altar St. Al left of ON phonsus Rome.

&quot. He visited among others the four ministers.and each one will wish to justify der. enjoining him to give place for the to a groom.My son.&quot. it. he always told the him the to leave the passage to the prince. even and others. At the gate of the Santo Spiritu. he ordered the town. He shoes.I to pray God that they may all really be able entreat you to regard the honor of God Do not be distressed. among them his cousin Francis Cavaliere. that he The Canon D. Marquis answered. but to give way on all occasions. he was per fumed and curled. and this head-dress does 18* . his conduct. In the drives through known coachman not to attempt pre cedence. the and the welfare of souls.&quot. wished him to give the Sacrament of Confirmation to one of his daughters in the chapel of his palace. said to him. He was invited to the be assured you will obtain he was in the ante but while went and there. a priest of Arienzo went to visit thought it meritorious to present himself before his bishop with a worldly affectation of dress. to him with touching goodness: &quot. liers in it attendance. royal table. and commended himself most particularly to the go into a diocese a little in disor Marquis. and if you require the King s support. but when Alphonsus perceived it. which seemed His coachman wished to dispute this disposed to go first. The religious of the principal man on future. left Naples. and reprimanded his return. he met a prince s carriage. advantage. he &quot. 209 morning of the 25th. Martini for having made him known. asked him to visit them and to say mass in their churches. rence of the Cardinal. and wore buckles which covered all his Before he him. he gently complained to Mgr. but not wishing to prolong his stay in Naples uselessly. and Alphonsus be came immediately an object of great attention and venera Confused by this. Fabricius Martini made was Bishop Liguori.&quot. and said are Alphonsus felt pity on seeing such vanity of mind. ALPHONSUS. chamber he was not recognised by the two young cheva &quot. who. do so but .&quot. I I &quot. tion. he gratified only a few. these not the buckles of a priest.LIFE OF ST. with the concur convents. of Marco.

and said Alphonsus Cardinal Sersale at the smiling: it. &quot. : &quot. from my dear Congregation. &quot.But you have taken the it. He was so overcome by regret that he could not banish tears from his eyes.&quot. accompa nied by F. caught.&quot. and receive visitors in the other. Hercules. then. and preached there according to custom. and on seeing his equipage. he took leave of the missionaries and set out for Naples.It it was the Alphonsus had wished it to be of a dingy ash color. He visited Tower of the Annunziata.210 not suit you LIFE OF ST. Casting his eyes after that on his shoe buckles. in honor of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary. he said.&quot.&quot. &quot. On seeing the saintly bishop. if to the people. would be paid to him. because of the visits which was riot I who ordered work of D. ALPHONSUS. &quot. far not forget me.&quot. did not put him in his ordinary cell. but gave him two in another part of the house. the whole audience melted into tears. I go into exile. formerly thy sight consoled me.his emotion was extreme. Francis Margotta. you who should be an what then will men of the world The poor priest was quite confused. he exclaimed: &quot. livery of a Cardinal. He arrived at Nocera on a Saturday.0 my cell. and no doubt they cost you a great deal!& . He re ceived him with the tenderest proofs of friendship. said jestingly so. which had cost a carlin. that he might sleep in the one.Obedience so willed to answered Alphonsus. for . On the morning of the 8th of the same month. example do?&quot. The Cardinal accompanied him the stairs. The Fathers. the Cardinal said laughingly: &quot. his conduct. They were little iron buckles. after a tender farewell to his dear monastery of Nocera. One evening passing before his old cell.&quot. but to his great regret. &quot. He could say no more.You are. left Naples on the 3d of July. My brethren. when going away. and changed at all . now it afflicts me. you act thus. &quot.&quot.&quot.You must have bought these at Rome. replied Alphonsus. Hercules had made it of crimson on blue ground.

but should sacrifice himself for the to him. Not being able to do better. On his arrival at St. affected by this pious eagerness. he was again saluted by roars of cannon and by a thousand acclamations from a joyous people. being affected at the sight of the Agatha.LIFE OF ST. all parts On arriving equal to that of Alphonsus St. a town of his new diocese. fore the parish church. at the who had hastened from the country. where after a short act of adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. desirous of having his episcopal blessing.Vale. and of a number of distinguished inhabitants of the town and diocese. bishop. when they were making ready to conduct him to the church in procession. he was saluted by a discharge When passing be of mortars and brilliant fire-works. he received. his life for his think of his souls own life. He gate of Real.&quot. Agatha. He was also strongly advised to stop at Arienzo. on account of the comfortable house and more salubrious air which are entrusted he would have found there. crowd of people who filled the road and had hastened from to receive his first benediction.ought not to &quot. he com forted all the faithful by a simple and pathetic discourse. In passing by Bagnoli. as the place where God had fixed his abode. but he wished to go to St. he got out of the carriage and entered the church. 211 at As it was during the burning heats of summer. they took that which was placed on the tomb of the deceased Bishop .A with his church. &quot. Agatha. the canons discovered that he had no cap or green hat. and set out immediately to go and unite himself he said. a fief of the see of St. on descending from the carriage into the court of the episcopal palace. he braved the inconstancy of the season. the congratulations and homage of both the secular and regular clergy. After a moment s repose. but considering it the part of a good shepherd to give sheep. No triumph in the memory of man had ever been seen when he entered the diocese of wept.&quot. and that period when the weather frequently changes. Agatha. ALPHONSUS. he perceived an immense crowd. the doc tors of Nocera had given him the advice to defer the jour ney.

that spacious as it was. tlemen.&quot. for if another such attack. was carried off by death. this priest. and said in joke: &quot. him a but he refused all. with a quantity of sweetmeats. giving price. canon s know that green pears name. we shall infallibly lose my lord has phonsus. which he deluged with his tears. During this first sermQn. All who assisted there shed tears of joy. said jestingly fall more in his turn: &quot. though in the prime of his life. and when they left the church were heard to repeat We have a saintly bishop. he comforted all present by a discourse in which his love and zeal were equally shown forth. one of the canons turned to the others. the Provincial of the Dominicans sent Some great quantity of choice dishes. and thanked God for having given them an angel for their pastor.Make ready. and caused him to be told that he never accepted of such pre sents. The Fathers Conventual also wished to show him their friendly inclinations. for his table to who had brought him these presents. the bishop descended from his throne. The cathedral was so crowded. The same evening. to the whom this Al remark was reported. several of the most dis tinguished people sent him a quantity of provisions of great but he sent them all back. Alphonsus had been suddenly attacked by an obstinate fit of coughing. by sending him a basket of little and small wax . the first of all the chapter. a good many people were obliged to stay at the door. we have a saint among Such was the impression the first sight of his poverty and humility. A short time afterwards. When they had chanted the Te Deum. cheeses. together with him. : us. and the words of his burning zeal. and placing himself on the right side of the altar.212 Danza.&quot.He does not easily than ripe ones. After the Blessed Sacrament had been exposed.&quot. made on the mind of the people. LIFE OF ST. the servants money . to elect a new vicar-capitular. and expressing days after. gen &quot. his gratitude for so much kindness. Alphonsus had occasion to give proofs of his great disinterestedness. Alphonsus prostrated himself for a long time with his face on the ground. ALPHONSUS.

moved. may God forgive you. any price. soup and boiled meat should be prepared an extra dish was only to be had for those of cheer. able straw. who excused vented let it. Hercules and others. seeing they had several distinguished guests. Not finding this.what have you done ? I am not come here to give sumptuous repasts. but I cannot understand any excess. and represented to him . .Felix. and sent for him and said: &quot. he desired that for his dinner. He went all over the palace. thought he ought to provide a suitable supper. I do not wish to treat you When there harshly. with him Angelus Majone. back The holy prelate s secretary. The brother smiled at this order. Agatha. himself by saying that the canons had pre and that they had not been able to procure suit &quot. it Let it be procured. life Though manner of raised to the episcopate.&quot. the garden. &quot. and ordered him to plant a number of kitchen as if it were the month of February. disciplined himself severely for a long time. from Nocera. and chose the be bought at He said Alphonsus. and fixed the fare .&quot. as he did not wish to have any his departure other bed.. he sent for the brother. Before . Don Verzella. Alphonsus was dissatisfied.and had the mattrass re most inconvenient and the plainest Grand-Vicar. plants. he complained to the brother. he did not change his he even followed a severer rule. and charged him to carry his empty palliasse there.&quot. giving the best to his secretary. to his to remain till he had room for himself. D. it does not befit us reprimand. the rest. and the next day was not at rest till he had seen his palliasse arranged according to custom for the following night. are so many poor who die of hunger. and . his household. 213 all Alphonsus took one of the cheeses and sent tapers. to make good Not satisfied with this for he sent for him again. each day. LIFE OF ST. ALPHONSUS. or for guests. who was he did not go to bed the first evening to F. where he passed the night. and spread the empty palliasse on the boards of the bed. he had sent a lay-brother to ar range the palace of St. He found it destitute of trees He also visited and vegetables. Others were not more fortunate.

The cures and vicars. he celebrated Mass. in work. was not the proper season.&quot. the Vicar-General alone The canonical hours followed.&quot. which he continued to follow throughout the thirteen years during which he sanctified his Churcbas he arose. being free not to assist. and every one laughed at it. he As soon then heard on his knees that which his secretary or another priest said immediately after. &quot. he said him but not let after : Now to having then. and after a suitable preparation. and in giving audiences and attending to the affairs of his diocese. The furniture of his . From the time of his arrival at St. but they were much surprised when. continually engaged in prayer. After that.&quot. to things worthy of notice. Do as I tell you. and satisfied them. Agatha.&quot. they saw that all without exception throve won derfully. he made a rule of daily conduct. had no need of being announced. As soon as there was any one to hear. or.These are my privileged ones. room -consisted of little more than a it was there he writing table placed himself in the morn of our Lady of Good Counsel ing. as well as confessors. ALPHONSUS. he began to compose or to dictate immediately after mass. re The brother plied Alphonsus. &quot. he gave audience to those who had to speak with him. &quot. to spare to all the tedium of the ante-chamber. he gave himself the discipline to blood each morning. do us lose time.they &quot. they did not retire. a little afterwards. no one went if. with a crucifix and a figure before him. he When no ought not to suffer any restraint. he directly left his study and did not return till he had satisfied the visitors. obeyed.214 that it LIFE OF ST. he wished them to enter at all times with perfect confidence. Having thus done his duty towards God. he made half an hour of medi tation with his whole household. however poor. he told his servant to usher in immediately every person.Recommend me Jesus and . which he never did when he had to attend to the people of his diocese. and occupied himself in satisfying the messen gers who came from divers parts of the diocese. one asked an audience. As his dislike to useless visits for was known. &quot. said.

(it was brother Anthony. one day that he had applied a habit theoffices. of which he occupied the opposite extremity. he conversed with quarter.) &quot. and generally conversed with them out of his room. which our saint had adopted of assisting &t all was not discontinued when he was a bishop he liked to preside over all that was done in his cathedral. his grand-vicar on the affairs of the diocese. or received those who had not been able to speak to him in the morning.There is no objection to this brother being present. After dinner he took some rest. . If he 215 Mary. Every one had free access to him except females. When he went to church. had to do with people he could not with on propriety dismiss. . if any one of these asked to speak to him. it. account of the loss of time. he said &quot. Alphonsus said to her. he desired to be informed first. he made her sit on a long bench. ALPHONSUS.&quot. at the high masses. he officiated notwithstanding.&quot. A lady of rank and of a great age wished to speak to him alone: &quot. he wrapped his right hand in his handkerchief and cious for the glory of visible. with his back half turned towards her. It was generally from the life of St. Charles Borromeo.&quot. he was known to officiate pontifically when seized by fever. if : a woman the presented habit. he took care to give food to the soul each one read in turn. held the left in the opening of kiss his his cassock. or on some point of devotion. no indis position stopped him.&quot.Kiss that will suffice. depend upon audience in a drawing-room to an old lady who was quite decrepit. and always with a witness. of which he was only avari became God and the good of his neighbor. the constraint he suffered interiorly. poor. and conversed with her. that he was seen to tremble on his throne. or messengers.LIFE OF ST. especially if they were also. vespers and canonical hours. The time which he passed at table and in recreation did not exceed an hour and a When the fruit was brought. The painful remedy to his and suffered so much legs. During his meals. he was seen to give dent. herself to hand.he is pru Another day.

he was satisfied with twenty minutes. he knelt an the pavement near the It was during this devotion that. he instructed the rest of the children himself. This was followed by half an hour s and he himself spoke to the people for half an hour. he worked till nine or all ten o clock. he gave the tone himself. he of the as used to saints. he took care not to forget ecclesiastics who might be ill. them by giving them pictures and rosaries. and especially in Lent. meditation with the lay-brother. For visiting the poor. is so necessary in Italy. and knew how to attract He taught them the catechism. making it an indispensable duty to go and comfort them in their infirmities. older persons attended in crowds. ALPHONSUS. good.&quot. profane and improper songs. and before it he never failed to say the Five Psalms in honor of the name of Mary. At half past five. but in summer he immediately assembled . said matins and lauds. say. which were followed by half an hour s When and after this. he went at about five o clock in the evening. vespers and compline. and above their zeal those of holy bishops who had been distinguished by and contempt of themselves. observing A to him make he replied: must the people like these hymns. On feast days. and repeated the verses in union with the people. he gave audience and dis tributed his alms. with thesejittle ones. the bell rang for the visit to the Blessed Sacrament. the sick. and those whose con sciences were neglected. Though the sacristan placed a prie-dieu with a cushion for him. or at most half an hour.I weakened dangerous songs. he never omitted to employ half an in reading the lives of the saints.21t&amp. The day he gave to business or study. to inspire them with sentiments of faith and love towards Jesus Christ in this divine mystery. which a devotion which he had practised from his youth. he had returned home. to disgust them with that this his chest. then. wishing to banish altar. after vespers. doctor. &quot. LIFE OF ST. encourages us and ple hour each day all excites us to do. if it were in winter. he introduced hymns full of unction and piety. but As the exam often he studied instead of taking this rest.

servants. wherever he was. and For a almoner. the . those who happened to be in his house. games at cards. and Alphonsus resumed his scientific occupations. His servants were obliged each day to assist at the mass of the Bishop and the GrandVicar. he was dismissed on the spot. ALPHONSUS. noticing one evening that a bishop who was then in the palace did not assist. Then came the examen of con ? All science. hope and charity.Vicar. 217 without even excepting the Grand. as he ate so . Public houses were prohibited to them still more strictly in a word. and on the principal feasts of our Blessed Lord and Holy Virgin. Though indulgent for every other fault. he wished . steward. yet. Alphonsus had a priest with him who filled the offices of secretary. and only drank a glass of water before going to bed. He did not suffer from this.LIFE OF ST. after which he conversed for a few minutes with his Grand-Vicar and other members of the house. to say the rosary together. F. or was em ployed in prayer. long time he took no supper. had to assist at these prayers. on subjects which might con cern the diocese after this every one retired. he immediately sent to call him. the litanies of the Blessed Virgin and some other prayers. and this same severity he practised. Every sort of game was forbidden to them above all. strangers. who ever the culpable one might be. that he regularly employed sixteen hours each day in work and prayer. if holy purity were in question. his household. he wished the members of his household to edify . where interest might be concerned . even princes and great lords who visited him were not dispensed from it. Besides the Vicar and Br. one servant. and to approach the sacraments at least every fort night. every one by irreproachable conduct. not content with sending him away. Anthony. Fabius Buonapane declared. They were obliged to communicate at the bishop s mass. and a watchman. who acted at the same time as groom and cook. When these prayers were ended. and even prelates. He thought he perceived that the cook had some attachment for a woman 19 . followed by acts of faith. supper came. little as to be able to recommence prayer or study immedi ately.

in a retired part of the church. with black stole. and requested several able canons to go through the town before the sermon. Alphonsus found the diocese in a most lamentable con dition on his arrival. when he heard Alphonsus. ALPHONSUS. who went out during the night. He that he should live to tattention his made ried. their death was wholly owing to their fervor in the exercises of penance. pronouncing the malediction against usurers. and torch in hand. and prevent sacrileges. and on same evening ha opened a mission for the people. he charged the constables to arrest him. He who knows not how to &quot. from the time of his entrance into the diocese.&quot. Grace triumphed over the most hardened sinsiers. On the Sunday which followed his govern his to all the entry into St. and committed the the catechisjng to F. there were reconciliations and wonderful acts of restitution made. Margotta. who died shortly after. he preached the principal sermon himself. but on this very account it was a fit field for his apostolic zeal. Floods of tears were she d in the church. with the consent of the civil au He also thorities. Thus Al- phonsus. is not fit to rule the Church of God. embraced a new and exemplary course of life. and in their stead were summoned the The good done by the mission best curates of the diocese. that in the case of two individuals. all the priests of the town were forbidden to hear confessions. and above all. Agatha. and who had not a rule never to receive any servant who was not mar his wife at St. dismissed another. that . Agatha. exerted himself to fulfil every duty which is included in the maxim of the Apostle. and all owned that in the memory of man. against impenitent sinners. he began to give spiritual exercises clergy. Was incalculable. St. in another place and. as he paid no wishes. Agatha had never had an example of such entire devotion and fervor. blas phemers. . own house. A young gentleman. to give lively exhortations to the people.218 LltfE OF ST. well known as an usurer at St. sinners who had been sunk in disorder for years. and the spirit of penance infused into their hearts was such. Agatha. To give complete liberty to consciences. was so struck with ter ror.

speak to his confessor.&quot. communions became frequent. to humility. and filled God has heard us favorably. and God permitted. the town of St. They had to wait for the next morning. its excess will be fatal to him. rate habits of the barber incapacitated him for work for the remainder of the day.&quot. Alphonsus had obtained a brief from the Pope granting a plenary indulgence. Agatha was sanctified. exclaimed a Dean. on a cushion. God. but &quot. Alphonsus seated himself on the ground.&quot. God wills that I should employ the people of my diocese. 219 he was seized with fever and carried off in a few days. In this mission. man already burthened with in &quot. and his secre tary advancing to hold him. On the following Sunday. all those present rich as well as poor.We prayed every one with admiration. ALPHONSUS. my lord will exhaust of. What are therefore . that it was impossible him to for a celebrated dentist To the proposition of sending from Naples. the Most Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Virgin Mary became the objects of great de votion. for the intempe for him to take any rest. So much labor in an old firmities. &quot.Are not the dentists in this place as worthy as in Naples? Have we not the barber? let him come.LIFE OF you not see that his lordship is shortening his days? have you forgotten the tears we Curb his zeal shed. have than Him suffered such pain for me Then he crossed his arms and pressed the crucifix to his breast. &quot.&quot. augment the merits of his servant. Alphonsus had an opportunity of giving proof of his admirable patience and He had only two teeth. and how much it cost us to have him ? kill himself. was so touching. that burst into tears. &quot. When he arrived. that he should feel such sharp pain. laity. for which. to enjoin him to put bounds to his immoderate zeal. and every evening the church was seen filled with fervent worshippers. and bore the who .to send us a good bishop. and said the trea you thinking surer to the Grand. in the middle of the mission. the general communion. saying: What better support can ?&quot. And he advised . and let us be patient. he replied: &quot.Vicar.&quot. he took his crucifix I from his neck. clergy as well as In short.

A his superiors under the weight of years he did not care the &amp. he did not omit to preach morning to the clergy. least. Notwith of suffering. after Pope a plenary craments. standing in the his state without the smallest exclamation. and who was bent down all. our labors are I On full of anxiety has given me. Supported by the credit of his family. had obtained the same favor for the visitations in the till having assisted at them. In order to enhance the solemnity of these first functions. he had not been able to the other hand. to celebrate pontifically at St. his Alphonsus was consoled first at the happy success of at fruitful. Alphonsus had waited. .220 extraction LIFE OF ST. these. visit the cathedral. The barber was obliged to recom people. it Alphonsus exclaimed when all was done. and thanks be this God. &quot.&quot. labors. spouse my church. before he could succeed in taking Oh. ALPHONSUS. &quot.&quot.. whose humble exterior an nounced nothing but how firmly this tooth was fixed!&quot.&quot. However great had been Alphonsus zeal during the mission and spiritual exercises. Then turning to the barber. he said gaily: &quot.&quot. and in the evening. three times. Nocera. there* . for &quot. he had ob tained from the should. far from being useful to him. Villani: am whom God convert canon of his cathedral had for many years and fellow-citizens by the most la grieved mentable behaviour.Master N. Agatha. he wrote to our Fathers &quot.&quot. mence out. he had that also extracted by a most painful operation. From night the cathedral was filled with the faithful. which. &quot. only served to incommode him when the mission was terminated. he wrote to F. . in preceding bishop. henceforth you will have no more of my custom. though he had done so in other churches on various feast days. and strong in the protection of one of his colleagues in the the remonstrances of the chapter. he had not attended to he and despised still more Alphonsus. whom he only saw a little man. under which title the Blessed Virgin was the patron of his church.I am to well. to the There remained one tooth. or morning He same day. until the Annunciation. the indulgence to all who approach the ^sa diocese.

without success. that on the night of the 4th of August. who died on the cross for you at last. and wounded one of the little children. he presented it to him. There was an ex traordinary consternation in consequence. after having. and an order was despatched to the President of Montefusco. and be request. Alphonsus. in The ciliate relations of the Alphonsus canon used all their interest to con clemency. Alphonsus. ALPHONSUS. if you will not do what I ask you in con sideration of the character with which I am invested. a beneficiary at Majano. sides. Alphonsus hurried.My son. his repeated kind warnings which he gave to him contempt so far as to use unbecoming ex Alphonsus invited him several times to his he threw himself at his feet. pacify prevent further excesses. he would crave the aid of the sovereign s arm. equally failed. did not wish to leave the bishop. he conti nued to live as he had done before. who had complained to Alphonsus. and told him that if he did not repair the scandal he gave. and so exasperated the man against the mo ther of the object of his passion. and the entreaties of his bishop. seeing no other resource. he fired against the door of the house. wishing to and them. killed the mother. forme:&quot. for the 221 and carried pressions. that he nearly culprit very angry. equally indifferent to the of God. lice. at last sent for him. to arrest the two criminals. and name nothing succeeded. the public place of St. used violence towards the bishop. applied to the King. crucifix from his breast. 19* . fore. and place them in the The canon was arrested by the po prison of that town. ^All the mild measures which Alphonsus used for the conversion of another individual.LIFE OF ST. do it for Jesus Christ s sake. and said with tears: &quot. besides. This menace made the and he so became furious. and taking the table. and to induce him to keep of the officially. had recourse to the mediation of several good peo ple. It was then that Al phonsus. Agatha. sought for some one to inform them of the impossibility of satisfying thei in the prison him As the secretary was too dejected to go. but all were amazed at Alphonsus zeal arid courage.

sent for him: dear canon. himself. that relations of the &quot. vested in his choir-dress. Agatha. to call a chaplain of the cathedral who. and it was not until a long time The after. He had believed himself arrested like the canon. with regard to the regular clergy and to lay- . On seeing him. as he had never worn their dress.&quot. he said to him. which was is so exemplary from that time. you have a soul. in a quick and animated way: Take off these things At these words the chaplain fainted. the bishop said. Majano. . here. he met one.&quot. came out of the sacristy at the very moment. who hastened to reform their conduct. the finger of God to finish that which he has begun. &quot.222 LIFE OP ST. that the canon was enabled to say mass again. After one year s imprisonment. on condition that they should place two guards at One day Altheir own expense. The v . ALPHO^StfS. Remember then. . that Alphonsus. but your sin and desire that it should not be lost. allowed him to hear confessions. Alphonsus refusing him the privilege of ecclesiastics. He had the consolation to see that the canon insensibly began to think seriously he often sent him books of devotion^ figures of our Blessed Saviour on the cross. &quot. and remember that there is a God. but the mystery was soon cleared up. &quot. &quot.Two birds are killed with one stone. The bishop could not understand the cause of such terror. and kept in the common prison at Hevano. it is not you that I punish. let us pray him The chaplain was so frightened at the meeting. feet. day at Alphonsus zeal did not manifest itself with less ardor and energy. but only of an entire change of conduct. the epis copal court condemned him to a three years seclusion with the Conventual Fathers. beneficiary. After a long imprisonment he was condemned to ten years incarceration in a fortress. that he thought no more of the past. being also engaged in criminal courses. to prevent his escape. &quot. on the same was arrested the other on hand. said Alphonsus. These two examples of severity produced a salutary fear in many.&quot. and of the Blessed Virgin. after years. and fell at his. some canon obtained his re-entry into St.My phonsus I love your soul.&quot.

the pious bishop. and the next morning. which he would have not succeeded in persuad When Alphonsus heard of assassinate me. accompanied by a troop of brigands. if he likes: . if another gentleman had ing him to this. Alphonsus then cited them before the episcopal court. After being table people by their scandalous behaviour. was converted. 11 Your Reverence must send your subjects an order to go. feet. had come to Airola also. as he done. as the third was less culpable. seeing his mis conduct. An order from the Minister of state being sent to the tribunal of the Montefusco. and did not reform themselves in the least. which caused inexpressible sorrow to He wept over it. still sent for him again. she yielded to seduction again. &quot. There was a monastery in the diocese. he informed the King. This menace had its desired ef. a constable went to arrest nobleman and the woman. the head of the police. wearied by so many entreaties and reprimands. and admonished.He he said calmly: can and hasten his pas said. sent for by the bishop. sage to the other world. represented to him the grievousness of his sin. turned his back upon him with disdain. who repentance. ALPHONSUS. The bishop was not offended but as he saw that the scandal continued. whose passion had made him fu . he sent for the gentleman. they laughed at it. as proud as he was powerful.LIFE OF ST. and even menaces. in order to ill-treat his bishop. &quot. answered by insults. the man. two of the religious went off with the Superior. number of years in adultery with one of the gentlemen of the town. at it. retrace his steps. After this generous confession. a married woman. consisting of but four who disgusted all repu religious. rious. or I shall give them into the custody of replied Alphonsus. 223 men. and went so far as to ask pardon publicly in the church. including the Superior. for the scandal she had given. their provincial of it. Alphonsus was then at Airola the gentleman. but the hardened offender. we will give two examples. and informed He tried to defend his religious. had lived for a first before day-break. The bishop. Among many others. arid exhorted him to peni tence. Alphonsus was satisfied by his In the first mission.&quot.&quot.

and taken to Montefusco. The terror inspired by these and other examples of se verity. where she suffered the rigor of justice for many months. wept over the loss of his The blessing of the Lord. hearing afterwards that the gentleman had returned. bound. which was granted to this zeal of our saint. and succeeded in it so well through the medium of persons in authority. in con cert with the authorities. and was concealed in his house. had its salutary effects.&quot. was living in crime at St. The woman was arrested by the constable. this divine blessing could have changed a vineyard. Alphonsus. is the most glorious justification of his conduct. Alphonsus but to give libertines a spectacle as salutary as it was terrible.224 LIFE OF ST. and was afterwards banished forever from the dio cese. that he acknowledged his faults. as he had grieved him at first by his scandalous conduct. in order to win him over the better. he was killed on the spot. Al phonsus had recourse to the magistrate. but all over the diocese and its neighborhood. feigned to be ignorant of it. and consoled him as much by the sincer ity of his repentance. but paid no attention to it. he fled from the diocese man and retired into a distant country. young libe rated galley-slave first Agatha. ALPHONSUS. between four lighted torches. and as he resisted. he ordered. He reprimanded. on the exertions of the saintly bishop field full of weeds into a flourishing . When recovered from his rage. not only at St. and thrown into a ditch. well! he will give the wretched me the crown of martyrdom. who ordered his arrest. and saw that he was the object of judicial pursuit. The same was not On was the arrival of less the case with the following Alphonsus in the diocese. Agatha and Airola. that his corpse should be placed on a mule. Nothing but out of town. chastised. He was seized in the house of his accomplice. a occurrence. cast himself at his bishop s feet. and thus carried soul .

or want of aptitude. and the archdeacon Francis Rainone. ALPHONSUS.LIFE OF ST. the Dominican Mas ter. He therefore ordered a general ex amination. When it was is wrong to temporise with abuses. His zeal. Evangelist Duddio. than of a house of education.It found all my hope of sanctifying the diocese. said he. first what would be best suited to procure the good of The seminary was the principal end of this visitation is on the seminary. and regulates the Diocesan Seminary. all my trouble will be of no avail. If that does He not second me.Why put off until to-morrow. and subject to a most trou blesome multiplication of insects in summer. seeing. and purify the house this decimation was painful to the relations of the rejected subjects. found an excuse for giving the vacation sooner than usual. He sent for two architects from Naples. as well as several curates. in order to see the diocese.&quot. and unhealthy for want of air. should to address a request to him to that effect. He reforms Jllphonsus commences his Episcopal Visitation. D. found a great number of scholars in it. &quot. to remedy these evils. . but all were not ac cording to his heart. A jLl_ LPHONSUS commenced his episcopal visitation in the town and surrounding country. themselves. being too confined. Thus he was able make his choice. to tell them that all those who wished to re-enter the seminary.&quot. the theological canon. they began soon to appreciate the wisdom of their bishop. he wrote to all the pupils. He had convoked the treasurer. The buildings of the seminary had more the appearance of a prison. and . prudence and manner of life during the visitation of the diocese.&quot. and afterwards. he re plied to some who wished him to defer it on account of the heat. with whom he consulted at once. F. that which can be corrected to-day?&quot. &quot. their misconduct. Cacciopuoti. 225 CHAPTER XX. at which he assisted in person. &quot. prudence and knowledge. but. Caputo. all men distin guished for their piety.that I : &quot.

and raising plan was got ready.&quot. that many bishops adopted them afterwards for their own seminaries. he established new rules. in consequence of this. and wished to see all treated equally They complained that the cook was not . little fit for government of it. He abolished the custom of giving the office the old man.enters into us by the . as was done every where else.&quot. and which is replaced by sin and vice. &quot. Don Lucas. but he could not approve that when a pupil went away from infirmity. &quot. A said. he was made to pay for the whole six months. and. &quot. and it was with difficulty he con sented to the seminary s receiving payment for the month of vacation.226 LIFE OF enough to lose all that has been gained with much labor during the year. Caputo. and a co adjutor was given to him. The autumn vacations were shortened.&quot. himself.If . and the interces &quot.&quot. He found the terms of the seminary were equitable. who had been at the head of the establishment for more than thirty years. death. materials were A procured. so much so. a dili alone should have the charge. the Dominican Master. wishing that exemplary priests He chose for porter. He spared nothing in order to choose good masters. windows. and replaced by month s vacation. of prefect to a student. he called it a detestable abuse. well. ALPHONSUS. sion of several persons. without leave from the president Alphonsus had him discharged immediately. or any other cause. In order not to hurt this poor Alphonsus confirmed him in his post. said he gent man. he innocent recreations and feasts. For the government of the seminary. full of the fear of God. it enters into seminaries by the doors. He conceived all at the same time of pulling down new ones instead. in the person of F. and without delay the work was begun. was more than an octogenarian. full of wisdom and prudence. He did not wish any distinction in the provisions for the Superiors. notwithstanding his tears. the old buildings entirely. A porter went out one evening. his advanced age. whose knowledge and conduct might serve as models. directing their labor the grand project to repair the interior of the building.

ditation in public. 227 own. saying: They serve as &quot. ALPHONSUS.Greek is very good in the East. twice a day. once a week. several times. He established also. and prescribed examination of conscience. at the dinner hour. chaplains. The Superior and the housekeeper were im mediately sent for and reprimanded. habit of giving each pupil a small or slice of cake. as the students were mostly of the diocese. fixed that tained to dwell in the To cause virtue established he half an hour s me seminary. wished that also He this. jand other ecclesiastics assist. prohibited Italian poe- and romances. and was. at which he made some of the canons. try. the bread in the seminary should be immediately given When he officiated pontifically. he was in the tart. and. theses should be publicly main on philosophy or theology. and to sleep. . which in is morals of He was very dangerous for the habit of being He took pleasure in present at the lesson twice a week. both. messengers the for the seminarists. pre pared by his own cook. Before Greek had been taught. who may aid me in helping the souls of a number of country people. Often. if the bread and wine were good. an exercise for preaching. he said. but he did not think it necessary. to instruct went to examine the all. He forbade the dictation of lessons. skilful . gical authors. each morning.but for us. My diocese requires good confessors. and destined to supply the nu merous churches of the surrounding villages: &quot. and printed books should be used. he allowed a slight knowledge of it.. sufficient for reading and understanding certain passages which occur in philosophical and theolo Scholars who returned home for their meals. besides.LIFE OF ST. He rehearsals. he would not allow. he wished the meeting to take place in his room. always provided with sweetmeats for these family rejoicings. in common.&quot. &quot. Once he found the bread was not of a good quality. who are in the West. also. when confined to bed by illness. hearing part once a month. after mass. and he ordered that his Alphonsus sent him. the took and in the discussions. he cleanliness of the dishes. However. in the curates.&quot. Latin is what we want.&quot. and above all to the poor.

When the seminary was thus regulated. all As a kind of relaxation. before night prayers and during the morning and evening meals. to eat kneeling. advanced one and each ligently.228 LIFE OF ST. of obedience to their Superiors. and was exceedingly pleased to see In order to be admitted into them joyous and contented. them a virtuous and zealous ecclesiastic to teach them chanting. He prescribed. to ordinary manner. and although he had not fixed communion every fortnight. and at the visit in the evening. to give them a practical sermon on the beauty of virtue. emplary conduct. the seminary. proached the sacred altar . strongly to the cultivation of humility. it was necessary to give certain proofs of ex . as he had done for confession. together with the recitation of the Rosary. with some morti fication. or the jewel of his diocese. Usually. to music. leading the fly all young people to effeminacy besides. many ap every week. in honor of Jesus and Mary. and in the evening. and every year. or on bread and water. and of fraternal love. in virtue and knowledge. besides. a visit to the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Virgin. ALPHONSUS. spiri tual reading took place by his orders. and liked to hear them sing them at recreation he often joined them himself. commencement of study. instead of vain friendships. taking rise in sympathy and a instituted a spirit of worldly rivalry. and was accustomed to call the seminaryt he apple of his eye. recommending them to forego something fast in the at table. He monthly retreat. if he assisted at mass in the morning. The saintly bishop rejoiced at it. he gave exercises for eight days. To preserve it in this state. still more dwelt amongst them. on Saturday. He introduced the practice of Novenas. they studied di Charity frequently. he exerted himself. before dinner. all became edi fying there. before the re had to go through the spiritual He set the hymns he had composed. as it had not been . he went himself. morning. before going to church. on certain days. and others. he inquired if the subject frequented the sacraments. and had them taught to the young people in relaxation time. he exhorted them . or sitting on the floor. the custom before.

that is not charity. so perceived he left him a subdeacon. ALPHONStJS. and who. having fallen. several 20 . had a father s tenderness for those who were worthy of his care. He had not sinned against morality. and such great terror spread among the pupils. all c&amp. He spared no one a very orderly young man . !&quot. he had run away from the seminary twice. He perceived a certain vice in the nephew of a professor. and frequent the rooms. who.&quot. was surprised reading a Neapolitan poet. he dismissed him the same in stant. Alphonsus made him come down from the course of rhetoric. Having heard that some rather loose verses were circulated in the seminary. found pardon from Alphonsus. who asked in tears for his forgiveness. who exposed the wants of his church. but Alphonsus thought he other faults in him. into that of grammar. though less considerable. and he found mercy only in consideration of his belonging to a place singularly abandoned. notwithstanding their submission mises. he sent all three away spot. to prevent every seed of visits of establishing secret inspectors. to intercede on similar occasions. and the entreaties of several respectable and pro persons. an act of levity. where there was not a single priest. but being wearied of study. in which he had to remain till a new course began. One of these had maintained in a brilliant and after risk the ruin of the rest is ? to pity one individual. years he admitted one of them to the sub-diaconate.rdered immediately a search. towards a woman who had on the After often to pass in the court. hex&amp. it is when he saw the bishop s in flexibility. Three others committed they were immediately dismissed. on the representations of his curate. he answered to those who wished What charity &quot. without any regard to his uncle. not having time to get rid of them otherwise. charity ! What gave up his class and left the seminary. that he who had those verses swallowed them. Two were found having forbidden knives. One example known of a young man. though inflexible towards the vicious. Alphonsus. 229 corrup and solicitously watched tion. through the windows.LIFE OP ST. and made a protest as to the many amendment of the candidate.

all were the offices. could have had no other intention than the good of the in habitants.&quot. thesas of theology as he was poor. and the eu. and cincture. and on feast days. of which they had till then been destitute. as well as the instructions of the curate they to approach the sacraments of penance. for having committed very slight faults against these regulations.&quot. These rules were sent to the curates of the young seminarists. every eight days without fail.The seminaries were only instituted for the procured excellent priests for many villages and country places. that he &quot. to be present at . and when he noticed any young man of talent among the children of the inhabitants of small places. he gave him several ducats each year. and especially of the poor.230 LIFE OF ST. help of the churches. experienced all his severity. Several pupils. . charist. him to embrace the ecclesias and generously gave him an entrance into the &quot. before mass they had to visit the Blessed Sacrament every evening. seminary. and punished others by imprisonment. and still less at hunts. While Alphonsus labored for the reform of the seminary. he prescribed that they should make half an hour s meditation every morning in their parish church. For preventing the vacations being of any injury to the morality of the young men. he replied to the members of the com mission who objected to this charity. he tried to persuade tical state. He assembled the priests for examination on the . Being informed of the disedifying conduct of several priests. he made some retire into mon asteries. collar. and never to leave the house without the soutane. It was thus. he neglected nothing which could be conducive to the end of the visitation. but the greater number yielded to his charitable remonstrances. ALPHOHSUS. No one was re-admitted into the seminary who had not an attestation of good conduct from the curate. and the pious per sons who left their goods in favor of these establishments. and by their after-conduct consoled the heart of their The sacrifice of the altar and the sacrament of pastor. penance were the principal objects of his care during the visitation. They were not on any account to be present at vintages.

and he only reinstated them with difficulty and after many months probation. forced to yield whether with good or bad grace. ALPHONSUS. . his who could not resolve to reside. the even several curates wanting in necessary knowledge. He appointed them canons. and that his parishioners were few and scattered about. In town and suburbs alone he found four completely in capable. Some he found so inobservant in regard to the most essential rubrics. The most he did was to say mass on Sundays and .LIFE OP ST. pretending that church was too isolated. and firmness. he found two in the most complete ignorance besides prohibiting them from hearing con some time fessions. that he was obliged to suspend them. he forbade them even to say mass after. lived in town. well informed and of excellent character. and who. In a certain village. He examined also the confessors. he called o nly those before his council who were pointed out to him as relaxed or ignorant. in order not to injure their reputation. and mass was celebrated every where with an admirable degree of precision and devotion. He met with a curate. wis dom. . he permitted them to celebrate. in consequence. but to use the necessary prudence. but was immediate resignation. he commenced the following year to visit the other parts of the diocese. The following facts and ordi nances will serve to illustrate his zeal for the glory of God and the welfare of His Church. This necessary rigor caused the rubrics to be studied. and confided several to the care of others. but continued to refuse to let them sit in the sacred tribunal. and questioned them in order to know whether he could continue their facul ties. He found . that Alphonsus was obliged to propose his He wished to resist. 231 rubrics at an altar erected for the purpose he instructed the least capable himself. and to avoid the evil which might have resulted to those who would have been alarmed at severities exercised towards men whose functions had One of them had deviated so acquired their confidence. far from rule. After a scrupulous examination of the town and surrounding country. as also his prudence.

He met with a priest who had obtained permission from Rome to wear a wig. in order to prevent them from enriching themselves by the faithful. again presented herself at He found in a . Afterwards. to that was not necessary for to be employed for canon. into which he plunged the wig. and thus straightened its curls.and in no other This is how it ought to and prohibited the blamed In all ecclesiastics he way. or I will suspend you. Aiphonsus said to As he hesitated. which he had gathered so ill. incur suspension latre sententice. larities. LIFE OF ST. He for wearing bade them also under pain of suspension latsc sententia? to wear colored mantles. He mitage. Alphonsus wished to see it. celebrated some which with mass. he declared cipitation that whoever did so in less than a quarter of an hour should be. ALPHONSUS. he immediately prohibited women from all access to the her the&quot. Alphonsus sent her her home by several away. bytery . and not think alms of the place all their in the hands of a ing it suitable. he obtained a dis pensation from the Pope for him with regard to the of his charge. convent a nun. him: &quot. and had her conducted back to soon she but excellent priests.232 feast days. Alphonsus enjoined him to reside in the pres he resisted and was ordered immediately to resign. give in your resignation. if he dared to introduce them there for the time to come. he sent for a vessel of boiling water. nevertheless not without his bishop s approbation. of of the use and curled hair. fruits interior found that in a rural church there was a door in the which gave entrance into cell of a hermit. by mildness he was able to persuade him. who forgetting her duties as a spouse of Christ. afflicted all the house by her irregu She was a Neapolitan.&quot. said he. perfumes. He ordered other hermits. support the benefit of the respective churches. and obtained all he had wished for.&quot.&quot. under pain of excommunication ipso facto. Wishing to spare him. &quot.Decide. and prohibited their entrance To remedy the pre into the church without the soutane. and threatened the hermit with three months imprisonment and the deprivation of his hermitage.

curates to insist refused to general abuse in the diocese. . He sent for several. Despairing of being able to prevent these dangerous meetings. and at that at which the most people was present. except by rigorous measures. you will find in me a father full of 20* &quot. and be read by the curates and other priests. the essential points of Christian doctrine. you reform. ignorance instructed them where there was need of it. in paschal time. on every feast day. that it should take place every Sunday and feast In order to remedy day. he charged the convent himself to prohibit upon it. He ordered. He ordered all women of irregular life to come to him. and on the other his mercy.If &quot. went to the her re-entering it. he made it a reserved case. and in presence of the curate he showed them on one hand his indignation. 233 The bishop on hearing that she acted with violence in order to enter it. the convent door. the catechising of the children only took place in Lent. he said.&quot. . the parents received the young aspirant to their daughter s hand into their house. who had accompanied her. at the first mass. and not to give rest to those who amend. his who had not been examined by Christian doctrine. Fearing that the sacrament of baptism curate on was not well administered in cases of danger.LIFE OP ST. under very severe penalties. and was not provided with his certificate. Finding that a great number of the laity transgressed the commandment of the paschal communion. and he prohibited confessors. Throughout the diocese. on one sheet for their convenience ignorance of the people. through the of the he examined them himself. and that she received the aid of her parents. that after the ceremony of betrothment. he ordered that these instructions should be put on a tablet board. he recapitulated the most and had them printed besides. as well as every day during Lent. to others he It was a custom. and alarmed the offenders by threatening them with excommunication. or rather a sent warnings in writing. from admitting any one to the sacrament of penance. to warn them him self and to urge them to perform their duties. and midwives. ALPHONSUS. under pain of sus pension.

and^ciboriums. which had need of it.&quot. the practise of paying in the evening a visit to the Blessed Sacrament and to the Holy invoked even the He Virgin. he sent for them and gave them a paternal . having been informed of the dissolute conduct some laics. and they were wanting.&quot.The house of God. should be re-gilt in the space of two months.&quot. he ordered to be procured.&quot. demands cleanliness and decency. and too to put it much it is pains cannot be taken for in proper order. cha A missals. saying: &quot. great quantity of albs. A cobweb in a church was the cause of He for a severe reprimand to the curates and sacristans. and to clean the holy water stoups. but the incorrigible be came the objects of his justice and severity. for difficult people to pray where their sight is painfully affected by what they see. and great cleanliness in corporals and linen for the altar was exacted. and ordered to dust every part of the church every week. were rejected. bade images and altars to be preserved which had become disfigured by time. I shall be to you a severe and importunate judge. so that he civil authority against them. he declared these should be wherever omissions and faults found. subles.LPHONSUS.234 LIFE OP ST. copes. and for pies for the exposition of the the viaticum. A. He advised the curates to watch overthem-and inform him of their conduct. the furniture as well as the buildings to be repaired. he would stop the revenues.. &c. As for the churches. cano Blessed Sacrament. established every where. and he had the cotton Where lining in tabernacles replaced by that silk anxiety in in making the necessary expenses points If little lining for these things was shown. &quot. Qf At Airola.An image is useless. he caused the walls to be white washed. but if you remain obstinate in sin. &quot. A great number of acts of love on Alphonsus these repentant sinners experienced part. Many unsuitable ones were to be put in a ordered to be replaced. charity. as also remonstrances. and ornaments capable of repairs good state. he said. when it He ordered that all chalices does not inspire devotion.

ALPHONSUS. On the ninth day. in a criminal intercourse. His asthma tormented him again at Airola. he seemed . go through the surrounding country. he imprisoned them. he threatened to take her life. while he himself received accounts of the state of things from the curates and several gentlemen. A licentiousness. was and instead of amendin as had succeeded making him promise. and had him banished with the prince s aid and as he continued to live in Prince della Riccia. his face manifested the joy of his soul and his entire submis sion to the will of God far from fearing death. where he died impenitence. the malady got worse.LIFE OP ST. to make his cus tomary meditations in the morning and evening. the prince. of Airola will suffice for studied out of the me. but finding them incorrigible. It was proposed to him to send for some skilful doctor from Naples: &quot. at sus. &quot. Alphonsus then sent for his secretary. While Alphonsus thus performed the visitation of his God proved him by infirmities and sickness. he quarrelled with his wife. and he asked if there were any danger. and gave the necessary instructions to and orders. same books he replied. He received it with pious confidence. The physician knowing the firmness of the saintly invalid s mind. 235 correction. The state in which he was did not prevent the continuation of the visitation his place was supplied by the Grand-Vicar. accompanied by symptoms which appeared mortal. whom he ordered . partly avowed the real state of the case. Alphonsus ing. eno-ao-ed O G .&quot.The doctors diocese.&quot. . and afterwards banished them by the aid of the nobleman of the first rank. and for fear she should denounce him to Alphonsus. and this tor ment was soon followed by a fever. Alphon sus immediately ordered his arrest. the instigation of Alphon in shut him up in a state prison. and loss of time.have they not as those at Naples? besides my life is not of so great value. and ordered him to administer extreme unction to him without day During this at a mass illness he did not fail to communicate each said in his own room.

whenever he could. He also printed in the calendar of the diocese. In order that the of same case should be discussed on the same day throughout the diocese. Besides. it as a friend. which had to assemble every week in his palace. as there was a great number of young men unable to maintain themselves in the seminary for want of the means. if he did not expressly dismiss the visitors. ALPHONSUS. The visits which were paid him were burthensome to him. when he returned with care. under the manage cal ment of learned priests. they were obliged to retire. he attached a school of moral theology to the cathedral. and its members were those he most frequently chose for curates. practice and examined several on moral theology. societies Alphonsus anxious about their vocation. when he examined the rubrics and made them &quot. always finding him meditating or listen ing to the reading of some pious book. with all necessary regulations. wished that note should be taken of all the decisions and conferences. for future use. exile : &quot. instituted a society of priests in his capita! 3 also destined to give . The rubrics of mass were also week made the subject of special exercises in these conferences. and he was scarcely convalescent. cautioning him not to fatigue himself by too much applica is that which relieves me without it my tion. and every year he had the list of cases for each still He was in bed. he replied His health improved illness would be too painful to me. founded on purpose for their benefit. he made a choice of several questions himself. for the Clergy. and that no one should find an excuse for not being prepared.236 to invite LIFE OP ST. who would deliver him from his and lead him to his true country. This academy was a sweet source of consolation to Alphonsus. Besides this re-union for the study of morals. In all populous parishes. ardor to the objects of his pastoral priests on under his own eyes. He culated to make them useful for the diocese. he himself presiding at the sittings. which was not in The doctor terrupted by the arrival of any one whatever.&quot. he established the Congregation Cases of Morals&quot. after the fifteenth day.It .

These new missionaries distinguished themselves so much. things for the right nance. and lastly. . in one small volume. A. mass.&quot.LIFE OP ST. God was pleased to manifest that he was with the saintly One day prelate.LPHONSUS. two years. and inspired him with His holy zeal. he made it a rule to visit it every each year doing half. for he had united in such a congregation. Agatha. and for girls. Having terminated the visit at Airola. for spread speedily over all the to kingdom. a priest. with all possible clearness. that Alphonsus attached them to the Congrega tion known at Naples by the name of the Conference. in which he appeared quite transfigured . and he never failed in this. or the mysteries of the passion of Jesus Christ. a chapter on the eternal truths. and charged his Grand-Vicar to finish the long as he As visitation in the other parts of the diocese. He entitled it &quot. and mutually encouraged each other in virtue and goodness. he suddenly fell into an ecstasy. with acts of preparation and thanksgiving.The Guide to and dying. assisting the sick to all the priests. For which work many bishops it testified to him their gratitude. was bishop. also. for the aid of the people. his face became beaming with so brilliant a light. another practical little book containing an easy and devout method of buted vicars. Alphonsus returned St. 237 missions. and in the vernacular tongue. that the church became resplendent as from the rays of the sun. who received in them instruction on their duties. the enor mity of sin. At Arienzo. in a sermon which he preached before the gentlemen ties for gentlemen. He in the cathedral. To remedy several disorders and evils which he observed during his visitation. He established also in many places particular confraterni young men. read at various intervals. he composed his little book on hur ried mass. as well as in at the first introduced the practice of mental prayer in common the other parish churches . which he distri and especially to the curates and he summed up all the most essential administration of the sacrament of pe country confessors.

but we in the name of the Lord. said Look at this poor man. The take off your waistcoat. At him his a offered but he de Mugnano. Alphon- same sus replied with a smile. gentleman carriage.My son. who supported it the bishop a sight that caused all who beheld shed tears of compassion. a canon of the cathedral. said he. vender of poultry. As he never omitted any of his ordinary devotions. and never let any poor person pass without consolation. said: &quot. What surprise at seeing such an equipage : this heat. and a servant. the bridle of ten or twelve years. that he was induced to give him . seeing him arrive on an ass. who happened to pass. which of us has come more easily. accompanied by his was during the heat of the month of August. At Frasso. It He had pity one. &quot. ! to travel in !&quot.&quot. who had prepared for his reception at his house. perspiration. ALPHONSUS.&quot.&quot. wretched hired beast was all his train. who was bathed in &quot. On of which was held by a child the other side was the child s . and others on horses. and did not set out till towards evening. or he on foot. do you travel on an ass?&quot. and on an ass Alphonsus smiled. of his Grand. Humility and charity. a person ofv distinction. Some in carriages. At Arpaja the canons exclaimed in their &quot. besides himself. clined it and said: I am so comfortable on this beast that it is wonderful. curribus et hi in equis. so to that the the Grand-Vicar often excused himself from starting at time. Here is another trait: one day he could not pro cure enough beasts for all his followers: not wishing to in commode any servant. on an ass. arid with this basket on his head. he got on so slowly. penance and disinterestedness were his inseparable companions during these visitations. on the poor young man. &quot. he set out on foot. but Alphonsus gave such persuasive reasons for it. and give it to me to hold. who waited on them. in the burning heat of the sun. A the saddle he had borrowed. it is exceedingly hot. &quot.&quot. He was seen seated as wo men sit. that he was often on the road.Why. I on this ass. All the equipage consisted. DOS autem in nomine Domini. rny lord. servant at first would not consent.&quot. father. his secretary.&quot. and point: - ing to a &quot.238 LIFE OF ST.Vicar. hi in &quot.

he pursued his journey on a mule. and those of the different places through which he passed. the child be to and three days afterwards he was walking better. and he would have done so for the whole. who was physicians. Once. and as if as usual. Agatha. ALPHONSUS. : about. and so he would not stop and take rest in St. through awk wardness or drunkenness. Indeed. he made use of a conveyance. rather in order to please the Grand-Vicar. His steward had prepared a magnificent bed for him in the apartment which the prince was in the habit of occupying himself. and it was there that a doctor set his wrist. The coachman. mence the pastoral visit at Frasso. On the way. a rich merchant forced him to alight at his house. but . preached. nothing had befallen him. and had been given up by the Alphonsus went to see the dying boy.&quot. but passing through a place called the Steps. in honor of his patron. at the same moment. when Alphonsus saw it. in going from Durasano to Frasso. not to displease a nobleman who had so powerfully protected him. gan get son. &quot. 239 he went very nearly half the way on foot. said to them Be of good courage. At Airola. he praised it highly. and be assured that your son will recover. near which he had to pass. The second time Alphonsus fell on the Vicar. and the litanies of the Blessed Vir gin. upset them twice. and he had accepted it. if he had not been overcome by fatigue. he showed no sign of dissatisfaction. On arriving at Frasso. the prince of Riccia had placed his palace at Alphonsus service. On approaching him.LIFE OP ST. being indis posed. and dislocated his wrist. the same evening. during which he was constantly engaged in saying the Rosary with those who accompanied him. the waistcoat . was rewarded for his charity by the miraculous cure of his ill at the time. he observed always the rule which he had fixed for his journeys. with other prayers. and though in great He was to com pain. he made the sign of the cross on his fore head. he opened the visitation the same evening. and then turning to his father and mother. and was as cheerful The merchant who had received him in his house.

and said: When the Vicar was gone to church. but for some reason or other. On When was a Sunday or feast day. as well as at the convents which were in the town. which was in itself another ser mon. he sent. large rooms where there much air are hurtful to me. He assembled the children after vespers for catechism. The people were so touched by his words. He preached the afternoon. examining afterwards the rooms prepared for his GrandVicar. and that of the Vicar. moved in the &quot. arriving in a place. and disturbed every one on account of it. saying. return.It it. Alphonsus is nothing. I shall be best off here. way to heaven. He also gave a retreat to the clergy every morning during those eight days. and any change.Vicar was very much dissatisfied with his. for seven canons from the cathedral. and also for the seminarists of The second day he commenced the mission in the place. and in the evening visited the Blessed Sacrament with the people. and if the church was not a collegiate one.240 UFE OP ST. he went first to the principal church. and announced the plenary indulgence. I know how heard of the thing. convenient rooms had been him and his Grand. for is I suffer from my chest . who.the Saint who smoothed their the day after his arrival &quot. and no means of getting Vicar s room. and that destined for his valet. where he opened the visitation by a discourse to the people. to hear. prepared for At Frasso. had been infested for a great many years.Vale. at his own expense. every one hastened to the church. &quot. which was the plainest. and it was entirely freed. God manifested how agreeable His servant s the room which he inhabited in the humility was to him house of D. on his was quiet. as they said. which lasted for eight days.&quot. with beetles. The Saint passed a night there. he of ficiated pontifically. At Real. his.&quot. himself every day. he to remedy had his own bed.Vicar. being anxious to see himself what . that at the first sound of the bell.&quot. into to notice seemed not : rid of them could be found. the Grand. he gave the preference to the latter.&quot. or the nearest collegiate church. &quot. if the parish was populous enough. Anthony di Martino. ALPHONStS.

for he appeared to be better. he administered the sacrament to him in the pri For the vate chapel. went to visit them himself. and spared no expense in aiding them. in order that they might not die without the benefit of this sacrament. and desired their medicines to spirit be furnished at his The own expense. for in three days you third will go to day arrived. and his suite. he predicted the death of the invalid. from the curates and others.My dear Pascal. wherever he went. recom mencing the imposition when others were assembled again. and who made their children he was convinced sleep. The sick. The poor were also the object of his solicitude. at Airola. young Pascal was dead. Agatha. to be ad mitted to the reception of this sacrament. and that all should be present at the first imposition of hands. in the same bed. as Alphonsus had foretold. His table was the same as at St. of mortification also accompanied Alphonsus visitations. were not forgotten. and the sick man seemed far from a speedy death. as also for young women in danger. On one such oc casion. however. pell-mell. to visit he went not were who them. ALPHONSUS. to wards the close of the day. Neither did he exempt himself from mortifying himself daily by hair21 on these . and he never omitted his seasonings of bitter herbs. he inquired about them most solicit clothes. Paradise. ously. instruction they received.&quot. be very glad. to whom he said : &quot. 241 children for He instructed also the He wished that the children should be at least from seven to eight years old. infirm. yet confirmed. that if any one came too late. He inquired into the miseries of all. not to put him off till another year. He was so scrupulous on this point. his words. both for himself. in his visitations. When and all other necessaries.LIFE OF ST. the sick poor. the symptoms of fever became more alarming. and consoled them by and by his alms. but he cared most for widows. He strove particularly to know those whose houses were irregular. above all. himself. confirmation. that their indigence was real. he endeavored to supply beds. and before night. He was The a young man. or be too long deprived of it.

The who person the morning. Such conduct gained him general esteem and respect. recommended them Sales: &quot. when setting out. attested that the sheets were spotted with blood.242 LIFE OF ST. These relics were very care they were applied to the sick. that he always returned from his rounds destitute of money. and one day a piece was cut off his cloak. he had forgotten the instruments of penance. on the mattress. For a great number of years. so much so.Ask keep to the maxim of St. for h% scrupulously ob served the law he had made to himself.&quot. and every fully preserved where they related what miraculous cures had been pro duced by their touch. also attested that at his de parture he found nine stones as large as an egg. The valet de chambre of Prince della Riccia. In the morning. never to accept any present. were several times found without pendants. and the other ac customed prayers. and small his made bed in stones were found in the bed. he carried the covering of his straw bed about with him. and wherever he arrived. ALPHONSUS. His disinterestedness was such. he had it filled with straw. and did not use the bed which had been prepared for him. that people thought themselves happy if they His mitres could obtain a small piece of his garment. after his own prayers. he immediately sent his servant to seek for them secretly. cloths and disciplines. reduced the fees of the visitation to For the members of his household. from the moment of his awaking. and until his in firmities became extreme. and in the evening. and besides. to for nothing. and burthened with debts. Francis of and refuse nothing. he nearly nothing. when he was at Real-Vale. he as sembled his family to* recite the Rosary. . Once. at Airola. he occupied himself in meditating on sacred things. . in common.

a second marriage. &c. you ought to take care to send all young female servants away from your house. 243 CHAPTER His Conduct Others.&quot. than that you should run the risk of some vexatious embarrassments happening to you. and tell them that you will take them back when you again set up your establishment? You ask me for money.I am rejoiced that such good alliances are offered to you. and say to them that you do not like visits.LIFE OP ST. resolved to enter into He imparted his design to Alphonsus. The devil is always a devil.Ibgofyou choose a young woman of moral habits. at his Brother s second the His Zeal for the Preaching of Word of God by Himself and His Charity during a Famine. ALPHONSUS. and make a long stay there. (1763. Be women have more affection for young advanced age as you are. as I and her parents. Be sure to declare your intention from the first. or one who would be disposed to take It would be advantage of your advanced age have already written to you. and in the liberty in which you Can you not dismiss are. In another letter of the 12th of the same month. asking him to aid him by his prayers and by saying masses for this intention. D HERCULES i having become a widower about this and time. and with temptation so near. for this purpose take her to Marianella. try to meetings. he to be very careful to answered him on the 9th of November. that she should have less of birth and fortune. Marriage. he says : &quot. persuaded. Use all possible care to choose the wife who will make you least anxious. With regard to the projected marriage.) having no heir. I would warn you of another thing. them for the present. not a vain person. When the wedding has taken place. both to her better. that now. and I would wish that you could lend to . XXI. when you are alone. that young men than for those in considering the times in which we live. 1763: &quot. give your wife good habits from the first. I should tremble for myself.

was otherwise wholly detached from all which concerned the interests of flesh and blood. cause than he said Alphonsus. of which detachment he gave proof on all occa a heart. phonsus. sions. . LIFE OF ST. proceeded from which. he only entered his paternal house once.I have however more ? to receive I have so . I may say that I too am married. Though his brother lived in the same . &quot. when he had to fulfil a last duty to his mother. repair been a gulf of expenses. ALPHONSUS for this year has .house in which the hospice of the Congregation was.244 me. *but to a Besides. of the illus trious house of Nilo. Alphonsus rejoiced at her virtues more than at her titles. One day he to Naples and found the door of the hospice shut. spouse who leaves me no moment of rest. though his journeys to Naples were so frequent.&quot. he chose rather to eat a morsel of bread with some fruit in the ante-chamber. Hercules espoused D. though full of charity. He never had the curiosity to inquire into the state of affairs of any of his relatives. D. returned the frame almost displeased at this conduct. Mariana Capano Orsini. what did he expect &quot. I had to two houses. gave her a paper inclosed in a little wooden print of the Blessed Virgin. as we have said before. Alphonsus great an-xiety for his brother. rather than to enter his brother s went and when the nuptials were celebrated. takes Don Hercules was little offence. to meet the costs of I sympathise buildings erected at the seminary with your pain in having to go to many expenses without having enough to supply for them. rendered thanks for it to God. Al apartment. I have in curred a debt of four hundred more. as custom seemed to require some present to the bride. who was mortally ill. and during the thirty years that he lived in the Congregation. and My brother angrily. that the episcopate is corne to me at the same time as your marriage. a lady of exemplary conduct and ex traordinary piety. for his only wedding present. he never visited him. The misfortune is. frame.&quot. arid con gratulated his brother. and had to pay to the Nuncio four hun dred ducats for the dilapidation of the chapter.

Jesus Christ began to convert souls by preaching. towards the diminution or expiation On Easter Monday. His zeal was especially manifested when he had to preach to men. any particular solemnity would people in any church. piety will reign among wo men also. In the spring of the &quot. eat pigeons. he passed crucified.&quot. was by the faithful he immediately got out of the car He did the same and entered the church to preach. Every thing consists in preaching well. Anne s . of all santly situated on a hill. ALPHONSUS. or the learned he said &quot. and by preaching this must be conti nued. whether ill or well. and there is nothing always brings saying.&quot. Nicholas. In this general distress he celebrated a Novena in honor of our Blessed Lady. and he wished to &quot. which prompted him. He took also advantage of public calamities. to classes. 247 attract a great concourse of said: there to preach. he had exposition of the Blessed Sacrament. contribute. that all the wells were dried up.LIFE OP ST. he preached he was in the habit of for hours. the Lord would comfort them. forth fruit. . Jesus Christ One feast day. after having addressed his numerous audience. Many parties of people. personally. ercise evening. as they said. which hell labors more to hinder than preaching. riage There was another reason on all other similar occasions. where many sins are not committed. he assured them. the people went in of those sins. by sending an abundant rain on St. he was He &quot. plea &quot. Alphonsus went to this church after vespers. and when the people were assembled together. to preach on such There is no festival. there was so great a drought all over the diocese.&quot. &quot. In order to prevent the disorders which might be committed. but principally at Arienzo. he said. to implore the mercy of God this ex . first became in fact a mission. crowds to the convent of the Capuchins. and noticed that filled . as he that it As soon knew before the church of St. at Arienzo.&quot. and particularly to nobles.The Word of God. &quot. to exercise the ministry of the Word. went there to pass the day in various diversions. : are converted.&quot. Mary del Vico. On the that if they would become truly converted.&quot.&quot. When the men year 1768. extraordinary occasions. at St.

for his sermons. great who had the care of the diocese. &quot. to aid him in his toils.&quot. this preaching. wish to do someto the Pious Workmen. also. he also so men. disappeared. that there his . He sent two Capuchin Fathers of Na ples. and addressed petitions to the Superior of the Missionary Priests of the church of St. after this. to exhort people to penance . an abun and watered the distressed country. placed more than five and twenty missonaries to at his disposal. that every The consequence of where piety flourished. As soon as he entered the dio cese. to the Superior of the society of the Apostoli cal Missions. is no longer any disorder to be found. Dry weather continued. we have lost a said an officer of justice. animated by the same spirit. or rather. sin was done away &quot. fathers with him. Alphonsus sent them labor in several populous places. but on St.248 day. and hasten the maturity of the fruit. and the Jesuits and I Durazzano. was. He applied. have made the people so peaceable. together with some others. to a Neapolitan incum bent. which poured dant rain. after the sermon. In the course of the autumn of 1762. with. and often struck himself severely with a thick rope.Since his lordship s arrival at St.&quot. for laborers. deal. George. licited and of that of the Conferences. LIFE OP ST. the heavens forth became covered with clouds. towards noon. Agatha. he said &quot.I . to hear fessions. and to the Dominican Fathers. ALPHONSUS. and those he has caused to be crime preached. and there was no he kept these two con hope of rain . the Superior of the Congregation of the Conference. and provided with necessary science. He repaired to Arienzo himself.&quot. he thought of missions. He was not satisfied with putting own hand to the plough for the culture of his vineyard he wished to be as sisted by laborers. Anne all s day. when at Naples. at &quot. through the neighboring country. from the time he accepted the bishopric. as he had all promised. and caused the Pious Workmen to preach at Arienzo at this time. He continued to preach on the just punishments which overtake the sinner. the Superior of the Congregation of Pious Work as well as the Provincial of the Jesuits.

as the people could not easily come to the collegiate church. &quot. Alphonsus held preaching. to sing one of the pious hymns he had himself cornEvery Saturday. he was in the adoration and exposition of the . he catechised the whom he attracted by giving them rosaries.&quot.&quot. When he was at Arienzo. When he was at St. and on all feast days which fell during the week. Each month he visited a church fixed on beforehand. so many poor and mendicants. after vespers. Sunday to give instructions to the Congregation of nobles. ALPHONSUS. little Every Sunday before the sermon.&quot. this Not satisfied with doing this himself. before the ser mon. as he had vowed. sometimes even money. saying you with expense. always with exposition of the Blessed Sacrament. During the three 21* last habit of having public days of the carnival. and according to the convenience of the people. He was accustomed. which he had established. almost the only have one imposed on the it is one which he exacts from his bishops.&quot. he published posed. he that Jesus Christ seems to became remarkable for his assiduity in preaching. children. he never missed preaching every Sunday at the cathedral. So he to fail in it is to neglect an express command. believe what great good he effected by this exercise. and that of the young girls. He went also every and pictures. bishop. &quot. with a sermon and It is impossible to exposition of the Blessed Sacrament. his first duties as a &quot. : also the praises of our Blessed Lady. he wished it to to be done twice. 245 many poor here who die of hunger! yes. he went to preach in the par ishes. and in another on Sunday. not to burden himself. ministration.LIFE OP ST. and made the protestation for a good death there. he established devotion in the whole it diocese. for God s glory. and as his sermon was always accompanied with exposition of the Blessed Sacrament he furnished the candles on these occasions I wish. and Apostles. they demand that I should make presents. he preached alternately in one of the seven parishes of the town. both on Saturday and on Sunday. took place in one town on Saturday. At Arienzo and in other populous parishes.This as among said.

however. and from otherwise offending God. and without fruit to the people. and which was delivered by a deacon of the seminary. Agatha were in the habit of exposing the Blessed Sacrament every Saturday in March. The Conventual Fathers of St. after vespers. when he had no carriage. The convent generally gave the young preacher in tears. Agatha.&quot. not to deprive the clerks of this in so touching a that all . he celebrated sometimes the seven The panegyric the feast of this saint. Sacrament. there should be in the church of St. to hinder the people from going to When public shows. &quot. enlarged on preached. he offered to preach there himself. ALPHOKSUS. there was a sermon in the morning. One Sunday. instead of which latter. Philip. not wishing to deprive these religious of the alms attached to it. He also adopted the custom of celebrating the or not. he was at St. whenever he was in the town . Joseph. the people melted manner. ten carlins Alphonsus. at Arienzo. and this sermon he preached Sundays however bad the himself. . though ill. retribution. days which precede of the Saint. and the exceeding love of Jesus Christ for man. and urged not to go he caught a cold. at which he assisted. or at St. Seeing that these discourses were merely an exercise for the young men. he went there always on foot. During Lent. novena of the birth of our Blessed Lord in his cathedral. Agatha. from which he suffered a long time. nuns of weather might be. with exposition. during the of Lent. he left to one of the Capuchin fathers. He He the fixed that. however severe the weather my might be. in the evening.246 Blessed LIFE OF ST. notwithstanding which Alphonsus went. a sermon. he was in the habit of giving the spiritual exercises to the regular and secular clergy at Arienzo. as well as that of the Assumption and that of St. and had a sermon each time from one of their clerks. Before the sermon. he sang his hymn. Jesus. wished they should continue to fix on some could one who preach in his stead. . himself. a furious storm came on. in consequence. he never failed to go. in case he should be and give him the same sum whether he preached prevented.

while weeping over his people s sins. . for it that should never be omitted. Father clergy had ended &quot.&quot. and its brightness shed a supernatural splen dor in the church: he exclaimed at the same time. During mass. . After the mission at Arienzo. after that a young ecclesiastic was in this case. The and fact was. astonished them most was. Thus the Blessed Virgin. Mary del Vico. compensed. One : let him come to me . a place of more than four thousand inhabi Several he himself undertook the principal sermon. and every one marvelled to tants .LIFE OP ST. which he had prescribed evening. Airola. scatter blessings ask her for these blessings she is ready to grant you every thing. of diet. his penitential life. and said any scruple about having obtained his benefice by simony. and celebrated pontificaily in the collegiate church. the zeal of her servant for this it was Alphonsus who had introduced sermon on the Blessed Virgin. sion lasted twenty-two days. times. who preached to the sermon. as we have seen the his before. he contented himself with being present only. re . But what could bear up under so much fatigue. on sions. whom he united in a Congregation. Alphonsus unexpectedly If any one has presented himself before them. having been to Alphonsus. &quot. broken down with in firmities. as she had done on many other occa we have seen above. I am come here to help him. as this. for besides he never departed from the severe rules to himself. he went with ten Dominican Fathers from Naples to St. carried away in an ecstasy. 49 He gave the spiritual exercises to the gentlemen and noblemen. and returned at Christmas to Arienzo. which he preached his face was himself. he was freed from his At the mission of scruple and preserved his benefice. and had made it a rule. her honor. In the sermon on the patronage of Mary.&quot. he entered on a sudden into . he struck him The mis self in the pulpit most cruelly with a thick rope. ALPHONSUS. he spoke with the fire of a seraph illuminated. after time of missions. see how an old man of sixty-seven. here is the Virgin coming to thing.See. that.&quot. after having received the precious blood. especially for the his other austerities.

and St. he also introduced the adoration of the forty hours. come each year from Nocera. hopes on them. Ciorani. From the first.&quot.&quot. as novenas and triduos. an ecstasy. the seed is is dry and barren. I blame certain knowledge. he spoke very plainly to one of them. if all does not come at least of it a does. neither can it be Besides these missions. and a popular style in preaching. for fear that He founded his they might be suspected to be his spies. the most zealous preachers to ascend the pulpit. at the carnival. and caused. whom he knew to be guilty of rigorism. &quot. and if we would lead souls to God and save them. in order to strengthen the good. and caused the missionaries to go through it in the time. he had also recourse gathered. he kept one of the most zealous missionaries with him. Once. caused some of them to Angelo. as many persons attested.My father. then. he answered that skilful husbandmen are accustomed to throw a double quantity of seed into hex also same space of &quot. and he. hurtful to souls. however. and destroy rather than edify with sinners. of Jesus Christ. and he was very ^anxious to see them followed. part Word of God to wheat if it is not sown. After having visited all the diocese. abundance. who act not according to . Jesus Christ compares the up. . and caused him to give a spiritual renewal of the missions.too he said to him. but Jesus Christ. we must not imitate Jansenius. &quot. The two principal counsels he gave to all these missionaries were: charity towards sinners. Such was the method charity and mildness are necessary. and awaken the sinful. and in the end.added: if we would have an ample harvest. places where the earth It is thus we must do. as we have said above. when he first arrived at St. Agatha.250 LIFE OF ST. to divers other exercises. and his face beamed with heavenly fire. . much indulgence in a confessor is but too much rigor is not less prejudicial rigid spirits. and to those who blamed this multi plicity of missions. visited his diocese every two years. Alphonsus. ALPHONSflS. When sown in : He did not like to employ missionaries of his own Con gregation.

lodgings. mortal The expenses of these missions. The priest replied in terms any thing but respectful. did . preaching: &quot. Alphonsus. used parables and comparisons. Notwith standing all this.&quot. by striking the mind and heart. 251 As &quot. he had sometimes much difficulty in over coming the obstacles he We give the following example. were and never abstract. One incumbent had excused himself. will all be useless. why did you take I do not excuse you from sin. preach yourself. saying: &quot. to Jesus Christ he said. because the preacher used chosen terms and studied phrases. and fatigue of every sort. and reprimanded him severely. besides. when he was present at a mission. The sermon was hardly ended. He paid for the journeys. who divined his real feelings.When did not use turns of sentences nor rhetorical expressions all His words were on a level with the people s comprehension His proofs . preached. the chief of missionaries.That is to betray the people and Jesus Christ. tri umphed over the will.&quot. In- . One day. converted females. expense. The Apostles were instructed by natural. it shows at the same time his incomparable forbearance and readiness to forgive. furnishing even the oil and candles for the churches.&quot. and food. were all placed to his own account. and we also must do as they otherwise journeys. except those that were provided for by foundations. to give beds and other indispensable things to the poor. even in case of labors which the missionaries undertook of their own all accord. He . and enabled the missionaries.&quot. if you only seek to the trouble to leave Naples. as met with from the incumbents. exhort ing them to take particular care of necessitous families. He Him. saying that he had no house and could not procure one. He freed the incumbent and the towns expense. which. at any price. he was seen to move about uneasily on his throne. and they imitated Him. answered that he must procure one. ALPHONSUS. whose misery from caused them to make their children sleep together.LIFE OF ST. and young girls in danger. and not Jesus crucified. and that it would be defrayed for him. before he sent for the preacher.

but I said that you did not show &quot. he never failed to speak to the most influential persons in each place. I do not he wrote to him.&quot. even say. In order to remedy this abuse. and according to his wishes.&quot. and those who showed repugnance to do so were always refused. . During this time of Lent. now all will be as before. Alphonsus far from showing any him and dignant at this refusal. begged his pardon. he judged of their capability of the rural deans . but Alphonsus blamed their hastiness further dissatisfaction. He was in the habit of saying to those who nominated the preachers : &quot. &quot. have been wrong Blessed be this unpleasantness to arise to you to To cause the Lenten sermons be as profitable as those of the missions. founded on ancient usage. who in the end asked for the mission. he obliged to engage to give the spiritual exercises during Pas sion week. and lastly. On this. he also exacted their being in a popular style. if I hope God. when the preachers and confessors presented themselves before him to receive his benediction. Besides. them giving his approbation to the preachers selected. he was attentive in seeing that the confessors should mutually exchange parishes. the grand-vicar and others wished to be imprisoned. with him. the parishioners had the right. I that your reverence has put any in the way. for some days. he had often the sorrow tov see elected persons who were far from being according to his own heart. in the form of a mission.&quot. thanks to the pains-taking care of the vigilant bishop.LIFE OP ST. but it is for me to regulate the subject. pitied the incumbent s weakness. h e asked and obtained that the preachers should be chosen Before from among the Capuchin Fathers exclusively.The right of election belongs to you. I impediment the anxiety in this. who has permitted as well as to me. and the form of the sermons. ALFHONStfS. pro viding himself for their food and other expenses by means and in this way. the Lenten exercises pro duced general advantage. he liked to keep them. should have wished that . and in conversing with them. to get them to choose subjects who were well known. As in many localities. of electing the preachers.

He predicted this calamity. he ex &quot. that the preacher should speak simply. At back on the pulpit and preacher. 253 and knowledge. ! church. thus ad it not to wish to dressed him: betray Jesus Christ and the people. they invited a celebrated preacher.My children. What fruit have the people gathered from all the tropes. on the celebration of the feast of the Sacred Heart. and becoming more animated than usual. and during the Mission of St. to be present. but above all. and cause tears to be shed but the people were insensible. and on reaching his house he sent for him. known order in Naples. arid turned &quot. all Italy was a prey to most fearful dis tress. .LIFE OF ST. for and on another and recom a great famine will soon aftlict us. 22 . cease to claimed: mine. in order that the people might profit by them. it was from respect to the habit you wear. he said &quot. he wished. at Arienzo. ALPHONSUS.&quot. as we have seen. because they understood nothing. notwithstanding. even before his election to the bishopric. and can only merit the fire of purgatory. on festivals. for a great calamity &quot. Alphonsus. particular exhortations. but suf fered much in hearing flowery expressions and high flown If he did not quit the phrases delivered by the preacher of a well officiate.&quot. is threatening lives. The obligations of the sacred ministry. Agatha. his it was only ceremony.Is . from all the figures of speech and pompous descriptions with which you ornamented your discourse? All that was only the fruit of vanity. which caused our saint to have an increase of sorrow and merits. Your end ought to have been to touch hearts. I occasion : Amend your mend yourselves to God. for preaching once in Naples. furnished him with inexhaustible subjects of conversation. and the necessity them to penance. a famine. One day. beware. too ill to wished. and in a tone of authority. : sin.Beware. God will overtake us with fa This he predicted on other occasions. of encouraging charity towards sinners. to preach in that way ? If I did not make you come down from the pulpit. with the motives for very Even in panegyrics and sermons. In the year 1763. to avoid creating disturbance in the last he turned towards the altar.&quot. repeat to you.

He sent in every direction to obtain corn.254 you. and was overjoyed trons. The times crowded with four or people. and broken down with infirmities. he ordered in the year &quot. together Besides this. though it had already begun to be He applied to his rich pa sold at six ducats the measure. his secretary to buy a great quantity of kidney and French beans. No body understood the mystery.&quot. and so all recurred to their common father for aid in their dis tress. and other vegetables. But as he soon became destitute of money. at being able to assist his poor children. 213-1 He had a large list placed in the great hall. the secretary being the first do so. nobody being willing be satisfied with the guarantee of an old man. large halUof the episcopal palace was some five hundred of these distressed in the who most suppliant posture. on which all the necessitous families were noted down. asthmatic. before the scarcity spread from one end of the kingdom to the other. LIFE OF ST. he wished to borrow. list of families. from whom he ob tained plenty of corn. who were prevented from coming to his palace through shame or some other cause. The people were wearied with these reiterated predictions. After the harvest of 1763. and said : Where is this bishop come from ? He only fortells famine and bad seasons.&quot. alphabetically. The same prediction he repeated twice at Arienza. It is difficult to imagine the holy bishop s sorrow in seeing the multitude of starving poor. for the harvest had been at least a tolerable one. to . then governor of Naples. which preceded the fatal winter of 1763-1764. they only ask for what belongs to them. Hercules. In this extremity he interest. by paying but was constantly refused. they had no bread left. and expressed himself still more definitely. he had arranged a private with some money. saying to the servant: &quot. a portion of beans or vegetables. ALPHGNStfg. and as they presented themselves. eyes.&quot. and to all laughed at it. Alphonsus tried to relieve them all. and received numerous donations. But the month of November had not terminated. and with tearful begged for a morsel of bread.Make them all go away satisfied. and applied to D. they received according to their poverty.

he said: had no carriage.&quot. His brother. in my opinion. Being opposed in this by the GrandPeter was Pope. Hercules interfered. the devil. I have already one am burthened with debts. are only a temptation of foot in the grave I deal of great money. he he had. I never go back from it. my carriage. he replied &quot.) with gilt. 255 sold the ring. You know that when come to a I resolution. besides. to his uncle. not wishing them to pass into the hands of stran gers. the pas toral cross. after a very well. why should I have one. and at a very high price.All these pretexts tary to sell the little plate &quot. As the scarcity increased. who am not When D. he thought of getting rid of the plate which had belonged to his predecessors. and he Vicar and others. (and which had belonged his pectoral cross. weeping and giving way . I cannot bear to see the mules remaining in the stable nearly all the year with nothing to do. he asked to be allowed. at least. while the coachman is wasting his That which he time.LIFE OP ST. This second was seen walkinoto all the about. he executed. Do not trouble me any longer about this affair. I want a and am distressed to death at being able to do nothing. that they were of little value. that he grieved him so much. Peter?&quot. careful examination. I. Gaetan. silver He ordered also his secre to sell. but this also was denied. had resolved on. Not knowing what else was on the point of getting rid of his rochet and watch. and the poor are asking for bread. : to induce me to keep . But being resisted by the canons. but he gave up this idea on its being represented to him. greater than St. to pledge these things refusal . which he had received as a present from Jane Versale. as well as that which he had received from Bishop Giannifii.St. while to him a watch was indispensable. and on the 5th of January. for I will not answer you any more. ALPHONSUS. as well as the pre cious stone which adorned the clasp of the cope. the ewer. bought them himself. he resolved to sell his carriage. When he had nothing more to sell. D. for pontifical ceremonies. sent his carriage and mules to Naples. the bishop of Troy. and candlestick. alone in his room. I am old. only keeping one. and joined his opponents.

did. moreover. canons. she added: &quot. the zealous pastor applied to the Pope. supplicating him to grant him the permission to mortgage all his income. Many refused him money. and disciplined himself most severely every day.power to do good. and begged. the answer did not arrive in time. ! menacing way. and did not cease to excite the people also to do penance for their sins. I say. being who ac gave his blessing to the woman. no doubt. in order to be able to succor the poor.256 LIFE OF ST.&quot. took no rest cipal gentlemen. never expected to recover the advances they made. by the companied him. undeserved and violent these at moved reproaches.&quot. and offered himself as a victim to the justice of heaven. The sacristan. or rather commanded them. Oh. water cast on a great conflagration. to give preventing the death of the poor by hunger. and now you make us eat bread at Then raising her hand in a seven grains the pound. ALPHONSUS. all the heads of the chapels together. but many others being moved with compassion.&quot. Thomas of Villanova. filled as they had more . and con sulted with them as to the means of relieving the town. While in this great sorrow. he en vied rich bishops.You have plenty of money. bitterness of his heart. and chief functionaries. &quot. The indefatigable he daily assembled the prin pastor. far from you.&quot. placed generous donations in his hands. and exclaimed in fury: &quot. Alphonsus. he bound himself with hair-cloths.I might find my granaries with corn. said he one day. took her and to scold her. But the pious pastor considered himself as charged with the sins of his people. however. that I merited as much before God. as St. But though the Pope consented to this. and . others supplied him with money under the name of a loan. a woman of the town ran after him. but it was only as a few drops of plate. began .Would to God you had never come among us since you have been here you have only an nounced calamities. as he The scourge continuing to increase its ravages. One evening. after such a fervent exhortation. but. on his return home. to eat it at this price. to pawn all their This was done. He assembled.

the populace. and broke down his door. as also all the bread and provisions of the seminary. pressed them to his heart. desir of provisions at St. particular. even out of town. the superintendent The mutinous people.OP ST. while he at the same time negotiated at Naples for the He spoke to the most influential of stores of corn rest. self as a victim to their anger. ALPHONSUS. to exculpate the syndic. when another sorrow succeeded. far from intimidating the served to exasperate them more. Alphonsus. only people. and chose as the victim of their blind re sentment. the first magistrate of this town. the misfortunes Assisted by divine light from on high.&quot. ing to assassinate him. with the officers. Agatha. cried the multi tude. to urge one. and his active charity he saw the soldiers depart. could neither eat nor . being informed of the revolt. Alphonsus. in alarm. he often foresaw which would happen. . the syndic Dominico Carvo. in order to prevent the soldiers causing inconvenience to any recall of the military. sleep. At Arienzo in he saved D. to prevent still more serious disturbances which measure. 259 people rebelled. attacked him in his house. and tran quillity re-established. appeared before the furious mob. This alarm had The scarcely ended. The unfortunate man happily suc ceeded in the episcopal hurried thither. Giro Lettieri. Life for life. Agatha. and took refuge The mob having heard of this. he consulted. they palace penetrated besieged sought for the syndic in order to murder him. famine rendering them deaf to all his reasons. into the the and interior. despatched horsemen to St. he procured and vegetables. and in tears endeavored &quot. from a great disaster. and was thus enabled to obviate them. he ran into the midst of them. considering this sad state of things. until new took no them to be peaceful. not knowing what more he could do to calm their fury. every moment. The brother of Giro was employed by Alphonsus to put the archives of the bishopric . Alphonsus. and offered him in escaping. distributed to them all the meat and bread which he had kept for the most necessitous poor. and palace. sixty court at Naples.

before Alphonsus suddenly sent for him one Sa wish you to return to Arienzo this turday. and the holy bishop was able to resume the course of his visitation. and con .I very evening. &quot. Augustine. he set out. he went to the piazza. At this As the spring of 1764 advanced. He understood then what that necessity for his presence was. little satis On the Sunday morn fied with the bishop s proceedings. out of consideration for the families ruin of so many families. and found the people collected to gether. and wept over the possible consequences of this denunciation. they were innocent. veighed against these abuses. without loss of time. arid said: in this. and entreated him His representations were so ef to stop the prosecution. which gradually put an end to the fearful scarcity. He in exaggerated claims.S60 in order. but were all obliged to appear at Montefusco. ficacious. and with arms in hand. strained them to subscribe to . and. represented to the president of the tribunal the innocence of the accused. He got before the populace. He sent for the merchants and moneyed men. . Alphonsus was filled with grief. who but for him would have been killed. he heard the sound of the tocsin. and used every means to remedy them. your presence will be necessary there. and he was just in time to save his brother. whence. for ing. Giro to take refuge in the monastery of the Fathers of St. clothed in a refigious habit. and caused D. ALPHONStJS. The governors of the town. It LIFE OP ST. being at Arienzo. commissioned an officer to seek for the principal rioters. he fled from the town The tribunal of and escaped from the seditious mob. Greatly surprised at such a dismissal. proceeding tumultuously towards his brother s house. applied to their common father. Thirty fathers o were denounced by the subordinates.&quot. news. that the court granted all that he desired. being informed of this tumult. Mon- tefusco. Many disorders had arisen during the famine some people had profited by the general misery to practice usury extensively others tortured their debtors. at least a fortnight. was supposed he would have to be occupied But eight days had scarcely elapsed. it brought with it new resources.

&quot. and the poor of the place were quite differently ?&quot.LIFE OP ST. &quot.Do no more. In consequence.These unhappy people deserve compas prisonment. necessary that we should do without something more. his table was only supplied with broth and vicar: &quot. he sent for him and reproached am maintain my family.&quot. particularly in Naples. Alphonsus was ready to die for sorrow. to such a degree. shoulder in order to force her to go away indignant at this . however. with which every one. to retrenching some heard that contribute to the relief of the poor. God. and so you must bear patiently yourself as well as others. which it is not their heart. but famine said he. and he rose from &quot. as Alphonsus had predicted. He confined himself to bread and broth. and this woman. 257 Alphonsus was and punished him for it.&quot. without exception. ALPHONSXTS. people going about the streets like spectres. by four days im &quot. and not only begged.&quot. Poverty increased. and one day said to his secretary and grandit is You see how the people are dying with hunger. are you a Turk The religious changed his line of con duct. makes them speak. that the scourge spared no one. or poverty and penance. and seeking in the country for the nourish ment which beasts had refused to eat. convents of the diocese. and said life. by part of their ordinary expenditures. had He invoked also the superiors of all the to be satisfied. so as even to feed on noxious herbs. the starving poor were seen. eating the grass of the hedges.I religious. you said that you wished When you became of lead a Do you believe in the Gospel.&quot. a religious. but com manded them. I give what is over to the poor.&quot. the superior of a wealthy convent was He very stingy towards the poor. boiled meat. : it is you know what maintain means? It necessary to eat enough to preserve to signifies that and the life surplus ought to be given to the poor. 22* . sion. was soon reduced to the lowest beggary. who had lived in ease before. replied the him for his hard-heartedness. his This answer pained our saint: chair full of indignation. On seeing thousands of these poor &quot. did not leave such a wicked act unpunished.

Agatha. He was delighted when he could wept when he had nothing to give them. secretly. where one did not see some assist the poor. corn from Naples. and there was not a single room in the palace. from this time. after all had been relieved. and as there was a dearth of bread throughout the diocese. every where. One evening. less to surfer than the other dioceses. Thus the diocese of St. pound. in going to bed. the . and at the sight of the unfortunate man was filled with sorrow. for was from ten to twelve grains the only cost six and a half. and poor person being comforted or snatched from the grasp of death. they used men He succeeded in procuring a great quantity of aces. At length by dint of much pains. as well as with money.258 LIFE OP ST. the Sec retary. ALPHONSUS. and more than this. poor of this estate every day. 1764. But however great was his solicitude. On the horrors of famine having the 20th of February. hastened hither. he could not while. he was lord of lentils. to bestow gifts Thus Alphonsus acted during this calamity. and his . saw a man stretched on a bench in the hall. like true apostle of charity. and distributed bread to the . and he had a helping hand for all. treated. Agatha was not the only town which suffered from the famine. he had the happiness to see him come to his senses again. all had recourse to him. heart rejoiced at the sight of the poor to life. There was no place in the diocese which he did not aid with a quantity of corn and As bishop. become still more felt. relations. Every thing was open to them. the inhabitants of this domain also de the fief of Baynoli manded his assistance. had much Agatha o at St. man thus restored As St. he sent for he ran to vinegar and other things to try and revive him his room himself and took a piece of chocolate. and his penitents on him for the sick. bread it satisfy the wants of all. being informed of this. motionless and nearly expiring. Alphonsus. which he succeeded with difficulty in placing in the mouth of the dying man. He begged and a also the monasteries in Naples.

gave rise to this plaguing Excellency. 261 and enjoined them not to deviate from the rules of equity.&quot. at the invitation of the Superior. which lasted more than an hour. Most Illustrious. You did very I cannot understand what right. Congregation had to assemble in a and the saintly founder was begged chapter. gave an exhortation to the seminarists. He establishes new Parishes. in consequence. Circular to his Congregation. who. having been addressed in a letter from one of his colleagues by the title of Excellency. replied Alphonsus. He accepted the invitation. convalescents. he especially enjoined on the parish priests the relief of many sick per sons. After having thus contributed to the restoration of order at St. he had not returned the compliment.LIFE OF ST. and in the neighboring country. greeted with shouts of joy. He related to Alphonsus. The Council of Trent condescended to grant us the title of Right Reve If rend. He publishes his Book on the Truth of Faith. though he was then overcharged with business. &quot. He defends his Moral Theology He publishes Ordinances for the Regulation of his Diocese. as well as our saint. and. and the most necessitous families. was ao enemy to those pompous titles which were adopted by certain bishops at that time. In passing by Nola. Becomes dangerously ill. Agatha. XXII. to preside. and now they wish to introduce. his &quot.. that. which showed plainly the delight which the presence of their charitable bishop caused in the hearts of the faithful. he stopped at the seminary. . towards the end of September. he also saw Bishop Carracciolo. and then set out to visit the other parts of the diocese he was . Jllphonsus presides at a general Chapter of his Congregation. ABOUT general this time. ALPHONSUS. to Nocera. in all parts CHAPTER . He went.

modify. Agatha. which was used by the bishop. and placed himself on a bench. A distinguished Domini can. he refused it.&quot. : be opposed to the rules of Christian wisdom. thanks to his prudence and wisdom. were revised and confirmed.The examination of Bishop Liguori. and cancel all which may convicted of falsity. which is an appendix to the same Moral Theology. and of the most celebrated theologians. Patuzzi s work was but a libel. on which depends the good or evil direction of consciences. and as I had the honor of dedicating my Moral Theology to the Sovereign Pontiff. under the name of Adolphus Dositheus. ALPHONSUS. to correct. and again in Alphonsus replied now in a learned which he supported his doctrine by the authority of the canons. home. &quot. Thomas. and moderate address. in order that you may deign to look over it. with this declaration I protest that in all which I have written on this subject. F. saying. not being willing to give up the combat. of the Holy Fathers. Benedict XIV. The customs and rules Every thing already in vigor. I venture to present and submit to your Holiness. I had no other intention than to make the truth clear in so grave a matter. wherein all the most weighty authorities were brought forward in support of his system. Alphonsus. that not being in his own diocese. wishing to say. for Excellency.&quot.&quot.&quot. This place befits D. some years ago. where he un combat a new enemy. this treatise. he was given an arm-chair. we had wished When &quot. Alphonsus . entitled. The chapter was scarcely termi set out again for St. The chapter lasted a month. unceasingly criticised the Moral Theology of the saintly doctor. Vincent Patuzzi. was done in the most satisfactory manner. had taken up arms again. and which was considered as a master-piece. after his return nated when he to dertook from Rome. Father Patuzzi.262 LIFE OP ST. he ought not to usurp any mark of distinction. duced after the cause of probabilism re-pro &quot. He dedicated his book to his Holiness. Alphonsus. principally of St. we could have staid at he entered the Church to visit the Blessed Sacrament. Clement XIII. had already published a long and learned dis sertation.

as well as who all united with one voice in praising the author s great learning. and on the contrary. the great humility and moderation with which he defended his system. his former writings. regulate many things which he judged necessary. but not less. admonitions. Then. on the day of the opening of the synod.You tell me an edifying public. you are astonished. ALFHOHSUS. notwithstanding. I am sure that my system is very wise My and sary certain. that life. F. Agatha. and also every year. I judge and see precisely the contrary I see that my life is neither good nor exemplary. in order to remedy numerous abuses. and published another libel. wherein are mingled praises and coun sels. replied to him on the 16th of January. should communicate and visit the cathedral of St. he adds: &quot. but full of faults. profess an erroneous doctrine. and other s learned writers. on its anniversary.) I. and menaces.&quot. and thus the controversy ended. sharpened his pen anew. &quot.I without departing from his usual moderation. He then continues to overthrow his adver objections with admirable skill and learning.LIFE OF ST. and supported by the approbation of his Holiness.&quot. he granted. by a brief of the 21st of June. after havingconfessed. that. after having apologised for not being able to reply more at length. the greater portion of which are quoted by Alphonsus himself at the end of his apology. and to favor his undertaking. on account of the business of his diocese. But Alphonsus . Patuzzi. 1764: have received your well meant letter. 263 to the other theological doctors. . sent his apology to the bishops and archbishops. Patuzzi was conquered. as is proved by many letters of approbation he received on the occasion. Alphonsus. Thomas. while leading (you had better said that I deceive the notwithstanding. When Alpho-nsus had made himself thoroughly ac quainted with the state of his diocese. The Pope heard this determination with pleasure. he informed the Pope that he thought he ought to assemble a synod. sup porting his arguments principally by St. but not con vinced. a plenary indulgence to all who. reproaches. Father. only which contained the same abuse as under another form.

and the meetings of the chapter. to enter into matrimony. that the children should be meaning of the words their lips uttered. should be exam Roman this indispensably ined on the most essential points of Christian doctrine. ALPHONStJS. were replaced by six ordinances. little especially to children . and that they should be taught the acts for holy commu nion. should be read twice to the people every Sunday and feast day and . concerning the rubrics. twelve years old. and and without distinction of persons. composed by himself. the founder of the Congregation of the Holy Family. first referred to the canons. at consulted then several times the most judi cious members of his clergy.264 LIFE Of ST. The thedral. they both disapproved of the project. which he promulgated in due form. ordered that every Sunday morning. Fatigati. about this matter. consulting Bishop Borgia. ac cording to the prescriptions of the ritual. and their opinion was shared by several bishops who were friends of our saint. concern ing the divine service in the cathedral. with divers regulations. the it procures. in order that they might to made know the benefits understand well the importance of this sacrament. and thus I shall not have to fear some un &quot. referred to the duties of the archpriests. and thus the articles which He he had prepared for the synodical assembly. or at all who wished He ordered also. The second vicars. that they should be admitted to this sacrament when nine or ten.I quiet spirit preventing Naples. of Aversa. as well as F. After reflecting on their reasons. that most. and the conditions of gaining the distributions. by simple decrees. He renewed the order given after his first visitation. and the . several weeks before Easter. that the summary of the Christian doctrine.&quot. and the dispositions it requires. he said: will accomplish what I wished to regulate in a synod. the parish priests should give a detailed instruction on the truths of faith. my obtaining the roya) assent. of the choir. and caused to be rigorously observed throughout the diocese. and rectors. the priests of the ca and the chaplains. throughout the diocese. the ecclesiastical discipline.

He also ordered. Rectors and other priests were ordered to have a list in the sacristy. or else the bishop should be informed and besides. and vised not to receive young men into their houses. reminding them also. the incumbent should then report to the bishop. and forbadeWonfessors to administer this sa crament to those who were not provided with a certificate of having been thus examined. without the certainty of a speedy marriage. when a legacy was payment should be required and that from the heirs in a month after the death of the testator. For the young of both sexes. it cording This same ordinance reminded the parish priests. and a copy of it remitted to the heirs. and another deposited in the hands of the chapter. at which the perpetual masses ought to be celebrated. that a list of the foundations should be made every ten years. and the other at Christmas. recourse should be had to a competent judge. ALPHONSUS. that ac to the Roman catechism. without having been previ ously examined by his parish priest. that those who had not fulfilled the paschal duty. and the altars. . this being a reserved case. their strict obligation to preach every Sunday. cepting any legacy. the days. by Trinity Sunday. they sinned grievously. that no one should be admitted to Easter communion. should be warned of the. In order to prevent many sins. to compel them. if they did not fulfil it in their parish church. in which should be noted. he set before the parochial clergy. and that if any one had not performed his duty. informing the bishop before ac . he ordered two general communions. without delay. excom munication they would incur. if they did not administer extreme unction till the dying person had lost the use of his reason. he obliged them to receive no promise of betrothal. in case of refusal.LIFE OP ST. preaching should be familiar and level to the people s capacity. the that. that accord ing to the Council of Trent. on the things necessary to salvation. the one on the Sunday after the Assumption. and wished that parents should be repeatedly ad serious evils. and left in favor of the church. who might prove an occasion of scandal to their daughters. 265 In the same ordinance doctrine of Pope Benedict XIV.

and were resolved to amend. and above all. He equally forbade hunting with a gun. and ha bitual sinners. for all those who should finish mass in less than a quarter of an hour. of the strict obligation which the bull reminding physicians of Pius V. ipso facto. The regular. ALPHONSUS. after the third visit. He condemned the facility with which many confessors granted absolution to venial sins. morning and evening. when in temptation. He He or. and to urge them to invoke the sacred names of Jesus and Mary. them to refuse absolution to backsliding. siastics. except they gave extraordinary signs of con trition. this being a reserved case. unceasingly. the distribution of the holy oils. and ordered them to join some Congregation for discussing cases of conscience. the recitation of the Rosary. whose consciences were not known to them. ipso facto. whether they sent their children to be catechised. in honor of the Mother of purity and perseverance. He reminded besides. or likely to become so. the residence of the curates. &c. renewed the pain of suspension. and especially. as well as three Aves. to be in danger. before they had He inculcated on them the duty of quitted the occasion. third was addressed to all confessors. He reminded them wished them to ask parents. and contained several other regulations re garding the holy sacrifice. to study moral theology. devotion to the Blessed Virgin. and to teach briefly. the mass to be said for the people on Sundays and feast days. or any other game in public. the exercise of mental whom they saw most disposed to piety. to be incurred by amusing themselves at games of chance.266 LIFE OF ST. secular and of the necessity they lay under. and to those in occasion of sin. This same ordinance concluded with several regulations concerning the reserved cases. all eccle prayer to those The fourth of the suspension. of ordering the sacraments to told be administered to those of their patients whom they found. imposes on them. to recommend to them. He advised confessors to exhort their penitents to frequent prayer. without being certain that the penitents repented of them. minutely to interrogate those who confessed seldom. .

amounted to more than twenty-four thou sand inhabitants. was the spiritual abandon cases.LIFE OF ST. and when he saw that the offences were in consequence of contempt of his wishes. Agatha. without the written permission of the bishop. but I cannot suffer any disregard for my ordi He was therefore very attentive in watching to nances. that in proportion to this indulgence. One of the greatest evils which Alphonsus had remarked during his pastoral visitation. and more than one ecclesiastic suffered an exem One was deprived of plary punishment in consequence.on the contrary. he had riot acted after the rigor of the ancient canons. in regard to clerical dress and These were the principal regulations Alphonsus it necessary to make. for the good of his clergy and diocese. he commissioned certain per sons. villages. and lastly. The sixth. who comprised altogether. exhorted all the clerics to second their f parish priests in the instruction on Christian doctrine. in which thousands of souls were to be found. in consequence of the cir cumstances of the times. would be his severity towards trans kind of contempt for myself. all.&quot. who were scattered about in a number of villages. and farm-houses. The population of this town and its environs. the revenues of his parish. ment. who were dispersed through the country.) provided that tonsure. He confessed that.Any gressors. to inform him privately. but he also declared. were not less than two hundred families. ALPHONSUS. of all kinds of infraction of these ordinances. or with nets. felt which was becoming. there In the suburbs and hamlets. he acted with severity. 267 &c. said he. and not satisfied with the reports which were addressed to him by the rural vicars. &quot. who reprimanded him with severity. does not &quot. more than thirteen hundred souls. another for having twice failed to be present at the meetings of the discussion of moral was sent for by the bishop. .&quot. see that they were kept. and above all. in the neighborhood of St. (we shall speak of the fifth hereafter. I thank God affect me at for it. who were especially bound to attend to what was going on in the different parts of the diocese.

so that the word of rural chapels God which were distant many from the parish churches. for while the heat of summer caused the access to the church to be very painful. . or similar arrangements in many other parts of the diocese. what was called. Felix of Arienzo. the parish of St. the old and very young. At Cancello. to say mass on Sundays and festivals. winter rendered it nearly impossible. The vigilant bishop. at convenient distances. had only been -of things. in order to induce him . The execution of all this project attached to the bishop. at the least. and teach the catechism to the children. but our saint s. gave him yearly twelve ducats. the Duke of Maddalon.preach. which should be supported by some benefices of free gift. a great number of families. he himself supplying what was was announced .himself with establishing there a chaplain. dependant on the parish of St. and other books. He made in the same. grieving over such a deplorable state determined to divide the parish of St. to which Alphonsus added six more. There was no catechising for the young. when a vacancy should occur in the livings. Thomas. there were a place within three miles from Arienzo. Thomas. and extreme unction. for the celebration of the offices. dispersed about in various estates. which being four miles distant. ALPHONSUS. the inhabitants for the most part.zeal and constancy triumphed over obstacles. He pre sented to the church. which till then.268 LIFE OF ST. was far from being an easy matter. who possessed large farms on this domain. out of to consent to . and three parishes were established in three ancient churches.conferred on clerics. he contented . some of which were four or five miles from the church. and to form three others. or on strangers.. a beautiful missal.his own income. and what is worse. nearly all the sick were deprived of the viaticum. died without any religious aid. and formed. This occasioned serious incon veniences. but finding opposition. never saw their parish priest. divided into several sections. nor in struction for the adults. for which. and promised the priest not to forget him. Alphonsus resolved to make a parochial chapel of the one to be found there.

at the death bed of a father. were by his care endowed with rentals and benefices. his life was soon despaired of. Never theless. I refuse not to work. As the invalid s danger had been seen from the first.LIFE OF ST. and other prayers.&quot. on a bed of straw. throughout the diocese. he voice. at the pros of so soon their Public prayers were pect losing bishop. but he would not hear of it.My lord. Agatha did. necessary to thy people. offered up Novenas. since God had given them to him. 269 Olher necessary for the maintenance of these chaplains. He escaped from death at 23* . where the revenues were inadequate. than the inhabitants of St. addressed the following prayer to God: Lord. to administer to him the viaticum. exhausted with austerity and fatigue.&quot.When St. between two sheets of coarse cloth. No children ever wept more bitterly. By these means he till attracted a number of meritorious priests. churches. through fear and distress. and several re communities at ligious Naples. if I &quot. who could scarcely move his lips. St. had in every place. &quot. lie tried to suggest some holy thoughts. first doctors of the capital. but tears stifled his and he could not utter a single word. had been kept at a distance. repeated. taken from those which were superabundantly provided. am still and Al phonsus. It was an affecting sight. and they hastened that gress. and extreme unction. &quot. then. saying that his life was not worth so much of and that he ought to employ the physicians Agatha. and covered with all the emblems of poverty.&quot. asking the two clergymen who assisted him. to Naples. ALPHONSUS. accompanied by two of the trouble. in order that the Lord would deign to preserve the pastor to his diocese. to One of them suggest some sentiments of love to him. with a dying voice. at the close of the year 1764. Martin was near death. &quot. Alphonsus. Non recuso laborem. than he came to see him. who. or rather to the whole Church. Agatha. to see the bishop of St. immediately I refuse not to work. said then the other. they proposed to him to send for a physician. his brother Hercules was no sooner informed of his state. became The fever made such pro ill. &quot.

One day. moment. God by also manifested his servant s sanctity. then present at St. and asked hkn what child kissed the picture. to gregation again. by &quot. Alphorisus nephew s name the uncle replied. but it may truly be said. while he was still in bed. taking a picture of our Lady of Power. if he were not entirely set up before the autumn. this Lady was called. advised him to go to breathe the salubrious air of Nocera.&quot.270 last. but could not yet speak. that his recovery was a re compense for the tears of the poor. said he. tion alarmed him. of which they had still the greatest need. and that they believed he would continue to be dumb. Thomas. he replied: What will be . he resumed his scientific occupations at the same time. moment s relaxation. not allowing him self a . during his illness. he never failed.I &quot. could not say a asked the canon what was his single word. he articulated every sound perfectly. From the time that he was among his Con &quot. he would languish all the winter. for the salvation of his flock. From that time.&quot. in fact. that the child was called Thomas. visit ceived a from a canon. Alphonsus turned to the canon. who brought him some fig- He was accompanied by his peckers.This child is not dumb it is true that there is an impediment in his speech. and . ALPHONSUS. The doctors foreseeing the tediousness of his recovery. to pre serve his life. although years old. he re a miracle. and it was plainly seen.&quot. a to play the harpsichord. and asked for all he wanted.let not well.The Madonna. LIFE OF ST. said to him: &quot. Agatha.priest. nephew. four who. Being asked one day. that the Lord wished.&quot. and to kiss. even though follow all the exercises of the community. gave it to his tongue being unloosed he &quot. and he will do the rest. the child had the use of speech. but you will see that it will at the . replied. The gradually disappear. Alphonsus immediately made the sign of the cross on the child s forehead. and to conceal the miracle. to cause him to consent to go. and fearing that. This proposi cannot go far from my residence. which he had shot. us place ourselves in the hands of the Lord. It required a command from F. Villani.

to study. the holy bishop had the wants of his diocese before him every instant. because of his indisposition these attentions were a martyrdom to him. or say a word to find one who had waited on him so badly. which had been used for keeping flowers in. and had come to the psalm. wished to recall him to the place again. He some distinction. is to give audience to and never to play the harpsichord. As he drank no wine. One day he received as many as eight. that he continued the psalm. The Rector caused him to be treated with in thinking of my diocese. a few days before.Judica me Deus.LIFE OP ST. smelt a bad odor. rest He ate in an he once asked for a glass of water. each Saturday. God favored him with special graces. ploying it time at an idle instrument. Once. he wished no distinction to be made between himself . and from time to time was called on to give familiar instructions to nuns in their convents. couriers arrived at Nocera constantly. when he was saying mass in the domestic chapel of the Mother of Sor rows. Though far from St. Alphonsus took it and drank. arid that of all. and the of the community. and said the end of the verse a second and a third time. and suddenly broke off and stopped in the middle of the verse he had commenced. he cast his eyes on the Image. but Alphonsus did not say a word. and others. if I pass 1 my preached again. he was in ecstasy. Agatha. and this was the occasion of a heroic act of mortification for him. when he began another. The Father who served his mass. which was full of it.&quot. with regard to food. in honor of the Blessed Virgin. It was not till the Father had shaken him several times. Here also. so that one matter was hardly did not show fault with ended. in place of em My duty. and presented it to him. the parish priests. saw a vase. but a Father who was beside him. and as he wished to be informed of every thing. &quot. thinking he was distracted. and the brother who was waiting on him. and saw that the vase was filled with corrupted water. Alphonsus the least displeasure. every bishop.&quot. ALPKONSUS said. . from his Grand-Vicar. to all of whom he gave an answer. to pray. upper room.

&quot. Arienzo. and the numerous maladies which had ex hausted his strength. I have consulted F. was endeavoring to re-enter it. and go to to him. when he recommenced his penances and macerations. had been sent out of the diocese. When his health was re-established. he yielded. as he had scruples at leaving St. so he wrote to F. his chapter. and of his friends. when he heard that a person. leaving the first dish untouched am obliged to eat only once a day. where he had his cathedral. but not without having. as well as bishops Borgia and Volpi. that without regard for his health. that he enjoyed too good health and he was scarcely recovered. Villani. Alphonsus obeyed. As he had suffered a good deal during the preceding winter. : . but the milk diet has quite restored me.&quot. he wrote F. Villani forbade him to make use of his straw bed during the visitation. who. his seminary. MaIn case dish. also wished him to banish every scruple. ALPHONSUS. consulted F. I have overwhelming scruples already. &quot. being unable to retain him.LIFE OP ST. on the 28th October: have not slept on straw again. Villani. He had been barely a month at Nocera. he hastened his return.that I should be at Sf.have been taken away. wills.&quot. and others whom he had con sulted. and what was of more consequence to him. till now. & take away- my fears. for then he thought. This news tormented him so much. jone. F.God thers. in consideration of his age and infirmities. I wish to resume I have begun to wear the chains on the straw bed the part where the old blisters&quot. Villani. but not without the sanction of his direc tor.boiled meat at And in another letter but as I dinner. &quot. as it had a better climate. Agatha. but this submis sion cost him a great deal when he had no fever.&quot. from coughs and affections of the chest. Agatha. the doctors advised him to reside at Arienzo. for her disorderly conduct. plied) &quot. &quot. (new ones had been ap I beg for your blessing. and so if you will permit it. he recommenced his visitation. I have only taken .I &quot. and he has told me to take a second . said he. and not at Nocera. the prayers of the Fa &quot.&quot.I wish to have your opinion. .

The Realization of the pro many ruin.&quot. I re that the learned have a prejudice. so in fashion in our days.&quot.JThis sect.LIFE OF ST. with tears in his tention of overthrowing the it. your Reverence must procure and read also was transported with zeal. please. to F. Fathers &quot. my principal director.. it triumphs. of the Oratory. Alphonsus mind was agitated by painful anxieties. but being prevented from so doing. to refute his errors. Basnage s abominable book. works at the court. If what I have written is convincing. not write to gain honor. that he who does to be not well informed. I will submit to your decision. is The ultramontane party has spread in Catholic countries. the boiled as If 273 meat is sufficient. and Tanucci. &quot. and particularly in France. not write to defend tutiorism. He enforced on confessors. he said. he manifested to F. I wish to ask your Reverence. and entreated the Marquises of Marco. who spread them in the He was constantly protesting against these provinces.Let them do as they Patuzzi. . and preachers.&quot. ALPHONSUS.&quot.. it is well if otherwise. de Meo. by he replied on the 7th of January. entitled. by his missionaries. I did Sapio. at least. to allow you do not approve of my me to eat the bouilli only. against the sect of the Free masons. his desire to see him abor. and those who went through the provinces. and souls go to their Let us pray to God to put a stop to this. and were clandestinely intro duced into Italy by the librarians. request. He would have liked to enter the this time. book has been published. A ject of Boury-Fontaine. and Gonzales. This book is im He portant.. as to matters of religion. which shows the Jansenists in Church. I do not wish gret. victorious by obstinacy . 1766. af flicted him very much. the duty of in spiring a horror of such reading. lists against this dangerous writer. He was . again attacked on account of his Moral Theology. and especially commanded this to be done. but only to make truth known. &quot. at Every day he heard of the great number of evil books. to forbid the importation and sale of them. which spread their contagious influence in Europe. who had apprised him of it.

he undertook to refute them. under the title of Paris. He wrote to the F. &quot. by which he confirmed the company anew. and that was the storm raised up throughout Europe. which he published. find Against such enemies. ingly. he also wrote to Cardinal Sersale. And as the infallibility of the Pope was then also attacked. on The Truth of Faith. as if it related to ciety our Congregation. to sanctify it. which one may : A say. Another thing caused him much sorrow. where shall we vigorous champions. against the unbelievers of modern times. Provincial de Mattei. Alphonsus was full of joy.would like to anni in order to overthrow the bulwark of the Church it. tors.&quot. he did not forget his own little Congregation. in 1682. ALPHONSUS. unceas Jansenists. in Paris. has sanctified the world. when too late. to thank him. which he did. against the Jesuits. in a treatise. and felt that he must write to the Sovereign Pontiff. at this time.&quot.y will soon Besides addressing a great number of letters to the members of the regency. Free-masons act against God kings. He wrote a circular. dated .274 &quot.&quot. to engage him to use all his influence. as follows: &quot.&quot. will cause doms and not only to the Church.The and which continues. at present. and all innova hilate he said. in order to free Naples. Amidst these labors and anxieties. Kings do not attend to them.I have not received any tidings about the affairs of your so I feel almost as much uneasiness. they will recognise their attack fatal negligence.Reflections on v the declaration of the Assembly of on the subject of the infallibility of the Sovereign Pontiff. and questioned. Jesus alone can train up?&quot. in a letter. LIFE OF ST. and the provinces. to which the Pope answered most affectionately. from this abomi King Charles He composed his great work. particularly by the defenders of the decla ration of the Assembly. issued a bull. had quitted that town. dated the 19th of June. of God. such as those which the company of When Pope Clement XIII. but also to king sovereigns. &quot. nable sect. established at Naples after III. &quot. on another accasion. 1765. but evil. and the. society is menaced.

the 27th of August. Do we wish to like so many others. by failings and neglects.&quot. Andrew Villani. I hear if obedience Lhave punish public faults by public mortifications.&quot. I aid us.LIFE OP ST. who cause the Church scan rather than edification ? I have told F. The Congrega tion has the F. D. I am told that there very ! cation. Villani.I &quot. and the smallest spot which he observed in it. for the wish to be better informed of all that occurs of an Above all. that obedience to Superiors is lessened. to no need of subjects It is : it wish to become saints. . will those who are well-intentioned if there are others. I mean. and always appeared to him considerable. I bless . you all. said he. stir 275 up a daily increasing from his great wish to see it become more and more He cherished this work as the apple of his eye. for the love with which he protects the become his Congregation. and to exclaim against pain ? also. because I cannot the suffer any relaxation is in the rule during my life. Ah inclination for poverty and mortifi have we then entered the Congregation to little . to repay him. I do not curse them. and to expel such as shall show themselves to be incorrigible. government is too weak and mild. ALPHONSUS. It is being too ungrateful towards truly love God. otherwise God will not future. Vicar-General. ceive with sorrow. afflicted him per deeply. perfect. ings. and all we shall preach in vain. ceases. enough only seeks for those who for it. in order to fervor. enjoy our ease. but God will curse them. that fervor is much decayed amongst the subjects of Congregation. it is necessary to mor important nature ourselves to and tify please God. who God. the Congregation will not survive it told . if ten remain. in the exaggeration of his feel &quot. . and that. that dal. and I beg each of you to watch over himself attentively for the time to come. and expel them from the Congregation.

the desire . Borgia says.) that I is done . to be sure of the will of in order regard to it. ALPttOKStTS. ples. The principal reason for for my resignation must not be retirement. I I have been confined to bed. during three or four months. or to assist in the choir. I was almost constantly ill during the winter. wrote to F. I may say. to prevent scru a month. CHAPTER XX11I . teis. and asked the opinion of several enlightened persons. year 1764. in giving Jurisdiction to Confes and in choosing Subjects for Parishes and Benefices. go of the I from free am then as I chest. and that he could re nounce it afterwards. as Mgr. but it ought to be. when he was nominated bishop. Porcara. Alphonsus had thought of the burthen of the episcopate.At present beg speak before your departure to D. go through my diocese. Vi!I lani on the 14th of January. he should govern it. my advanced age. sors. Jlgatha a Convent of Nuns.276 LIFE OP ST. for upwards of It is true. Mgr. last have been so even till now. with asthma. year this year. A JLJL LREADY. but his reasons did not satisfy Alphon in God sus. malady my summer. . he thought of it again this year. the Pope had then answered him that he must not think of quitting his diocese. and besides my usual chest. m He establishes at JLlphonsus seeks to resign the Episcopate. for I shall enter my 70th affection of the year in September. (for I must tell all. I . . His great Solicitude in St. Janvier you again to the Fathers Alasio. conferring Holy Orders. Amongst he consulted others. that circum stances required he should accept. and that every but as long as winter lasts. This prelate approved of his resolution. 1765. I am un as usual In on about to able visitation. nor give rest to his conscience. Borgia. but that ill and infirm as he was. as he had resigning in the been told. and de Matand Fatigati. He . to &quot. Nisi de Renuntiat. for this cause is rejected in the chap. thing continue to attend to business. But his infirm ities increasing daily.

In the midst of all these 24 . and for the glory of God. you. to be in perfect tranquillity of mind. for I have a host of scruples. even if to die under the burthen. to the glory of God. whether I die or succumb. : I wish that my I conscience should be meet with many from a load of disquietudes. your direction. things to disgust me. at last. feel 277 forced to ask for my dismissal. de Simone. and to persevere in your vocation. ALPHONSUS. . had supported his request to the Pope.&quot. to represent his age and infirmities to the Pope in a simple manner. in his name. pasce oves meas. in giving to in my resignation.&quot. is a greater anxiety to me Having taken all than all the rest. Si diligis me.) he resolved. will assuredly grant you all needful succor.His shadow alone would suffice to govern the whole diocese. who &quot. to cast aside every scruple on this subject. At and the request of the saintly old man. Borgia. that I ought not to have sought for my own why I this is ease in this resignation.&quot. and was content. at dals of tolerate. not knowing whether I am doing the will of God or not. and should your physical weak ness become still greater His Holiness charges me to to to and then. but he answered: &quot. Cardinals Spinelli Rossi. . he had Alphonsus did become tranquil. and Cardinal Negroni answered him. and Mgr. which is most certain.. laboring for the good of the souls which are entrusted to you. and your example. and to leave was entirely opposed to the holy bishop s wishes. and not God s glory: wish to be sure as to what will really conduce In another letter he said free &quot.LIFE OF ST. I seeing the dissatisfaction that arises from scan I which am a witness. The Pope the decision with his Holiness. and he is persuaded that you can continue this good by your authority. 1765: The Holy Father thanks God for the great good which you have effected by His aid until now.&quot. but I hear it said me. who was Auditor. even should your malady become still more serious. to propose his resignation. and it matters little. these opinions. . reply encourage you. and which I tremble most from the fear. in a letter of the 18th of June. The uncertainty I am in. (Fathers Alasio and Poscara having coincided with Mgr.

arranged that the Scala should come there as He . He concluded that there had been a mystery therein. As soon as he had received the answer of the Pope.&quot. which. but they could discover nothing. but no one had yet been able to supply it. on the lay The town granted fifty ducats annually for ten chapels. and made other searches. From the 1st of June. wherein young ladies of high family could receive their education. Al phonsus fortified himself by trust in God. which being added to the four hundred and twentytwo which the church he had chosen for this establishment already possessed. formed an income of six hundred and ninety-four ducats. 1765. it was an old convent. saying : Who knows how live. was He caused the sufficient for the support of the convent. together with the portions. a time Alphonsus succeeded in establishing at St. All the other obstacles having been removed. ALPHONSUS. Agatha. built a be to repaired buildings . the little blows were heard no more. and that God had wished him to understand that he ought to con tinue to bear the cross with which he had been charged. but all the plans had remained Alphonsus took it in hand and succeeded imperfect. heard a great number of little blows from the cross he wore at his neck. much longer I may have to religious from the convent at &quot. years. every time lie said the Rosary.278 LIFE OF ST. and a rent of twenty-five ducats from the King. The work had been attempted several times during two centuries. century and a half before. They examined to see whether there was some insect there. or consecrate themselves to God. he went to the spot nearly every day to encourage the workmen and hasten the work. The want of such an institution. one still remained there was no sufficient revenue. and des tined to lodge the soldiers who might come to St. on the ecclesiastical chapels. anxieties. was regretted. At ninety-seven ducats. but now abandoned. as well as those who were near him. quite a mysterious circumstance happened to him. he. Agatha. convent of the nuns of the Most Holy Redeemer. gloriously. and managed so well that he obtained from the Pope an annual subsidy of this .

he then gave her a crucifix to kiss. whose sanctity was well known. He wished to continue to do so wishing When month. and the Pope permitted him to instal them in Sister Mary the new cloister. and boughs of trees. Alphonsus had taken care to provide every thing which was wanted for the Sacrament. two pupils determined to take the novices habit. Arienzo. two recruits on the road. during nuns. the new foundation made under the auspices of to live Bishop Liguori became known in the province. filled with joy at the arrival of the religious. One of them began to be tormented by melancholy in such a degree. the convent was soon filled with pupils from St. at the head of the chapter and of all the clergy. to meet them at the cathedral door.LIFE OF ST. was chosen to preside over the beginning of this convent. above all. the holiness of its foundresses. and Naples. and Alphonsus gave them the exercises ofthe retreat. Agatha. Alphonsus. and. to the new comers. One evening. after the meditation. already prepared. . while the firing of cannon and the ringing of the bells testified the joy of the inhabitants. in the month of June. she was accompanied by two other choir-sisters and one layMother Raphael had the consolation of receiving sister. for the first eight days. He for a sent eatables. 279 foundresses. in the poverty prescribed by their rule. Raphael of Charity. her. in myrtle. mentioned above. as well as the great regularity which existed there. persuaded the people to adorn the gates of the town with magnificence and to ornament the streets with wreaths of He advanced. encouraged Alphonsus and succeeded in restoring her serenity. called her to the grate. but the nuns dispensed him from it. rosemary. Soon. she unceasingly wept and sighed for her father s with the recruits two house. the daughters of the family of Speltri de Vitulano. After having adored the Blessed new church of was exposed and which the foun dresses took possession ofthe convent. that full of regrets. they went in procession to the the convent. where the Blessed Sacrament the Te Deum solemnly chanted. ALPHONSUS. 1765. his pontifical vestments.

that quantity of oil. although fifty he was himself in great poverty. &quot.between He did not exercise the : same compassion towards another pupil tinguish. These young ladies two brothers were dissatisfied with the part they had taken. responsibility of the episcopacy. and sent her back to her parents. even when he resided at Arienzo. The two young pupils who had joined the religious on he road. she returned gaily to the noviciate.&quot.280 LIFE OF ST. and let them have it at least monthly. and lived in a manner little edifying. as long as he lived. to The most formidable our saint. paid it His Lordship. thus doing harm herself as well as to others.t of whom we Rainone s neice. he would maintain the four foundresses. He sent them their allowance weekly. supplied thirty measures of corn to the convent: the brothers gave up for their opposition. young lady immediately experienced a complete change. this and made convent as their profession. ALPHONSUS. were the objects of his peculiar kindness. whilst he lived at St. and amongst other things. his Alphonsus.We must dis he said. clerics ought . he determined on the points on which the young Those who received the to be examined. &quot. and also a great measures gave He even went so far as to promise. speak. He very often made them a present of from ten to thirty ducats. virtue learning and from the young Levites. or others. aware of the distress they felt. the and made her promise to take Jesus Christ for her spouse. Agatha. them. considering assist it own work. continued as far as possible. Alphonsus silenced all human respect. He sent them various little treats on feast days. the imposition of hands. temptation and obstinacy. and they received to their portion. He required In one of the that he made for the good administration of his regulations diocese.&quot. and when he received any pre sents from his relations in religion. though she was archdeacon The one . repented of the step she had taken. was. and from that time was all freed from thoughts of regret. and for several years refused to pay their pension. in the end. he bestowed the greatest part on the pensioners and novices. He of corn to it yearly.

on religion and its opposite Those for the priesthood. both to instruct them. Those for the diaconate. and to specify the different parts of meditation which are necessary to ders. censures. that which they had already known before. extreme unction.&quot. and also to show them that there was no partiality. human acts and sins.For &quot. and the Latin grammar. give me.&quot. repeat.&quot. far from disconcerting them. &quot. had to know the treatises on oaths. to the commandments of God. vows. as well as on what belongs to orders. the treatises on conscience. ALPHONSUS. but. and on simony.&quot. laws. had to vices. it. I can do nothing more in son. the sacrifice of mass.I A us not forget what it is to be examined. The dean told him. on pe nance. rather than as a superior. and marriage. deacon. as also the other candi dates to be present. He came to see him. application. and with this. that. during the interrogatories. with all that belongs Church.the much kindness. he always did it in a way to encourage the subjects to study.for I am myself distressed about your . let am efforts made by one of the examiners. by suggesting the answers. he 24* said. as also the trea tises on the theological virtues. Alphonsus replied : &quot. When he reprimanded. he could not succeed. were obliged to give an account of Christian doc trine. to cause him to pass. This cleric was the nephew of a priest.LIFE OF ST. that he ought at least to make them stand. Those for minor or and form of orders. besides the things which relate to this holy order. for he always acted as a father. and to know the treatises on the eucharist. speaking to them with so reap fruit from had to know the matter &quot. 281 tonsure. and I will ordain you by-and-by. and Al phonsus let him see how much he was distressed. Those for the subdiaconate. canonical hours. &quot. in spite of the a father. his pre sence inspired them with courage. whom he esteemed greatly. and promised that he would not delay in comforting them. present ed himself at the examination again. all that appertains to the sacraments. and caused all the examiners to assist thereat. who had been sent away several times. and of He presided over the examinations in person. study well. &quot.My said Alphonsus to him.

rest. . during The seminarists themselves. and declared unworthy. who had already given proofs? of their capacity. forgive nephew.282 LIFE OF ST. was attacked by a pain in the which prevented him from learning the treatise. and that to manifest such a disposition. for my conscience Wichella. for the priesthood. as sured him that he was well acquainted with the other mat ters of examination. When he presented himself for examination chest. A . whose pupil the young man had censuris. &quot. the time of his arrival in the diocese. and wished to trust to the his attending the course of lectures of the &quot. a does not reproach me at what charity we treated Ask canon with him. and not the thing to be know of no future tense in my grammar. as well as to Alphonsus him self. Alphonsus sacristy.The rules are &quot. were the which prevailed if these were wanting.&quot. and in this matter I thing done. &quot. ALPHONSUS. one of these latter were found wanting. From I know only of the past tense. at an examination for the subdiaconate. would be sufficient cause for being excluded. One five priest has affirmed. young of excellent conduct. said in &quot.&quot. imagining that would supply the place Alphonsus immediately overthrew his hopes. he made no further difficulty in admitting him. the subdiaconate. indulgence of the examiners. the claims only case was desperate. me for the love all. of God. in his presence. not merely to be posted up the But when the parish priest. were still obliged to go through the If usual examination before entering into holy orders. his lordship listened to him. to him. was the one which caused most embar rassment to the young men. made to be observed. Of all the orders. by an edict. Another time. man he was found wanting.&quot. and finding that this was really the case. done. in examinations undergone in the semi nary. as being the first of the major orders. gentleman tried to make him ordate.&quot.&quot. that he was kept sitting hours.&quot.the I wish. that no one need hope to obtain orders or benefices through influence. he had de clared. said he. The real qualities of the candi and the testimony of respectable persons.

dain a subject 283 whom he loved. because in conscience I cannot do it. you pardon me for not doing your beg It is a pleasure. but Alphonsus said he has acted so.If the dismissory letters of their provincials. thing which could not be done. In order to make the thing agreeable to them. to be examined also. The regulars were obliged to pass through the same ordeal.but ima &quot.LIFE OF ST. you mean by that?&quot. have wearied you long enough. Alphonsus did not admit him with out making him undergo an examination. he has done his duty. The Prince della Riccia. replied the gentleman. in caused a cleric. answered Alphonsus.&quot. &quot. that &quot. were also tleman. no more can Alphonsus had a serious reason for rejecting the candidate. retaliation. person. on which he enlarged for an hour. smilingly.&quot.could not reply to you.&quot. &quot. ALPHCmSUS.&quot. Those candidates for holy orders. replied the gen . whom Alphonsus had sent to him when he himself was ill. Alphonsus asked him if he had said all. and I was not made a bishop in order to damn myself.I obliged to give proofs of their learning. Well. -he an &quot. and promised not to disquiet the tenderness of his conscience by similar requests again. believing Alphonsus would be satisfied with his testimony.What do gine that you have spoken to a dead man. This caused dissatisfaction at St.&quot. &quot. to swered him. in spite of : &quot. also tried to induce him to admit one of his tenants to the subdiaconate. he sent for two fathers be- . I. who presented themelves with dismissory letters from their bishops. &quot.&quot. and attempted to persuade him with many plausible reasons. when the gentleman had exhausted the and thought he had gained his cause.Well. &quot. Alphonsus listened to him with immoyeable pa tience at last. whom he had most honored Prince. without injury to my soul.My previously rejected. in order to be ad mitted to ordination. Agatha.&quot.&quot. young man having been sent by A the bishop of Caserte. &quot. and therefore endeavored to extricate himself in this manner.A dead answered Alphonsus.that I may be. matter.&quot. I think. The bishop. The prince was edified by this proof of zeal and apostol ical firmness.

the young religious thought he had better not expose himself to it. that he had assembled the little children. who towards had studied at severe men young especially method to be of used sure their He merits. . or day of obliga tion. as sisted by his grand-vicar. he wished sacraments. very strongly to them. k wished the candidates to present certificates Alphonsus of good conduct. and if they had avoided games and theatres to know if they had often received the all.but it is I who must impose hands on you. failed to assist at church. he must be examined. . and as he was firm in ex and not the Father Provincial &quot. and taught them the catechism. so he took of his surplice. . in longing to their order. . he re presented the duty of so doing.&quot. every fortnight.&quot. every Naples. that he had not been seen without a cassock that he had never played at cards and He was that he had never engaged in any kind of sport.but is very Well. and communi cated. at least a month before the ordination.That religious had just arrived. acting the examination. &quot. when he was administering holy to officiate. Once. and asked if they had been dili gent in following the lectures what persons they had visit above ed. and never seemed satisfied he inquired of the master under whom they had studied. and all at the same time. replied Al- phonsus. &quot. and assisted at the congregation of foreign they should testify.&quot. the orders. at the moment he was going master of ceremonies told him that a young &quot. and a canon. and told him that he was going to question him. in order to have facility in making his secret investigations in case of need. He sent for him. that he had confessed.284 LIFE OF ST. ALPHONSUS. he examined them himself. In order that the parish priests should only give sincere testimonials. and caused them to examine them his presence. that the candidate had not on any Sunday. that he had already been examined by his I am quite persuaded of that. . He was not contented with a simple attestation. provincial. the young man replied. said Alphonsus to him. . . but if there was no monastery of the order in the neighborhood. at least. and departed. but wished on oath.&quot.

he made him return to St. Agatha. and who. every Sunday. Alphonsus always remained inflexible. because he was fond of wine. was obliged to renounce all hope of ever being a priest. despairing of entering into favor with the prelate. he was refused at once. Thus he refused to receive a young man to minor orders. that he solved the most difficult questions in theology and philosophy. to furnish him with the most exact information about them. night. but cleric in and got several persons A all was useless. in regard to a deacon he found in the Agatha. If. but was also obliged to give up the clerical habit. and from that time he .LIFE OF ST. He who did any thing to cause a shadow of suspicion with regard to purity. under a consi clergy. and little edifying. at tears. stay in the seminary. ALPHONSUS. was refused. he was not only excluded from orders. for a minor orders. but Alphonsus heard that he was addicted to wine. Alphonsus had. Alphonsus which the young man shed singers with whom he had refused to make him priest. in regard to ordina tion. in A deacon having walked about during the company with some amused himself. In order to be sure of his amendment. With all this solicitude. derable time. notwith standing. as to the more pity for another seminarist. but in spite of the good testimonials of his new director. because he some He had no times conversed with a suspected priest. who was several times excluded from orders. was. of distinction to intercede for him. although he protested that he had put himself on a regimen of water. The first seminary at his arrival at St. two misfortunes to deplore. and his constant did not ordain him until he was convinced of temperance. 285 He never decided. and did not neglect to charge some friends at Naples. laid down the clerical dress. after all this information. as being little studious. without being able to be made a subdeacon. number of years. who was so distin guished in his studies. nor was he permitted to The young man went to another. though his conduct was very exemplary. he was not entirely satisfied conduct of the candidate. and quitted the seminary.

should also present proofs of a suitable patrimony.If will be your ruin. determined not to admit him to the priesthood. but he had scarcely ordained him.but he will enjoy the dignity but a short priest.&quot. Alphonsus was neither too easy nor too cautious in or daining new clerics. God who and He nor to reject him from does it as He pleases. He liked to see young men eager to consecrate themselves . he will not refuse to yield to the numerous reasons they gave. but he broke his irons. and die The miserably. fall back into sin. ! &quot. but at length he could assure him of his time. calls. and . woe will be to you drinking again. &quot.&quot. as he did not appear to possess the requisite disposi tions.It is not our business. He He required that those to who were five to be admitted to holy orders. I consent to ordain him said he. Alphonsus resisted for a long time. to call it is any one to this holy state. the in got drunk again.&quot. before his parish priest: Wine you do not give up drinking. wished them have burden. . deacon was made a priest. it. to amendment. who had been excluded from years. he rejected the case. as well as the rental. the parish priest. Alphonsus was prevailed on. but without success. After several years. He examined hundred ducats. corrigible man he lost his life. &quot. into prison. where The other case was that of another dea the priesthood for several con. A year after this prediction.286 LIFE OF ST. but in a little time he took to Alphonsus grieved over this he sent for him one day. and represented to became a source of continual scandal to the diocese he was soon thrown. again endeavored to speak in his favor. ALPHONSUS. and said to him. ecclesiastic of merit tried to overcome the An bishop regularity in frequenting the sacraments. himself. &quot. and other ecclesiastics of the chapfer.&quot. him this deacon s and his retired and constantly exemplary life. Some per son of distinction interfered. but he admitted all in whom he recog nized a real vocation. &quot. free from any into the property.&quot. banished himself. said he. and fell into a ditch. before his conduct s repugnance. and if the income of twenty-four ducats was not clear.

And if he knew any one who was really poor. and to cause religion to be honored. on account of age. He himself instructed all the candidates.LIFE OF may be capable of hearing confessions. try. towards the back- . excite them to receive holy communion it did it with so much unction. unless there was a real necessity. Alphonsus. but also truly disposed to aid souls. great im portance to the spiritual exercises before ordination. and of serving me in time of need. he never consented to give a dispensation. during mass. he. but he did not allow them to be gone through in a religious house of relaxed observance. he was happy to receive them. that with fervor. He attached. after having ordained them. Vincent of Paul. re garding them as the only means of instructing young men in their duties. as to the manner of hearing confessions.&quot. and if they worthy of it. I do not said &quot. He wished them to perform them in one of the houses of his Congregation. showed themselves He was par ticular in observing the degrees of advancement. they &quot. I wish that. for masses will not be wanting. and he caused the candidates and spectators to shed tears. to the examiners. ALPHONSUS. simply that they may be able to say mass. he himself paid the neces sary expenses. and that they may be capable of serving in the missions. and attending to all the wants of my diocese. not only of good character and well instructed. also. to the service 287 of the altar. and their obligation to live in it holily moreover. or of the Fathers of St. fully convinced of the wants of the diocese. but in order to have useful workmen for the Church.&quot. not only in the parishes. and gave them methods of con duct to be used towards habitual sinners. but also in the monasteries. beforehand. On the day of ordination. Above all. and only granted a dispensation in cases of necessity. approve the candidates. and of giving them a sermon on the greatness of their state. in order to . and for a subject of most exemplary conduct. desired to have the new priests. Alphonsus was in the habit of assembling the young men in the chapel. he usually gave them a little exhortation.

priests. &quot. ALPHONSUS. of adducing St. managed deacons to to place them immediately Having found two whom he judged to receive the priesthood. at bis own expense. which exceeds half an hour. equally condemned lengthiness. sliding. moreover. for of the solemn marriage of Jesus Christ with the soul. said he. &quot. and still under the required age. who prescribed this .LIFE OF ST.&quot. he wished that the mass should then be celebrated in a retired place.Wine has sway at table. so he mass.A mass. always wearisome to the people. he even forbade the giving of extraor dinary repasts at that time. a person begins in he never gets right again. and to excite in himself good dispositions by repeated acts of faith and charity. if he beforehand. nutest rubrics. by those of contrition. and not And he was in the habit devotion in those who hear it. that necessary in this sublime state.and when wine has sway. the vessel is emptied and purified and by the acts which follow. not to leave the church without making his thily thanksgiving. among he these young promising dispositions. but. which saying is &quot. so that he might wor handle so awful a mystery. and towards those who were living in occasions When of very he noticed as fit any curates. He were gave no one power to celebrate his first mass. &quot. He urged. not.By the acts which precede. also. and the inviting of strangers to them. and this reason.&quot. manner. and recommended him. said he. the newly ordained priest to make a good preparation before cele brating mass. of sin. Neither did the first mass to be an occasion of feastin^ O and worldly rejoicing. . who were poor. creates weariness.&quot. assured that he knew even the mi &quot. &quot. in order to merit from God the plenitude of graces so He called this day. he said. he obtained a dispensation for them. &quot. He wished that the young priest should preserve a state of recollection on this day. Philip Neri s example.&quot. sin is not far off. it is filled with As he detested all precipitation in the gifts of grace.&quot. a bungling He often made young he allow clerics celebrate in his presence. and hear confessions. When &quot.&quot.&quot. above all. said he.&quot.

and letters certi fying that he had been a confessor in other dioceses.will sanctify us if we go through them or deprive us of very gligently. so that when a regular presented himself to obtain the faculties for con fessing. whether he ever visited suspicious or dangerous people. came to ask him to give a priest the faculty to hear confessions. 289 to himself.&quot. it was sometimes prolonged for several weeks. as we ought. or others. he was not even admitted to examination. If any doubt remained on his mind. only on condition of returning after two or three When the parish priests. but was conducted with a wise degree of slowness. when he celebrated in public. however.LIFE OF ST. during which the subject was obliged to return very often. if we perform them ne Such were. &quot. and con sole the Church. who might save the people. saw that one was weak and hesitating. without being informed whether he of prayer whether he made his thanksgiving . as 25 . as he ought after mass. among many others. A newly elected abbot of the first a certain monastery. and to undergo new interrogatories each time. months. Alphonsus was very careful and prudent in giving an ap The examination. he put him off to another time. great graces. was not rigorous. but they will destroy us. to recite the office without hurrying over. and above all. asked him for faculties for Alphonsus begged to be excused. whether he ever failed to visit the Blessed Sacrament every evening. in order to have well instructed and edifying priests.&quot.Mass and the office. rule. At times. saying that their parish was in want of confessors. or at least. time to see Alphonsus. ALPHONSUS. He was not less severe with the regulars. did not in the least exempt him from the examination. he said. He caused all the questions to be published. and they filled twentyIf he four pages. probation to new confessors. &quot. the measures which Alphonsus took. several were found to be capable who did not receive their powers. the testimony of his provincial. when he came two of his religious. He ex it horted them also. he admitted no one was to a man examination.

when asked to give the abbot faculties for hearing confes sion. he conversed with him alone. but this was without success he was obliged to present himself in person. until after they had studied morals for a con When Abbot Pignatelli. he could not acquiesce. may be said that Alphonsus was as prompt in with drawing faculties for hearing confessions from those who proved to be unworthy of them. This offended the abbot. at Arpaja. with prudence. without scruple of conscience. Abbot Pignatelli was able to appreciate Alphonsus impar sincere attachment to him from tiality. Having heard that a religious. if he said to him. abbot to be It s merit. replied. however.&quot.Vicar. who afterwards became Archbishop of Bari and Capua. was convinced of the and took a great deal of pains to cause him nominated archbishop. he conferred the powers on him. Alphonsus agreed to the plan. His lordship acted. . that when the abbot comes again to visit you. went to the abbey of Ariola. he came to visit Alphonsus how ever. Alphonsus. and proposed some doubts to for jurisdiction for himself. on his part. Alphonsus. at lastj do away with his scruples Suppose. they did not present themselves. The Grand. before having had proofs of their capability.290 LIFE OF ST. was in the habit of despising the poor. without fear. siderable time. When he saw such immoveable firmness. my Lord. as he was prudent in giving them. you can give him juris diction. we try to make the conversation fall upon theology. who did not know him well. : proves his capacity by his answers. As to the two religious. that he could not*give them if the abbot did not pre viously answer to the questions which he would put to him. and. he had not the courage to ask and did it through the medium of a person of influence. and put it in execution on the very next visit of the abbot. The abbot insisted and entreated. to &quot. but never spoke of the jurisdiction. and without formality. but all was in vain. who treated him with every mark of attention. and occupying himself too . ALPHONSUS. after the removal of which. and had the most that time. him. and the result was completely in favor of the learned religious.

Convinced of the importance of the duties of parish priests. . undertook the defence of the priest. that the young man was However. and the consequence was that he obtained the benefice. said he. a living having become vacant. sins who is who how much he co-operates in the nomination of a parish priest unworthy of his ministry.sanctifies but an indifferent one does not preserve the good. When he heard of this. and he wished the examinations to be made with severity. for having followed authors op posed to the system of Alphonsus. when every one is at liberty to follow his the Church has not condemned He thus. all &quot. Alphonsus gave the most scrupulous attention to their election. that they should moral theology. also. and capable of instructing the people properly. &quot. but wished that they should have a his people. and merits of a priest. and the Cathedral parish having become the right of election to which belonged to the chapter.&quot.The authors I whom he follows. above in their office faithfully. and immediately withdrew his powers. and he spoke to him with so much humility. and can only do harm. and. Alphonsus wit nessed it with satisfaction. preference to the priest.A much zealous priest. Alphonsus immediately wrote Arch- . are standard a law. He also suspended several others. He did not require great learning in them. but in consideration of the age. he did not wish the deacon s rights to be neglected. and some he even expelled from his diocese. own. 291 with the direction of some devotees. he said : &quot. who was also a candidate. examinations. The concourses for the parishes always took place in his presence. presided in these A priest was once rejected by the examiners. be versed all. have no authority to act as it. An admirable delicacy. and urged the examiners to fulfil sufficiency of information. in and approved ones matters of opinion . he sent for him.&quot. he begged the deacon to be patient for this time.&quot. vacant shortly to after. representing to them. a deacon was the one who answered the best among the candidates.LIFE OF ST. ALPHONSUS. if charity made him give quite confused at it. At another time.

those who were candidates for parishes. and in this way still the livings were administered with zeal. ALPHONSUS. &quot.A holy man destitute of energy. yet. deacon Rainone. and who. . make a good parish priest. could not. there were in * it six col leges of canons.aml that he should be able to pass his time in talking to one of little capacity.292 LIFE OF ST. bering only 30.000 souls. and were of no rank the parishes became as the ladders whereby to reach a more elevated position. while endeavoring to teach him the He therefore chose subjects who proved Pater noster. and will only instruct clerics. moderate abil and exemplary conduct were in his eyes sufficient to make a good parish priest. to beg that. so as to have good occupants. they are not understood they do not lower them selves to teach children. . He wished. and to the great advantage of souls. of erudition and speculation only. ities always preferred sanctity to learning. according to him. for the part. Besides the chapter of the cathedral. the parish should be given to the deacon. in preference to those who set up for learned. before his time. .Those of great talents. num of that of Capua. wish the priest to find pleasure in remaining with the dying. when he had those which to benefices. always. &quot.&quot. themselves humble and submissive. with the exception there was not one in the kingdom which had a greater number of bene fices. be said. or a man whose sanctity did not extend further than to think of himself without anxiety for others. If they preach. Agatha was not so extensive.&quot. from the first. for his sake. and his request was granted. and he It may therefore raised the parish priests to the prebends. were but when distinguished in no way. were only the priests who were thought most . that. of. he solicitous about the dead. I said. to cause the livings to be con sidered honorable. to The holy bishop was make the collation more solicitous. the first gentlemen labored to ob tain them. they were not wanting in aptness for acquitting themselves of the func tions of the ministry. provided. than the living.* Even * Although the diocese of St. least among the clergy.are He more They are full .

both interested in the collation of little benefices. 293 were simple. with the merits and demerits of each. caused him great anxiety. has declared.LIFE OP ST. he had usually no was necessary to need of any . which kept him in the house. and the people. sidered his it as an injustice to stand in the way of those of own diocese. but which re Not satisfied quired residence. so further inquiry. he would have con day. or because he had several ecclesiastics of equal merit. went often through a real martyrdom. said to &quot. with the good conduct of the subjects. and the servant was all ready to take it. wherein the names of the priests and clerics of the whole diocese were inserted. before God. in the nomination to a vacant prebend. which informed 25* . a successor was ap When it happened that he could not decide im pointed. One the Alphonsus canon will cause me.are &quot. he never favored any stranger. that I would the canon will only die once. He had a book. him The anguish which death of . he further wished that they should have great merit. he took the opinion of impartial persons. he tion. for the same reason. ALPHONSUS. He had sealed the letter containing the nomination. when looking for a successor to one who was dead. as it were. in which Divine Provi dence visibly interposed. and took the matter in considera On such occasions. as Archdeacon Rainone. when a violent storm came on. several times. A nomination was made without delay incumbent expired. because he saw good conduct counterbalanced by some defect. There is recorded an instance.&quot. and then weighed the merits and demerits of each in the bal ance of the sanctuary. and without the care of souls. Agatha.&quot. &quot. mediately. and thus deferred its delivery.The Church and the people. as regarded the Church he said. is so great.&quot. willingly give my life for his while I shall die more than a hundred times. but searched throughout the whole diocese and. as soon as one that when it make an appointment. Alphonsus received a letter from the archdeacon. during this interval. who enjoyed this his entire confidence. He did not confine himself merely to the town of St.

Agatha. once wrote manner.&quot. he had de clared. He directly look back his own. and highest rank. to him. he always remained unmoveably fixed in his first determination. How ever. destroyed it. ALPHONSU8. He said to the prince. I me this mind. and to recommenda had the that they same devil for their father. From the time he had entered the diocese. him of the merits of another candidate. and that all the efforts of the sort which might be made would be so many means all of becoming during never listened to the solicitations of persons even of the Merit was the only claim in his sight. to beg him to confer a living which was vacant. afterwards. to surpass the others. The Marquis of Marco. indignus quia petiisli. for. the merits of the second candidate -must have ap peared to him incontestibly great. as we have seen above. but since you have brought letter. that he hoped he would not take his refusal amiss.&quot. was bishop of St. let the follow ing suffice as an illustration of the strictness with which he adhered to this rule. the king s minister. and Alphonsus decided on giving it to a priest who it Out of seemed the only especially because he was one amongst the canons who had not got some* one to intercede for him. . whose but merits. sought the support of a pro many examples on record.294 LIFE OP ST. He was ready to expedite the nomination. he then said to him. that recourse and simony. &quot. and. A prebend became vacant at Arienzo. he said. the time that he unworthy of them. &quot. otherwise. he even merit vanished when tector. if he gave such a prece dent. that no one s influence was to be used in order to obtain livings or benefices. when he saw him present himself with a letter of recommendation from the Prince della Riccia. he would open the way to other and scandalous in trigues. were twin sisters.God was determined to forgive you. on a young ecclesiastic.I give you the prebend. tions. and nominated the more worth) competitor who had just been pointed out to him. have changed my He used to say. had caused him to take this liberty even this recommendation only served to throw discredit quite in a friendly . since.

as were worthy of it. which caused the latter look down on them. however. and even in the collegiate estab lishments. and the choir was thus greatly improved. all the clerics. alone who had the Church s good and glory obliged the canons to residence as strictly as he had done in regard to priests. above. for our Lady only likes what is good. and only went to the cathedral from time to time. wrote 1o tell his friend to ask it for him. tion of the chaplains of St. and . applied themselves to the Gregorian plain chant. heart.Tell him that I refuse to give him the living for the love of the Blessed Virgin. in order to the bishop. confident that. ALPHONSUS. became more honorable. whom he believed to possess he with the bishop. to intercede for him influence great priest . they professed to consider the chaplains as to merely the prebendary s servants. Alphonsus. promote the greater good of the Church. and to dislike seeing them raised to their own dignity. he would certainly be heard. and a induced another priest. as the bishop was just. Another living became vacant.) the prebend would be thought due to him as being the oldest of all the chaplains. in the hope of becoming chaplains.&quot. being as a ladder whereby to as cend to the prebends. that if he adopted this method. for the love of the Blessed Virgin. saying. (so he said. as the Saint never refused any but as Alphonsus did thing which was asked in her name : not consider him worthy to be appointed because he had procured this recommendation. As their office is to chant in the choir.) and was careful to prevent them from taking upon with their themselves charges incompatible duties. to the prebendal stalls. Agatha was made by The elec he established meetings for chanting. _he cant. A chaplain was secretary to Count Cerreto. decreed that these situations should be the reward of particular merit. was always ready to advance such of them. so that the situation of chaplain. and in consequence.LIFE OP ST. In several cathedrals. 295 on the protege. (as we have seen The holy at bishop. prebend became va A immediately entered the lists. and Alphonsus. who only thought of merit. he replied: &quot.

&quot. answered the bishop. ALPHONSUS. you ought to blush at being a bishop.&quot. answered : &quot. One individual. got angry with him in consequence. I replied the have had the honor secretary fora number of years.&quot. and was impartiality often put in dangerous positions in consequence.&quot. to another. and saying before you are unjust. and come and perform your duties at church. is true. Then he added.&quot. he said chaplain. had a great deal to suffer on this account. or give up make you a prebendary &quot. Caputo those who oppose you. being a prebendary. &quot. I gift.&quot. and Alphonsus then forgot his injuries. however. The sovereign. He mouth except rare pitied their anger.I nothing. &quot. &quot. presented himself.for &quot. tressed. &quot. Alphonsus great fices naturally displeased He and equity in giving bene candidates of unjust pretensions. it on the to very man who had appealed against F. Bishop Liguori exercises his right as a bishop. They even went the length of insulting him. I have never seen you at church. but why did not the count s &quot. &quot. and exposed all He his claims. answered Alphonsus. you will have no peace.but for the future. who had been unable to get a prebend. worthy thought competitor replied at the time of the first . and bestowed him. did not always put the unjust pretenders to silence. Alphonsus.&quot. If you give is then observed to him. who was employed in an important charge which prevented his frequenting the church.You ?&quot. or I shall cause you to be no longer a Either quit your new employment. and the than more the appealer.&quot.296 LIFE OF ST.That with a chaplain complacent air.for of being Count Cerreto &quot.&quot. in a more se must either give up your situation as secretary as soon as possible. Another prebend became vacant about the same time.&quot.&quot. &quot. slandered him.Well. Alphonsus was never either disturbed or dis his face &quot. &quot. you have neither conscience nor At such equity. rious tone: &quot. who knew Al can do phonsus justice and impartiality. to which he had aspired. .&quot. That true. speeches. and never opened his Such to bless those who cursed him. goodness and meekness. &quot.You are quite new to me.&quot. and even accused him with the king.

he said true that I cause suffering to the parishes. and believe that saying abusive things and ap what they pealing against*him was the means of obtaining aspired to. I found that the latter was the most worthy. a rebel make promotions. ALPHONSUS.&quot. duty.LIFE OF ST. buT always treated this priest with great kindness from that time. and he trusts in your prudence in the appointments to livings. he did so. that people would think otherwise.Poor creatures. in order that they might depend more on the Pope than on his majesty. a public notary. besides. who designated him in his libel. when a prebend was vacant. that he might justify himself. as usual with him at dinner. for. gave the preference to equal him who had accused him. but so far from seeking to injure his calumniator.&quot. asserting that he did not but let the parishes suffer. ought to what they bear with them. Another pretender. but by the people in When this appeal was given to Alphon public assembly. Caputo observed further. The man was not free from blame for other causes. After he had sent in his justification. they do try not know what can . F.&quot. and they but for me. prebend became A and Alphonsus. the king answered through the Marquis of Marco: &quot.&quot. that the canons and chaplains should be no longer elected by the bishop. and to do my to get failed. Al phonsus was again not only loaded with injuries but also accused with the king by the brother of the rejected pre tender.The king is persuaded of the wisdom of your conduct. Alphonsus again took a saintly revenge. in order that he might justify himself. listening to . It is sus. : is false. and asking. he was. having addressed a statement to the king. filled with falsehoods against Alphonsus. One day. In another similar case. jected the advice with horror. at the 297 As second. and people endeavored to get Alphonsus to bring him to justice before his own tribunal but he not only re . The accusation was sent to the bishop. considering his merits to of those another candidate. whom he designated as unjust. against the royal will. he answered: they wish I &quot. as vacant after this. he only tried to excuse him. but all the rest &quot.

have prepared the necessary papers bend on the brother of the notary. and not my own glory. as the king had not yet declared that he was satisfied with his justification.&quot. he sent his justification. and said to him. he peat what you have just read.298 LIFE OF ST.Oh indeed. cardinal and bishop of Averso. it might be said that he had been intimidated. for conferring the pre the Grand-Vicar When observed. and overlooked its citizens in bestowing livings. dure any delay. One of the greatest causes of offence alleged.&quot. . spiritual reading. he said to the reader: Stop. he replied: obliged to attend to all &quot. and that part of the life of D Innico Ca- racciolo. &quot. being read to him. applied also to the king. which was published. are we then that is said ? Let them think and speak what they please. where it is said that he revenged himself for a great offence on the part of a priest. phonsus of a thousand evil things. to give them to other inhabitants of the diocese. brother from Naples. : . at the period of our Saint canonization.&quot. and re When this was done. and said consolation to the he ordered him to and give notary &quot. he sent for the notary. ALPHONSUS. that.&quot. as send for your young if he had been his intimate friend. Another solicitor. I intend to make him a prebendary. in ecclesiastical laws a very elaborate and erudite letter on the concerning the conferring of livings and benefices. was that he despised the episco pal town. what concerns me is the notary s And not being able to en soul. by conferring a large benefice on him at these words. s for the first lime. . The king having again given the accused bishop the power of justifying himself and of replying to these accusations. I have resolved to sent for the Grand-Vicar. whose pretensions were not complied with. and slanderously accused Al&quot.

he often seized opportunities of going to visit one or the other of these convents in person. also. at least. to give the spiritual exercises to all the mon asteries.LIFE OF ST. He goes to Naples for the defence of his Congregation. and he caused this to be repeated at least once every The spiritual exercises were in his eyes the best year. A retreat is a to softened and When he was at become purified. to attempt to sanctify are How A . he exercises his zeal at Naples. zeal in laboring for the good of the minled him. to renew piety. 299 CHAPTER XXIV. decay. and led them in the paths of the subHe considered Nuns. as the limest perfection.&quot. an open grate and a portion of his flock.A &quot. LPHONSUS isters of the altar.11. of religious. who more especially consecrated to God. &quot. He by this means caused them to love prayer and mortification. ALPHONSUS. he neglected no method of saving them from ravenous wolves. The Congregation of He publishes two new works. at the time of his arrival in the diocese. the only method for sanctifying souls. a trifling In consequence. most precious example of the good shepherd. and many thorns which pierced his heart: a sanctified monastery. he sent for F. Open grates were to him as so shut grate. ought Arienzo. and he tried. in particular. Jilphonsus is persecuted. His zeal for the material Churches. method. the religious. 11 in which the most rusty iron he said. in order not to cause any expense to the commu nities.&quot. and other missionaries from Naples. and. he received and entertained the preachers in his palace. or rather. He their &quot. .&quot. and to prevent their falling into still further it will not be If we succeed in this. he said. at the grate. he said. Alphonsus solicitude for the Sanctification of Religious. and spent two or three days in preaching. Villani thing. on the duties &quot. following the &quot.&quot. wished that the ancient monastic regularity should be revived in all the convents.&quot. Moreover. fire.

fessors for the convents. the purpose. He never required the least recompense.A bishop. He considered it a great fault for any one. ALPHONSUS. he was able to re the entreaties of the nuns could not prevail to confirm the former one. or permitted any attention of the sort assist at the to be paid to him. and left every other occupation for He also accepted every invitation for the profession of even a lay-sister. successively. and they were always required to be given by the whole community. He to all enjoined the abbesses.&quot. ceremony. said he. he the obligations of his ministry. on the contrary. if a lack of con to confirm the same. never omitting to preach on each occasion. convent. His vigilance and pains in preventing any one from frequenting the con vents. and satisfy him He made searched even into the opinions of the subject. to violate the rule in this respect. if the law is not observed by my own household. He dismissed. two secretaries from his service for this reason alone. when. saying. and able still more the confessors. Alphonsus was . fessors compelled him every three years. the words. then will observe it?&quot. all on him &quot. under any pre text. the Grand-Vicar alone was excepted. he only did so with trembling place him.&quot. Frequent conversation at the grate. remedy them immediately. extended to those belonging to his own household. &quot. but he did not suffer him to receive frequent presents. this point.&quot.&quot. and wished to be informed of in order to be within the second degree alone had access to the parlor.ought to have necessary to enable him to fulfil On another occasion. to watch over disorders. in his sight: f( God speaks grate.&quot. but not at the He allowed the confessor to receive some token of gratitude on certain days of solemnity. He was delighted to hear of any young pensioner who wished He hastened to to consecrate herself to Jesus Christ. a No new nomination . who relations &quot. with the religious was a sacrilege he said. on these occasions. and. no other recompense than is . in the confessional. &quot.300 relaxed LIFE OF ST. also very prudent in his choice of con examination was enough to he weighed the gestures.

While he endeavored to ameliorate the state of the con It was the vents. every three months. whenever any of them wished to apply to any confessor of well known force therein. soon as he had informed the nuns of his project. probity. forget &quot. in the reforms which he made in these rules. and desired that this rule should be relaxed. that when a 26 . and. that a new confessor ought always to be granted to a re ligious. I pur but as your good. the discontent of even one will give birth to a party. one But as in which he expected to find the least difficulty.What is the use of preserving a written rule of one sort. said: &quot. he also tried to extirpate their abuses. which was in He immediately sent for the Superior. said to it Alphonsus. that will cause disorders. in some of the convents.&quot. condescending to every want and yet avoiding too great indulgence. and chose for this purpose. He heard that the nuns of a certain convent could only write to their ordinary con fessor. he sent an extraordinary confessor to them. from he said: He had a maxim. &quot. and the final ruin of the convent. with a rare wisdom. He thought. them quite a pa In another convent.LIFE OF ST. He acted like another Francis of Sales. without their asking for one. you judge otherwise.It 301 is my privilege and it is my duty to consecrate these victims of charity to God. pline. the circumstances of the times. also. far from being offended at the opposition of these religious. when she asks for it.Calm it. In order to give the religious every advantage possible. In his zeal for the re-establishment of religious disci he wished to introduce living in community. and be printed. as he saw that more harm than good would all I result it posed have said about for yourselves. that when re ligious are not all agreed.&quot. they all united against it. if he reformed one practises another the rule and caused ?&quot. and it. custom among the Franciscans of Airola. he paid ternal visit on the following day. and the severity of the rules prevented several points from being observed. ALPHONSUS. so. through a regulation on that subject. at least.

or professed. Jesus Oh. but on condition that the grate and the door should remain shut. and immediately ordered them to be put an end to. but that the Blessed Sacrament should be exposed in the church. he exclaimed Oh. in a Alphonsus was once present at the profession of a novice convent of Arienzo at the instant when she was to . &quot. ordered. forever suppressed this strange ceremony. and was at a Alphonsus did not understand this mystery. and had no house in the neighborhood in which she could receive them. loss what to do. Jesus! What has that to do with the profession ? Let her keep her hands to herself.302 LIFE OF ST. : ! keep rubric.) and Alphonsus so far yielded to this consideration as to consent to the repast taking place in the convent. in a special manner. and said that the novice ought to place her hands in his whilst uttering the vows. he was indignant. and explaining the meaning of the and I will mine. that neither the door nor the grate should be opened after dinner. When Alphonsus saw the preparations for this repast.&quot. (for she had invited relations and friends from various parts. the lady s em barrassment was then represented to him. ALPHONSUS. she should remain the door during the rest of the day. on the day the two daughters of a noble lady of St. in order that the new spouse of Jesus Christ might then be able. interpreting thus literally the direction of the ritual that she should make the vows in the hands of the bishop. . but he would not yield. the master of the cere monies asked him to pass his hands through the grate. to receive the congratulations of her relations and friends. pronounce the formula of the vows. and that the keys should be placed in the hands of the abbess. but as the canon insisted. Alphon- young person was clothed seated at sus. The noble lady and the abbess came to entreat. to obtain abundant Another abuse had been that the young person blessings. dined in the parlor with her relations and friends. Agatha made their profession. and it was all arranged like any worldly entertainment. wishing this day to be one of recollection and thanks giving rather than of dissipation of mind.

the religious then said.&quot. who one will not persevere any he said with a smile. through an abuse. young parishioners. the nun perceived him. however. this prohibition. And so it was. the &quot.God evidently con understood music. and they made a firm resolution never to think of having any thing but Grego rian chant for the time to come. and directly commenced to sing it to the Gregorian chant. he said to the just it at first.This demns our duplicity. I grant your request. Light music is a decoy to young liber tines. if they were ever &quot. &quot. Alphonsus forbade its use in this convent. a nun was singing the Litany of the Blessed Virgin to figured music. although forbidden to religious by several decrees at Rome. a short time afterwards.LIFE OF ST. and who does not see that she is thus the cause of a not think number of disorders and sins?&quot. &quot. no opera singers. a young who was the novices and a good musician. &quot. They were. and . he replied. nun : but when he came to You wished to deceive me I now. with still greater severity. as well as in others.&quot. told him they wished to receive a lay-sister. since our plans are found out by his Lordship. and the young novice re better.&quot. not over scrupulous in following these orders. and it that was not. when Alphonsus suddenly entered the church. One evening. mitted.&quot. In some convents the entrance of little children was per forbids it. 303 Figured music. &quot. also new lay-sister left the convent. to teach plain &quot. &quot. said he. anxious to sing something extra. forbade it because I did proper. Alphonsus made two They person predictions in regard to singers in this convent. turned home after a few months. They solicited him again favor of another. The Council of Trent and Alphonsus immediately confirmed caused it strictly to be observed. ALPHONSUS. who do not hasten to it through devotion. was quite in fashion in another convent. right. He seemed not to take any notice of the grate. chant to &quot.&quot. and religious are The church is not a theatre. it should never be a solo. but to hear the nun who sings. He forbade anthems on festivals. and prescribed the sole use of the Gregorian chant.&quot.but she will not in persevere. and wished that.

they asked permission from Alphonsus.&quot. The nuns of abuses. but he re fused it. xxv. to cloistered nuns.304 LIFE OF ST. and &quot. more pains to prevent the introduction of than to extirpate the old ones. Alphonsus also sig nalized himself in this respect. The repairs. that. I will take care not to refuse them. Agnes. The material churches were no less the objects of Al phonsus solicitude than the living temples. which would took still He new open on the street. instead of a low and old church of St. permission to absent themselves from the convent. and which were to be furnished with blinds. they must not expect to obtain any thing. The Pope granted. Psal. was so much out of was nearly in ruins.&quot. knowing some in the diocese inclined to ask for a similar dispensation.I and the place where thy glory dwelleth. soon. nor expense.&quot.Let them any and right. and he spared neither labor. and so inflamed their zeal.The Pope refers to the Ordinary. he particularly aimed at in creasing the magnificence of the churches. O Lord. and the very least evil which results from them is a very great dissipation of mind. Persons in authority interfered in their behalf. a convent intended to make new windows. Alphonsus at once en gaged the canons belonging to the chapter. and I will never consent to grant it.. that if they did not desist from their project they would displease him very much. that at Arienzo. but he let the nuns know. to attain this end. doing. because he could not consent to an improper thing. and as all that enhances the glory of God s house must be considered amongst the objects of a perfect zeal. from time to time. the beauty of thy house. them ask me &quot. fatigue. to restore it. David. for I know what a bad reputation these goings out have. after the example of King have loved. Alphonsus. it .and he replied. The religious then followed his advice. 8. When he entered the diocese. warned them it to abstain from so he said. &quot. &quot. ALPHONSUS. that they had met with three for things that he never granted refusals that are just consecutively. and took no further steps in the affair. but whenever they address unreasonable requests to me. Some nuns complained thing.&quot.

Al- phonsus endeavored to repair it. through the avarice and carelessness of the incumbents. and made a large window St. He caused it to be examined. and it was adorned also with a beautiful roof. At Ducento. and. restoration of these two churches was work of time but our Saint made ar rangements that the labors should continue after his resig nation. He for the repairs of the buildings. and it would soon have fallen to entire ruin. but could find no method the arch-priest offered his resigna it. 26* . embellished the stucco of the high altar. Stephen. church of The principal to remedy the dampness. which made the . with that he repaired the roof. was obtained with statues and other tasteful ornaments. assigning him a convenient sum for his support. the church of the Arch-presbytery of St. also at Arienzo. who cared more for his revenues than for the restoration of the church. Alphonsus was dis of remedying tion. that the good state in which they are now to be found is to be attributed. he sequestered three hun dred ducats to be applied to the first third of the payment. Angelus was in a bad state. restored the pavement with taste. added to the equally unsatisfactory appearance. church extremely beautiful. unhealthiness of the place. the arch-priest s house itself presented an All this.LIFE OF ST. tressed at this sad state of things. as the incumbent had sold a felling of wood for three thousand three hundred ducats. which were soon completed. and it is to his care. The church of St. was like wise in a deplorable state. and ascertained the expenses for the necessary repairs. ALPHONSUS. when thought then that he ought not to nominate and he accordingly appointed a priest to perform the duties. and presented the appearance of a barracks rather than that of a temple of God. an edifice of a noble elevation. caused the rector of the church to faithful be almost constantly absent. Andrew had been in a state of abandonment and ruin for a number of years. and reserved the rest of the income of the living another in his place. in consequence. the of the parish to be neglected. in spite of the complaints of the incumbent. a The . 305 mean looking building. and.

and persuaded the two priests to have amounted to three give up their tithes. worthy to rank with those which are admired in Naples and Rome. very large and spacious parish church at that It it The Majano a was so neglected house of prayer. But there is a still more remarkable instance of Alphon sus zeal for the house of God. without ever flinching from any expense. so small that it could not hold more As soon as he saw such a than three hundred persons. cert with the two priests. repairing it. ALPHONSUS. but he priests wanted to form two distinct parishes. is a thanks to the deceased Bishop Gaeta. was in a very good state. and benefit the for four hundred or ducats. the bishop of Amalfi. hastened thither at his call. containing more than which was. Mary de three thousand souls. Puoti. had rebuilt it entirely. a great many other repairs of this kind. magnificent one who. moreover. church into a real basilica. state of things. feared that if too much were attempted nothing would be The done. and the horns of plenty of brass. He spent about four hundred ducats in em bellishing the cross pillars^of marble. assembling the clergy and gen tlemen of the place. in con only one.306 LIFE OF ST. and it was put in order. The church had not yet been consecrated. although it . The village of St. which might of the building. looked more like a barn than said that there was was no means of in cumbent and changed this but Alphonsus. he effected. the parishioners promised to contribute an annual sum of . This church&quot. as formerly. he immediately sent for experienced workmen. was di vided into two parishes. Mgr. Vico. the two priests of which had to exercise their respective functions in the same church. moreover. and the consecration took place in the year 1763. aided by the seconded by the worthy generosity of the faithful. and so he decided that there should be established He held several meetings. Alphonsus found the roof injured in several places. He did not take less pains in beautifying the Cathedral. he immediately conceived the bold scheme of building a church capable of holding all the inhabitants. seeing the ancient Cathedral out of repair.

the two priests wrote to tell him. first preteded by full of joy. his friend. Alphonsus.If . &quot. after which other measures could be taken. said Alphonsus to them. and the foundations were commenced. sent for two architects from Naples. in consequence. The people. the men was circumference of the church appeared to him to be still too small to hold all the people during the time of a mission. was not at all discouraged . and as the tithes had been prohibited for the sums they had promised. D. ALPHONSUS. his faith did the whole. Balthasar Cito.&quot. He went pontifical vestments. aided in the undertaking by spontaneous gifts. only enough for their sustenance. so he ordered them to enlarge it. 307 two hundred ducats towards it. and obtained leave for the tithes to be continued until the building was finished. the surn requisite for the food and the clothing of a servant.&quot. He also triumphed over many other obstacles. which only served to cause his courage and firmness to . that they would be satisfied with retaining. The people grew cold. and from the surplice fees. Alphonsus went to the spot to look after it all himself. for good things are always opposed. before commencing the will never obtain the desired end I wish the work to be com menced at once. they ap plied to the royal council for permission to give up contri buting to the expenses. to bless the stone of the edifice. A committee of four ecclesiastics and four lay formed. encouraged by his magnanimity. finished. he related all that had happened to the president of the council. would have liked to have had the whole of the needed sum in hand. in his clergy. the church will never be &quot. no small sum towards the ex He had only ten ducats at first.LIFE OF ST. himself. furnished he yet money for a work. Alphonsus. and had prepared a The two priests plan for a beautiful and spacious church. the cost of which amounted to more than fifteen thousand ducats. however. you mean to act thus. The generous prelate contributed. from the two hundred ducats which had remained. But troubles did not fail to come. if it is not. in the year 1763. penses of the building.

this of the formed which and only support live in harmony to able been had the fathers then. to belonging Maffey. and the decency which becomes the house of God. or repose to Alphonsus. Through his in defatigable energy.&quot. which caused the greatest house. he who not for me is gation. as well as the substantial construction of the build He especially ings. and it is every only for Jesus Christ. more admired. wished to preserve neutrality. at Ciorani.&quot. also felt a secret re sentment against the fathers there. on account of some to Alphonsus. though he had more than once brought forward . &quot. about the fief of Iliceto evil the fathers. hell. Baron Sarnelli. and obtained an abatement of four or five hun dred ducats through their generosity. Alphonsus had at heart the interior embellishment of the churches. but the whole Congre only pate. &quot. MafTey got angry is at their course of conduct. between those the house of Iliceto. and could not allow it to go on tran quilly. He entertained the two architects with their servants and horses at his palace at his own expense. A quarrel occurred. as well as to the whole Congrega This person had become engaged in a dispute with .se.make wished the altars to be furnished with I have never seen a priest. said he. use of dirty and worn-out linen at table: is thing they themselves use clean.308 be still LIFE OP ST. that dirty things are allowed. always with him. and swore to extir of house the not Iliceto. to avoid consequences. saying: against me. &quot. and Francis Anthony difficulties to that of great authority. he conducted so great an undertaking to a happy termination. and ob tained an exemption from the necessity of appearing at the trial. God never granted peace or to speak this more justly. unceasingly The Congregation was in a flourishing state. suitable ornaments. but an enemy. property which his brother had bequeathed Till house. a tion.&quot. three years back. there was nothing remaining to be finished but some stuccoing and flagging. man the people. was irritated at the success of work of God. ALPHOKSUS. but him in exercised resignation and patience. and when he left the dioce.

dear brothers. The minister did s offices claims. s ears by slow degrees. who will not permit the Congregation to be destroyed let us now try to appease His anger by our prayers.Behold. his 309 designs. and caused to Alphonsus. he said to one of the Fathers. But. May God deign to be our Protector. ! be exercised towards their adversaries. and that was some mark of was omitted to wards his wife. &quot. in church. After the flame was once kindled. in direct terms. and. Lucci to suffer. how the Lord has my It sending us so many tribulations. humbling himself before God. to the king. the flame gained ground daily. on their part.&quot. The He was most moved at MafTey s animosity. and adul Every one may see what grief all this opposition must He groaned over it. It so happened to rise up against them. matter is more serious than you imagine. to the scandal of the public. caused him again that but an unintentional mistake.&quot. adored his righteous judg ments.LIFE OF ST. Maffey accused them. and there were daily besieged by letters and was not a court of justice in Naples which only reached the king terated by falsehood. especially that of disobedi- . therefore. and by avoid wrote: &quot. . had degenerated from what they were when the institution was so much praised by his Catholic Majesty. Maffey is offended. not withstanding. of crimes. above all. Maffey seized on the opportunity of exciting the baron. and what he caused poor house the venerable Mgr. The truth not receive some petition against them. sJlow is our negligence in observing the rule which God now chastises let us hope in the mercy of Almighty God. Alphonsus. in a circular to the members of the Congregation. visited us in . and he became very violent against them. If D. enough to cause the rupture. ing all voluntary transgressions. the baroness. ALPHONSUS. even in selfdefence. and that recourse should be had to no other arms than those of prayer and observance of the rule. He ordered fasts and prayers in all the houses. he recommended that discretion and charity should have &quot. attention. saying that they. that nothing should be undertaken against them. I grieve for the I know his disposition.

at Ciorani.&quot. They pretended to prove the that and a scandalous peolife. The same miserable attempts were resorted to. Maffey tried by every possible means. unanimously. on the 1st of January. at the same Their conduct was misrepresented. although he had already robbed them of these rights as to far as practice went.Let us behave well. they decreed. by a sentence of the supreme court.&quot. may be well imagined. that the members of the Congregation should enjoy the same privileges as the other subjects be longing to the kingdom. no punishment which Maffey wished that the Fathers should be deprived of the privilege of possessing the rights of citizens. finding that the demand for depriving them of civil rights had been dictated by a malicious spirit. to he wrote to them. they oppressed they led .because all my hope is in and to F. named by Maffey. and Jesus Christ will protect us He does not cease to give us warnings. Maffey had recourse to intrigue. allowing himself to be prejudiced. is ence. that the suppression of the Congregation was spoken of. to which appear royal the king had referred the decision. Disappointed in this manner. us. they time. Things being in this state. to prejudice against them the mind of the king and his ministers. in regard to some pre tended claims of trifling value. sorrow. and the procurator. God. And he succeeded so well. . on hearing these tidings. The royal council were greatly surprised at such grievances. They were obliged before the council of Sommaria. by false or exaggerated accounts and distorted reports.310 LIFE OF ST. forbade the Fathers to administer their pro perty. and the little they possessed was entrusted to a Alphonsus strange commissioner.&quot. but if we prove unfaithful He will abandon pray. as well as the chastisement which awaited its members. because in this respect there we have not merited. and obtained access to the royal council. &quot.&quot. endeavored to find them guilty of offences against the that Sovereign and the state. he said: &quot. &quot. 1767. ALPHONSUS. Villani. and. and even by the calumnious accusation that they had excited the people to revolt. and on seeing his children Let us not cease in such distress.

he published his great work for the defence relapse. was filled with confidence and security. the innocence of his sons. whilst it was in press. at Naples. Alphon sus.The which he refuted in two points: First. &quot. in order that they might expose the Blessed Sa crament. besides urging the members of the Congregation to penance.&quot. He also sent a great quantity of wax candles to the hermitage of the Camaldulese own asteries Fathers. Villani. pie. there no chance of being so for the whole winter. however. he added two appendixes. 1767. of the Catholic Church. is The truths of the Faith. in spite of the peril to which the little bark of his Congregation was exposed. 1767. called. that the least chill or excessive motion might occasion a and if I am not cured while summer lasts. Alphonsus grieved by such sad events. I am prevented from going out. when the tempest was at his height. and intercede for the Congregation with God. In this same year. fearing as to the result of the accusations him to go there himself. and that out of it there is no salvation. or rather against his book. which is constantly attacking me the doctors say . Cito. To this work. he does not protect me after that letter. by fever.LIFE OF ST. in which he shows that the Church is of divine institution. &quot. in a If way that will be very efficacious. and he repeatedly sent large alms to the Capuchin Nuns at Naples. entitled. to the great sorrow of the missionaries. a hundred visits would be equally useless. On this subject he wrote to F.I President.&quot.&quot. on the 7th of July. . solicited the prayers of several mon and holy persons at Naples. but I have written to the &quot. the first was against Helvetius. with Spirit. while the Congregation was thus persecuted. 311 The Fathers had daily visits from constables and other The work of the missions suffered very inferior officers. and got them to make novenas and other pious exercises. and redoubling his mortifications. much from these interruptions. ALPHONSTJS. saying: have not gone to Naples. and the king s good disposition. he reposed on the goodness of God. asked His children. and of all good people. and. D.

a canon of the Cathedral of Naples. which he published under the title of &quot. .&quot.Instructions on the precepts of the Deca logue. led Alphonsus to compose an ex tremely useful work. The object of the second ap say. to avenge the calumnies of the wicked. and the wish to aid the people. that is to that all which increases pleasure is honest. in which the author attacks evangelical preaching openly. he enters into the lists with indefatigable courage in order to maintain a generous combat for truth. Alphonsus demonstrates the impiety of this as This work was received with general applause. &c. and in the second place. notwith standing the double burthen of the episcopate. French work. He completely over throws all the dreams of materialists. regard to physical sensibility. this apostolical man. in order that they may be rightly received.&quot. 1769. sertion.312 LIFE OF ST. and establishes a distinction between the conversion of the mind and that of the heart. especially by the parish priests. ALPHONSUS. and to scatter the darkness of error. but its great utility caused it to be highly prized. with regard to that other proposition of Helvetius. and he replied to the dedication. The ignorance which overspread the diocese.Nothing can hinder or slacken the zeal of . which Helvetius calls the producing cause of our thoughts. and on the sacraments. De la Predi cation. his dated August 4th. entitled. said of it in a report to Car dinal Sersale &quot. viz: that pleasure and interest form the morality of man. deists. and all which favors interest is just. at this time. in which the Holy Father testified esteem for our bishop s learning in very flattering terms. and other impious men. which had been addressed to him. One can see that he has purposed in this book to re-establish the integrity of faith and morals amongst the faithful. in order that they may be properly kept. by a brief. and of ad vanced age. Pope Clement XIII was extremely grati fied on reading our saint s work. This treatise is short. and main tains that the first and not the second is effected through pendix is to refute a &quot. preaching.&quot.. in his devotion to the salvation of souls.

menaced them adding. letters cannot obtain. with tearful eyes. he would be still less disposed to believe me. if he has not attached faith to this prelate s words.. at affliction. &quot. and ill on this journey and all his methods of defence were masses and prayers. as he was. If I see that I exert myself.that which my . to inform him that the cause was shortly to be brought before the royal tri party. could I do by my presence?&quot. At two letters. He was moved. the Fathers of the Congregation redoubled their entreaties to Alphonsus. he borrowed one from a gentleman. His eminence was at dinner when Mgr. represented to Alphonsus their adversaries superiority.&quot. and as the storm became more and more alarming. .LIFE OF ST. to go to Naples in person. and the imminent danger which. and F. Villani. he went to the Cardinal Archbishop.. he replied. I will not fail to and you ought never to fear that I shall neglect the least thing which I may know would be of use to the Congregation. and in all haste. 1767. the assigned. he resolved to set out. bunal. begging them deign to com mence the cause in consideration of the reasons which he But the tempest became still more furious. &quot. and guori was announced to him 27 however. repaired to St. who am an interested can be of any use. All his retinue . As soon as he reached Naples. and he arrived at Na ples on the 16th of July. Villani: &quot. ac companied by some other Fathers. Alphonsus sent by his secretary one to the Marquis of Tanucci. . confidence in God and hope for protection from on high strengthened his courage. F. Lihe immediately arose. 313 The disturbances in regard to the two houses of Iliceto and Ciorani went on increasing. Agatha. his presence at Naples was necessary. On this occasion he wrote to F. ALPHONSUS. I shall be unable to obtain seeing their myself. and all. in order to hold a conference with the Marquis Tanucci.&quot. and the other to to the Marquis of Marco.. that if he wished to save the Con What gregation. Albertini. As he had no carriage. Villani then went to see him. alarm of the Fathers was redoubled.Tanucci has had an interview with Mgr. these tidings. in great sorrow.

His shoes were the same he had had made when he went to Rome. you must obtain the victory and dispose of every thing as you wish. &quot. and some straw officiate in no cloak. secretly took it away and substituted a valu able one in its place. and he gave up the room and state-bed which his brother had had prepared for him to his secretary. &quot. will grant us arm. but he flid not wish to be treated with dis tinction. Mgr. Liguori s arrival put the whole town in motion.&quot. obliged it to be sold. with eyes bathed in tears through joy at this unexpected visit. saying: edly?&quot. and embraced him. and which had only cost three carlins when new. the chevaliers and that ministers came Naples had only come for urgent business. the superiors of the orders. and se brother s lected for himself quite a plain little apartment. he begged every one to excuse him if he reluctantly failed in the duties of civility. he merely put on the cassock of his Congregation which he had worn every day at St. too. Alphonsus was very sorry to be but before he left Naples he caused to wear it. bu*t being told that it was not fit for him.&quot. . went to visit Almost him. he hastened to meet Alphonsus.314 LIFE OF ST.&quot.Know it. Before he the Cardinal you are Archbishop of Naples. His brother. and with the proceeds he bought four more common hats. When he had not to any church. the prelates who as he house. ALPHONSUS. and which was then quite worn out. What &quot. which was now no longer in fashion. has brought you to Naples so unexpect Congregation is passing through a great your Eminence. he kept one for himself. he made use of a kind of mantilla. answered Alphonsus. Hercules.My mies wish to destroy the assistance of his said to him. who was more annoyed at the hat than at any thing else. all As for himself. and gave the re maining three to some of his Congregation. Agatha. but I hope that God left. and had nothing in it but a miser chairs. As he had able bed. The canons. which was used as a lumber-room. he had the same hat. Humility and poverty were his attendants he lived in his .our ene &quot. D. crisis. he sent it to a pawnbroker Some people gave him the in exchange for an old cloak. were in to greet him.

said Alphonsus. I thank God. believed that they were sure of have the cause brought on. adversaries of the Congregation to confusion even their counsel said that the case had an altered aspect. who was continually addressing him by this title. The same or similar marks of veneration were given him by the highest personages he had occasion to visit.LIFE OF ST.&quot. He had a singular altercation with a servant in a monastery.But.That is enough.&quot. title 315 Excellency. cellency.&quot. This veneration was much increased by the manner in which he saint &quot. thus? you are a chevalier. Alphonsus door as A replied.&quot. As soon as the prince heard that he was in the ante-room. exclaimed the prince on leaving him. he hastened to go to him. till victory and sought to then. and when Alphonsus took leave of him he ac companied him to the staircase with affectionate kindness. he was received there not as a mere man but as a messenger from heaven.for defended the cause of his children. He attributed their at tacks to interest.&quot. and their irritation to passionate temper.give up this word ex of Excellency. &quot.has never injured any one. and the . but glory and veneration followed him wherever he went. who.&quot. He managed to justify the missionaries and defend their innocence without injuring those who had calumniated them. &quot. you. When he went to the royal palace.&quot. to implore the protection of the Prince della Riccia. having allowed me to see this saintly man once more.&quot. and gregation. call you why am I not to replied the servant.&quot.Humility. his majesty s grand equerry. said Alphonsus. excellency.what do you mean by this title? Drop this excellency.&quot. &quot. and respectfully kissed his hand.&quot.Come now. &quot. to obtain the prince s protection for the Con Alphonsus very appearance at Naples put the advocates. replied his lordship. on this head. ALPHONSUS. Our &quot. gentleman observing to him that he carried humility too far: &quot. &quot.&quot. was always preceded by humility. and he only sought to procure tranquillity to those belonging to him. &quot. tried now . and this title belongs to &quot. & not said speak to me any more tone which fast about your He this in a made the poor servant hurry to the as possible. &quot.

and struck with such vio lence against that of Alphonsus that in the fall he was thrown under the counsellor. royal time that our saint met with an accident. Gaetan Celano night was approaching. he sent his secretary to the President Cito. this Sarnelli. . Alphonsus was not seriously hurt. which was lost in the con which he used as a cane. another carriage came up at a rapid rate. He was one day in a carriage with the counsellor. to He need not be ancomplain of this disappointment. . The windows were broken to pieces. it.316 to delay LIFE OF ST. which one is September was fixed tempted to consider the work of the devil. fusion as well as the In this disaster Alphonsus regretted hat. The duchess of Pirelli heard of the accident. and the rain was falling in after which the duchess lent them her own equipage to take them home again. but other carriages and he was obliged to turn . wished to cause Alphonsus to perish. and the coachman was wounded as well as the footman. who foreseeing his defeat. but the counsellor had his hand cut. arid by his solicitations with ministers he obtained the king s leave to have the affair the terminated without loss of time. their coachman urged the horses on as fast as possible to Pirelli wards the court of counsellor in order to o-ain t&amp. and would have liked to suspend it altogether. and sent for Alphonsus and shelter. The proceedings in reference to the cause were at length commenced. came. Clare. they both disengaged themselves from the carriage. no longer thinking it expedient to venture further. It was at. the counsellor. but with great difficulty. but the advocates of the adverse party had not One of them indeed the courage to show themselves. Our enemies inaction was displeasing to Alphonsus. ALPHONSUS. This delay displeased Alphonsus. had already taken refuge there back at that moment. nothing but his beautiful wooden stick &quot. they rested in her palace for some time. and took refuge in a grocer s shop more dead than alive. and the llth of for the discussion of the cause of at the court of St. but it was only to declare that he had not the heart to speak against a bishop whose sanctity was proclaimed by all Naples.

which this One evening during to . that he had an infallible means rior. : Blessed Virgin written. When the humble bishop received this order. and the frequent use of the sacraments. Although Alphonsus only went to Naples on account of the interests of his Congregation. Being entreated to lend his aid. without respect for the Superior.of the Religious of the Wood. Hercules. 27* . had proceeded to sad lengths on several occasions. (as he was ill. and set out for Arienzo on the 10th of September. He took leave of all his acquaintances.&quot. but bent his head and said Pray that the &quot. our Saint was obliged the carriage. had been sent to be repaired the servant took another. and was able to re-establish there peace. Alphonsus went to the convent several times and preached there. 317 noyed seeing his enemies put to flight. the love of prayer. These nuns. me suggest to to the Novena. and mildness. Such was Alphonsus success in this visit to Na ples. viz: his authority as Supe Alphonsus being yet a member of the Congregation.LIFE OF ST. and overloaded with busi ness. ALPHONSUS. he made no opposition. 1767. and that which others had not been was obtained by his humility put an end to all the dissensions which existed in the convent.&quot. He The Superior of the Congregation of the Propaganda re solved to ask him to preach the Novenaofthe Assumption of the Blessed Virgin.&quot. Great disorders had taken place in the convent called &quot. replied the let him take courage. D. Gaetan had bought. who tried to unite them. at &quot. able to effect by their words. cese. and fatal to sin made and his hell. you must be with what God and the Blessed Virgin may deign strength. the one which but go Archbishop s. satisfied to have nothing may give and no time to prepare any thing. he nevertheless visit subserve the glory of God. and return to his dio magistrate. for I me. after a sojourn of two months and three days. The canon fearing that Alphonsus would not be able to grant his request.&quot.) it was observed to him. in the church of the Restitution. of obtaining what he wanted. belonging to D.

but Alphonsus found it out. old harness was put on the horses. and he preached with such wonderful effect.Look what a figure this The abbot bishop is does he not disgrace his character soon found that he was not a good judge. while the nuns were chanting vespers. but During the Novena. pieces of his garments were taken from him in secret amongst others a piece of his cloak was cut off. Liguori. the church was from the first day. The Duke of Andria also presented himself to him. that floods of tears were shed satisfied his humility. and nothing could reconcile him to it.gina Coeli. Such luxury alarmed the Saint. one of them.318 LIFE OF ST. arid his it made that ten missions of an entire people in contrition. Eminence. at that time a priest and afterwards Bishop in attempted the same thing with his rosary. Three abbots were officiating pontifically. no sooner saw him in his shabby dress than he turned towards the others and said: &quot. being able to He Blessed Sacrament in the church of the convent Re- . was rich and handsome. . would not have done so much good nor many conversions. thought himself very fortunate take his hat in exchange for another. Ihe complained of it. which mixture of old and Agatha crowded in to new together caused the Bishop of St. Liguori. and an old covering was put over the seat. on have effected so did during this this occasion. he knelt down before a chair in a corner of the church. to overflowing. On the Eve of the Assumption. Canon Sparano declared. also saw Alphonsus. In order to pre vent his going on foot. Monte Miletto who was present. who a duty to assist at this Novena daily with his suite. who knew him. ALPHONSUS. and wished to have it restored to him -again on account of the indulgences attached to it. present a somewhat singular appearance. as God Novena through Mgr. kissed his hand. and immediately asked his valet who that Prelate was on hear him respect ing that it was Mgr. could not refrain from weeping at the touching spectacle the church. and held it to his forehead for some time. fully. Cardinal Sersale. he went to pay his visit to the of Gaeta. he approached . ! Bergamo. . Mgr. Again. The Prince of ! !&quot.

iNo. the duchess went to Alphonsus and begged him to remember her in his prayers. 319 or rather cast himself at his feet. on her return home. The abashed abbots then sent him a velvet cushion by the sacristan. still hesitated in regard to her vocation. for he made no use of it. God will detach replied he. A daughter of the Duchess of Bovino.&quot. but at last he could endure it me most no longer. but Alphonsus refused On the following Wednesday they prepared a with a velvet cushion for him. Al phonsus did not fail to attend. and would not consent to arise until after he had received the sign of the cross on his some other noblemen also hastened to render him same homage. he bore it at first. Sir. Theresa. addressing Alphonsus. D. When the Fathers perceived him they wished to show him some token of respect. gave him the title of Ex cellency. Lady Marianne Cayano Orsini gave birth to a son at Marianella about this time. and exclaimed: &quot. &quot. Alphonsus had the gift of prophecy. but you call will . the use it. had been occupied about any thing rather than becoming a religious. no. her mother was therefore much surprised to hear these words from the man. a note was handed to her from her daughter. ALPHONSUS. Hercules wished that the ceremony of baptism should be performed by Alphonsus himself. in order to embrace the state of marriage. the in priest.&quot. up to this time. to which he assented. but she was still more so when.Rev. but in vain. her from the world and draw her to himself. at every instant. stating saintly her intention of taking the religious habit in the convent. you can of course do so. he placed himself according to custom on one of the benches in the church.LIFE OP ST. as well as those of knowledge and counsel. in order not to interrupt the ceremony. The young lady s mind. During the ceremony. but Alphonsus would not head . who was on the point of leaving a convent. chair special it. When the barefooted Carmelite Fathers commenced the solemnity of the Wednesdays in honor of St.she will not marry. if you wish to illustrious. and mixing with the people.

The people were not satisfied with profiting by his words in church. and he went there most willingly. and he On the following Sunday he yielded to their wis-hes. amounting to the number of more thaw three . and as he had not chairs enough for all. the Duchesses. Onuphrius. they sat on the ground. not withstanding his advanced age. me very much by only using the most simple ex me. his infirmities. Alplionsus also preached a sermon in the church of the Advocate. magistrates. the knights of St. and other domestics. amongst the celebrated Peter Barberese. and he exhorted them all to the prac He was alto asked to preach tice of Christian virtue. which was situated beyond the gate of Capua. whom was His dear brethren of the chapels.&quot. These good people assembled together on another occasion. He found a very large assemblage of the lower classes. Januarius. his former peni . hundred. not less than the fact. but as the chapel could not hold them all. confessors. and the im portant affairs that had brought him to Naples. and his loving kindness towards these poor people won him the admiration of all the town of Naples. and the many others. that. pressions in speaking to Besides the Novena of which we have spoken. came to see him. who not being able to speak to him in the confessional. footmen. for the confraternity of the coachmen. also heard his holy exhortations once more joiced in thus being employed for the good of the poorest and most obscure. and left him no moment of leisure time until a late hour in the evening. he re-assembled them all in the church of St. he under- . in the hospital of the Annunziata the Blessed Sacrament was exposed on both occasions. Princesses. He rejoiced in being in the midst of this multi tude of poor people much more than in receiving the visits of priests. he re tent. ALPHONSUS. preached to the orphans who were brought up in this hospital.320 oblige LIFE OP ST. but they hastened in crowds to his house. head saddler also begged him to A come and preach in his chapel. to them on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin.

Jerome. a nun in the convent of St. of titus.&quot. in a word. He fatigue for the glory of God and the good visited also the convents of Donna Alvina. confess. to the convent of the Nuns of the Visitation. he answered: &quot. and others. for he has power to do anything?&quot. John s.What does Mgr. ALPHONSUS. of St. and do whatever he pleases. he made several others in regard to inmates of convents. of St. and returned several times to some of them to hear confessions. A religious asked him one day to hear her confession. of St.LIFE OF ST.Leave her alone. of which we will only cite the following. told him that he was Arch bishop of Naples. Andrew of the Nuns. Nothing. Jerome. he never did anything without informing eminence. He immediately sent to ask for the faculty to : do so from the Cardinal. s. of the Blessed Sacrament. of Sapienza. of Donna Romita.No. Po- of St. Gaudioso. and lead a saintly life there. Liguori. of St. Little St. and it speedily came to The Princess Zurlo. And his words proved to be true. although she had already left it. &quot.she is not fit for a . when this young lady s fervor was mentioned to him. Liguori want? Did I not tell him that he was Archbishop of Naples? He may confirm. a pensioner at the convent of pass. Alphonsus sister. he went with pleasure and preached there. said he. manifested a want of submission towards her director. was accounted by him as too much. on the in Jane de Chantal. Marianne Li guori. He preached each of them.&quot. she will not be a nun. preach. of St. Clare. Marcellinus. Clare. who replied half displeased &quot. a nun tried to interest him in a niece of hers. St. had an earnest desire to become a reli gious. In all this and though the Cardinal had his he never deviated from his profound humility. &quot. and officiate. hearts in the practice of virtue and the love of Jesus Christ. whom she wished to get admitted in the convent. Alphonsus pre dicted that she would die mad. whereby he could encourage feast of St. Besides the prophecy mentioned above. 3*21 went so much of souls. At St. Being invited. of St. but she will return to the world. Marcellinus.

his left across his breast handkerchief. ALPHONSUS. He evinced his scrupulosity in regard to holy modesty. and whenever he entered a convent he wished to be accompanied by a priest. of the Mira cles. Joseph. and of St. just in the Alphonsus made no distinction of persons. In order to prevent his hands from being kissed. she no longer wished to con secrate herself to God. Alphonsus spoke them of the zeal which every priest ought to have for the salvation of souls. &quot.of The Missionaries of Pavone. James also. but in reality as a precaution.322 convent. Philip and St. of St. and declaimed against a 1o &quot. Theresa. He willingly consented to go and visit the convents of the Little Rosary. said they. wished to hear him speak at one of their assemblies. of St. he only consented to give her his blessing from a distance.&quot. LIFE OF ST. Monica. He ed. of Jesus and Mary. a great many infirm nuns. He also preached several times at the visited the penitents Refuge of St. Arid so it was. Clare. Cardinal Sersale. indeed a true apostle. &quot. gious societies. and to discipline himself to blood.&quot.thanks be to God for having given us a bishop of primitive times in this age. exhorted them to preach in an apostolic This is far-fetched style. and of St. where he gave a sermon on the prodigal son and his visits were always marked by great blessings. he kept. Catherine.&quot. as God assisted his : efforts. as he said. Raphael. as a fellow-member. style. wished the fervor of the young peo- . of St. with still more pleasure than from the convents He did not omit to g6 and comfort for the nobility. nor did he ever omit to provide himself with hair shirts and iron chains. also accepted several invitations from different reli St.&quot. during these visits. now call the Conference. and particularly his old penitents. of St. Margaret. as also those of the Crucifix. it was especially edifying to see him return from the most humble and despised places. of St. When s and wrapped up the other in a asked to make the sign of the cross on a sick person forehead. to help him. also. he acted same manner towards the convents of women of no rank as towards those of women of noble birth.

a woman. ALPHONSUS. however. but answered &quot.LIFE OF ST. admitted into the Refuse of St. be believed that he ever lost sight of the wants of his diocese. and only longed not on account of the interests of it were to return.&quot. Fatigati. and to be filled with love to Visits which were Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin. &quot. was not in order to consult him as their director.What disorders I shall find. to be He animated by the words of our Saint. to repeat his visit. concealing his own hands under his arms. have caused me to lose John. and incited them to devote themselves zealously to the salvation of souls.&quot.&quot. and although his presence there drew down so many blessings. to get. only of compliment and useless. Agatha s hand. and I am scrupulous about Although Alphonsus effected so much good in Naples. he never ceased to grieve at being so far from his diocese. he said. . through F.and which labors so successfully for God s glory and the salva tion of souls. Alphonsus spoke to them on the practice of sacerdotal virtues. Not a day passed on which he did not receive some courier from thence. but counted the moments. and. &quot. plied : Being again asked for a Novena. where God only knows what &quot. as this.&quot. he tried always to avoid. He went to visit the Prince della while in the capital. : much time. a servant s. It must not. be at of the Prince Riccia. not satisfied with having seen him at the grate and with having assisted at his mass. conducted Alphonsus thither. through his protection. John s. but not to Little St. made all the young people kiss the bishop of St.If the Congregation which is persecuted. to Jesus Christ no longer wishes me Naples. I should believe that I sinned mortally in remaining so long at Naples. he re Novena do you wish me to give ? I will go and make one in my diocese. Agatha. Let us give one more instance of Alphonsus humility. soli cited him. despite his humility. Raphael. pie of the establishment 323 for which he had himself founded the instruction of young clerics in sacris in the exercises of the Mission. I like he did not accede to their invitation. they an hour. The nuns of Little St. John. however. to go to St. but at St.

so he said that the Prince was in attendance on the King. &quot.324 LIFE OF ST. he said to her: &quot. but the valet remembered that he had received nothing from Alphonsus on his first visit to the Prince. when. who suspected the real cause of the mystery. and Alphonsus had the consolation to see one more of his the Prince sheep tion. O my receive the censure of the soldiers. on the advice of his secretary. and was again dismissed. and though his conduct in this respect obtained the admiration of the most distinguished men. he slipt some money into the valet s hand. his dear Mother. But the first when he saw the guard was soon undeceived noblemen hasten to pay their re He returned a second time to spects to the holy bishop. on some other pretext. whose long beard and neglected ex terior seemed unsuitable to his dignity as a bishop. and in formed the director of the house that she was one of his tenants. pose of the apartments which he keeps at my service. he then went a third time. it was with the firm resolu it we should not rather call a prediction. he offered to provide for all need ful expenses in regard to the penitent woman. and we may al most say. Angry at the refusals which Alphonsus had met with. he wrote from St. the Prince s palace. for me also to thank thee.&quot. excessively solicitous for the right government of his diocese. a brother of the Hercules. shall meet no more in Naples.&quot. ALPHONSUS. and smiled. and was made visible.Tell D. we shall see each other again in Par &quot. A soldier of the Italian guard. causing he said. who was on duty.&quot. &quot. but Queen. Although Alphonsus was unceasingly.I shaved. in the church of the Re demption where he had received so many graces. said to a comrade. on seeing this old man. in a place of safety. My we adise. &quot. When he visited.&quot. Alphonsus heard God.&quot. nothing further was required for her admission. and the I shall return .Look at this shabby lord. When if he left Naples at last.&quot. it He has not a half-penny to be &quot. Agatha to that he may freely dis Congregation who was in Naples. that he would not return there any more. for the last time. for there no more.

As soon as any disorder in his diocese was spoken of. and the Secretary. who governs still And in another letter: &quot. yet His reputation for the darts of malignity and censure. and of my Vicar-General at St. people fancied that he ought to make sin disappear from the world. Tell me where there is a diocese in which there is nothing wanting.&quot. sanctity caused him to be attentively watched. : spiritual welfare. reproaches made against me it is enough if God does not complain however. As to me. 28 . He liked him. being begged to justify himself. Archdeacon Rainone.Every thing passes through my hands. ALPHONSUS. and as his administration seemed rather like that of an angel than of an ordinary man. one may pluck out one here. who performs his duty at St. but all ground pro duces its thorns. and was his panegyrist from that time. and Alphonsus. and co-operated. have heard of this bad opinion of me. answered: There is no need of writing to him. 325 he could not escape praises of the Sovereign Pontiff. A reli Naples. F. I do what I can. and condemned things in Alphonsus which he had not seen. for my . for some were too ready to listen to the dis courses of the wicked. people began to blame and calum niate him. through inexcusa what others did through malice. Agatha. in gious. because he may then be enlightened as The good Father went to to the real state of things.I selves. found fault with. and never hesitated to make amends if he found he had made a mistake. at &quot. but of which he had heard. have not defended them ble credulity. and so many others. Torres. Agatha. complaints are of use to me. St.&quot. with the single exception of the ordinary de less. but another I see that I cannot avoid the will spring up elsewhere. me The three who rule. to be told of all that was said to his dispraise. are the Grand-Vicar. who aids by counsel. by humbling me through the contempt and want of favor which I must meet with from some peo I should be very glad if you would tell Father N. Francis of Sales. to ple. crees as to temporals.LIFE OF ST. come and see me. which are under the charge of the Grand-Vicar.

&quot. and said nothing to exculpate himself. without wishing to he heard that he was censured for ficulty When publish things against him which were unknown. rigor. others accused him of governing with too much of the good he had done. but Alphonsus was certain and cared equally too severe. being thought too lenient. When F. idle An were they * tration at person circulated a report through Naples. Liguori. and published works while ruling over their diorelative to murmurs my I will preached . I I could have been more careful than I writing present day and for the following one. in never succeed in influencing Mgr. for &quot.r said F. always note down in all that has to be done for the the rest. ALPHONSUS. for their most celebrated are who those bishops great zeal. but this will enable me to get rny resignation more easily accepted. the dif it.could little.&quot. I leave every thing to occupy myself about it.Human respect. he replied thus: &quot. and when any business connected with the diocese is in ques All tion.You . it was said that people talked a great deal about a priest who. Villani &quot. he got out of by a smile. in the Congregation said.&quot. With an inconsistency. that much dissatisfied with Msrs adminisLio-uori o O very far Rome. &quot. as they He was guilty of alleged. and as to the government. For the rest. day. had he been exclusively engaged in the affairs of his diocese. It was even added that the Pope was from rejoicing at having made him bishop. while works his tion of he neglected the certain good he could have effected. that in the publica he sought for an uncertain good. say that the accusation of which you speak. Villani informed him of this. : In regard say that publications. he wrote to F. o. several hidden offences. for which Alphonsus had felt con strained to recur to this punishment.326 LIFE OF ST. which is a characteristic of false hood. to diocese see this do God will my may belonging plainly. Some even Being informed of to the this. One presence of several gentlemen. Raphael de Ruvo. may very probably have been made at Rome I have heard nothing about it yet. had been banished unjustly. I do not know how was.

It is divided into three parts: the first contains meditations for all seasons of the year. His mode of life and apostolic labors when paralytic Interest he takes in the education of his Circular to his Congregation. and the seventh of his episcopate. at least when I am at After that I try to profit by all the time remaining liberty. pillar in the God wishes to raise one of His ser vants to great sanctity.&quot. I make an hour s thanksgiving after mass. On the 23d of June. entitled &quot. CHAPTER XXV. and con besides. ceses I ALPHONSUS. His Congregation is per secuted in Sicily. His Mission Nephews. JHphonsus finishes his by sickness and great sufferings. WHEN Almighty Alphonsus. three times a day. &quot.Darts of Fire. he was attacked by . and. because always shut up during winter. but it increased on the second and third day.&quot. had destined to become a shining heavenly Jerusalem. and considera tions on the love of Jesus Christ. the practice of virtue. the usual course of His provi dence is to throw him into a sea of troubles and sorrows. He work on Dogmatics. . which is a work of great utility for all classes of men. every one avoids my conver I make meditation is not agreeable. is visited . contrary to expectation. The Way of Sal Alphonsus published. and made such progress that it was taken for a danger ous putrid fever. was also obliged to pass through the crucible of tribulation. 1768. to me. the second for divers times in particular: and the third contains a rule of life for a Christian.&quot. However all it disappeared three day after wards. as well as a spiritual lecture. in laboring in things which seem useful. about this lime.LIFE OF ST. aries abandon Sicily. vation. 327 am one it verse with no sation. in the seventy-second year of his age. which at first whom God seemed so slight that it was believed to be only the conse quence of a cold. he was attacked by a fever.

: . took his place on the sixth day. and continued to perform with the members of his household all the accustomed exercises. be God for having sent me this suffering to ! I shall have difficulty in going out. and said to them We do not wish to bear the responsibility of his lordship s death. however.Do you. think that the doctors in Naples work mira or that they have studied other books than the doctors cles. When it was pro posed to him to send for a doctor from Naples. Villani and the Grand. he tried to give the Novena.&quot.&quot.Vicar. the him. as well as tinue. this year. he was un ceasingly occupied in his bed about the affairs of his dio cese he dictated his works. As he had no ceased to give fever. but sent for F. I con to F. these however were not very severe. Villani. he wrote to the village of Forchia. here? I am in the hands of God. who had accompanied From this time. in fact he experienced constant pain in the bone of the thigh. and fixed itself obstinately in the hip bone. ternal pains in nearly one-half of my body. so as to render it impossible for him to go. &quot. and of the doctors he has given me. and his head was free. we want to have a consultation. His two worthy doctors. However. then. On the approach of the feast of the Assumption.&quot.328 LIFE OF ST. to be tormented with in &quot. acute pains in the right side. The doctors called it the com mencement of sciatica. notwithstanding his suffering. were not of the same opinion. he never audience. he replied: &quot. he sent his Grand-Vicar into the estates of Trasso and Arpaja. and it seems as if the pain would fix in the Blessed for ever hip bone. arising from rheumatic tendencies. himself.&quot. the fever went on increasing day by day. malady made such progress that he no longer knew in what position to place himself: in this state. on. and a Neapolitan missionary. make my accustomed visitation. &quot. in the church of the Annunziata. A physician was therefore summoned . so that fears were entertained for his life. ALPHONSUS. and. nor interrupted his scientific and Not being able to visit his diocese spiritual occupations. he succeeded in crawling into the pulpit: but the pain ere long seized him in a most violent mariner.

if his steward had not received four hundred and twenty-three ducats. visibly abated. his face Alphonsus said nothing on seeing him. caused by the very sharp. as he could neither move. as a token of gratitude. matter for one. too.&quot. and was obliged. he said. servant. where he remained as if nailed down by his suffer ings. but seemed quite confounded at his own conduct. to get into an arm chair. rheumatism were violent and continual. &quot. 28* . It is easy to imagine how he passed the nights and days.Pray that God may deign he had confidence. so that he could The however.fac cum servo tuo secundum miseEnter not into judgment with Thy ricordiam tuam. he made his will. had not corresponded to their goodness. and at St. arising from He wished this sum to be the rents belonging to him. After receiving the last Sacraments on the 26th of Au He would not have had gust.LIFE OF ST. although the suffer The pains. some days before. and ordered that the sur plus should be distributed to all who were in his service. He showed great confidence in their merits. two hours after his death finally. judgments of God. Although he trembled in thinking of the intres in &quot.&quot. when he called him. fever. he asked that his body should be taken to the Cathedral of St. and. his state caused all who saw him to shed tears of compassion.he to be merciful towards still me. while in this state.Non judicium cum servo repeated. and fixed on the number of masses to be celebrated for him at Arienzo. and said with a profound sentiment of humility: &quot. which. tuo.&quot.&quot. Agatha. 3*29 from Naples. ings were find still no position in which he could lie in bed. he pointed out what alms he wished to be given to the poor. but betokened the suffering of his heart. nor dress himself. 1768. . Agatha. by his ejacu and the Blessed Virgin. Lord Do unto Thy servant according to Thy mercy. He lations of love towards Jesus Christ affected every one. ALPHONSUS. placed in the hands of the Arch-priest Romano. A Father of the Con gregation was just going to say mass. &quot. though with great difficulty.

in order to examine it. &quot. fastened to the cross. and extended through the nerves of the limbs. An hour of suffering earth. and his beard being strong and bristly caused a considerable wound there. ALPHONSUS. when Thou wast nailed to the cross. hie seca. should like td it. and rested so much on his chest. I thank Thee for having given me some share in the sufferings Thou didst endure in Thy nerves. and as much as Thou wiliest. like a body without &quot. &quot. that on looking at him from behind he appeared miracle.A poor person who loves God.&quot. his chin sank down into the middle of his chest. but the . but Alphonsus was obliged to raise his hand. the rheumatism settled in the vertebrae of his neck. Hie ure.Lord.&quot.Unhappy damned souls how can you suffer without merit ? My Je &quot. and his head was so bent forwards. At last. and he bore first it without any complaint. Oh.I is worth more than . In consequence of this was only a part of his martyrdom. displacement of the head. which soon issued to entertain the most lively the doctors caused from it. my Jesus.&quot. &quot. have a little God does not will wish for it either. The following are some of the lively aspirations collected by one who attended on him: &quot. Nothing but a said a doctor.&quot. a head. only give me patience. it did not at humor. ut in aeternum parcas. the only remedy for all my happy a thing it is to^die. head raise his to wanted fears they attract attention. could have prevented this curva But even ture from taking away respiration altogether. dies more contented than all my &quot. but &quot. as Thou wiliest. ! sus. all the treasures of the sleep.330 LIFE OP ST. ills. and from the hip bone soon reached the leg. hie non parcas. This could not be this seen. The rheumatism was constantly making fresh progress. I wish to suffer. as a sign for . Oh. how hope. the rich in the world.&quot. my palliass ! thou art and I do not worth more one day than all the thrones of the world. &quot.&quot. which caused a great in crease of pain. was that he never affairs be still occupied with the of his diocese. but that which filled up the in regard to him.&quot. He bore it with unalterable patience: no groan ever issued from measure of admiration ceased to his lips.&quot.&quot.

for any force used in that direction would have broken his neck. he never opened his mouth to utter even the slightest complaint. expressed himself so calmly that he consoled and confounded me. I saw that he had his large rosary by him. wound. and wishes to suffer more. having witnessed his he still patience at Arienzo. was the sign of his suffering. ALPHONSUS. and in the same position. Raphael the religious of St. said a canon of Avella.&quot. He was fixed many holes in his flesh as there were beads in it. Though having become. de Ruvo. I told the brother to take it away. and as he could not undress himself. succeeded in preventing mortification. said F.&quot. on which he lay in an uneasy and painful position. .&quot. and it was soon completely healed. : &quot.&quot. and that there were as suffer. It was not without difficulty that they succeeded in putting on his cassock. As I attributed this to accident. as well as all who were present. In all these pains. conceive how the Saint had been able to preserve unalter able serenity in the midst of such terrible sufferings. and his head rested on his chest during the in a horizontal position. who loves. One of the first surgeons of the capital. One look raised up to heaven with some pious aspiration. the ex-provincial of Liguori. He began to get better at the end of a few months. while I was arranging the sheets with Brother Francis Anthony. though not without great suffering. 331 them to desist. that it had They.once. It seventeen years he lived after this. how very nearly laid bare the bone of the chest. At length the invalid was placed on a poor mattress. one mass of pains. but the malignant humor settled on the nerves. the body was contracted. ine the and thus they were able to exam was so deep and dangerous. During the course of this cruel malady he evinced superhuman patience Mgr.If I had had to endure such He could not torments. of the saintly Job. was a true picture &quot. as it were. poor bed. ever. does not on his &quot. he showed the truth of St. said: &quot. that he &quot. I should have become frantic. They then placed him on a sofa. he remained in this garb night and day.LIFE OF ST. Peter of Alcantara. Augustine s words.

for . &quot. that I am caught at last. and F. and you will lose your trouble. in this state of every thing several but dictated. that year. and did oppression.&quot.You endeavor to hold me up. my head can do no &quot. am One day he said to one of the doctors: nothing but an old man now. forget his flock. however painful or disagreeable the prescribed remedy might have been. riot through a wish to prolong life.332 But he answered this servant LIFE OF ST. crucify himself still more. and I take spiders by night. he wished all his household to come to his room. he took it. said he to a canon. but he God.I &quot. by means of props and stays. he never dis pensed himself from any of his exercises of piety. ordered. but because he recognized God s will in theirs. of God was not us to obey die. I chase flies by asked him how he had passed the night &quot. He passed nearly the whole day made priest for in hearing some spiritual reading. Neither did he. them. Thus he caused as if he had been quite well. One day carried his heroism so far as to be quite joyous.They more. what can I hope for. and resign ourselves They had scarcely spoken when they were obeyed. noblemen to be written to. slightly moving his head. Although reduced to this state of infirmity. Let &quot. which was him alternately by Brother Anthony and the who attended him. &quot. touching the reform of abuses. he replied laughingly. to recite the Rosary together. together with the Grand-Vicar. in order to fulfil your will and that of aspire to? He was not only contented and serene. In the evening. : day. Another time he said to the same canon: often called have so me crippled. in a way which made me understand that satisfied with only bearing his but to His infirmity. with the Litanies of the Blessed Virgin.&quot. sought submission to the doctors was no less admirable.There. ALPHONSUS. he often &quot.&quot. and the other accustomed prayers. but if you happen to put a new prop some day.&quot. especially. and addressed some Congregations at Naples.&quot.&quot. in order to obtain Missionaries. said.&quot. &quot.&quot. and raise it up too much.&quot. he said to the same doctor: &quot.that is the ne plus ultra. or I obey. Villani. all the rest A priest once will fall.&quot.

entitled &quot. whom lasted The convalescence of Alphonsus was very painful. It manifests the sentiments of his heart. his diocese. and to all the actions of our life should be referred. I am cheerful and resigned. and every where breathes the spirit of the pious author. It was on this bed of pain that he revised. showing the necessity. he hastened to dictate a let ter. Villani. and more than a year.LIFE OF ST. but that he also did Having been in formed that a bishop had been guilty of an abuse. and teaching the way. &quot. How and by God s grace. that perfect resignation. to F. but I think that my will is resigned to that of God. after which he turned towards me and said My dear Benedict.&quot. on the 2d of in a state which renders me incapable of Remember me during fever attacks clear. And.&quot. that he not only never ceased to watch and labor for the good of souls and the glory of Jesus Christ. of loving Jesus Christ our God. did not hesitate to enter the the manuscript of a refutation. which he sent by an express. which was most prejudicial to souls. and ever.That which most astonished said a canon. for the last time. and on the . we are obliged mutually to aid each other.&quot. &quot. was. and this is the sixth day since I began to do this. lists. supported however by two people. &quot. all 333 me. moving.I November. and he it. I continue to be without fever. ALPHONSUS. 1768.The Practice of Love towards Jesus Christ.&quot. &quot. my head me from time to time. He prepared would have finished but on account of several circumstances. a great work which he published. during this excess of suffering. who ought to be the sole object of the affections of our hearts. all the night. to inform him of his error. on the 8th of October. nature feels it. though in the midst of such At sufferings. me am is mass.but They make me walk about on crutches.&quot. : &quot. a learned man of Naples published a treatise against the authority of the Church. this time. but I do not see that this or the lam awake nearly carriage does me any good. he wrote the pain is just the same. God may give &quot. Alphonsus. and particularly against her privileges. so beyond the bounds of the province.

expounding most clearly all the rubrics to be observed. The author. that paid masses should be abolished altogether. In spite of all the sufferings which had come upon him. and custom of the primitive ages should be re-establishhed. Alphonsus zealously took up arms and published a learned reply.& the pretended Reformers. 1769.&quot. Alphonsus rejoiced greatly on hearing that the elec tion had fallen on a prelate who was so full of knowledge and zeal. During this convalescence. He added this refutation to the aforesaid treatise. which was extracted from the Council of Trent. advice of F. priests that the prayer joro and immediately enjoined on etigendo summo Pontifice. to the newly elected Pontiff. as he said. God. and against After &quot. he also com posed and published a treatise on the ceremonies of mass. pretended to demonstrate the great disorders. the sacri leges. for the support of the priest. diocese. of which it forms the third part. and he hastened to dedicate it This work is one of singular . ascended the pontifical throne on the 19th of May. he received a dissertation against the fees for masses. in which he refutes the impious doctrine of the anonymous author by the true Catholic doctrine. and published at Naples. ALPHONSUS. and the scandals which result from the retributions which posed In conclusion he pro priests receive from masses. Villani. Alphonsus never ceased to all to pray fervently that God would deign grant a worthy Pastor to His Church. of having but oneonass. and that the oblations should be made. and for that the the wants of the Church and the poor. the sins of simony. he said. When his Holiness. and urging upon all priests the necessity of making that pre paration and thanksgiving which are required by so august a mystery. as formerly. who wished to abolish masses and the ec clesiastical state altogether. should be recited in the and he recommended this matter to all who came to &quot. Pope Clement XIII. he succeeded in finishing his work on dogmatics.334 LIFE OF ST. Whilst he was bringing out this treatise. which was written in an angry spirit. he did not think fit to put the finish ing stroke to it. XIV When Clement the Pope. passed to a better world. see him.

Besides the diocese of Girgenti. . and pretended that the hundred ounces annually.If the works of God.LIFE OF ST. Lucchesi. Alphonsus The Congregation prospered wonderfully in Sicily up to this period. Peter Blasucci. times to F. they justified themselves with so much energy that the minister was undeceived and assured them of his favor and protection. to the latter of whom is also shown work what attachment they owe to the holy faith The Pope manifested his satisfaction to him. in Sicily. they always in addition to all these anxieties go together. the missionaries were had heart was oppressed by other sorrows. he wrote several &quot. said he. and Palermo. which had been assigned to began sition. Agatha to reflect seriously. who willed that he should go through a mar tyrdom of mind as well as of body. The bishops of Syracuse and of Massara also wished to have them. are not contradicted. From the month of February. but this gregation universal applause makes me tremble. ALPHONSUS. All this prosperity. this As afflictions are sisters.&quot. ab intestat. as them to the Viceroy. they profess. as men of corrupt mor The followers of the Jesuits. welcomed in those of Messina. which consoled them. they are not well rooted. I am rejoiced. &quot. a Jansenist gloried in accusing als. permitted a furious storm to be raised up against his dear children in Sicily. 335 and was applauded even beyond the borders of The Pope received with pleasure. 1768. merit.&quot. &quot. and thanked him kindly in a brief. this new evidence of the zeal of the indefatigable bishop in propagating the knowledge of true religion amongst unbelievers and moral ity in amongst Catholics. and the Prince of Campo-Franco declared himself his heir. caused the bishop of St. In October. at the progress of our Con and am much comforted by it. Italy.&quot. calumny was a dangerous one and the missionaries to be only spoken of as men unworthy of their po However. though they were not sufficiently numerous to satisfy all these demands. Mgr.&quot. But soon Al mighty God. passed to a better world. thus and sufferings. and as relaxed probabilists. &quot. 1767. who had been their warm friend and benefactor.

Luc- of Girgenti. He wishes to mortify us. what s will God may be. dence in Jesus Christ. and implored his protection. But a new misfortune. he was deeply affected. and the Fathers. Mgr. in reply. He. As Alphonsus heard that his moral theology was also attacked on this occasion. and sought to a was who traitor. he sent a letter to the bishop of Sicily. and that the missionaries had no power to make acquisitions. and. came to increase his alarm as to the fate of his chil dren in Sicily. them by the defunct bishop for the work of the missions and for their maintenance. did justice to his merit They both. &quot. were not validly given.&quot. and bless God. the Vice roy of Palermo. try to procure another. and the morals of this holy spot. doctrine the both corrupt chesi in the see . proceeded to sequester their revenues. but I say wrongly. to justify his doctrine. above all. on the must soon. began but did not allow himself to be cast down. but you to will not lack a morsel of bread keep up life. you There will that he He longer wills you to be at Girgenti. for nothing that be disastrous. he wrote ucci.336 LIFE OF ST. in consequence. but I am contented. The of these reverses reached in sad the Alphonsus tidings very height of his cruel malady. I believe I that God does not will the destruction of this house.&quot. continue to have no use of my body from* head to foot. discovered in his seminary a wolf in sheep s clothing. Blas- news which you give me. disastrous &quot. who succeeded to Mgr. If be fewer missions. and thank Him. I specially wills can His name be may God beg you not to lose confi you are turned out of your It will not do to yield so house. what will be done by the new bishop. and eulogized his virtue and knowledge. persevere till God shows contrary. to make preparations for leaving Sicily. ALPHONSUS. praised for ever. and one more painful than the first. Lanza. Wait and see what the deputies will do. I received the to F. He also represented the true state of things to the Marquis of Fogliani. on finding themselves without provi sions. for having given me peace and patience.

Though it was the masters of the seminary and the pupils themselves who had complained of him.LIFE OF ST. and gloried in publishing that the Jansenists were the true disciples of St. and things the house of the wore such an inauspicious aspect. own disgrace had be doctrine. Blasucci for his confessor and theologian. and. arid. and that in condemning the doctrine of Quesnel she con demned the doctrine of this and the other holy Fathers. that the suppression of missionaries and their departure were 29 . which were rendered public by his obstinacy. and not being able to lay the blame on the bishop. hence the chap lain thought that this blow could only have come to him through the means of this Father. he thought he had better turn his weapons against the missionaries. Augustine. 337 and profes Ho was a chaplain belonging to the Cathedral. and suspended his faculties as a confessor. He won to his party. at the same time. and that the bull Unigenitus was impious. as having been persecuted by the mission aries on account of his doctrine having been in opposition he went to to that they the stale. ALPHONSUS. others ill. he tried to assail over several important per having obtained fourteen Palermo. that the Holy Roman Church was contrary to this holy doctor. of the errors of the plaintiff. at Mgr. 1769. being em barrassed by the falsehoods alleged against them. some judged well of the missionaries. as his fallen him on account of his that held by them. the bishop had chosen F. in February. yet his suspicions appeared to have some foundation. and junta unjust to inform them. Palermo. Now from the time of his arrival at Girgenti. These divers sentiments engendered such a confusion. and presented himself to the royal junta of the president and to the Viceroy. and several hesitated about making a judgment. after sonages certificates. The new bishop no sooner heard of his blasphemies than he dismissed him. Calumny tarnishes what it cannot blacken and thus. had spread to the prejudice of souls and of to represent to the viceroy and the and slanderous these reports were. sor of the Holy Scriptures. Lanza hastened how .

and God ages. We have admired the patience with which our saint en dured the tedious sufferings of a painful illness. who will comfort However. ALPHONSUS. in order to avert such a calamity. five . and caused to a great number of he adored masses be celebrated. in the spring of 1769. he was ready board. missionaries. He has always protected the holy Church. I put all my trust dence. address full This apology. replied he. to LIFE OF ST. as he did not allow it to be shaken. When Alphonsus was informed of all this. all. the storm becoming more and more threatening. Blasucci presented a sincere but energetic explanation to the Vice roy.338 talked of. and if the made known. to one of the Fathers. was just like a Fastened down to this painful bed. The mattress he was obliged to only use. the great dismay of many pious persons. which has also been persecuted throughout all Let us act as we ought towards God. in favor of the doctrine of Alphonsus and that of the us. and peace seemed fully restored to the missionaries. in will protect us. disa bused the Viceroy and the other ministers of the monarch. and the energy with which he surmounted them and devoted him self to the cares of the government of his diocese. for every thing. and occupied himself about his diocese. and the spiritual exercises which he had been in the habit of performing: we shall find equal reason to admire the mode of life he adopted as soon as his state became less painful. the labors of controversy. notwithstanding an anoriym6us of horrible impostures which it drew forth from the chaplain in whose hand it had chanced to fall. as we shall see hereafter. but it was only a treacherous calm. to declare it without injuring those who had shown such perfidy towards them. He generally took hours of sleep.&quot. as God. the judgments of God. while others dis tributed abundant alms. to was to be &quot. full of confi for rne. &quot. and never ceased to urge the mem bers of the Congregation to be humble and respectful to wards truth keep silence and to be patient.Your Reverence seems much afraid.&quot. some mortified themselves and fasted on bread and of whom water. F.

: erence. . or began to study as in the morning.. Jerome and St. Gregory has written. After the morning meditation he made his preparation for holy communion. Gregory ever were. . which he never omitted. and recited vespers and compline. or half an hour at most. on account of the numerous labors to which he devoted himself when in a worse state than St.&quot.&quot. infirma et aegra valetudine Mgr. In fact. in the course of the his other exercises of private devotion He took half an hour s rest. and the Blessed Vir gin. applied to F. and satisfied. ALPHONSUS. made a visit to the Holy Sacrament. &quot. to get him. Those who took the greatest interest in him personally. surrounded by books. and assisted at the mass which was celebrated by his secretary. 339 and listened to. replied idle. audience.If of St. said &quot.&quot. But our saint justified himself and I do not think that I ought to remain mildly. Liguori ought to excite still more admiration. although with great day. When I have read for twenty minutes. After his thanksgiving. which lasted an hour. Villani. besides. but my head would gain nothing by that. after dinner. that thereby he might his days. after that he gave appointed hours. perpetua lectione et scripif there is reason to marvel at seeing all : that St. Jerome. in order to obtain your blessing. I can do no more. and. I could employ myself in reading. all the writings must slumber. and while the visitation I have com menced continues. I do not neglect my devotions. he lay on his little bed. and was it has been said occupied without any intermission. to moderate such great application. but there are many days which are entirely taken up by the affairs of my diocese. he then made a spiritual reading and a meditation of half an hour each. he triumphed over his maladies by tione superabat. performed at their all difficulty. which was his only repast.. although he was infirm arid in bad health. he recited the canonical hours. not ceasing to read and write. I have been anxious to enter into all these details with your Rev not shorten &quot.LIFE OF ST.. without dictating.that a venerable ecclesiastic of Naples who visited him. in his capacity of director. every one.

Joseph Morgillo. F. However. On hearing that a poor cloistered nun had met with an accident which obliged her never to leave her chair. Congregation the bone was reset.340 LIFE OF ST. but the opera fell and broke his leg tion did not suceeed. A. He was and at not being able to cherished sick.LPHONSUS. telling him to have confidence in her. It mouth. . him in the exercise of his charity. his place by priests different ecclesiastics. who made one of sil ver. ment. the of Pious of Workmen. as a relic of the blessed bishop from whom he had received it. and she would obtain his cure. although she could still sew and knit. deliver me from this tor &quot. know about the state of those in greatest suffer day by day. never neglecting to supply them. One of the lay-brothers of the Con gregation having manufactured another sort of pipe. but the use of hot drinks caused seve ral of them to split. He to wished ing. he assigned five carlins a month. and what they required in regard to fopd and medicine. al though Alphonsus did not complain of it. or his servant. saying : My Queen by the merits of Mgr. and several sick persons were cured through his prayers. and he was for ten days in great suf her an assistance of God also aided . Application was at length made to a silversmith. Liguori. with what they might means of Br.&quot. At first he only made use of a wooden pipe. but he rejected the idea with horror. and could only drink by means of was suggested to him to get a silver pipe made . The Father placed the picture on his face. . fering When Alphonsus and unable to take any rest. heard of his sad state. but he was obliged to pretend that distressed at first it was of some other visit his metal. take his nourishment caused him extreme pain he experienced the greatest difficulty in introducing any thing like food into his To a quill. he sent his servant to him with a little picture of the Blessed Virgin. ! and he was cured that very instant. Francis. F. it had to be thrown away because the rust destroyed it. by or other poor people he heard of. Morgillo honored this picture as long as he lived. he supplied require.

On seeing. and had not since thought of procuring another. said they. to of one hundred gether with the horses. though ordered for his relief. and well when the doctors and those of his own household I insisted. some poor women who were going home. Francis and others re solved to buy him a poor sort of a carriage. the carriage was upset. am enough by as I am. and old horses. he complained to Br. they were obliged to put him down on the road. and equipped in a manner conformable to his own ideas. If the carriage met with any shock by coming in contact with a stone. caused an expense and thirteen ducats. &quot. it was a martyrdom to Alphonsus. and his mind so devoted to study. per- 29* . At first he was told that it was a pre sent from D. an old carriage. The money which a me ought to be employed me in relieving the real necessity of his having it. but as they were not able to bear such a weight long at a time. expense for these things.&quot. indifference about it this time. and it was a mira cle that he was not killed by the blow. These drives. &quot. &quot. Anthony and the servant lifted him up in their arms with great difficulty. 341 scarcity. as poorly as possible of Arienzo. but the doctors. to take a daily drive. he wrote to him.&quot. on seeing his body so paralyzed. ordered Alphonsus had sold we have him life.&quot. &quot. one of the wheels met with such a shock that the spokes were all scattered about.&quot. the Br. which. ALPHONSUS. in order to preserve a remnant of he was always anxious to follow their ad Although vice. Br. bishop. as his carriage during the time of the already said. he answered: What is the use of these drives? suffer. however. often ended in being most painful to him. whose head was as it were dislocated by each jolt.LIFE OF ST.&quot. One evening.An old to the diversion gentlemen great an old buying a carriage and horses of an He also wished the horses to be treated inferior quality. he manifested &quot. so his drives afforded to say. and I do not carriage and horses would cost poor. but when he knew how it was. Hercules. that is . or from any other cause. at intervals . Tartaglione for having caused so much You could have economized.

meetings which interrupted him when town. and the De He had then the Profundis for the souls in purgatory. and always in the country. a shaft or other part of the harness broke. after the head. but at a later period he only his drive in took the evening. that its value might be distributed to the poor. he began to recite an Ave Maria to the Blessed Virgin. and wished the carriage to be sold. the Not to lose an instant of time. he ran up against something or other at every step. read . not knowing how to avoid it. At first he went out mornings and evenings. he capacity of the coachman multiplied these accidents. Alphonsus was the only one who did not appear to suffer. and he never thought of changing the in the horses. Several times. driving through as soon as he was seated in the carriage. obliged to When he left the church. in the middle of the road. and to re main there patiently. The representations of the doctors. for either he did not see what was in the way. ALPHONSUS.342 LIFE OF ST. he became scrupulous about the expense which the horses and coachman occasioned. or moved . or some other book on ecclesiastical to him as he was a little deaf. life of some saint. nearly two years. On other occasions. supported by those who were with him. and would not get up agnin until after having been pulled by the ears for a long while. visited the Blessed Sacrament there. one of the horses had a singular O having gone through various contortions of would suddenly lie down. arid in compassion lent him a chair. not closed again until he re-entered the and re-opened After he had gone on with this regimen for palace court. ceived him. Mary de Vico. habit . the book was holy exhortation. of the GrandVicar and the whole household were useless. they were He most read in a very loud tone of voice. the carriage. if he could not be dragged to the The in palace. and excited the people to fervor by some matters. or else. and he had to wait in the middle of the street till it was mended. Moreover. Alphonsus was obliged to get out of the carriage. OK the coaclnnan. frequently went to St. and then said the Gloria to avoid the frequent Patri three times in honor of his patron-saints.

underneath the clothes. I have witnessed the long sufferings of the saint. and could not cease thanking him who had suggested such a happy expedient. and then resumed All his household assembled again about nine The o clock. and it was one which he felt the most. who had come to invite him to preach in their church on the occasion of the feast of the Girdle. Augustine s.&quot. he had the exceeding consolation to celebrate on the following After vespers he went to preach at St. him but lani. lasted for more than two years. Buonoparie. After the evening meditation with his household. ALPHONSUS. he had his stockings pulled off. the while Alwith to then went rest. and after he had got into bed with great pain. and after two or three attempts. said and I have admired his marvellous and F. From this time he celebrated mass every day. bed at midnight. truly Christian modesty. but he yielded to the command of F. an Augustinian. when.&quot. &quot. supper grand-vicar and when which generally consisted of a little coffee or milk. he re and lauds with his secretary. collation. phonsus prolonged his studies they brought him a miserable until midnight.LIFE OF ST. and tried to put it in practice. little. or even of nothing but lemonade or pure water. Marcorio. this Father told him that necessity dispensed him from the less essential parts. Vil- cited matins his studies. he would bend his most knee . and recited the rosary and night prayers. for example. this appeared in things almost too undignified to be related. he went &quot. This privation. and obtained permission from Rome to say that of the Blessed Virgin at all times. One day he related his distress to F. The celebration of mass was the only thing wanting in the life of Alphonsus. he took off his under garments himself. Alphon sus received this advice with a transport of joy. As he was exact in observing all the rubrics. dur to ing which time he had been obliged to be satisfied with receiving holy communion from the hands of the priest whose mass he heard. and that by placing himself on a chair he could easily take the precious blood. day. he took it with the watch in hand.

and this was his only apartment.&quot. but had mass said for them by one or the other of the Fathers of his Congregation. devotion was so great that he appeared like an angel.344 until LIFE OF ST. Such was Alphonsus condition during all the remaining time of his episcopate. he was in a perspiration. so that when the mass was over. he did the same at the consecration. ALPHOJVSUS. either for remedy ing some disorder or to inquire into the state of things. he asked advice. natus he fell to the ground. There was not a single day that he did not cause some priest or episcopal vicar to come to Arienzo. notwithstanding. and remained there bending profoundly. to cept for the meditation. the knee again. his face be came inflamed For of another est. and he only succeeded in standing up again by the aid of another person. and as he who fears that he will not be able to attain his end hastens his steps in order to reach it. and it fell But. mass. his sole apartment was his bed: ex his austerities or labors. and when he prepared to take the precious blood. in order to . but the poor were es Not a day passed in which he did not pecially privileged. examined into it. receive or dispatch several messages. like that of a man ravished out of himself. or to speak more correctly. priest. he retrenched In order to be accessible he caused his bed to be placed in a room where every one might come to him. and wished the door to be open to every body. he heard the mass of his chaplain. so Alphonsus. However peared to great had been his vigilance up to this time. none of all. unceasingly redoubled his solicitude in order to accomplish his duties better. heavily back. As soon as he heard of any disorder. the fervor of his quite exhausted. flexions he touched the platform. all the while. he took no rest. full of compunction. it ap be redoubled in these latter years. which rendered the genu most painful to him and when he wished to raise . he never forgot his people. or Et incarsitting down. his thanksgiving. and each time he required assistance in sit All the time he had been unable to say ing down again. always imagining that he did not fulfil his office well. and. and provided for its removal. he had no fixed hours. but at the words &quot.

LIFE OF ST. if it could be done at once. the evil cut sort down to the roots. who stayed at home on account of indisposition.until he saw &quot. all that could concern him. especially if this latter had kept silence through human respect. &quot. he had recourse to the help of the great. several times a week.&quot. This vigilance had for the religious. when he was paralytic and stretched on his sick bed. he did not suffer it to be deferred until the fol He neither lowing day. . as usual. and even to that of the king in case of need. its . He Some very often caused F. and when paternal exhortations were of no avail. and should you not do so. he never concealed from any one how much he felt it. in was He required to be informed of the way in which things were going on in the seminary. the only meal he took in the whole course of that day was the evening one. and if this was not followed by amendment. not careful in informing me of all the disorders which oc cur. you will be responsible for all the mischief. taking every possible care to ascertain whether the necessity for thus staying away was real or pecially vigilant over those only pretended. said his grand-vicar.&quot. he lost all peace. 345 &quot. and when there was any scandal. Caputo to come to Arienzo. and the laity objects. &quot. When any disorder was to be checked. the subject was expelled so that the young pupils were much more afraid of displeasing their bishop. times he sent for those students whose conduct and labors were distinguished as being exemplary. arid when any matter of this question. and made them He was es give an account of the conduct of the others. become acquainted with see in what state I am. took food nor rest.&quot. the clergy. and not by the priest. you in of them before the tribunal of When he was formed of any abuse through the medium of some one else. When he re ceived information of the misconduct of a seminarist. remember that from this time I accuse God. You if you are he said to the priests. and in spite of all his mildness. he caused him to be reproved.&quot. than . and he particularly recommended them to the care of the priests and episcopal vicars. ALPHONSUS.

endeavoring. or the touch ing spectacle he himself presented. in person. He was conducted himself at the side was celebrated on Holy Saturday. He was particularly watchful in see ing that the priests did not omit to instruct the people and catechise the children. who had this holy not yet fulfilled their Easter duty to comply with command. that he did not wish to O aive his successor occasion to weep over sin. and that nothing should be spared which could in this respect conduce to the health of the pupils. being was a he preached sight which caused all present to shed tears.346 LIFE OF ST. in the year 1769. to excite his children to rise to life by a spiritual resurrection. He opened. but he wished that all suitable recreations should be afforded in the seminary. On account of his great infirmities. were the most affecting. a year before his resignation. hours. he had forbidden the vacations being passed out of the estab lishment. when mass after which he seated and announced the Easter by a picture of the resur rection of Jesus Christ. as he said to a canon. . in the collegiate church of Arienzo. After the few first years. his face could not be $een his arm only moved about to wards the people however. to the church. and it was uncertain whether his words. on the 2d of July. the Visitation. he required several persons to place him in the carriage. and to aid him in ascending the pulpit. when his state made it quite imposarrangements. when he was up and well. every year. . He no sooner gained a little strength than he wished to perform also the ministry of the word. until 1774. wherever any solemnity gave a prospect of a numerous audience. of the altar. and strongly urged all those feast to the people. all the made and to the the and to necessary clergy. as well as towards the candidates for ordination and the faculties of confessors. was. It assisted thither and supported by his servants. The reason of this redoubled severity and vigilance towards the seminarists. he went on unhesitatingly for . ALPHONSUS. Whilst he preached. people He also continued to visit this college and the adjacent villages every year himself. and again went about preaching.

let the priest know that it required to be en larged. to whom he especially commended the poor. and. He was informed that a priest had transgressed some of his decrees. The priest was afraid of the trouble and expense. he issued an edict. felt in these pastoral visitations. he ordered. they will be like so many The same natural branches which will exhaust the graft. renewing the ordinances he had formerly decreed on these subjects. in order to make these repairs. he. the widows. Alphonsus. as before. said he. thing &quot. especially in regard to some church furniture which he ought to have renewed. whereupon he sequestered twelve ducats from his income. Though he had not sufficient strength to give the spiritual exercises to the priests and religious. reminded them of the duties of their state. ALPHONSUS. and could not resolve to commence the work. was always vigilant in driv- . he assem bled them together at his palace.if one does not cut away that all that is wild. and during at least three Thus days. which he entrusted to the management of a canon. in the visi tation of 1773. He noticed that the church of Bucciano was dirty and too small for the people. continued of culture in the occurs souls. all nature produces of herself.&quot. and those innocent souls poses to the danger of being lost. Agatha.&quot. had suffered a little in consequence of his absence from the Cathedral of St. to distant places in person. although paralytic. the good that one has As he was unable to go grafted in cannot fail to perish.&quot. that is to say. &quot.LIFE OF ST. he supplied his place by the grand-vicar. However the greatest interest flourishing a graft it may be. sible for 347 him to do so.if the trunk on which is grafted is not pruned of its wild shoots. that some adjacent ground should be bought within the space of one month. in 1770. and vestments. He always &quot. whom indigence ex As the observance of discipline in regard to the choir. sev eral times. but as Al- phonsus thought that the holy mysteries could not be decently celebrated in the church. and one worthy of the purpose for which it was consecrated. and he had the sat isfaction of seeing a large edifice erected.

and sent zealous missionaries wherever he could not go himself. their tutor. up to the moment when he quitted the A hundred bishops put together. actuated him unceasingly. but Marianne. and that God would certainly comfort her. Alphonsus. a still greater interest in the spiritual welfare of D. pictures of the but D. They were comforted by the birth of a third son after this. His gift to her. D. Agatha. was a relic of St. character. and in procuring the advantage of his sheep by every possible means. When Alphonsus him a male they took leave of him. spiritual ing away wolves from his flock. related came no . however. Hercules.&quot. notwithstanding all his infirmities. The zeal for the glory trait in his of God. he took. which formed a chief &quot. and said to a girl. During D. be times. gave a little picture of the Blessed Virgin to You will not give birth to a boy. : And this really came to pass. and he wished Alphon sus to be the god-father for all four. he gave D. alone did. He the unceasingly fortified his people by his counsels and bread of the Word. He went with his wife to Ariola. it was in a little silver box which did not exceed a few cents in value. which he had himself received as a present. Hercules had four children by his second boys and one daughter. on occa sion of the baptism. would not have done what Mgr.348 LIFE OF ST. Marianne s Both first pregnancy. The that there priest. Liguori &quot. Marianne was delivered of twin sons. three wished that they would obtain a male child. Alphonsus took a great interest in the education of his nephews. that they might imbibe the milk of piety. his nephews. and I should like you to call her Maria Theresa &quot. Louis.&quot. In reply. Rainone said. ALPHONSUS. D. on his second marriage. during her second pregnancy. they again asked of him to pray to God to grant them a son. Her cules then entreated Alphonsus to pray to God to grant child. Hercules took her to Arienzo. Marianne two pictures of St. Archdeacon diocese. We have seen the wise counsels Alphonsus gave to his brother. where then was. however. and told her to be of good courage. D. wife. Two same saint seemed undoubtedly a mystery.

&quot. should you be very sad at Alphonsus had prophesied for after some months. re prophecies are too inauspicious. &quot.&quot. them con and whenever they came to see him.LIFE OF ST. boys are not fit to enter a college until they are at least ten or twelve years of In order to prevent their imbibing vice in their very age. after having instructed them. The disconsolate and aged father came to St. one of the twin-brothers died. it is good for them at present to remain with you.&quot. Agatha in which he did not urge to attend to the education of his children. when he reminded him of his prophecy. D. in order that they might pass the day devoutly.I and communicated his design to his brother. ALPHONSUS. letter 349 his brother from St. you and you will preserve the sons who will see them live and grow firmation. he explained to them their duties towards God and their parents. and when God 30 wills it. When they Hercules intended to place them in the nobility. He grew up. for them. to you.&quot. 1770. he said to him. of the 4th of December. at Arienzo.for now remain old. above all. college of the &quot.for your &quot. I am pleased to hear that my little god-sons practice the devotions I have recom mended saints. it will be time to think of their going . he looked at the twins. &quot. and how much bad conduct dishonors a Christian and a gentleman.&quot. the hideousness of sin.&quot. If it?&quot. D. saying: cannot replied approve of your project. He even com posed a short rule for them. and said : you should lose one of these two. he expresses himself thus: &quot. I hope they will be inclined to become When. &quot. Hercules introduced his three sons to their uncle. plied Alphonsus. Agatha to seek for comfort from his saintly brother. D. infancy.Fear no more. gave tion towards the Blessed Virgin. tried to in them with for love Jesus Christ. He. . which was appropriate to their In a age. besides. Hercules.Do not say any more to me. 1771. because I have not an over good opinion of that establishment. who on the 15th of December. once.For the love of God often call to letter to mind what I have urged upon you so frequently in regard to the business of your eternal salvation. and a tender devo spire himself.

because they are the first. came to pass that D.&quot.The malice of but one is enough to cause the ruin of a hundred. Hercules wished to present his two sons to the king. on the 5th of April. but I am greatly afraid you will one day have cause to repent of some misfor The love tune. Hercules. than they would make elsewhere in twice that time. I should be inclined to wish that my nephews should be entrusted good priests. 1768. saying: &quot.Should this college be under the direc tion of these Fathers. he therefore wrote to his brother.&quot.&quot.he had said.&quot. in to the management of these especially pains-taking. there I way of bringing up fore that you can do what you please. You are their father. have their spiritual good at heart. but Alphonsus wished him not to do it. &quot. He heard that the college of Nunziatella would pass into the hands of the Fathers of the Pious Schools. without injury to those of the soul. elsewhere. regard to the calamity which has bescruples. you will be obliged to make them cadets or soldiers.&quot.&quot. and God will provide for the rest.I sympathize in your sorrow. . Keep them under your own eyes. be placed so as to become virtuous as well as learned. For your part. &quot. which you will then be unable to remedy.that he wishes to have them as cadets in the brigade or some other regiment. to risk the loss of their souls as well as that of their bodies. ALPHONSUS. otherwise called the Tommasque Fathers. Alphonsus wrote to D. that they ought not to go to the I should like to know where they may best college now. but I repeat.350 LIFE OF ST. In another letter. and thus &quot. If the king were to tell you. and you do the contrary of what I tell you. Marianne became tormented with & and at last lost her senses. when the proper time shall come. and Providence will take care to supply their temporal wants. &quot. and thus your sons would make more progress in three or four years. see that you do not enter into my sentiments as to the these dear little children.&quot. he wrote to him. from forming the children who are confided to them properly. which I bear towards you and your children has made me write It thus. D.

you must accept it with good courage. nor his solicitude as a pastor. which he had formerly taught by his example.&quot. to recommend my brother to God. Be satis it is fied. &quot. or for any thing else I may have a claim to. Marianne. you to know any money from you. In order to cause virtue and evangelical perfection to flourish. Marianne. and I beg God to give you patience. By all this. he wrote to F. Since he has sent you this cross. D. : . amongst us who have little fervor and numerous faults. he wrote the fol You al lowing circular on the 26th of February. I beg your &quot. the Congregation is persecuted. Alphonsus did not hesitate to yield it all without He expressed himself in the fol lowing terms on this subject. Charles Cavalieri. Philip Neri said that ten holy workmen would suffice for the conversion of the whole world. even were I to be no longer bishop. or possessions. I could live on my income from the college of doctors. : . Neither did he forget his dear children of the Congregation. and governor of Man tua. However. reverence. for I hear that several amongst you correspond badly with the end for which God called them into our to little Congregation. Hercules sixty thousand ducats. on this subject. could stifle the senti ments of tenderness he owed to his nephews. ALPHONSUS. St. and that they allow themselves be governed by a spirit of pride. and you will be still obliged to bear &quot.&quot. the general. we see that neither his various and great in firmities. otherwise it will become more weighty. and in regard to all that might I do not wish happen of a similar sort at any other time for rents.&quot. died in the beginning of the year 1770. a cousin of Alphonsus. for my poor brother is in great distress. and to write to all our houses to pray for D.&quot. I write to you this time with tearful eyes. 1771 ready know that within a short time God has called several of our companions into eternity you also know how much &quot. therefore. and be not uneasy on this head enough reserve to his brother.LIFE OF ST. and left to him and D. none of all this But I am alarmed at seeing some gives me any alarm. Villani. fallen 351 D. God cannot dwell in . for that I lay no claim to either for the past or for the future. it.

God protect us against these enemies. fraternal charity. ALPHONSUS. T feel great displeasure when I hear that any of the young amongst you do not according to evangelical perfection. . and the sadness of my heart is still greater. What ought to be the principal aim of him who enters the Congregation. when I am told that live faults of insubordination and of non-observance of the rule are committed by the fathers. and then we can say: Si Deus pro nobis. Our sin in not corresponding to God s grace makes me tremble more than from the most furious persecutions will men and c devils . but that of pleasing God and making a death ? and this grace has already been obtained by amongst &quot. He will chastise instead of protect ing us. or by the most aged and most ancient brothers. Reform and zeal sions. and peace are absent. and if He provides us with the necessa He who is not satisfied to lead a life of poverty ries of life. rather than a hundred sacrifices. I have always enforced obedience and submission to superiors. them of reforming their than that of the rest. and a thousand more striking works. 11 In fioly my letters and my discourses.352 LIFE OF ST.. I feel assured. who ought to serve as models for the younger and those recently received. the success of the Mis. . and who are at present. us. own conduct. hearts where Christian humility. are talked of by some. in food and clothing. had better take leave of our society without troubling us further. . which is the peculiar duty of laborers of Jesus Christ. but no thoughts are entertained by . and can go and live as he likes at home. by those. the glory of God. when we live according to His will. pend good order. and contented with the poverty and we ought to thank Him if by His mercy we profess have bread to eat. good many of our good brothers. and the peace of our souls. and respectful submission to superiors from you. in short. which is more evil God wishes to have obedience . . who have now passed all into eternity. occu- . quis contra nosT but if we behave ill towards God. God we wishes us to be poor. but the pain I suffer is still more keen. who are the On these de interpreters of the will of God here below.

.Let each of you renounce the vain glory of shining. It is sufficient if but few remain.. practices in use sanctification. all I shall may &quot. my many turn their backs on God by quitting the Congregation. the spiritual exercises.become an established . God am persuaded in does not require many. I do the same the customary in also in regard to prayer. in of God.. We must not preach word the preaching crucified we must proclaim His Christ but Jesus ourselves. it did not remain unpunished. . I pray God to send His glory. . . . that at the judgment day they will find that I shall be their first accuser before the tribunal of Jesus I have never ceased to give the same warnings to but notwithstanding all that I have said. Christ. ALPHONSUS. granted. to the detriment of the work of the Mission aries. yes. and retreat. and not display our vanity chastisements down on those who preach with vanity I wish. brothers. Uncorrected 30* said he. . &quot. let them stand still in the way of perfection. It is and never thus that the saintly founder encouraged his sons. . advise you all to observe exactly the praiseworthy . &quot. proud.&quot. that God preserves my life at so order to remedy the disorders which have arisen. faults. I wish that they may be rendered unable to as cend the pulpit of truth. and love towards Jesus Christ and His adorable passion.&quot. and dis than a number great good if : obedient. at the day of judgment. However ted &quot. and always re main tranquillity. I say to all who may despise the advice I have just given. . advanced an age. Let him who loves Jesus Christ let be obedient. amongst us I for the promotion of piety and enforce obedience to superiors.I . slight an infraction of the rule might be commit in the Congregation. him be contented with all.I expect to see these miserable beings. . and I hope that my desires will be . . pied in thanking 353 in the God for having caused them to die Congregation. and I am resolved to remedy them at all costs. &quot.LIFE OF ST. those few be good a few of this latter sort will do more of the imperfect. and all who resemble them.

do it privately with one treat and affability and and with every possible mildness. that it is he wrote to the Superior of Frosinone. to And to F. and we must fulfil our duty. but wished that they should be sent back into the Noviciate. let us not hesitate: let us re them by the punishments they deserve.I beg your govern with all great firmness against do us more harm than all our persecutions. LIFE OF ST. Alphonsus. . if will happen. and he was not so prompt as usual in pro nouncing sentence of exclusion. for they charity. added to attacks against the rule. Cajone. of the Congregation. ALPHONSUS.&quot. but without success. caused him to act with more circumspection. &quot. reverence. in sorrow that the circumstances of the times did not allow them to be expelled. and we meet with scandals.&quot. in order that they might there regain the fervor which was lacking in them. trouble to observe Alphonsus sent for them to Arienzo and spoke in the to them. kindness. to pass. by giving the discon Two the occasion to join the enemies without. patience necessary go on waiting without gaining what one wishes for. all he wrote. &quot. and unsteady in the observance of the rule. necessary to use correction. and the other speedily followed his example. subjects were tired of the rule. said that that. I know. which he did not do God would do for him and so it came ness they went so . however. they would know how attempt to act. In their blind far as to say that they would remain v Congregation in spite even of him. and he did not pardon them un The exterior trials til he was assured of their amendment.&quot. he was not satisfied with forbidding them to receive holy orders. with and to a saint of the to have some. it. one of them asked for a dispensation to go that same year. in order not to increase the tented and cast oil on the flames. It is our press let what duty to punish them. On hearing that some clerics had become lax in the practice of virtue. and no longer took the fire. &quot.354 evil. and that if any to dismiss made were them.&quot. When it is in the first place. but what can be done ? Let us aid the bark as much as we can.

&quot. and drew matter furnish for accusation from it. impaired health of the bishop of St. . because a little pride may destroy us in the same manner as it has so many other societies. let us be contented even with our miseries. accompanied by some of the . Our let us therefore be careful to unite ourselves to God. with renewed strength. stability and on God conduct the first depends place. F. to observe our rules. . and then drew up a fresh peti As nothing was then talked of tion filled with calumnies. and obtained an order to get a copy of the rule which had been approved of by the Pope. share in his confidence. ALPHONSUS. I maintain that it and that he will Congregation does not come from me. Villani went to Arienzo in 1772.. Agatha. and to be charitable towards all. for the enemies of his Congregation had only desisted from their attacks while he was there. let us strive to be humble. whiah seemed to them with an engine too formidable to resist. 355 The persecutions mentioned in these letters were those of which we have spoken above. all their boasts did not succeed in He tried to make his children discouraging Alphonsus. they took advantage of this and represented the Congregation as forming only a branch of the Jesuits. and with expedients which it would be more Thus they gave a false inter difficult to ward off. or rather as being Jesuits in disguise. However. The Fathers of the Congregation had not so much confi dence their fears were founded on the old age and the . and above all. They thought themselves so sure of success that they considered the Missionaries as already lost. pretation to the decision of the king when he said that he did not acknowledge the houses as religious communities. on occasion of which he had visited Naples. does not depend on my existence. who has preserved continue to maintain in .. They applied also to the king. for forty-two years. in the hope of finding therein arms wherewith to combat the Missionaries advantageously. and constantly repeated to them: People say that all will be put an end to. and then upon our own good it.LIFE OF ST. after my death &quot. but Jesuitism. re solved to return to the assault at a more opportune time. It is the this it work of God.

than man. saying: tion at the exercises you have given. Another cause of distress to our Saint this also happened about time at Palermo. at this time. The prime minister. Innocence and prayer are all-powerful. Let us have recourse to the assistance of pray &quot.&quot. &quot.&quot. A period of repose had been enjoyed there since the first anxieties that their enemies had caused the Missionaries. He recom mended and that prayers should be offered in all the houses. other fathers. 1771. he added but as . and in the State of Benevento which had been carefully concealed by equivocation. and be assured that I shall live some time longer. : er. ALPHONSUS. they continued to urge him still more earnestly. Marquis Tanucci.and He will aid us. said he. who had begun to be aware of his character. and with tearful eyes implored him to repair again to Naples to appease so furious a tempest. They spoke so plainly that Alphonsus discovered the real cause of their fears. Maffey. the more so as the latter had also gained over some of the minister s clerks by means of his gifts. Let us act as we ought towards he was not discouraged &quot. though Alphonsus had always he had written to them feared this calm more than a storm feel great consola on the 30th of April. that acquisi tions had been made by the Missionaries in the kingdom tition.I them. themselves. or pretended to look on Maffey in a favorable point of view. and told them to &quot. for God can do more God.&quot. anything. but on the other hand these very consolations fill me .&quot. he said to them several times over: &quot. looked. and attributed all he did to nothing but zeal. he never wrote any letters to his friends in which he did not also beg their prayers. he therefore ordered the advocate of the king to proceed with the utmost rigor in regard to the heads put forth in the pe and particularly as to the accusation.Do not fear for the Congrega tion. I derive comfort from . while they ought not to possess When these details were related to Alphonsus. he applied to the prime minister and left off addressing himself to the minister of ecclesiastical affairs.Do not be afraid that I shall die tranquilize yet.356 LIFE OF ST. changed his course and his artifices.

their friends. everything makes me be friendship. About the same time. had not been able to avoid it.&quot. answered would be the means of alienating the minds of the inhab : itants from us. he is any hope of a reconciliation an untractable man. that no one belonging to the Congregation must accept the office of mediator on any I terms. When Alphonsus saw affairs take this turn. by . but to win his On the other hand. am When Maffey saw that his scheme on the subject of mediation was disconcerted. that in whatever way one may turn in the matter. Maffey new difficulties with the people of Iliceto. whom it is impos . . sown produces fruit you are without persecu but here we are plentifully supplied with them.LIFE OF ST. Theresa said that persecutions are signs that . assisted by light from on high. and pursued their persecutions against them even in Naples. what we might say to the people in favor of Maffey would be of no avail they would all be lieve that we speak. there were several influential persons. ALPHONSUS. lieve. he did not fail to justify himself and his Congregation to the king and his ministers. and tried to secure the Missionaries as mediators between him got into and his adversaries.&quot. dangerous to the State and to the Church. if Alphonsus. tion in Sicily. . being informed of all this. how assists us. without giving with Maffey. not because he is right. who approved them to bring the negociation of this proposal. then decidedly of opinion. and stirred up again those which they had al ready spread against the Missionaries. with fear. right will always be found on the side of the people. It Alphonsus. &quot. God He was so ill and in such suffering that he signed this letter: And cripple. with renewed strength they heaped up calumnies upon calumnies. Brother Alphonsus Maria the indeed this tranquillity was not of long dura Their adversaries returned to attack them . sible to pacify. as being Molinists and Probabilists. besides. . 357 St. ever. he endeavored to render the complaints of the people against him ineffectual. Maffey devised a snare into which the Missionaries would have fallen. and exhorted to a satisfactory end but . the seed tions.

saying: &quot. he said to them. but you shall return there again. in spite of ?&quot. hell. &quot. and though the departure of the Missionaries took place secretly. the urgency of our spiritual wants also compels us to implore your lordship s assistance. and twenty-eight chevaliers. address petitions to the king to obtain their return. Some of them had also recourse to Alphonsus for the same pur pose. Who cannot see return blessing &quot. and for this work. the cheva liers and ladies.&quot. and thirty-eight ladies in particular. and the credit he enjoyed with the Mar quis of Tanucci influenced that minister in his favor.procuring our return. them for God.he will not lack means of . the triumph of hell therein he said. and during the night. whe n the clergy and all the religious orders of Girgenti. representing the Missionaries as instigators and as the leaders of a party.&quot. and you will then God and the king. Lanza. magistrates and men of letters. united to . The most respectable of the people of the town and of the clergy shared in their pastor s sentiments. he therefore recalled his sons from Sicily. and the blank they would leave there and they had scarcely embarked.&quot. wrote to him.As we have addressed an energetic petition to the king to implore his clemency. Alphonsus saw that the fire was lit at both extremi he felt that it was time to try and prevent a general conflagration.358 LIFE OF ST. &quot.&quot. I will for you. a great multitude accompanied them to the shore. deploring the loss which their departure would be to the town. . When ties.If God wishes us to be there. ALPHONSUS. This retreat was a cause of lively distress to Mgr.You will go away from Sicily. &quot. and if it is necessary for me to sell my sell mitre and my cross in order to attain this end.

. through Cardinal Castelli. but the differences which existed between the court of Naples and that of Rome in regard to the election of bishops. on the other. that his infirmities and great age rendered him of little use to his Church while he could still be of service to his sons. from the fear that his Church would be left without a shep herd for a long time. he replied to him in a brief. seeing the dangers his Congregation inJ\. Jllphonsus seeks io resign. the Pope answered him: &quot. he represented to the Pope in the year 1772. in which he expressed himself in the most consolatory manner. and when the Cardinal wanted to show him his incapacity in regard to making his visita tions. Alphonsus ruled over his diocese from his bed:&quot. 359 CHAPTER XXVI. on one hand. in order to encourage him to continue his administration and when Cardinal Cas telli solicited him to consider the old age of the saintly him from his arid to release his Holiness burthen. had made him defer taking any step in the matter. He publishes still other Works. His sentiments on the the death of Pope Clement XIV. and that to depend entirely on that of his Holiness.LIFE OF ST. His Congregation Church. ALPHONSUS. When the two courts had settled the matter in debate. He publishes the several Works. Election of a new Pope. resolved again to resign the episcopate. and believing. curred. is established in States of the He assists at His Missionaries return to A LPHONSUS. He had thought of doing so before. The Pope was greatly edified by his submission to the head of the Church but as he was aware of the very great good Alphonsus still effected. .One simple prayer ad- he meant that he . protesting at the same time that he was far from wishing to do his own will. and was equally ready to give up the bishopric. all the reasons which led him to tender his resignation. Sicily. replied: &quot. bishop. or to die under the burden of his office.That it would suffice if D.

such a deplorable state that his very appearance inspired compassion. addressed. He said on this was unfit who ject Pope would be see I would rather die the most painful death. he one day extricated himself from their importunities by answer episcopate.&quot. &quot. him &quot. while Alphonsus continued to live on and to labor. is worth more than if he went about his diocese a hundred times.iolently. An other reason made him afterwards renounce the idea of abdicating. he it. The Fathers of the Congregation.360 LIFE OF ST. he would never con The voice of the Pope.I repeat to you. : my exact observance of the rule. died two years after this. to of a powerful party. dressed by him to God from his bed. however. he says: &quot. and he heard that the obliged. Pope Clement XIV.&quot. and several bishops. burthen of the As they went on ing cheerfully: yield easily. when he heard that the Pope s opinion was contrary to his request. and I shall die content now under to urge the him with reasons which seemed to authorize this step. said he. while the Pope was still robust and young. seeing in &quot. in order to merit the favor and assistance of God. contrary to all expectations. and even caused him to expel the thought of it Numerous candidates aspired to succeed as a temptation. to me his friends. and a more fervent practice of virtue. In a circular.&quot. in order to supply his place. and wait for his suc every one burst out laughing. numbering seventeen years less this At in age. who favored a sub efforts the to yield to govern the diocese. than beloved sheep in the mouth of a wolf.&quot. sent to this.& as the voice of God. as Alphonsus was nearly broken down and paralytic. He had prophesied truly. after having exhorted them to a more occasion &quot. let would not accept cessor. Alphonsus. . thought they ought to persuade him to make a formal resignation. him in the church of St. Agatha. about this time. bent his head. and submitted his will to that of the Vicar of Jesus Christ. to all the houses of his Congregation. us be patient. but however feeble he felt for so weighty a charge. if I The present Pope is a man who does not wpre to give him my resignation. the tempest rages &quot. ALPHONSUS.

if we do not Blessed Virgin but prayers will be I can correct our faults. Alphonsus did not cease to think In for the welfare of the Church in general. The title of this little book is : Reflections on divers spirtual subjects. and there is no one Profuntlis.LIFE OF ST. in his book On the Truth of Faith/ yet in consideration of the ravages they were continually making. are never satisfied. knew no bounds. tired of defending although they fight against by thousands of books. and the more poor. I who am very decrepid. he also undertook another work. and to separate the true doctrine from the errors which in former ages had endeavored to stifle it. and despised.If tion. my chil dren. said he. It is considered by every one to be admirably adapted to win the hearts of men to that of Jesus Christ. he once more attacked them.&quot. which was intended to be of use to religion. as well as of the most powerful motives to excite us to love Him. they publish daily. lyzed. who must support the Congregation. all para What should I or could I do? It is you. and the greater also will be the do no more. &quot. the enemies of our religion. he wrote down the points of his and labor &quot. Although he had combatted the unbelieving in a dissertation which* was published in the year 1756. the more good we shall do. order to impress the sacred wounds of Jesus crucified in the hearts of the faithful. meditations on the subject. &quot. the bodily and mental sufferings with Notwithstanding which he was laden. if we behave properly. God will always assist us.&quot. against the opposing principles of the Deists. and had done so again still more recently. who of will aid us but the little use to us. ALPHONSUS. 361 Let each one recommend the Congregation to God. and in bed. which why should the friends of religion get it it?&quot. reward which Jesus Christ all will give us in heaven. with three We stand in need of prayer. It contains a lively description of the whole passion of our Blessed Saviour. and De let three litanies be said daily. . that.&quot. in common. and be assured. in a dissertation Reflections on the Truth of Divine Revela entitled. and persecuted we may be. In order to In his zeal which place 31 .

It places before him the great good he may derive from the spiritual exercises made during a retreat. Another work caused him more serious embarrassment.362 all LIFE OF ST. Alphonsus represents the . to the sat isfaction of the minister. a canon who held the Gallican particular. and the work was published. which he published about One of his enemies denounced this work the same time. did not approve of the work and op strongly. to the authorities. In the second. and published under the Church. pendix. But at last when the report of the examiner became known. and settles all the dif great utility of missions to a bishop. book which the under the title of .&quot. the evils which the faithful. the intrigue was put an end to. it was his collection of Sermons. and his and combats the errors of Jansenius and his followers. In this work he also animadverts particularly on the innovators of modern times. and in the last. opinions posed it. in the form of an ap . The first is written to a young student. in For this reason. and therefore the publica tion of it was hindered for nearly a year. and the glory of Alphonsus. title of &quot. This history of the heresies was finished in 1772. deliberating on the choice of a state of life. We saintly have also another very precious bishop published at this time. as containing things which might be displeasing to the Sovereign. The triumph of the The author defends the infallibility of the Pope pre-eminence in the Church in a special manner. which is ad ficulties concerning them dressed to a religious. Some letters were added to this book. of the and to Church has suffered before the eyes show them all the noxious things which error has at all time emitted against her. ALPHONSUS. and the invariable stability of the Roman Church. he treats of the manner of preaching little with apostolical simplicity. but this opposition was of no consequence it was printed after the saintly author had written a letter to the ecclesiastical examiner. he put to gether in three volumes the history of all the heresies which have existed since the birth of Christianity up to our own days. and shows the contradictions of their doctrine.

and who had been lately nominated by Mgr. renewed his entreaties In the following November. Francis of Paul. Francis. Arnaud in wishing projected foundation. D. who were divided in two companies. 363 submission to The true Happiness of Man.I have consented to let this . God willed. to preach also in other dio ceses. Bishop of Verali. ALPHONSUS. and wrote to Alphonsus to inform him of the neglected state of the souls in those parts. and agreed with D. Alphonsus should yet see his Congrega tion happily states of the Church. for the advantage of the numerous inhabitants of the neighboring country. (which is not far from La Trappe. Sarni. the Bishop of Aquinas. when he heard of this plan of the Trappists. augmented by two new foundations. One may truly say that this treatise pious person inspired. and the fruits of salvation which they produced caused them to be earnestly asked for. &quot. rather than composed. In the year 1773. of the Order of the Trappists. filled was for the in order to obtain his obtained consent to it. visited the celebrated abbey of CasaThese religious mary. Al missions. The labors of the in March of this year. having ardently wished for his Missionaries for many years without being able to obtain them. the foundation was decided on. in these had erected it as well as a commodious habitation for himself. Giacomini. proposed to them to establish a house of the Congrega tion. at Scifelli. as his Grand Vicar. that. were every where attended with the greatest success. The bishop.LIFE OF ST. that he caused it to be printed and gratuitously distributed every where. parts. with joy. in the Mgr. with another father.) where there was a church. just then vacated by in his zeal for aiding the villages John Louis Arnaud. When the bishop had consent of Pope Clement XIV. Alphonsus looking on it as in also the spiration from on high. though in the midst of so many troubles. phonsus destined nine fathers for these missionaries. During the course of these missions. moved by the benefit he had himself derived from A was was so it. and on his the will of God. under the direction of D. who.

:&quot. F. not. with the revenues of his diocese. he wrote to D. but Alphonsus did not approve of this he replied to him who had made to him this propo project I have read your long letter. and how they thereby became saints. it is to concerning naud so Alphonsus was most anxious that perfect harmony should exist between them and him. the Fathers were also laboring to be es necessary to suffer. which are not absolutely contrary to the good order of the iiouse. Francis of Paul believed that Al- . Abbe Arnaud all . Nevertheless. it . remember that this foundation is new. for it. and convenience. but I do not approve sition: of your reasons. ALPHONSUS. what is the good of wasting time about When these things. Ar not to displease him in things he wrote to him. I beg you to do this for the love of God and your neighbor. ated in another kingdom. of May. Francis of Paul. since God does not wish for them tablished in . Tell Naples from the College of Doctors.Take house. In all new foundations it is and to suffer much. The fathers him that we are indebted for were to live with D. 1773. to do all that he could to obtain this end. conceived the idea of giving those of the Congregation a convent in Rome. of his own accord.364 foundation be the 28th LIFE OF ST. both on account of their poverty. Let him see that you esteem him. Poverty and misery were also the portion of this new Alphonsus did not fail to assist it. the subjects in to Paul. care. I advise jou to keep up the observance of the rule from the com mencement of this foundation. however. the Rector of the new &quot. He has conferred good on us. made. At this period. Francis of my name.&quot. the Jesuits were suppressed.&quot. let them read what the saints suffered in the first establish ments. and may do so again. Many things must be yielded for the sake of peace &quot. If they wish to please Jesus Christ. but with that which he at received ^11 &quot. Francis of Paul on I have written to thank the &quot. and situ &quot. &quot. the Pope.&quot. Iiouse. he wrote to F. and also because one has to deal with people one does not know. and took particular pains in advising F. and listen to his opinions as far as possible.&quot.&quot.&quot. Rome.

would result from this.. But we have cause to thank God that this affair has come to nothing. Finally. what &quot. as was seen.. 1774 at what you tell me about Mgr. that in those houses there would be freedom from the persecu tions which were suffered to the exact observance of the rule in appeared to him as 31* and no obstacle its rigor. which wanted evangelical were two other considerations which caused our saint to agree to this proposition. on the 25th August. let me ask The you? Congregation would be lost. also in the ecclesiastical States. and we should A bastard work lose sight of the end of our institute. I would have written energetically to him. and courtly people. What have we to do in Rome. when.LIFE OF ST.&quot. fered to the Missionaries. even if I had had the whole Congregation against me. The first was. which a manifest sign of the will of God. If the Pope had persisted in such a design. Mary of Grace these were of . and Alphonsus did not hesitate to accept the foundation. because we should be distracted from the work of our mission. all . who can do all that we have been asked to do in Rome. and in the midst of the great multitudes who inhabit this town. and about the Pope s favorable disposition in our regard. foundations in towns or villages which he saw were desti tute and deprived of the bread of life. lords. to try and get him to abandon this project. this. after May Jesus Christ deliver praise greedy . but he answered I am rejoiced him as follows. If we are placed in the midst of prelates. sions. The discalceated Augustinian Fathers had abandoned a church and a hospice which they had had under the title of St. Macedonio. let us thank God for the good He was more pleased with opinion the Pope has of us. there being a great number of little laborers. 365 phonsus would at length favor his wishes. he was applied to for a new founda tion at Frosinone. Besides.. In in the others. ALPHONSUS. and in the diocese of Verali. : good can we produce there ? . there villages around. us from about the same time. and adieu to the country and riches. There are many besides us. and that would be all the profit we should derive from it. adieu to mis we shall become courtiers.

the second place.&quot. . if any error should be found therein. he thought. as the two houses were to be near each other. was the admiration of the most learned men at Naples. In writing which.&quot. Alphonsus gave a new proof how deeply he had been impressed by that saying of the Holy Particula boni doni ne te praetereat.) the promoting His glory. (considering the time allotted to each man ever. brought to light his book on the of the Martyrs.Triumphs year. this work from alone would have sufficed to render him worthy of immor tality. they &quot. Alphonsus had added a statement of his system on the rule of moral actions.This Clement XIV: is a book which at the last years of my life. LIFE OF ST. he had in- . and far more of the sense of the Psalms. and how Ghost. had the saintly bishop not written any thing else in support of religion and the Church. which was a dif ficult one.366 . of which he himself says. ALPHONSUS. faithful he was. and composed at such an advanced age.&quot. who after wards became Bishop of Aquila. and . The same &quot. office in a language which they do not understand. to be this vow he had made not to lose any part of it. by God to be employed in fulfilling in good gift. how were not established there before the 20th of June. which he also submitted to the Pope for correction. which may be useful to a great number of the faithful who say the divine &quot. said B. in goodness many who were al it.&quot. This work. . 1774. by his labors. let the following suffice &quot. your Holiness will approve of this work. : Alphonsus. 1776. they would be of mutual assistance. Cervone. Of all the eulogiums passed * upon it. has shown that he is of the primitive Church worthy for without speaking of the many other works by which he brought back to the road of virtue many who had wandered to rival the holy bishops . dedicating it to Pope I have written in an age when my exhausted I hope that strength announces my approaching end. In the year 1774. in an appendix to this work.&quot. who are ignorant of the signification of the words. It was the publishing of his explication of the Psalms. or strengthened ready walking in it.

the chief minister of the Court della Sommaria.When the ministers are spoken to. hands of Advocate Celano. other to F.LIFE OF ST. at that time the President of the royal council.&quot. got ready my answers.&quot. He recommended also the matter. Majone. on the 2d on the most important point. As this of June. in his time. I have had masses celebrated. . he was in a state of great un I have caused prayers to be said every where. the Congregation must not be named. Cervone expressed it. that of salvation. However. the ob from the mis-called philosophers of attacks many thus showing himself. either to others. ject of so all.I &quot. 1774. . who resided in Naples: &quot. for I am the person principally aimed at in this affair. to the counsellors of St. and arranged the plan of defence himself. grand affair. in order that he may arrange it in his own way. I only ought to be spoken of. and which was. And in an &quot. and get prayers said in as many monasteries and places as you can.&quot. Clare. he showed that he still remembered his former profession as a have lawyer. answer must be presented in writing. and omitting nothing which could &quot. Villani. Get the people and I know not what more I can do. Maffey never rested. and especially the Prince della Riccia. easiness.&quot. he wrote in another letter. for his intervention . and a greater zeal for that faith for which the martyrs have so cheerfully given their lives. Laden with infirmity and occupations as was the poor old man. himself or to While he was thus occupied for the glory of God and for the good of souls. full of solicitude for the B. . ALPHONSUS. their . he wrote to F. Baron Sarnelli and D.&quot. to say an Ave before the sermon.&quot. in writing. open or facilitate the road to the celestial country. He wrote himself to the Marquis of Cito. as the same the eighteenth century their blood. and left nothing undone in order to calumniate his Missionaries with fresh accusations. I will place it in the &quot. 367 tended to kindle in all hearts a greater degree of love towards Jesus Christ. not seeing any better method of insuring the success of their cause. and also solicited Nicholas Vincenzio. and got some persons of great influence to mediate for them.

368 in LIFE OF ST. because it seems to me that the Blessed Virgin There will bring us safe and sound out of this tempest. respectful and especially reminded him of the the royal decisions real intentions of his father. King Charles III. who had He also wrote authorized the four houses in the kingdom. but by procuring the glory of God. as we see by experience. that he loves it as the apple of his eye. and who will dwell with the Lord forever. in 7 labor to which they daily ga\ e themselves fare of the . and to cause others He had certainly been favored with which his humility made him con revelation. and who through our means recovered grace. fore let us abandon ourselves into the hands of Jesus . in which he. not by becoming richer and more highly thought of by the world. the President. of which he am sure that says. Him some &quot. for my sistance of His manifest graces. by the as I shall not see it. their favor with to He addressed also a the king. Majone. but I feel assured that our little flock will worthy increase more and more. eternity. to a long circular to all the houses of the Congregation. for the same year he wrote to F. Jesus Christ will be better A day will come when loved by others. which he exhorts all to increased fervor in the exercise of all virtues and the observance of rule. and form our glory and joy for all known and we shall see . he never ceases to protect us and to render us more to labor for his glory in divers countries. and that. as the best means to secure divine protection for the Congregation. and be re-united together in that eternal abode where we shall never more be separated and where we shall also be united to hundreds of thousands of persons. without injuring any one. through our labors. for in the midst of so many persecu &quot. who once lived without the love of God. each other again. represented the innocence of his Missionaries. full of joy. Ought not also ?&quot. special I am ceal.I tions. the memorial up for the wel and their to all submission kingdom. ALPHOJN SUS. this all love Jesus Christ with to love thought alone to stimulate us to our hearts. death is at hand. prophesying its future prosperity: Jesus Christ looks upon our little Congregation with most loving eyes.

stances in which he was placed. if overthrowing the . who had so many times given proof of his solicitude. us pray to Him.Poor exclaimed the Pope. this was a terrible blow to Alphonsus.The will of the Pope is the will of did not utter another word to manifest God and how much he suf . not only for his diocese and the Congregation. said he. or whenever there appeared a wolf threatening the flock of Christ could not but be pain fully affected by the troubles which disquieted the Church during the pontificate of Clement XIV. then he said: &quot. Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus. in a brief dated the 22d of July. the Pope and the Church will be in a most disastrous situation. company.LIFE OF ST. and . as soon as he was aware of a par want of the faithful.&quot.&quot. &quot. by the many books he composed and published. the Grand-Vicar and other per sons of distinction wished to cast blame on the dispositions of the Sovereign Pontiff. and he continually offered up prayers to Heaven for the peace of the Sovereign Pontiff and of the much persecuted Church. and by the misfor tunes these troubles forbode to religion they caused him ticular . they aim at the company in order thereby to be more certain of striking at the Church and State. One day. he adored the judgment of God in silence for some time. and when so many crown ed heads united in demanding their suppression? As for us. ALPHONSUS. Christ let 369 all . No one can well imagine how he sorrowed over the storm which raged against the Jesuits on all sides he never spoke of it without the deepest sense of distress.&quot. what convulsions will plished there not be in the Church and State? If the Jesuits are once destroyed. &quot.It Jansenists and unbelieving.&quot.&quot. their &quot. what could he do in the difficult circum saintly bishop. Alphonsus. we have only to adore the secret judgment of God. fered interiorly. and He will do for His greater glory. When he received the brief of the Pope. The Jesuits are not the only aim of the Jansenists. but also for the Church in general. wishes they succeed in will be accom and if this bulwark falls. 1773. is nothing but intrigue on the part of the . &quot. : the greatest alarm.

Pray for the Pope .370 LIFE OF ST. &quot. told me that the Pope is overwhelmed with sadness. poor Pope. and espe cially on account of Venice. he says: &quot. Francis of Paul.&quot.Pray he wrote to F. into his arm-chair. so great is afflict his distress the trials which the Church. and at the door of his room.&quot. for there does not seem to be a shadow of peace for the Church. all that day and all the The servants. contrary to his custom. . having ended Mass. I have heard that he all wishes for death. he said in another letter. ! &quot. I do nothing but repeat Poor Pope. saying: I hear from various quarters that the Pope is in sorrow. the deplorable state of the Church and of its head filled the Bishop of St. . He remained in that state. did not know what was going to happen. However. all the that he intended to celebrate Mass. of the 23d of July. However. after morning of the 21st of September.Pray &quot. 1774. No one is ignorant of the constantly increasing troubles in which the Pope found himself after this suppression. threw himself. . seeing the state he was in. he was cast down and silent. how I feel for his afflictions!&quot. be at peace.&quot. that if but one single Jesuit be left in the world. &quot. he again wrote. I assert. Pray for the Pope God knows for the Pope. For my at part I never cease to do so. on the 27th N.. Let us pray to God to de liver him from this profound melancholy. &quot. Agatha with the deepest sorrow. but no one dared enter it. for the Pope. who has come from Rome. he alone would be enough to re-establish the company. On the On morning of the 22d. he made no movement of any kind. In another letter. following night.. ALPHONSUS. he had not changed his position. and remained up. he rang the bell to announce At this signal. who is tried on all sides I pray for him that God may come to his aid. that he is shut up and does no business. of June. and never articulated a word. On the 25th of August. when the the day became further advanced. and in fact he has cause to be so. to F.&quot.&quot. over and over again. Alphonsus. Paul. Villani. and no one knew what to think of it..&quot.The Pope suffers a great deal on account of the pretensions of the crowns. to F.

and rules are despised and treated as if they were not. : &quot. The secular clergy are in a still worse state. you plied Pope. There are few among to raise the the bishops who have all. the morning. at seven o clock in you ceased to give &quot. 371 people in the house hurried to him with eagerness.LIFE OF ST. Ere long. 1774. much for in order . well aware of the high reputation for sanctity possessed by Alphonsus. .&quot. Cardinal You ask for rny sentiments on the present affairs of the Church and on the election of a Alas! what sentiments can I worthily express to Pope. You have. Some people who were attached friends of the Saint. that who am it is but a poor bishop? necessary to pray. a true zeal for the salvation of souls. before the Con be clave began. they replied. and to pray All I can find to say is. the Saint asked what was the matter. and &quot. and knowing what a great veneration the sacred college of Cardinals had for the holy man. On see ing so many people.&quot. &quot. re any signs of that I have been with the know do not but he. moment when Alphonsus came to Cardinal Castelli. That is true. life. was his reply Most Rev. prudence and human wisdom are insufficient. observances are if not destroyed. : you. he had passed to a better life on the 22d September. the tidings of the death of Pope Clement XIV was received. &quot. Most. neither spoken nor eaten any thing for two days. ALPHONSUS. Church from the state of remissness and con fusion into which all classes have fallen. the very himself. were commissioned to make this request to him to overcome his humility. and that it should serve to deter mine the election of a Pope capable of remedying all the ills of the Church. who has just died. of the 23d of October. a long letter on all the abuses which ought to reformed in the various orders of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. and nothing less than the powerful arm of God will suffice. The Cardinal wished this memorial to be pre sented to the Conclave. determined to ask him to write.&quot. of the communities of religious are relaxed and in the confusion which surrounds us. so .&quot. The following letter. with an air of surprise.

If we ever have the misfortune to have a view. He will not assist him. which my age and &quot. future Pope. in order. an absolute necessity for a general reform laity. and things will Pope who has not God s glory in become worse remedy for and worse. fortunes. among fore all ecclesiastics. by convincing me that it is not I should also like the to wish to reform the world. wish to see the disorders which exist done away with. and may who may resist the be totally detached from all parties. to select only the best informed and College the most zealous among those who may be proposed to him. in refusing livings to those sufficiently provided for in all their state who are already . nary fervor for the election of a new Pontiff. afterwards. I often pray about this election during the day myself. but what can my poor prayers avail ? Nevertheless. I put all my trust in the merits of Jesus Christ and of the Blessed Virgin. I should also wish him to exer cise firmness. if the knowledge of what I am did not boldness from me. when he has to supply any vacancies in the of Cardinals. to give her one who through the spirit of God be filled with a great love and zeal for His glory.372 that there is LIFE OF ST. so as to be able to suggestions of human respect. This is the best advice I can give you. infirmities tell I also me cannot all be far distant. can demand to . to be able to reform the conduct and the manners of the There we must who pray to Jesus Christ to give His Church a head has something more than knowledge and human pru dence. and a thousand different ideas come mind on the subject which I should ardently wish municate take for all into to my com me to you. during mass. and that he should request all princes not to present any but men of well-known piety and learning as candi dates for a Cardinalship. before my death. ALPHONSUS. and I hope that God will comfort me by letting me see the Church relieved. Pro eligendo summo Pontijice. but I have also ordered all the secular and regular clergy of my dio cese to say the Collect. Prajer is the sole 1 such great mis For houses of my have not only enjoined all the Congregation to pray with more than ordi my part.

In fine. and above all. 373 repress luxury in all prelates. on all hands. for instance.LIFE OF ST. &quot. and to fix the number of their servants of all sorts. This would be a method of putting a stop to the slander and detraction of our enemies. which ad monishes them of their backslidings and causes them to return to a sense of their duty. and others. &c. as to any bishops who are careless as to the welfare of their so many other servants. so many horses. why . but those who have merited well on account of what they have done for the Church. It is on these chief pastors that the good of religion and the salvation of souls chiefly depend. In some cases it does not do to be afraid of putting these threats into execution . secret. &quot. on account of the number of evils which result from it. which are indispensable qualities in ruling over a diocese. to inform him. as that of permitting nunsto leave their enclosure to enter into the world without any real necessity for it? He ought not readily to consent to the secularization of religious. through the fear of public blame. I should like him to require all metropolitans. about those who are proposed as candidates for this high and im portant office in the Church. ALPHONSUS. for such cor rections not only purify the Church from the corruptions- which sully her. and that he should be certified as to the goodness of their character and their doctrine. I should also wish him to threaten with suspension. to the great advantage of their flocks. He ought to take ^ pains never to confer benefices on any. both negligent bishops and those who are non-resident. in I should wish him to be very strict in and that he should obtain information. so that they should only have so many valets-de-chambre. and by the excessive expense of their equipage r their festivities. he ought 32 to&amp. as well as those who scandalize the world by the luxury of their at tendants. &c. . choosing bishops. or the supervision of a Vicar-Apostolic. should not the future Pope be backward in granting favors of discipline which are injurious to the maintenance such. but they hinder other delinquent bishopsfrom falling.

and regretted having been obliged thus that to give pain Heaven It to the saintly old man. will not tire you by saying more. and Spirit. This was a sure means of pro a sensation of and ducing exciting suspicion. doctrine. they blamed . at that time. that it contained the lax sentiments ajttributed to the Jesuits. As they could find nothing to c6ndemn in his private life. &quot. ALPHONSUS.374 constrain all LIFE OF ST. The pro curator was rejoiced at this news. the enemies of the Congregation had spared its head. Some copies of the work were sent from Naples and reached the cus tom-house. was and . assure you that I am.I While the saintly bishop was thus occupied for the well- being of the Church at large. they turned their weapons against him too. for it seemed impossible for it to escape the taint of the errors of which its founder was accused. religious whatsoever.&quot. I can do nothing further than pray God to give us a Pastor full of His own And now I conclude with profound respect. and had only fought against its members but on seeing they could not injure the members while they respected the head. hell too did not slumber. and raised a cry that his work on Moral Theology was full of decisions of too indulgent a nature. and wished it to be examined with all possible strictness by a Conventual This learned religious assured him in the report. to the primitive observ their institute. caused this same Moral his Theology its to be approved by the king at the very time that adversaries expected to see it condemned. Father. at least. and above all. but was on the watch for opportuni ties of injuring its dreaded antagonist. that the doctrine was perfectly sound. But God. in all the most ance of the rules of important points. Thus the whole Congregation became an object of sus picion. Up to this time. for the administration of his diocese. who was prejudiced against it. where they were stopped by the king s procura tor-general. and that there was not any proposition which deserved censure. &c. frustrated the plots of the wicked. who kills and brings to life. and for the existence of his Congregation.

did not neglect anything in order to ob tain God s mercy. 375 turned them to the confusion of their authors and the glory of the servant of God.LIFE OF ST. as he was accustomed. they were continually mul tiplying petitions for hastening this day. the prayers of pious souls. He replied to them with a smile : What a figure I should cut before &quot. By his order Sacrament was exposed in all the houses. on the other hand. and as they flattered themselves with the expectation of victory. Maffey and Baron Sarnelli. the attacks of the accusation were immediately warded off the Blessed the psalm &quot. by their counsel. D. re especially F. As the Missionaries kept on the defensive. and order it. and go and present state! Would he not take me for a me out of his presence? My brothers. again begged Alphonsus to cast himself personally at the feet of the king. which they These. were impatient for the overthrow of the Congregation.&quot. and alms. and not the work of man. which was persecutors. garded as that of the Missionaries defeat. Villani. he had recourse again to the celebration of Masses. so that the projectors began to fear that all the plots which they had contrived would be useless. They therefore thought of a fresh contri vance. and that the truth would be manifest to the sight of the royal counsellors. unlocked for. and did all when they could. while they endeavored to to injure the move heaven and earth in order Missionaries. on his side. they managed so that the end of the debate . was recited in common in the church. in order to accelerate the coming of the day the debates occasioned by their accusations were to be held in the royal court. for the Congregation is a divine work. ALPHONSUS. let us place ourselves in God s hands and let us not trust in human means. The adversaries succeeded in fixing the opening of the de But bates in the royal court for the 24th of December. by means of a protector who supported them with the ministers. together with an Ave to the Blessed Virgin for the Another cause of trouble arose. and Qui habitat&quot. Besides the accustomed penances and mortifications. Alphonsus. who is incapable of supporting the king in my phantom.

in order to put my conscience to rest. he wrote arrangement this to F. (or rather the calumnies of the adversaries. who was to make himself acquainted with their contents. : &quot. he wrote &quot. on the 4th of December. D. but as he entertained some fears that God might be &quot. they could easily conjecture how unfavorable his report would be. and indeed he could scarcely bear the ancient ones. my conscience would become uneasy.&quot. As the Congregation was in imminent danger of being to write to Naples in destroyed. 1774. Majone. And from some words he had dropped.If conciliatory plan should ever be acted on. : In case I were vineyard to the Baron. have interpreted the wishes of the dead man. he replied never do such a thing let the Congrega.) should pass through the hands of the commissioner. for three years. who believed himself . The Missionaries had manifested a wish to come to an amicable arrangement with Sarnelli. Majone: I will as follows. and give a sum of money in compensation for the pious works his brother had intended to establish. sure of victory. I shall have to consult the learned and those versed in spiritual matters. and some mediators had labored to manage so that he should keep the vineyard left to the Congregation by his brother. Mat thias Corrado. Ferdinand de Leo.&quot. and to F.&quot. wanted to enter into possession of the pro to give an account of the perty without being obliged charitable intentions of his brother s will. should not take place before the royal council. ALPHONSUS. to displeased at it. and that the papers containing the complaints and wrongs. But there was no need of all th-is the Baron. F. in return for the up the indem equivalent to give for I should nity. &quot. . the kingdom. as well as new institutes.376 LIFE OF ST. The appoint ment of this commissioner took away from the Missionaries for he was an enemy to all new monasteries in all hope . but Alphonsus thought that he ought in conscience to oppose such an I must weigh these matters well. and to make his report of them to the royal court. Alphonsus was advised of a the order to gain lady who had great influ patronage ence with the procurator.

God provided them another pro tector. he could not help exclaiming with the Now dost Thou dismiss Thy servant. and the never permits them to be persecuted except to show forth His mercy and His glory more brightly. on seeing their wishes thus de feated. by a royal de Their adversaries. When Mgr. the bishop. who succeeded him in February of the following year. their departure took place in April. and Alphonsus. Lanza saw them again. tears of the just are never shed in vain. but the Fathers declined this However. of the Missionaries. in peace because mine eyes have seen Thy salvation And in fact. according to Thy words. and one as full of zeal and love for the Congrega same month of May. Lanza had wished them to stop at Aragone. on the 23d of this .&quot. inhabitants of Girgenti had never ceased to petition for the return of the Missionaries. !&quot. to go and enter into eternal rest. asleep in the tion. 32* . having. 1776.LIFE OF ST. this zealous and worthy prelate fell arms of the Missionaries. decided on the return and permitted them cree. several carriages and persons of dis came to meet them. through the medium of his brother. tinction . The Prince of Trabbia amongst king s favor. ALPHONSUS. put an end to their intrigues. to return to the island. The king gave a favorable hearing to these representations. Cardinal Branciforti. there to be met and received by a brilliant suite of carriages and a retinue of ecclesiastics and gentlemen. in concert with the bishops. 1775. though they had not an nounced the time of their arrival and they were received at the gates of Girgenti by the clergy and the citizens. 377 become the occasion for even The Lord. also com forted who Alphonsus in the midst of these trying circumstances. : Lord. as we have already seen. In order to render their entrance into Girgenti as glorious as possible. who enjoyed the did not forget to intercede for them with his majesty. &quot. who were perfectly delighted to see them. Mgr. However. tion be destroyed rather than the shadow of any sin. holy old Simeon honor. in his eminence. The others. three miles from the town.

F. he gave a second reprimand of mingled sweetness and severity. ALPHONSUS. and preventing sin in all classes of the Laity. and he looked upon drunkenness as the source of the most infamous vices: it was. fllphonsus zeal during his Episcopate in reforming his seenlar and regular Clergy in removing scandals in general.378 LIFE OF ST.the said that the drunkard is not a man.&quot. even when indulged in only in private. Pope himself had wished to interpose in his favor. his tired into reached the termination of Alphonsus when he resigned it is the bishopric and re not right that we should follow him into his retreat. CHAPTER XXVII. as otherwise we should omit many particulars and many of his maxims and but a one can even expect more from the brute than from the drunkard. drunkenness and incontinence. He brute that saying. wallows vice. : . If after this he found that the person was incorrigible. was the voluntary and obstinate slave of passion. which will manifest more especially his virtues and his zeal during his government. they would have met with a refusal.. without giving more in detail an account of his conduct in the administration of his dio Congregation. He had in the mire. and in such a case if the king and sacred ministry &amp. Caputo thus describes the holy bishop s conduct in his endeavors to make his clergy edifying and worthy of the His lordship s first reproof was full of sweetness and humility if he saw no amendment. [TAVING now JZL episcopate. were those he abhorred &quot. He had an equal abomination for the vice of impurity. in his eyes. cese. chas tisement soon followed. How God assists him in his efforts. Amongst all the sins. and was in the habit that he saw no difference between a sow which of the most. He . and a man who is addicted to this a false step compassionated him who had made him who with not he could but put up through weakness. a complete dis honor to a minister of the Church. .

He had also recourse to the aid of the secular power. One day.LIFE OF ST. in trying to deliver men from these passions. &quot. he sent for him to speak to him. although he was in the prime of life. ALPHONSUS. On seeing this. he had him weak men he had warned tisement. When he had in vain exhausted mild measures. the wretched man was seized with terror and wanted to draw back. his ordinary remedies were exile and suspension exile.&quot. the first time.) and no personal considerations were ever able to move him. (as we have seen him do in his visitations. and set before then gave free vent to the ardor of his him the enormity of his sin.&quot.No. but took care to place a large crucifix on the floor at the entrance of his room. giving afterwards full satisfaction to his bishop. there was no further chance of rest him unless he gave clear proofs of amendment. severity in regard to the refractory was so well known. to avenge the dignity of the sacred ministry. that it soon was a commonly received opinion in the diocese. that if one had begun to be an object of the bishop s for watchful observation. his principal mode exercises. in order to break through the at tachment. he did not make any compromise. One of in a paternal manner. but when he saw that he fell back into vice again. or shake his firmness. He was carried off by sudden death some time afterwards. The guilty man into tears. but used the strongest methods for destroying the evil. will reach him. he burst and promised to amend and really did so.Let him . was full of confusion and repentance. said Alphonsus. Agatha even after this chas miserable man did not amend: &quot. His . 379 always salutary remedies at hand for the first. of causing them to think seriously was the spiritual But when he saw that the vice had taken root.enter and trample it underfoot. God assisted also these him by exemplary chastisements. and did not recur to very severe measures with them. shut up in the prison of St. not knowing what more to do in order to cure one of these miserable men.&quot.&quot. and suspension. . it would not be perhaps &quot. the alone. . God s justice he said then to the episcopal vicar. &quot. He zeal. when there was need.

and sent them the pardon. Another. His in sin. inflexibility towards those v they re changed He had even an admirable degree of charity for pented. ALPHONSUS. The speak to him. he received them to his arms with all the tep- into mercy.&quot. who were suspended. Alphonsus became affected : . Two others. with the power of celebrating. he assigned an adequate indemni for him fication for their fees out of his own revenue. The same course was pursued towards a great many others. in bed. who lived in a scandalous way. but the gen tleman fell on his knees at the foot of his bed and said I do not know the Vicar. whom he had suspended and banished out of the diocese. on seeing him. and kept for a fortnight in his palace. as my father. a great noise in the ante-chamber. hastened he made sus.380 LIFE OF ST. At these words. he never lost sight of the spirit of charity. but at the same moment he entered after the secretary. one whose conduct scandalized the people. see his name figure in the courts of jus to the palace. was kept for a long while in the house of Ciorani. after which he sent him to the house of St. Alphonsus. at his own expense. Liguori : &quot. proceedings One. also. Angelo. told him to go to the Grand-Vicar. be longing to a noble and distinguished family. till after a lapse of time. so that Alphon who was making his meditation. who remained when he saw that obstinate derness of a father. and supported at his cost. but he did not deign to give any satisfaction. but I acknowledge Mgr. culprit not being willing tice. had been sent for three times. to others. In his dealings towards those whom he had suspended or banished. those whom he had reproved and who gave proof of real amendment. but being refused admittance. and gave orders that he if should not be shown in to he should come to but should be sent to the Grand-Vicar. Alphonsus told his Grand-Vicar to prepare the cause. received from him two carlins a day for their maintenance. and put an end to all begun against them in the ecclesiastical court. he thought them in a right state of mind. sent for his secretary in order to have silence kept. es He once sent pecially when sin was united to poverty.

given. sent for the papers connected with his suit.My son. The Do &quot. he said. but if they are imperfect and . &quot. so that no distance could shelter any one. on hearing once that he was seriously ill and in danger of death. the culprits finding themselves reproved without being able to discover how Alphonsus had been informed as to their conduct.&quot. ST. He took the greatest care to be informed of the conduct of each and all. exclaimed: is either an angel or a devil who betrays us.&quot. sent for you and you did not the hands of justice . 381 son. he succeeded in doing away with a great number of scandals in his diocese. I leave you to chose your penance choose the house of St. and you acknowledge your fault. began &quot. He has forgiven me. On one occasion. Agatha cannot see what regularity his zeal has succeeded in will lose establishing amongst so many who formerly lived in a state of the most deplorable licentiousness?&quot. faults. and remained there for a month. confess the truth to me. and only place of retirement.&quot. Liguori dies. and Since whatever you please with me. ALPHONSUS. and was afterwards a source of edification to all.LIFE OF &quot. and he insensibly worked a reason able reform among the clergy. and the slightest fault was a considerable sin in his eyes. : culprit after confessing his &quot.&quot.I &quot. Angelo.&quot. Who a great deal if Mgr. Angelo for my yourself. and tells him everything.&quot. on seeing that his repent ance was sincere.St. By this indefatigable zeal and by the assistance of divine grace. sobbing. and said to him while tearing them: &quot.My .&quot. But if impurity and drunkenness were the two vices which he was the most zealous in extirpating. he answered.&quot. re plied to those who announced these sad tidings to him &quot. he was equally an enemy to every other kind of irregularity. said to shed tears. said then Alphonsus. then only will Alphonsus. may God do the same in heaven. when God tells me that T depart from it. He went to St.It : &quot. A gentleman.I come I was obliged to place you in you know what scandals you have was ashamed.Edifying religious are a conso lation to bishops and priests. As to the regular clergy. &quot. Alphonsus said: &quot.

&quot. but in vain. not heeding the paternal admonitions he had given him. therefore. the year 1769. irregular. &quot. was advised to This religious en leave the diocese of his own accord. it is with them as it is with fruits all &quot.&quot. besides private admonitions and reprimands. but Alphonsus persisted. it is necessary to throw the bad away. they are a burthen to their bishops and a misfor tune to the people. he had recourse to . so much older. Therefore when he met with such. he shall not enter my diocese.v wolves to ravage your own with impunity?&quot.Even supposing all the re but he could not succeed. who endeavored to defend him. said he. ALPHONSUS. and the religious had to be transferred elsewhere without loss of time.382 LIFE OF ST. Alphonsus urged his superior to send him to another monastery. As just con siderations prevented riis then authoritatively exacting what : he had asked. &quot. And he was not satisfied until this religious was out of his diocese. the Duke of Maddalon came in person to solicit the return of this religious. Another. Other great personages also interceded for In him.&quot. has not acted in this way for a sufficiently long time. he did he could to amend them : bad spoil the good by contact with them. he determined &quot. On one occasion. insisted on their being sent away from his diocese. who was a dishonor to his Order. had recourse to their superiors and provincials. a religious frequenting a family of high rank too assiduously. he added. When the immediate superiors and the provincials would not assist him in thus purging the monasteries from reli gious who were a dishonour to them. saying to him How can you feed the flocks of others. at least to deprive the su perior of the faculties to hear confessions. he said. and then he is now &quot. when he was at Naples. and showed so much firmness that the superiors had to make up their minds to yield. and he had to go away. and in order to avoid the loss of all. As long as I am bishop. He. he ports of his amendment were well founded. if you allo. For if they are not cured. and if speedy amendment did not follow.&quot. &quot. joyed the favor of his superior-general.their malady will be communicated to those which are others.&quot.

ALPHONSUS. they form but a part of my flock. in being able to honor by his kindness those re ligious who proved worthy of their vocation.I &quot. &quot. as he was resolute in punishing those who were dissolute and un worthy. subjects I il and often hastened &quot. he added. that during his lordship s time. Caputo.&quot. and in procuring the good of the He held sin faithful. for and chose them synodal examiners. in the year 1768 alone. he applied at Rome to the gene ral of the Order to which the culprit belonged. &quot. of their own accord. priest was a bishop in putting a stop to offences against God. the monasteries of the diocese were as so many gar dens. and in order not to do any thing to the prejudice of regulars. he secured to himself the assistance of the magistrates out.&quot. he took as much pleasure. Alphonsus waged an equally severe warfare against the whose irregularities were an injury to religion and am not merely the shepherd of priests and morality. The flock . knew him too well.&quot. this subject. The superiors according to the testimony of F. But on the other hand. he expelled as many as fifty-two religious. to send away certain who were displeasing to him. It was to them send that he confided the care of the convents: he liked to them preach during Lent in different places. confided to bishops includes all classes God has committed all these souls to us. can truly say.&quot. &quot. besides. on that there never in the world who employed himself in such abomination that he was implacable in hunting it from its most hidden entrenchments. said his Grand&quot. and when he met with negligence even in the generals. Vicar Rubini. To this end. and we must render him an account of them. said he. with more ardor than Mgr.&quot.LIFE OF ST. said a religious. many instances in which he had recourse to both of these methods are on record. He entrusted them with important employments. when he especially labored to purify the monasteries. 383 more rigorous measures. where all breathed forth the sweet odors of innocence and virtue.We may be assured. even .&quot.&quot. Liguori. and often consulted them and rewarded their merit. of the Order. to laity. Thus. he implored the intervention of the king.

remember how many brought mildness and charity. whether peasant. it has not been through passion. you misfortune on yourself. he wrote to the president of the council and superintendent of the house. particularly shines forth.384 LIFE OF ST. he had recourse to the interposition of the friends of the of those who had influence over him but guilty one. with tears seek after the glory of &quot. several times.&quot.yes. that he caused chastisements to be inflicted . But before coming to these extremities. villages. My son. to have them they were banished from the diocese. he had recourse to the king. &quot. but on . soon as he was convinced of the inutility of such cor Of all this we rection. or . &quot. ALPHONSUS. and loaded him with a thousand in . or some other divine favor bestowed on him. said Alphonsus to him.&quot. he spent a good part of his revenues in making presents to persons who could inform him of existing scandals. but you with I times reproved you were deaf to my voice if I have had recourse to a more &quot. or sent away from the places in which they lived. he made it a rule to try all the methods he could adopt as a father. to recommending them. for you are you can do more than the king. ful. he adopted rigorous measures. said to You can do what cannot he them. reprimanded and threatened him. He dismissed the doctor from his employment. could relate instances by thousands. ness of families. as such facts were of as almost daily occurrence in the life of our zealous bishop. in which. if need offender. vectives. on the spot you can remedy every thing. Agatha had improper relations with the mistress of the hospital he did all he could to convert him. this : powerful arm. and if this did not stop the evil or scandal. one or another of the virtues of the saint. who thereupon came to the bishop in a fury. on the guilty imprisoned. and. . and he possessed so persons much influence with the lords of the places. and syndics of the in his e. for the He sent. We shall however confine ourselves to a few. but on finding that his remonstrances were useless. He was informed that a physician at St.&quot. God and I the happi do. If that were not enough. Besides. or gentleman.

&quot. him. and Alphonsus warned him The officer was tired of these troublesome &quot. him anger. transported with him in his excesses. who caused ball the woman banished. and compelled the officer to to submit to the shame of coming the feet of the bishop. I do my abuse to said he me. but not finding sin. and constantly repeated in vexation. intercourse at several times. he answered &quot. officer. duty: I did not accept the episcopate in order to be damned. perfectly calm before if you like.Ill-treat his aggressor. and declared answered by phonsus only to him that he would inform the king of it at these words A . what reprimands.&quot. excesses.&quot. Alfor not letting him alone. reproached still stronger threats. menaces. promise amendment at Being informed that a woman of Arienzo lived in and apart from her husband. Would to God that I might have the honor to die a martyr! My dear child. carried on an adulterous Agatha. I pity you! return from your evil ways. and went so the saint s life. but know that I will never leave you at peace Alphonsus in your sin. where they found &quot.LIFE OF ST. but. me. ALPHOiNSUS. made The alarm which he spread caused to a great fury. my allowing you to go on whose conduct was ex gentleman of high standing. I am am determined that he shall put an end As the scandal continued the same as the chevalier Negroni of it. He even used does this withered old man want?&quot. loaded his bishop a gesture as if he meant to draw all the people of the house run into the room.&quot. the gentleman got with invectives. A stranger. if he wishes to send a but I ready to to his ever. and. that fear was entertained for They informed him of this and of the violent character of the officer. he immediately sent secretary to the governor s house. 38 account of the scruples which in sin caused me. far. informed to be through my head. his lordship thwarted that tremely scandalous. who was an St. on seeing to went him. fortified with the I have no cause to heart of an apostle. : fear him.&quot. he die. hi i him P 33 . and his up in sword.

we should leave every thing to put a stop to He sent at this &quot. and had not had time to go to his house again. same evening four soldiers drove away in the infamous woman. After the visit. in bed : have bad news. that it might be forcibly removed. or to extricate some unhappy crea ture from sin and misery. and begging him to send to Arienzo im On the mediately. and even to the higher officers. Alphonsus the secretary did him again. against God is in question.&quot. he said to him. not take the trouble of going back to lapse of a short time. one. he immediately wrote a letter. &quot. &quot. ALPHONSUS. Another day. and did not that the become tranquil again until he knew &quot. the result of which and that was. replied Al secretary and made no had tidings but they were mistaken. turers of this sort never come shall have more than one. . a most suspicious stranger has come to We &quot. it.&quot. but there was no sacrifice he was not ready to make in order to hinder an offence against God. Francis.&quot. establish herself at Arieiizo.&quot. He expended a good deal of money similar cases . he had to pay large sums to the inferior people whom he employed. Alphonsus was exceedingly pained did not forget to inquire into the result of the O Felix.we &quot. adven The one. the grand-vicar came to him just as he was taking his repast. that the regiment s quarters were changed. who had derived benefit from the again. laughing.386 LIFE OF ST.&quot. phonsus. Only singly. Having heard that several soldiers in his diocese gave themselves up to shameful ex cesses. the commanding officer received the strictest orders to take care that none of the men came near that place An inhabitant.&quot. and sent for Br. secretary not been able to see the magistrate. he said to him. The to wanted excuse and said that he had himself. woman was in prison. . with deep negligence: when an offence sorrow. to dictate to him a most energetic letter to the Count of Cereto informing him of the scandal. him back to the governor s with all speed. He great impression on him had scarcely finished his meal before he dismissed every the grand-vicar fancied that these .

in order not to incur the danger of a return of the military to the place through the complaints and intrigues of interested indemnifying the parties. he would insure her an allowance of fifteen carlins a month. he was touched with compassion. besides many alms in furniture.&quot. and Alphonsus ended by himself himself.I to be a reason I is very poor. and the unhappy creature at last opened her eyes and wept over her past misconduct. &c. whereupon he assigned to her. went to complain of their going away and to expose his distress to Alphonsus. wrote the following letter to the priest of the place: &quot. ALPHONSUS.. for this intend to send her to Naples to seek her daughter. clothes. Alphonsus. Alphonsus hastened to recommend her of several priests. it The syndic replied out of it in the and the others got upon same way. a daily allowance of money.As this woman has come back here again. This moved him to tears. but I must first she conducts herself properly be convinced as to her persevering. who had ruined both her body and soul by her debaucheries. man who had recourse to him. Another. returning to the diocese after being converted. and he wrote to one of those have sent for the mother. in order that by ad ding to these gifts the fruits of their own labors.LIFE OF ST. although she I monthly allowance. and sent for one of the syndics of the parish. if she persevered. but I hear that the girl is in the greatest desti- . he let her know that. On month hearing that a poor widow had caused the ruin of her two she was con daughters. as well as to . six carlins every let her know from me if that I will give her . 387 troops being quartered there. hearing that a prostitute after a banishment of eleven years had come back. he gave her a severe reprimand verted however. applied to the house of the Incura Naples. and begged him to give the peti tioner something in that he could not take compensation. A wicked girl. when she was reduced to the last extremity. each of her children. she appears to me priests: bles at to the notice &quot. have promised to assist her and to give her a good woman. they might have enough to live on honestly.

and a pair of led to yield one mortal despair. cost too much. Will you have the charity to provide for this at my expense. he replied. he spread them throughout The all parts of his diocese without any distinction. a pair of white stockings. When informed that he was often deceived matters little if I am deceived. LIFE OF ST. and another for the a serge petticoat. true minister of the Lord throughout all these details ? not know your Archdeacon Rainone attested that he spent considerable sums of money. if I did Who does not admire the great charity. an underdress of canvass.&quot.It &quot. and besides.388 tution . and caused them to receive a stipend every month through his hands. &quot. used to answer. Agatha and Arienzo alone. they may perhaps. she must then be clothed from head to foot. : ought &quot.&quot. Nor were these gifts confined to the towns of St. in thus aiding a great number whose indigence had led them to crime. provided I thwart the plans of the devil it is no little gain if one can prevent an offence against God. and whom he furnished with they . if they commit but Such less. curate of the parish of St. procure for her two new chemises. Anthony affirmed that Alphonsus assisted a very great number in that place.That verance was doubtful. ALPHONSUS. from the time he came to the diocese. if I is not certain.&quot. They may be met with at the old-clothes . persons he recommended to the missionaries whom he sent all through the diocese.but to withdraw the allowance from some whose perse &quot. is it not a great thing for God s glory?&quot. he by his goodness. but I do not wish them all to be quite new. to sin abandon them. a mantle. a kerchief for the head. the thing would have to be done over again next day. and besides it often happens that several abstain from their disorders for Archdeacon Rainone also one day told him he good. I should not take the liberty to burthen you with all these commissions. but with as little outlay as possible ? First. were it but for a quarter of an hour.&quot. shops. where such things may be found in good condition if one were to take really old goods. other priests and curates affirmed the same of their respec tive places. because that would neck.

so. attaching at the same time the greatest importance to its being to her seducer. A priest was speaking him of the good dispositions which two of I am these women manifested. Certain missionaries. he had recourse to the charity &quot. ALPHONSUS. I will not fail to assist them. He was often obliged to to for go expense wardrobe. he said. he immediately endeavored to get her married. &quot. met with a married woman who lived in a state of concubinage. and this was always the greatest consolation to his heart. could require 389 for such purposes. were I obliged to go without my food to do Alphonsus put one day to &quot. Raphael. came to see him to settle marriages of this sort in one place alone. he did so cheerfully. at Naples. It is true. the finishing stroke to his zeal by causing a great number of these penitents to enter into the married state. . he often did not hesitate to contri bute from thirty to forty ducats for their portion. but this he especially tried to do in good time as soon as he . but of two He succeeded also in in placing a good number of such the convents. forced unions of which I cannot approve evils. giving in the year 1765 the mission in the diocese of Bojano. in affluent circumstances. in order to establish them. he willingly procured the necessary dispenses at his own expense. while the diocese.&quot.LIFE OF ST. of those houses of relief. and. One in on a mission about six day. when he replied to him and if they ready to give my blood and my life for them act with sincerity. : . She told them in confession that she belonged to Trasso 33* the superior of the asylum of St. Be sides dispensing in such cases with all his fees. and at Nola. on the condition that he would furnish the applicant with her and this purpose . and when it happened at times that his own means were not enough for the charity of his heart.&quot. not penitents withstanding the great difficulties he often had to surmount in so doing. one must choose the least. a Father of his congregation. and to the These unions were generally happy ones. at Naples. once agreed to such a request. heard of any young person s deviating from the right path. that there are certain kinds of .&quot.

in order to take away from them all temptation to envy or to sin. When this occurred. had recourse to and the for sent who managed parents immediately Bishop. When young people had given their marriage scandal by a was preceded by intercourse. ALPHONSUS.390 LIFE OF ST. in order that he might learn a trade. assigned her an unusual pension of thirty-six had the little child brought up at St. Besides all this. we shall confine ourselves to saying that he. The missionaries lost no time in informing Alphonsus of all this. Agatha. entering into a detailed account of the assistance he ren dered them. he sent for the parents. often to happened therefore that young people but were unjustly prevented from the saintly their so doing by parents. and added that the was by her lawful husband. succeeded in placing her in the refuge of St. public penance at the illicit . maintained him at Naples at his own expense. Liguori s diocese. in Mgr. After this woman had been thus supported for five years. That which gave him the greatest alarm ducats. when any engagement of marriage took place between young people whose parents refused to consent to it. in order to ascertain whether the grounds of their opposition were reasonable. and when old enough. hundreds of poor girls owed the Without preservation of their honor to his alms-deeds. filled with very great joy at seeing the sincere repentance of this woman and her wish to enter a convent. so well that he obtained public their consent. and the saintly old man. either to break off engagements entered into rashly. and Alphonsus did not fail to assist her to the end with his accustomed generosity. or to overcome the opposition of parents by showing that delay on their part must inevitably lead It to sin. where he supplied her with what necessaries she required. who wished settle. went so far as even to procure innocent adornments for them. her husband died. and she had the opportunity of making an honorable second marriage. at Naples. and besides many child she had with her which was other gifts. he united with the priests in doing all that was possible. Clare. He was.

He dreaded the disorders too common in large assem blages. who were dressed up as men.and this is the . one day s delay. even those which had religion as their end. &quot. he immediately wrote to the Prince della Riccia. to manifest his great displeasure to &quot. I had the sorrow of hearing that they are and that they mean to perform in your excel I must entreat you to send your orders to lency s palace. way. example you give to the young! I do not know how you will be able to think of it at the hour of death. The players quitted the town.This is the he said. and they were obliged to submit to act with the retrenchments he made in it.but yesterday at Airola. and they were obliged to set out at once.&quot. in order to act a play They begged which they said was very good indeed. He did not fail : one of the gentlemen he to said him. on fetes where there was too great a con course of people.&quot. cese. in order that they might be sent away. in the lime of Carnival.&quot. Nothing more was necessary to cause them to be banished from the diocese. and he was therefore in the habit of suspending the confessors for reserved cases. stifle evil in its door of the church. and prevent its being thought that you consent to this. He and succeeded in getting an order for their withdrawal. the representation of a play about which the gentlemen of Airola had arranged. One day. accompanied by two young female rope dancers.You are men of some mountebanks arrived at Arienzo. &quot. He at once entreated for the aid of the Duke of Maddalon s arm against them. &quot. Agatha. he ap plied both to the Governor and to the agent of the Duke. saying they were going to Naples. intending to remain there. As soon as Alphonsus was informed of it. A troop of actors came to St.LIFE OF ST. and then from loading them with new &quot. he asked that he might at least be allowed to read it it. but there was no reprieve for them.&quot. Airola. 391 always most carefully tried to beginning. for Not being able to prevent. &quot. but they I thought that they had left my dio stopped at Airola. pre vent people from coming to unburthen their consciences without any fruit. ALPHONSUS.

and did not dismiss them until he felt sure that his remonstrance had been effectual. but the doctors opposed this. ALPHONSUS. on the contrary. at Airola. the people were in the habit of going out of the town. he immediately hastened to see the unhappy man. At Arienzo. stop to these evils.392 LIFE OF ST. he heard that two young father towards him. variance with each other. tice. One day. this concourse of people of both sexes gave In order to put a opportunity for all sorts of disorders. he succeeded in obtaining from him the pardon of his murderer. gentlemen had challenged each other to fight a duel he instantly sent for both. Another day. He also looked on himself as the wounded in a he heard that a young man had been mortally combat. with the arguments from reason. Out of many facts on record. . on Christmas night. and he afterwards issued the same prohibition in regard to all the other churches. and having appeased his re sentment. peace-maker of his to reconcile spirits at and took all possible pains people. and represented to them the conse quences of their guilty project. and to put a stop to discord and prevent its spread in families. let us relate the two following. and the civil law of different coun this detest tries. and manifested all the feeling of a tender and assured him that he would assist both himself and his family. and get him to be severe in punishing the ferocious prac He had embodied therein all the various dispositions both of the canon law. and he . and much more so among the clergy. There was no devotion in this. when on his pastoral visitation. against His zeal was not unfruitful. to assist at the offices in the church of the Capuchin Fathers. on account of the ob vious danger there was that it might kill him. This barbarous custom of duelling caused Alphonsus addressed a memorial to the king to try great grief. for his petition able custom. Alphonsus wished to be present in per son. sins through the contempt they show for the sacraments.&quot. with the inhabitants of the adjoining villages. He then forbade the church to be opened before six o clock in the morning.

Alphonsus. but he always had refused to come. Alphonsus sent him to confession the next morn and wished him. in condemned he to The crier was so terrified that left off his guilty habit. He was overcome by this excessive goodness. One day he commissioned his servant Alexis to bring him in the palace. and persisted in his impenitence. those of it to be quired punished at the public square guilty with a bit in their mouths. he reproved him kindly. 393 obtained the promulgation of a very severe law against duelling. cross on neck. he enjoined magistrates to punish them by at least imprisoning He had sent several times for a public crier. then threatened to have him arrested and the galleys. from that day forward. unable to put up with him any longer. he . become rect in order to warn and cor a horrible blasphemer him paternally. but you that I am anxious about I hear that there is not a saint whom you do not blaspheme he :&quot. had the them. sentiments of penitence and resignation. which re that of blasphemy. in order to repair the scandal he had ing. who.It . Alphonsus said: is not &quot. ALPHONSUS. humbled himself and was con verted. As the man did not ven ture to appear before him.LIFE OF ST. before at the . had been abolished. from having been once a novice with the Capuchins. with a heavy his shoulders and a large stone hung round his He submitted to every thing. ever. Among the vices which Alphonsus combated the most vigorously was As the law. the price of corn. and his return to God remain. Alphonsus inquired as to the time when he would pass through the street. being admitted to holy com church door for three Sundays. to munion. He died shortly after. he then went to the window and called him by his name then putting his hand on his head. and repre sented to him the impiety of his words. Another blasphemer. given. and sent for him to the palace. had been excommuni cated for several years. at Forchia. but when he saw him. on the pretext of inquiring about the price of corn. applied to the Prince of Riccia to have his trial got ready. how once more tried to win him by paternal counsels.

to think seriously.&quot. was so sincere. that he lived as a good Christian from that time. had ordered the priests to refuse the sacraments to public scandal or neglected their duties. and was worse than before after this a monition had been . her duties with He those all freedom. I names know that your excellency is full of zeal for the salvation of your vassals. and worse than this. was put in prison. was not stopped by any earthly considera tions even the first gentlemen had to submit to see their . however noble they might be. by the ecclesiastical court. on a false pretence of insanity. failed ut this who was terly. Thus he wrote once to the Prince della Riccia. He his to spend many a dreary day in prison.394 LIFE OF ST. and became a member of the Society of the Rosary. Alphonsusgot the Prince della Riccia to cause sen tence to be pronounced against him as an incorrigible. saying: &quot. had already been imprisoned blasphemies. has not fulfilled the Paschal precept. he has prevented his sister from frequenting the sacraments. and he set them the example himself. but he had begun them again. issued against him. he approached the sacraments every eight days. and if the Church s were not strong enough to compel them to do their power duty.For some years N. affixed to the church door. who was not satisfied with insulting the Saints. punishing those who did not fulfil the Paschal precept. Another. he implored the intervention of the temporal lords. and his sister was thus enabled to fulfil . And in order to lessen the difficulties in the way of the punishment of the in prison at his own ex he him offered to culprit. keep His request was granted the pretended maniac pense. without success. ALPHONSUS. a notorious adulterer. and purse suffered as well as his person. who gave All his charitable efforts to cause a gentleman. but went to the length of reviling God himself and of for his blaspheming against heaven. and yet person presented himself to receive the . and therefore I am sure that you will give orders to have this scandal remedied. through the fines to in had therefore he was obliged His severity pay to justice.

was always known to his lord Many times. first sight seem ex which was nothing more than the necessary consequence of his ardor for the glory of God and his dread of the awful account he felt he must one day render to him.There are as many in mine. and by particular lights from on was a marvellous thing.that high. : .LIFE OF ST. viz by striking punishments on the incorrigible. said &quot. which happened at his palace at Arienzo. the coachman and the cook tried to perpetrate an abominable act. As soon as it was day. yet the day had scarcely dawned ere we were warned of it at the bishop s house. one day. negligence This zeal of our Saint was so pleasing to God thai He assisted him in a particular manner by the blessings with !&quot. and hid herself.There are forty thou Saint s admirable zeal. said a priest. &quot.&quot. what we were ignorant of. : which He inflicted &quot. favored his efforts. but Alphonsus replied. who was administering the Holy Communion to the people. Albertini asked him. or in a distant village. Unhappy man change your mode of At these words he passed on and left him full of confusion. took to flight.&quot. country. This thought of the responsibility of a bishop made him Mgr. and exhorted them to confession. they were suddenly seized with fear. how really tremble. &quot. ALPHONSUS. One night.What! do you not We do not give pearls to blush to approach the altar? swine here.It .&quot. We will give an example. many souls he had in his diocese. which might at cessive.&quot. iniquity was committed at night in the ship. Mgr. we have each of us a burden of forty thousand hundred-weight on our shoul woe to us if one of these souls be lost through our ders sand. 395 Holy Communion on Holy Thursday: Alphonsus. stopped short before him. upon which Alphonsus bent his head several times. and said to him: &quot. who was as terrified as they were. &quot. and their accomplice. Albertini.&quot. and added My Lord. but at the instant when they were going to commit the crime. Alphonsus sent for his two servants. reproached them with their fault.&quot. These are some of the many striking instances of our ! life.

&quot. where she died.Read But this. she came near to the town every night to abandon herself to her criminal courses. in order to escape from a prison. You . for his evil courses.Miserable wretch that you are. but the companion of her debaucheries. you will not give over your crimes. Alphonsus caused her body to be carried. he went and bitterly reproached him for the Alphonsus took up and presented it to will be and satisfied. was at last released and sent by the Prince della instead of Riccia to humble himself before Alphonsus. and pursued her. as lighted torches. A notary distressed him by his misconduct.May Jesus Christ have mercy on you. this. &quot. but God will know how to put an end them. persecutions he had made him his book on the &quot. Alphonsus made no and grief at so reply. ening you. an example to those of a similar description. Way of Salvation. fled from the town. you him. but always in on seeing how incorrigible she was. Nevertheless. a At Arienzo.396 LIFE OF ST. having also been threat ened with imprisonment. between three to the trench into which it was thrown. her. and soon afterwards was shot. But. her: to &quot. And so it was. who was unhap an adept in several women her trade. and in a most tragic manner.&quot. saying: the priest went on Ip the same tone. who. he once said to vain . This prediction was not long in being verified for the unhappy creature. and was obliged to wander about on the neighboring mountains in the depth of winter. and was several times forced to sleep in the woods. dismissed him and said: &quot. casting stones at In her flight she fell in a deep ditch. ALPHONSUS. A cleric. will die in a state of damnation. and always without success. but divine justice is threat suffer.&quot. had been imprisoned for several years. pily woman of bad character. taught it even to others and had in her service. receiving strangers at her Alphonsus had several dwelling. one evening determined to have nothing to do with her. he returned to his evil ways.&quot. but looking at him with compassion deplorable a state of mind. and thus perished. after he had reprimanded him several times. . particularly soldiers. times brought her before the courts of justice.

Penance INcited. effects with bitterness. among many facts. they loaded their good bishop with injuries. said he. we have seen above in similar occurrences. XXVIII. and was condemned to lose his head on the While he was waiting in scaffold.This death was foretold me. and putting his hand on his shoulder. This reflection caused him to enter into himself with serious is also kind . CHAPTER His admirable Humility. : worse. Liguori. by Mgr. &quot.My son. where threats even We are going to relate. in my youth. against his life had been uttered. His Spirit of Poverty. and. some in which shone forth an incom parable patience and meekness. the chapel for the movement to the place of execution. united with such charity that often he loaded those who offended him with benefits. in the January of 1800.&quot. and nearly laid hands on him. we must do them good.&quot. bring you to a deplorable end.&quot. This unhappy man went from bad to &quot. invoking the saint in heaven. and Moi tijication. he died full of penitence. and at length he was involved in the conspiracy of the Jacobins.&quot.LIFE OF ST. How undaunted his courage was. priest who had an office in the diocese. pened spite of the those who were and resented its admiration which his zeal generally ex its objects were usually offended. &quot. if we are really anxious to win over those who do us harm to Jesus Christ. and had the impudence to go to 34 . and it often hap that in the effervescence of their Italian character. 397 he said to him one day: the life you lead will &quot. fancied him self offended on account of the manner in which Alphon- A sus treated his brother. and great Meekness. ALPHONSUS. he repeated. JUphonsus? patience in bearing injuries. almost weeping Yes! you will die a tragic death.&quot. having been hardened till then.When charity is patient. he said weeping to a monk: &quot.

this his return to the palace. However. and sent whom . to weep over your sins.398 LIFE OF ST. prevented his being ad This whereupon he uttered a volley of abuse. Alphonsus bore it all in silence. ALPHONSUS. for the grand-vicar. and de manded that the man should be immediately set at liberty: in the evening.&quot. On wanted Alphonsus the idea. he set at liberty that very day. &quot. asked for his pardon he excused the gentleman. Alphonsus heard of it the next day. he sent dissatisfaction to him. he made loud complaints about it. seeing a mitted. he exclaimed if it is : What position. and reached the ears of the go vernor. The grand-vicar asked a canon. 3 the office of bishop. to When put the offender in prison. for the who hastened it to Alphonsus heard of governor. and manifested and as the latter represented to &quot. Agatha to fill Alphonsus answered with a smile. him and heap insults upon him. having heard that the governor had not yet done so. he was greatly distressed. . but he than to come to St. the grand-vicar impudent man to be punished as an example. he that you are unfit to fulfil your duties ? How much better it would have been if you had remained at Ciorani &quot. the grand-vicar was indignant at informed the governor of it. arid asked to see the bishop. and nor did he rest until he had got him driving out. The servants .Do you not see. and the daring offender was imprisoned that same evening. who was full of anger for the cor and who loaded him with rection he had received from him abuse and bad language. his post. man in a great passion. that this in it. One day. He on my ac people was not pacified until he had tidings of the to be put in prison release of the offender. met a villager of bad character. when Alphonsus was . and positively forbade any thing of the kind to be attempted. said. his him the dignity of his position. necessary for count!&quot. man should be deprived of was kept arid afterwards was made Alphonsus labored to put an end to the scandalous con duct of a certain gentleman the latter came to the palace full of rage. scene became talked of.

he begged him to diminish the amount of the pension for a young man with whom he was greatly satisfied.&quot. and I am wrong. that he went on. A layman boldly entered his palace one day. to be just. and abused him most violently he bore it all without saying any thing. and that he could scarcely even per ceive a faint flush which tinged his face. the things. of this scene stated that Alphonsus seemed like a marble statue all the time. and on seeing him so cheerful. Alphonsus gave him a tacit refusal. and without in the least losing his serenity.&quot. priest who was convicted of falsehood and serious deception towards his bishop. and he added. of which he was totally unworthy. much. amongst many other disrespectful From the fear of making him still more angry. Is it you they call is ! a saint!&quot. assisted at the repetitions. calm he then made him sit down near yourself I entreat you longer. he went to the seminary as if nothing had . him and tried to pacify him. he said to him gently This is and taking up his pen again. abandoning my home in order not to be under you an/ &quot.&quot. but &quot. ALPHONSUS. it was so slight.LIFE OF ST. saintly man quietly replied: &quot. he is said. what do you wish me to say to you? You are right. he went on with : The other went on abusing him in the same The eye-witness tone. happened. :&quot. Another day. Alphonsus did not say a word to him about what had just happened. that when the priest retired. a priest came in who set up claims to a prebend. When the scene ended. that he even uttered a torrent am on the point o of abusive language against him.I A he said to him.A pretty kind of sanctity yours He only a saint who knows how on seeing too his work. When he retired the superior followed him. &quot. The I . Alphonsus listened in silence. vectives. At these words the priest got outrageously assailed his bishop with the most abusive in and angry. was so far from humbling himself in consequence. &quot. until he had vented all his spleen. and made the youngest pupils sing a pious song. manifested great cheerfulness. He visited the different classes.My son. by saying that he had promised it to another.

and he saw no way of remedying it. with pleasure. : &quot. . writing go you This calmness in the midst of affronts and insults was not natural to him. &quot.&quot. and then hastily and angrily retired. for he had by nature a fiery He one under his dictation . him ? Go back again to-morrow. he sent for know that Do a such do did you thing? Well. threw the papers down in a heap on the table.&quot. he Who knows what was the matter with is a holy man. the will give you a large donation. he used to exclaim &quot. and as he blamed the administrator. and could not sufficiently admire the immovable sweetness of the bishop granted him went away. The indig nant servant repeated the speech to Alphonsus. ALPHONSUS. else. One day he sent the servant to the administrator of the annunciator. alone never showed the least emotion at it.May you you matter were of more importance. and if he could not control some &quot. and sent the bishop. he said to him: &quot. he raised his eyes to heaven and gently said: will be done. and the at that time.&quot. the servant about their business. If the become or are!&quot. servant went and received more than thirty carlins. &c. his greatest complaint was to say a saint!&quot. to ask his woman whom in kind assistance in behalf of a poor he had converted. who treated him as if he were his inferior.Thy A Gloria Patri. When he the superior heard of the insult he had re ceived just before this visit. &quot. and saintly bishop. The administrator was a bad humor woman.&quot. why you on now me? vexed again. whether through stupidity or malice. and you will see that he And so it was. : canon related that he always exercised extraordinary mild ness towards a priest belonging to his palace. he was stupified.400 LIFE OF ST. emotion. How foolish any way. When Alphonsus him and said: thought he had got calm again. all he asked. however. The good bishop s meekness towards those of his house When they annoyed him in hold was no less admirable. Alphonsus day gently reproved a cleric who was writing the cleric. Every one was indignant at the effrontery and impertinence of this silent.

upon this. and began to abuse him excessively. Oh. God remark of the superior of the seminary. who was but dissi gaming. my bored to gain a little patience for forty years.&quot. had a son at the semi nary. you might as well give it Another gentleman of Airola went on obstinately up. he became then even terrible as a lion.&quot. The gentleman was much nettled. and terrifies all A gentleman. or the welfare of souls was in any way concerned . said : irascible temper.When of continued But this this old man wants one. grading have la dear canon. F. back of his hand. to manifest his authority. The gentleman then raised his voice and tried to obtain it by intimidating him. 401 and It was the happy result of the vio overcome himself. swered tience to a like &quot. left the world.My lord. than once. who lived in his intimacy. and shall I go and lose it in an instant meekness did not prevent him from showing the proper firmness. he intimidates rich. and encourages the wicked. him more &quot. this did not move Alphonsus. while walking up and who merely down : said to Sir. to that is not the proper way to act.I it is de your character. . answered Alphonsus. you wish me 34* . but the glory of God. and to break off From the moment he all human attachment in his heart.LIFE OF ST.&quot. not his own person. lent efforts he made to &quot. Alphonsus wished to correct him. Caputo. and added When I tell you that I ought not to do the thing for God s sake. Alphonsus. with have had no slight struggle to gain a little pa~ knows how much it has cost me. when. &quot.&quot. said to him: &quot. On a similar occasion he an &quot. It is the fruit r&quot. in sin Alphonsus sent for him to the palace and repri manded him. so he refused his request. and on seeing his indifference he got more animated and reproved him more warmly. ALPHONSUS. was once present when a country priest insulted him.&quot. and you want me to lose it in an instant. effort.But do you know pated his possessions in how unbending I am ? He : then struck the table with the &quot. he set the mildness and humility of Jesus Archdeacon Rainone. and on the plea of poverty. &quot. he wanted him to be kept there for the half pension. who Christ before him as a model.I a smile: . was in the habit of saying.



to act as a bishop, and I will make you see that I am could give a thousand instances of this truly



But it was not without suffering an interior pang that he decided on resorting to firmness or severity. You cannot imagine," he wrote to one of his penitents
cal firmness.



Naples, with severity

how much




to treat certain persons



think that one succeeds better by gen

tleness than by violence." He was once seen to weep, in a to a gentleman whose deplorable severe giving reprimand conduct had not yielded to repeated warnings. At this, the

man could not help being affected himself, not Often after uttering withstanding his being so hardened. words which he thought a little too strong, he would think

of some pretext for recalling the person to whom they had been addressed, and giving him some token of kindness. Thus, having on one occasion spoken authoritatively to a doctor, he sent for him" on the following day to feel his He was very well, however," said the doctor af pulse. terwards, "but he made use of this innocent stratagem to show me that he felt no ill-will towards me." This meekness and the control which he had gained over himself also enabled him to rule over the hearts of others, so that often one word from him sufficed to make all parties Of this, let agree, and the most obstinate hearts submit. us give the following most remarkable instance. One day, the cook, who had forced Alphonsus to give him an assist

ant for the dirty work, had a dispute with this carried it so far as to run after him with a knife.



The poor

servant ran to take refuge in Alphonsus room, and held the door firmly closed; but the scullion, who seemed de termined to kill him, pushed at the door violently from out

Alphonsus ordered


to be

immediately opened,

and with a few words succeeded in completely calming the The grand-vicar and all the others infuriated scullion. wished the man to be imprisoned and dismissed but the

to reconcile him to the cook, saintly bishop only sought these two servants were the that well so and he succeeded

best possible friends from that time.

In a word,


we may

say that Alphonsus
said he,



is nothing,"

"which is

meekness was more un


in a

bishop than anger.





to this passion, is no longer the father of his flock; he is an intractable tyrant, who draws down the hatred of every Br. Francis, who lived with our saint for fifty years, one."

and a Father who was

in intimate intercourse with



forty years, attested, that,


in his relations

with them

or with strangers, he constantly evinced unutterable sweet ness and equanimity, however annoying that intercourse

might have been; and a priest, a man whose sanctity made him venerable, never called him any thing but the Francis
de Sales of our age.

As the inseparable companion of meekness is humility, so Alphonsus, who was a model of sweetness, rendered himself no less admirable by the low opinion he had of
Being entirely detached from the world, wherein he saw nothing but illusion and vanity, he seemed to have forgotten what he once had been, and to seek for nothing but obscurity and contempt during the whole time of his He no longer thought of the nobility of his episcopate. origin, nor of the great achievements of his forefathers,


any one attempted to speak to him of them, he im On one occasion, some one stopped them. talked a great deal about the honors and dignities which his cousin, D. Charles Caralini, had enjoyed at Mantua, as


governor of that town; far from taking pleasure in all this, How Alphonsus thought it a matter for sorrow, and said much more I should rejoice at hearing him praised for hav How much more cause should I ing been full of virtue have for pride, had his death been that of a saint." How he hated the title of excellency we have seen above and his persevering way of rejecting it was such, that every one





in the diocese



up, in spite of the habit of using
his predecessors.



the bishops

who were

As he delighted in serving others, and never in being waited on himself, he was like one of the servants in his house: he made his bed himself, dressed his own issue, and



never allowed a valet to

come near


and although Bishop of



person for such ser he seemed


consider himself


By God


he one day said,

have never



only, when I was being incensed a sort of pleasing sensation.



throne, I





the devil tried to tempt



added, he went

out of his palace, he never would be accompanied by more than one priest, whoever that one might be and he very

went out alone, or only accompanied by the sacristan, who was a layman. The canons, on finding out this man ner of proceeding, several times complained to the persons belonging to the episcopal house that they were not warned when he went out by the usual ringing of bells; but that was precisely what Alphonsus did not wish for. When he went to church for his private devotions, he went alone and thus it severaf times happened that he came too soon, and found the door shut, and waited then patiently

until the sacristan arrived to




he arrived

alone in this way, he would not allow a cushion to be put on his chair, and when the servant accompanied him, as he


his wishes,

he took care to take



if it


been placed
distasteful to




The slightest mark of deference was thus, when he went out in the carriage,

he would not allow the secretary or any other priest to seat themselves in the front part of the carriage and he never consented to take the right side unless it were quite indis his grandpensable to do so. Even at Naples he made vicar take it, who, though distressed at such pre-eminence, was obliged to yield through obedience, and in order to
avoid vexing his superior.

Far from domineering over the

submissiveness towards the clergy, he even manifested lowest of his servants, to whom he never spoke but in Do me the kindness. ... I beg you to these terms: Please to Have patience. a do such






do that, &c. No word ever issued from his mouth which denoted command or superiority. He was, above all, re conduct towards ecclesiasspectful in his expressions and



said a priest,


day when


in his


did not venture to say to me, give me that pen, but he rung the bell to summon the lay-brother who had to

attend to him


he was paralyzed





when he gave an order
did so in the form of

to a priest relating to his office, he once said to a priest a request.


who gave

the spiritual exercises to the nuns at Arienzo : Paschal, the nuns would like to have you for two days


lordship can dispose of

me; you have but


command, and




his reply.

replied Alphonsus, "but a superior ought to be dis creet." He was in the habit of saying that a tone of

superiority and disdain can only diminish the authority of a bishop. If, however, he were resisted in a thing he had

demand, he then remembered that he was a and changed his love into firmness, but always spoke in a polite manner, and never said any thing offen sive. When he wrote to the episcopal vicars and to the priests, he gave them the title of most illustrious, and he was as respectful towards those he cited before his tribunal,
a right to


thus liking to give to others what he would not receive himself. When he had to deal with any superior of a monastery, he almost put himself in the position of a sub

Having gone

to the

Capuchin Fathers on





day, while he was at Arienzo, and seeing there a crowd of people in the church, he said to the F.
in the



most humble tone: F. Guardian, if you should like to say a few words to these people." treated all kinds of ecclesiastics in office with the same

deference, in regard to the affairs relating to their church; and he addressed the priests, and above all the canons, in the same way, when he wanted to officiate at an unusual

time in any church. He would never allow even the simplest cleric to remain standing in his presence, and all who went to see him were admitted to his table, if they came in the morning.

Thus no formal


able persons to be admitted to

was needed beforehand to en it; every priest, and even



every layman who came to see him, might hope to dine with him. He disliked having his hand kissed, and he did

not even present it to the clergy, unless they manifested a wish for it, and then he did so unwillingly. He liked to converse with the most vulgar peasantry, and to inquire into their affairs and their wants.

His profound science caused him to be consulted on the most delicate affairs, and recourse was had to him from all parts of Italy, and even from beyond the mountains; yet he never decided any thing of consequence without him self taking advice, and always behaved as if he were inca

He often took the pable of deciding any thing himself. opinion even of persons of but moderate talents, and he never hesitated in submitting his judgment to that of

He was

when he thought it more in accordance with the the first to condemn himself, if he happened


make any mistake. Ee did this with joy, and always manifested gratitude for the explanations he had received. But if it happened that he was wrongfully condemned, he equally sincere, exposed his reasons with candor,


justified himself

without blaming others.



place writer,

whom Alphonsus

had made an honorable

mention in one of his books, not satisfied with having had grounds terly censured an opinion which he had

a% it was defending, wrote a letter to him, as indiscreet call him an im impertinent, in which he did not scruple to

impertinence Alphonsus received this piece postor. with the greatest calmness, and took care not to complain of it even to a canon, who, as he knew, was a friend of his



foreign merchant,



speak works which Al presence he began to talk of the different to blame phonsus had published, and did not scruple boldly of accused he which several of his opinions, being unten

called himself a convert from the ordinary letter of obtained having to the diocese from the grand-vicar, with his lordship. When he was in his


and scandalous, and went

at length so far as to treat



him to his face as an ignorant fool. Alphonsus not knowing what to think of such impudence, defended his opinions A canon who with humility, without losing his affability. I cannot imagine was present, afterwards said to him: how you managed to bear Alphonsus only answered by a sweet smile, and then added that very likely he was a


to give an increased value to Al Moral phonsus Theology, begged him in January, 1762, to As to the have his portrait taken. Alphonsus answered portrait, that would throw discredit on the work; is it

The publisher wishing


an author to have his picture taken while he is When I shall be no more, let them do what they please with my body I care but little but during my life, I wish no notice to be taken of me, and that my name may never be quoted anywhere. I have put it in my books,







it is

true; but that
to get



was to excite the curiosity of people, to read them, otherwise I should have had

them printed without my name." When his secretary, at the instigation of the publisher, made use of some solici tation on this subject, Alphonsus answered: "Do not
speak to
credit, but

about that, my work would not get more on the contrary, it would be depreciated in value if the head of such a mummy were put in If we have his portrait, we owe it to his servant Alexis and to his

me more



who being pressed by fresh entreaties from the secretly made a hole in the door of the room
was able

where Alphonsus dined; and thus the painter trace his features whilst he took his repast.

The arms of


house were


be seen only in the

chapter, they were neither to be found in the church nor in his palace and the seats which he used, bore no other impression than a cross, or a calvary. There was a magni

ficent chasuble in the treasury of the cathedral, left there by Mgr. Danza; Alphonsus wanted to have a complete set of
sort, and he added some of his own what the church funds could supply, and ordered a cope, dalmatics, a humeral veil, and cushions, to match,

vestments of the same



from Naples.


When these things arrived at St. Agatha, the canons fancied that the sight of the arms of Mgr. Danza would be offensive to Alphonsus they therefore had them

immediately taken down, and were just going to send them back to have the arms of Liguori affixed instead, when Al phonsus heard of it and declared that it mattered little that
these vestments were adorned by Mgr. Danza s arms, and asked if the ceremonies wherein these would appear, would be of less value on that account. He made them replace

His brother every thing as the embroiderer had put it. Hercules made him once a present of a magnificently em
broidered piece of cloth, which Alphonsus had made into a chasuble and dalmatics, but he rejected the proposition which the canons made of placing his arms on them giving

as the reason of this refusal, that what he had expended in the making of these things was not out of his personal in come, but that he had taken it from the episcopal revenues,

of which he did not consider himself to be the owner.
all personal privileges, he also household to take advantage of the position The general agent of the they held, in the least degree. duke of Maddalon, said on this head: "In the time of the former bishops, no one dared to bring before the courts of justice any of those who were attached to the bishop s establishments, such as farmers, &c., but in the time of Mgr. Liguori, the horror which he had for all sorts of unjust pre-eminence, caused him to abolish these privileges." The following is the last proof we shall give of his pro found humility. As founder of the Congregation, and Su perior General, he had a perfect right to employ any member of it in all his wants as he might please but it was not thus he acted. F. Villani had destined F. D. Angelo Majone for St. Agatha; but he did not like such a tranquil mode of life, and manifested repugnance to it, so he sent him to give a mission at Gaeto, in order to over come his aversion, and informed Alphonsus of it. This want an news has given me great pain," he answered

While he thus declined







able subject

who can



in a multitude of difficult

cases; for


on be done


sides: but

am surrounded by a thousand difficulties which God wills it to be thus, and his will
Try and get him
to aid


a poor old


loaded with


and cares.

willingly me, Tell him that

thereby be sure of doing God s will, and that he do me a great charity. I like him because he leads an edifying and retired life, and does not meddle with any besides, he is a good ad thing that does not concern him viser and a good preacher. I say, willingly, for otherwise it would be better for him not to come for he would then be more burthensome than useful. The virtues of poverty and penance are the inseparable companions of humility, or rather its most certain outward expressions. We will therefore show how these two virtues also shone forth in our saint during the time of his episco








use of Mgr.

ones he

the exception of one violet suit, he only made s old clothes, and they were the only wore during the thirteen years he was bishop of


Agatha. Except when he had to officiate, he always wore the habit of his Congregation, which became dearer to him and more to his taste from its appearing humble and One day, a poor; but even this cassock had no fellow. to see him in violet, found clothed him, gentleman coming and believing that he must therefore be going out, he said to him: "Are you going to officiate? he replied, "but my cassock is being mended." Another day, as he was passing a monastery of the Dominican Fathers, dressed in an old gown full of patches and in a cassock which was out at the elbows, a father showing compassion for such great poverty, Alphonsus excused himself for it by frankly saying that he had given a commission for four articles of clothing to be bought for him in Naples at the old clothes-shop, but that they had not yet arrived. He had a cassock which was so bad that the lay-brother was ashamed of it, and determined to take it away from him during the night, and make a new one of the same kind. The next morning while he was assisting him ta dress, which he could not then do alone on account of an






his arm, the brother adroitly substituted the


Alphonsus did not find it out at first, but on looking at the sleeves, he saw that they were new. he said to him, "you have put new sleeves." answered the brother, "the others were too much torn." But some time afterwards he saw that it was not his old cassock at






said he then, raising his



think this cassock
the brother,










other was no longer decent for you to he answered in a tone of "Never mind,"



and fetch


the old



not have this

said then the brother,


you must

do without any, for the other has been given to man." Alphonsus could not help regretting it, and
the brother:

a poor said to

"You always will act of your own accord." His underclothes were of coarse stuff; in summer they were of common cloth dyed black. A tailor said that on receiving a pair of small-clothes to mend, he did not know where to put the needle, and that a beggar would not have taken them. "Although sick and old," said a priest, "he only used hemp shirts, and a wooden rosary was suspended at his neck, similar to those which poor beggars use." The

laundress often complained that the shirts were so tattered
that the pieces remained in her hands, be persuaded to get four new ones.

F. Telesca, "and office," which the sight of the rents in the collar of his shirt tunity,

and wished him to I undertook the seizing on a good oppor

gave me,

I told


that he


to get





he replied with a smile, "suit an old bishop; and then I ought to think of clothing the poor." He was seen in his visitations, mounted on an ass, and with such tattered

His clothes on that his hair shirt was seen through them. he wore stockings were of coarse wool; when he officiated use of real silk spun silk ones, but he never would make his election, at made had he which shoes The stockings. & were the only ones he wore during the thirteen years he



Agatha, and he


wore them

after his resig

nation, until his death.


walking-stick, which he used

for the sole



purpose of supporting himself, was of no value, cost at most, twenty carlins. The little silken twist having upon it got so shabby that it looked quite discreditable, and a priest not being able to bear its unsightliness, substituted
a simple riband in its stead. When Alphonsus perceived for?" he is that riband said: "What it, Being told who

had put it on, he said: "Yes, it could only have been put on by him." His bedstead was of wood, and of coarse workmanship, and he could never be induced to make use of an iron one. He had no curtains, and the sheets were of coarse linen his blanket in winter was one of coarse wool, like those which the poor use it was also old and worn out, and however severe the cold might be, he never allowed another to be bought, nor would he have a coun terpane, but spread his cloak and his cassock on the bed. have admired Naples," wrote the grand chanter of the



enzo, but the

Cathedral of Girgenti, who had visited Alphonsus at AriI have felt admiration for the magnificence of Rome,


pression on

of Mgr. Liguori has made a much greater im me it has effaced all the beauties of these two

capitals from

I have seen a saintly bishop of the eyes. primitive age; he lies on a bed to which he is confined by the most painful infirmities, but his serene countenance betokens the tranquillity of his soul. The glory of God,


and the government of his diocese, occupy him unceas in him have I seen extreme moderation in sleep and ingly in food, and such absolute poverty in all things, that the only covering he has on his straw bed is his cassock; his pastoral ring would not excite the envy of a beggar, a false


is its

only ornament; his cross equals


in its





the smallest

Agatha, as well as at Arienzo, he always chose room in an obscure recess for himself. He

had not* one valuable chair; those he had were of the sort all the poor use. His table was of unpolished wood, its
value consisting in its antiquity, and he had on it a miser able little inkstand of bone. The paper which he used
for every thing

he wrote was very common, and he was so



careful in turning the least piece to advantage, that he used the envelopes of letters for his composition, and for writing
to the


members of his Congregation. His snuff box was same that he had used in the Congregation, that is a

wooden one, worth only a few grains; in a word, he used nothing which was not very poor and very coarse. The bare floor was his Prie-Dieu. The only ornaments which adorned his room, besides his books, were a large crucifix,
(which he had received as a present, and which he had always before him,) and a little picture of our Lady of good All the other counsel, which was placed on his table.

use of

in the



palace also betokened poverty. Mgr. Danza furniture, but Alphonsus did not make

and the palace was a mirror of evangelical poverty.

exception of some common beds for those who might come to see him, some chairs, and deal tables, all the rest evinced distress. There were no valuable paint ings, but on all sides devotional pictures of Jesus Christ



and the Blessed Virgin.

In the vestibule of the house at Arienzo, he placed a cross, which he kissed every time he went in or out of the house. The best piece of furniture

any person of distinction, was a bed which was covered some old damask cloth, which had belonged to Mgr. Danza; and this was called the bed of state. He had, in a word, such an ardent love for holy poverty, that even the


shadow of gold
to see,

or silver

made him





Arienzo, F. Mascia, the ex-provincial of the Capuchins, and each time he went into his room he ten
derly kissed a beautiful parchment picture representing the F. Mascia on seeing this devotion, offered the

Ecce homo.

picture to him, and he accepted it. the cloth of which the Capuchins
to take

make use

was surrounded by he wanted

off as a superfluous

little silver




ornament, but it concealed a once returned it, saying he would

not deprive F. Mascia of this object of devotion; but when the picture it had left the house, he said to the secretary,

very beautiful,

it is

a pity that


has that silver





the pretext of health,
sort of bread,



he would only use the com is made of bran with a very

small quantity of flour.

All the dishes at his table were

ate only veal or mutton, there equally no other kind of meat to be had at Arienzo.






scandal would



he said,



the people

saw one

Even when he was

he would not allow

any thing ought

Naples or elsewhere, saying, produce of my diocese;" and among the things which were sold in the place, he wished those which were the cheapest to be selected. The secretary one day bought a rare fish as soon as Alphonsus saw it, he hastened to send it back again, saying, Met it not be
to use the

to be sent

said that the bishop eats the best fish.



sort of deli

he said, what the others have, I do not wish for any thing in particular." His great maxim in this as in other things was: "All that is super
cacy were prepared shaking his head


him during

his illness,




satisfied with



taken from the


the Archbishop of Amalfi came, as we have seen above, to consecrate the Cathedral of St. Agatha, the cook


thought that


was an occasion on which he could get

but when he heard that only two dishes were ordered, he crossly replied My lord, the scullion could prepare the dinner which you have ordered." "What do you want to answered Al say?"
credit through a grand feast;

we received persons of great consequence at phonsus, "Your Nocera, and we did not treat them differently."

lordship was free to do so," boldly replied the cook, who then went out of the room grumbling. There now,"



God knows

what a passion he has put himself in the plans he had concerted." However, the


secretary had a third dish prepared Alphonsus seemed as if he did not observe it while at dinner, but he gave him a severe reprimand afterwards, and said: "A bishop s table

ought not


resemble those of the great,


would be

a real

scandal: poverty does not injure a bishop; on the con

does him 35*


Mgr. Albertini, bishop






Caserto, came to Arienzo with his suite, Alphonsus ordered three more dishes than usual to be prepared ; Br. Francis

in passing

the brilliant reception Alphonsus had received through Caserto, and applied to a Father of the Congregation to obtain some more. The father had a

it. cannot waste which money," replied Alphonsus, belongs to the poor, in feasts; I am their father and their steward, but not the I know not with what dilapidator of their possessions. face one can eat of dishes prepared with the blood of those The father unhappy creatures who have no bread."



with him about


managed so that he got some more dishes at dessert, three good dishes having been sent as a present. When Al phonsus saw them he was quite annoyed, and would only allow one to be touched. The good nuns of the Holy v so poor, we must Redeemer," he said to the bishop,


send them he added,


then addressing the other guests, His lordship does not want any more, he pre

conferring a charity on these poor

and he

common that it looked quite dis and the were in keeping. His only dishes creditable, candlesticks were of brass, and the salt cellars of earthen ware. On extraordinary occasions, he sent to borrow plates and dishes from the Lords of Lucca, until the brother attendant and the secretary provided them, unknown to him. In conclusion, let us add the following testimony given to his apostolical poverty by a gentleman who went to visit him at Arienzo, in 1769, and who could not help
I at seeing the great destitution of his host. have seen the ideal of poverty in Mgr. Liguori," he said
" "

despatched the bearer to His table linen was so





what indigence is there throughout the the rooms are quite bare, others have three straw chairs made of unpolished poplar-wood in them, If the the simplest sort of tables, and a bed equally poor. his servant drew moved to be about, saintly bishop required
every body,
palace! some of

him up and down

in the

room by means of a rope attached

a shabby




As for the spirit of penance which animated him, he never omitted to discipline himself to blood every day, and the wallsof his chamber would have borne constant witness
to these macerations,
if Mgr. Rossi, his successor, had not had them covered over by several coats of white-wash. It was asserted that his drawers were steeped in blood, as if they had been plunged in it. The prior of the Dominicans at Durazzano once dwelt in the bishop s house, on account of the examinations. The very day they terminated, he wished to set out immediately, (although it was late in the would return day,) and being urged to remain, he said: were it midnight, for I have not the heart to hear the flagel

lations of this poor old

man any


In order to obtain an increase of grace from God for himself and his flock, he used generally, on the vigils of feasts, to scourge himself with various cruel instruments,

and especially with small cords armed with sharp



also redoubled his macerations at the carnival

and other profane


satisfied with these


disciplines, he also mortified his flesh by horse-hair shirts studded with iron points, or by sharp little crosses with which he covered his shoulders, his arms and legs; when he


or got up again, his motions betrayed his suffer All the particulars of these instruments of penance would have been unknown, if the curiosity of some people


had not revealed them to us. I saw them all secretly," who had lived in filial intimacy with him, in a strong box, of which his lordship kept the key under his bed: I could not help shuddering the first time I opened How little he ate, we have seen above. There was a time when he lived on abstinence food entirely; and what was left of his food was so bad on account of the bitter herbs with which he had seasoned it, that not only the poor, but even animals, would not touch it. During the
said a canon,




he used to chew these herbs


order to mortify

and he kept such a quantity of them, that one quite smelt them on entering his room.
his palate,

to St. Only. One day. the same thing happened again. Alphonsus gave it to the nuns of the Holy Redeemer: he did the same when he got rare fish. when for this reason D. but Alphonsus laughed. he ate any where but at When home. the servant gave him a bottle of vinegar. vinegar the next day he said to the servant: &quot. F. or other delica cies. when he was oppressed by a very bad sick head ache. other times. He liked fresh fruit. he appeared to be giving his attention to a little dog. Hercules supplied him with excellent fruit from Naples. let us pray to him for the salva as tion of our souls.If . for I took it for vinegar. although accidents of he asked in his house. Caputo offered to procure him some of the waters of St. In the midst of the sufferings which continually tor mented him. but Alphonsus drank this sort were not rare for it without manifesting the least displeasure.&quot. something to drink. or those nuns who were related to him. answered he. from his brother. but.416 LIFE OF ST. we want to address him. Vincent Ferrer. he had a thousand : stratagems for avoiding partaking of what was before him sometimes he carved. he mingled bitter herbs with the little that he took. he never once com plained of any dish being badly cooked. &quot. Dur ing the whole time he was bishop. and no sooner had he raised the glass to his lips than he began to scold the servant. or at least relieve him. One day at dinner. and instead of wine. it is nothing. at when he thought that it would not be noticed. and although the was very strong. the grand-vicar also asked to drink. he never sought for any other alleviations than those which were prescribed for him by the physician. . and used it as a remedy on account of his sedentary life. sweet things. &quot.&quot. and excused A him. he said nothing about it. when he was taking his meals in bed. ALPHONSUS. Shall we go and apply Vincent for such a little thing?&quot. little while afterwards. On another occasion.Do not give me the same wine I had yesterday. and for a good passage into eternity to what I suffer. in the hope that the saint would cure him. or distributed portions sometimes .

Alphonsus was so great certain. which preceded his great infirmity.His grand-vicar. complete the description of the virtues of our saint his episcopate. never indulged in any gratification of the eyes.&quot. ALPHONSUS. might be. especially his The numerous poor of bound diocese were to Gospel. Rubini lordship was as cruel towards himself as he was kind towards others. besides. Although he was sinking under the weight of years and he was always careful to mortify his senses. said F. it He how ever innocent &quot.&quot. Jllphonsus ing. first therefore the His heroic charity during the famine . . was a place of penance rather than of rest. all which can afflict mortification. it testimony of our saint s penances during his episcopate. that he had : &quot.I should make you shudder. recreation. His bed. his abstinences from food. and sufficed to change He slept as frequently on the floor as in bed.&quot. said he. is that of his &quot. &quot. that he scarcely knew that there as Arienzo or St.LIFE OF ST. were I to relate to you all the particulars of his macerations.&quot. a universal hatred for life.&quot. Let us add one other kinds of &quot. TIOduring Full of love for all works of mercy enjoined is in the he said that a bishop objects of his charity. all His mortified added another. who was intimate with him. CHAPTER XXIX. of the hair shirts and iron chains which kept his body in a continual state of in short. we must add that of his charity towards his neighbor in regard to their bodily necessities. perform them. Cawas such a town Another Father.&quot. filled all who saw it with confusion. his watchings the flesh was made use of unceasingly. their lives. &quot.&quot. I am puto. the palliasse being so thin that his body rested on the He never had it shaken during all the years bare boards. charity in relieving all kinds of bodily suffer His detachment from all self-interest. his daily scourgings to blood. Agatha in the world. : &quot. said an enemy to himself. 417 infirmities.

he again gave the large sum. (giving usually to &quot. giving liberally to all.418 of 17 LIFE OF ST. the light from on high directed his alms. when more &quot. he diminished the alms each time. and other simple medicines with which he was provided to The same archdeacon one day required them. the poor could not work. he had a general and public distribu tion of alms. Archdeacon Rainone said that one day he saw of the palace filled with poor: some asked for others for lard.) and asked him what would remain for himself when he had given all away. He was particularly care the hall salt. replied Alphongreater. and even ten ducats a day. and also the expenses for the table. if the same person came back again. ALPHONSUS. to him of his generosity. nine. in exchange for which the apothecary to furnish remedies. some for sugar. During the bad weather in winter. all days were alike to him. The grand-vicar. as he was the excess represented sometimes whole days without having any thing left to each person at least from five to six grains. related that when he announced any poor person. but whenever any assistance was needed. But if he were asked for charity for others. Alexis. others for delicacies for their sick relatives at home. He among them six. . we have seen above. and the monthly salary to which the chaplain. ful in was bound those signing bonds.Providence is never at a loss. his charity became still He was then in the habit of spending striking. all the rest of his income was employed in alms. in which he could not be seen. and he gave quinine. that after subtracting what was necessary to pay the grand-vicar s salary. Rubini. . none were exempted. danger Friday of each week. and the frequent assistance given to persons in of On Wednesday and sin. without personally seeing him.&quot. or else to meet the outlays which the suppression of disorders entailed. even we might say that there was not an hour in the day. sus. the cook and the attendant were entitled. reminding him that summer is not unending. A he was in the habit of giving the first time a considerable sum of money. affirmed. purse in hand. and that the wants of winter are still for who give. servant.

419 in his alms. and for this reason he ingenuously said to his brother: It would be very pleasant to me to keep you longer. which he had himself received as present to his sister-in-law. the grand-vicar and others told the pious bishop that he ought to think of making some but they were much astonished when they saw that this present consisted in a garland of flowers. which were specially intended for the poor of St. and even two hundred ducats for him. or rather considered as a We have given his sentiments on this head in robbery. out of this. Agatha and of Arienzo. or to clothe the nakedness of a great number of other indi gent persons. : ?&quot. but he did not hesitate even to contract was so generous a hundred.&quot. &quot. &quot. but Alphonsus felt dis gift. he had recourse to the &quot. tress at the expenses which this caused him. he was so lavish in these alms that he . and when the was objected trifling value to. heavy debts for the relief of the destitute. let us add the following. I went to borrow said another canon.When came to visit him. a lected of the thing he had se he replied Do you then wish that I should take away from the poor. Any expense for purposes not necessary. liberality The Duchess of Maddalon of the great.that he not only deprived himself of what was necessary for himself and for his family.&quot. meet the expenses it would entail ? All my money comes from the church. for the first time. D. also sent him several hundred ducats at once. with his wife. he did not know.LIFE OF ST. Hercules several instances above. Marianne. Alphonsus put aside. There are in the diocese sixty-four very rich chapels. in order to make The lady took pleasure in presents to my sister-in-law her at St. one takes from the poor also. stay prolonging Agatha. said a canon.&quot.&quot. . second D. whether to the orphans. &quot. especially of the Prince della Riccia. When he could find no one to lend him any thing. fifty. ALPHONSUS. nay. but how can I &quot. enough to meet the expenses of keeping them up. Repeatedly. and what one takes from the church. and for the services in them and all the rest went for the relief of the poor. of which the bishop has the administration. &quot. He consented .

ALPHONSUS. Alphonsus took care to antici and always ordered pate the wants of the bashful poor. Bartholomew. there will be a fair at Maddalon . but so well with regard to the new managers. assisting the indigent who presented the palace. and to a third five or six ducats.420 LIFE OF ST. secretly he allotted and even more. he did not lose courage. on the occasion of a particular solemnity. he always gave the preference to the poorest. instead. to another thirty. ten carlins a month. Br. according to their station. or a servant. fish. came to the passage where it is said that the archbishops of Prague were in the habit of sending a certain fish to the king every year. as a secretary. &quot. When ever he received any one in his own service. that distributed many alms according to his wishes. and give the money in charity. as for instance. &c. sometimes obliged the rectors of these chapels to contract Although several of these chapels were withdrawn his from managed they still administration. Francis. debts. : . In the spiritual reading of that day out of the life of the Ven.&quot. to one supplied with provisions and clothing. and that the payment of the porter would amount to more than the fish was worth he an do as I tell you. especially as he wanted to show that he felt thought no resentment for an annoyance which he had received from the fathers of tha convent some days before.To-morrow take care to sell the fish.&quot. and . in appointing to offices.&quot. make them known to him. how many entire families he &quot. and to manifest his satis faction at it. Another instance is the following. and in creating new resources for his beloved poor. Besides. who read for him. sus heard this passage. if he were fit for the post. he was ingenious in turning to advantage every occasion.I know. sent him it some pounds of excellent Alphonsus right to accept the gift. It was objected that it was too trifling a thing. I know nothing about all that swered . and that the venerable Bartholomew resolved to employ the money As soon as Alphon in the service of the poor. Not content with at themselves their priests to said a religious. a chaplain. he said to the brother: &quot. &quot. A prior of a convent recently elected.

&quot. It was especially in secret alms. answered Mgr. &quot. during his sojourn at Airola. considerable sum of and lived in great he heard of her situation. Alphonsus. allowance. thanks be to God.I his penitents. supply with all . sold in Notwithstanding his known dislike to visits. account of her husband being a professed supplied her with half a measure of corn to her husband but he found it out unknown every month. Bergame. and Mgr. but on hearing that he had again got hold of it. was in want. do not believe that to all I am in fault. he asked them in what way they regulated their alms.&quot. he sent her a money through the medium of her continued to send her a monthly and then parish priest. who were both &quot. and got some body to go for the alms in the name of his on gambler.&quot. went every evening to see an indigent nobleman.LIFE OF ST.&quot. that you act as a priest and not as Alphonsus then a bishop. the bishop of Fondi. Tosti. number of individuals to be provided relations. ALPHOPsSUS. to think a great deal about the &quot.&quot. A young orphan of rank was destitute of When misery. me.&quot. exercising the most refined deli in deceiving the very excusable pride of this nobleman. A lady who had several children was in great distress.&quot.He who that is a bishop. strikes me. was most remarkable.As to that. It I give largely that ask of &quot. He . he determined secretly to send the poor mother a monthly allowance through the hands of the priest. it. on account of having a large family to whom he was unable he informed Alphonsus they required of his position. &quot. embarrassment what to do. the bishop of Gaeta. He cacy relieved his poverty. wife. sent three measures of corn to the wife during the absence of her husband. also a stranger. Alphonsus charity he was in the habit of saying. One day when he was with Mgr. Agatha. and received six ducats a month during the whole time that his regiment remained at St. you do 36 . and gambled with the proceeds. said. Alphonsus. the 421 for. One of the king s officers. Bergame.ought poor whose tears no one thinks of drying: it is they who are chiefly recommended to us by Jesus Christ. who was the father of a large family.

lt. each year. was remitted to the episcopal vicars to be distributed his charity among embraced the poor of the found a petition from a poor person in the number which came to him from all parts of the dio If he cese. Francis directly. it is a request for charity. Alphonsus was liberal towards all the poor. of both sexes. he was accustomed to say in a joyous manner: &quot. advise you to think of alms-giving in secret. His charity extended even to strangers who were not of his diocese. as Alphonsus called them. ALPHONSUS. Philip Neri. Amongst deemer.&quot. hastened He bought who it. and exclaimed God. huddled all he informed Alphonsus of to beds for them all. A priest asked him. corn.Ah. when through danger of offending God. in The money he received poor families. procure of cloth and various a kinds of every year great quantity merchandise. f&amp. and wine.&quot.422 LIFE OF ST. and of a considerable age. heard that a poor old woman had six children. one day. for an annuity this pleases . The parish priest of Talanico also found who. for his pastoral visitations. he supplied them with a store of oil. through poverty. (of his charities towards whom we have spoken above. and to the poor who conceal them If I to families selves.&quot.) the Capuchinesses of St. to widows. the privileged poor. whole diocese. { not understand the meaning of these words of the Gospel: Let not your left hand know what your right hand giveth. and he instantly sent the poor woman all that was necessary to remedy this sad were in their poverty they have already re lated. pendently of alms in money. besides the nuns of the new convent of the Holy Re were. Peter of Alcantara. to their wants. send for Br. and Inde the poor nuns of the convent of St. above. that he might clothe the naked in proportion a families^ number of their children in the same bed . in trouble. We many facts which abundantly prove this. who all shared the same bed. he was prodigal we might say. : state of tilings. Alphonsus was horrified at this. let us A canon relates that one day he give here some more. me.

he replied. Alphonsus man. though this person was of his own diocese. he ordered all that he had asked for to be given to him. The following two most extraordinary instances of charity towards strangers are on record. One day. he stranger took compassion on his distress. Joachim de Cassare. to give four carlins whom you speak.My son. A woman of . his charity and he was unable to satisfy them. that I am bound to assist all very well. &quot. told his secretary to give requiring still more. a month to the person of and cannot give more. he said ^sorrowfully: &quot. for a 423 &quot. and with a bad grace. the other refused them. Another indigent person. Alphonsus heard this in his room. This man loudly complained to the brother one day. often came to ask him for alms. Francis. and he said to heard these words of discontent. Another in stance of such (we may say) imperious poverty. The inhabitants of the village of Cava are almost all attacked with the goitre.&quot.LIFE OF ST. is the following. and hastened to add something to the sum. sent for him again and ordered twenty carlins to be given to him. and of present. However. However. to come out of his room at this moment. tell the know canon. asked him Alphonsus him two carlins. how can I give to others ? &quot. and told him that the alms he got were insufficient. now they are so numerous that I cannot find enough for them. &quot. as the went away murmuring.&quot. the poor in my own diocese. I &quot. if I have not enough to give my own poor. saying that it was not enough. him from ten to fifteen carlins through Br. a pilgrim who stated that he was of noble birth. more I overburthened with poor.&quot. ALPHONSUS. who appeared to have he was in the habit of sending happened him. I am poor When strangers came to ask for in The pilgrims also did not ask for his assistance in vain.&quot. and a recent convert. my name. as he was sensible of the distress of this sprung from a good family. not belonging to his diocese. but on the pilgrim s for alms. and submissive charity.You person who did not reside in the diocese. be satisfied with that for the am God will provide the rest. arid I know riot what can sell for their aid.Charity must be regulated.

arvd they did not fail to warn him of it. When his servant Alexis if the priests. Alphonsus replied without any astonishment. -eatables. could not fail several times in consequence the be and on her insisting on having imore. this place carne one day to Alphonsus. His solicitude was repulsive. and dupe of the hvpoto Several of their cheating tricks came to the ears of his friends. he ordered ten carlins to be given to her. redoubled in the case of the dying. than to run the risk of being reproved for not having given what was necessary. he said that he would continue her husband lon&amp. the doctors having giving her cause to fear for her husband s life. became he went several times to console him by his presence. he added four carlins besides. The secretary burst out laughing.&quot. but touched with compassion. and he did not forget those was nothing which he more inculcated on the care of the sick. and said that all the toninos in the world^ a would not be enough to ornament neck like that. when she replied that it was a collar of small gold beads for an ornament of the neck. so also he did not and delicacies. so secretary asked the woman for an explanation of the word. Alphonsus a thing a tonino was. When he heard .phonsus smiled.that does me no harm it is better to give an unnecessary alms and . those poor whom he knew fail to send money for their to be relief. but that she did not know how could not make out what sort of -the to get a ionino. (who was afflicted with this disease. particularly late. that when five o clock relaxation was to go and console the sick who in the greatest suffering. sick. We have seen above how he supplied with medicine.4*24 LIFE OF ST. ALPHONSUS. liberality Such extended he was Crilical poor.r s wages to her as as he himself should live. he left every thing to go and prepare them to make a good end. &quot. accompanied by her daughter.) for whom she told him that she had an offer of marriage. We have seen also his struck. than they were poor and deso ill. And there were whose misery made them in another place. to be cheated. Al- . One day he left four ducats for his wife. and as she was hopeless.

he still continued to go about the neigh visit the sick. To see an old man. at his own expense. ALPHONSUS. whose picture he always gave to them. he replied.. of any other ecclesi astic The shepherd who wishes to watch over his flock ! ! much properly. above all. ought not to forget the sick sheep. and although himself infirm. ail head bent down. and to other persons. to his jects therein. that there to 425 he caused them were any incurable in the diocese. and nearly sinking under the weight of old age. was a sight which filled me with admiration. but must take care of them in proportion to the magnitude of their arrival amongst the sick was not without them .. with admiration at seeing his lordship prac tice certain acts of the charity. and did not leave them with out giving them an alms. I say. be taken to one of the hospitals at Naples. but also of that of his attendant.. he exhorted them to patience. he quitted every thing to go to their immediate assistance. to see. arid as he often had not enough wherewith to assist them. such an old man enter into houses to visit the suffering ob borhood and wasted away. and I could not contemplate it without shedding tears.LIFE OF ST. He numbered seventy-seven years. is The following &quot. I one day asked him how he could still visit the sick. those towards filled was sick.I the testimony of a priest on this matter. he applied to the administrators of the chapels. he filled them with love and confidence towards the Blessed Virgin. paralytic. and encouraged them to accept their sickness as a penance sent them by God he disposed them to receive the sacra wants/ His profit to : . of charity should I have. if I were notable to suffer something for the benefit of my children ? Oh how ! greater are the obligations of a bishop than those of any other Christian I will even say.&quot. or had met accident. he who What sort daily received the visits of two medical men. ill and tormented by scruples. so weak as to require not only the aid of my arm in getting in and out of the carriage. He inquired into their wants. ments. and to dispose them to make a If any were fatal with a 36* .

God often deigned to manifest. (sinner. who had been called from Naples. so that he could but aban give. though he visited don her and pronounce the divine malediction against her. had held out confident hopes of a speedy recovery. being carried to some place palace. what pleasure he had to in the visits which Alphonsus paid ill. he multiplied his visits. LIFE OF ST. until he saw that he was contented and well disposed. in both tations of the medical men. at Arienzo. A canon who then saw the mistake said to him Peccatore but he is a good man. and in a doubtful state of mind. So likewise when Mgr. and satisfied himself as to his probity and piety. induce him himself and to pardon his daily while the sick all man enemy. in a miraculous manner. This once gave occasion to a singular mistake. His solicitude became extreme if the illness of an eccle siastic were in question. He repeated his visits and sent him provisions for To the mother of the man. and believing that the sick person was a great sinner. in He saw the viaticum whom neighborhood of his it was taken.426 confession. .) Upon that he was troubled and alarmed.&quot. as family. whom the bedside of those who were he had gone to comfort by his presence. is the name of the sick person However Alphonsus could not rest until he had crawled to the house of the dying man. she cheerfully forgave the murderer. he sent to inquire what signs of repentance he had given. and asked to the : . and in the first. Al phonsus having gone to see him. When therefore he heard that a priest was in danger of death. and also that of a cases contrary to the expec lady he went to see. Thus he predicted the death of the brother of the Archbishop of Amalfi. Some one replied by the one word: Peccatore. and especially if it were that of an ecclesiastic still in the prime of life. his lived. &quot. Albertini was ill at Caserto. ALPHONSUS. he assigned a pension but her daughter resisted all persuasions and would not for her twice. examined into his state of mind. On a mortal another occasion he heard that a villager had received wound he immediately hurried off to see him and . even though two celebrated doctors. and having heard that .

who is now in his last agony. and inquired about : &quot. mass for Distressed at such sad tidings. Albertini for life. and if they . his lordship will die. than his state began to mend sensibly. telling him to recommend himself to her. and after a short prayer arose and said to the doctors. The sick man had no sooner re ceived the picture and kissed it. Alphonsus returned to Arienzo. who the viaticum and extreme to receive asked immediately unction. &quot. then entered the sick man s chamber and said to him: lord. for on the following night Mgr. Pray He Mgr. : &quot. He then took a picture of the Blessed Virgin and sent it to him. and had often borrowed large sums of money from him. However. Alphonsus after this said mass for the happy death of the prelate. N. and the doctors allowed him to take an egg this morning.&quot.&quot. did not approve of such sad preparations. and to be sure that he would obtain a cure. do not trust to the flattering promises of the &quot. sacraments?&quot. &quot. He met the Governor of St.My doctors if God were to call you to himself. and at the end of the sermon. and the improvement went on so rapidly. Albertini. It is useless to He give yourselves more trouble.LIFE OF ST. Blase the doctor had given him over.Undoubtedly I answered Mgr. passed to another It was : Trossi just the contrary to this in regard to D.&quot. he said him that very day. he said to the people my dear friend. spoke truly. wish to have received the should. Prisoners were as great objects of commiseration to the charitable bishop as the sick. and the in people the house told the bishop of the slate in which he was. Agatha next day at the church. 427 two physicians had pronounced him out of danger. One of his relations. and the doctors were still more dissatisfied. Albertini answered the governor.He is better. to encourage them and incite He them frequently visited them. . the Duchess of Cimitile. writes me word. After this Alphonsus ascended the pulpit. least so D. knelt down before an image of the Blessed Virgin. that he was quite well again in a few days.&quot. of Caserto. to patience. for Alphonsus knew the sick man well. would you not &quot. ALPHONSUS.&quot.

: A poor man had been salt. as these latter spent what they received in gambling. kindness. Agatha every Saturday. of St. When phonsus interceded late the there were any prisoners for debt. he told the people how much it was his heart s wish to relieve all poor. My dear N. in having smuggled being Alphonsus. Alfor them with their creditors. for he possesses absolutely : &quot. which amounted to six ducats. turning to a priest near him.&quot. I hope that my request may lead you have pity on this unfortunate man. arid that his family were starving. Misery. he allowed him ten carlins monthly. and the alms were made in But provisions. and that in . who wrote to the royal administrator of salt at entreat you to release the tower of the Annunziata this man from prison. he then remembered his joke and said He is our fellowmember. was not from want of love. At Let us re the opening of one of his pastoral visitations at Arienzo. we must assist him. and as he owed a great deal more in other ways. A man. nity this &quot. two following instances.. he had recourse to nothing of his own. He six grains to each of them every Saturday.I ill prison for three months for besides. he did not fail to relieve them by his alms. on hearing these : &quot. and I produce the desired effect.&quot. He then paid the debt.We words. whose claims he often satisfied with his own money. said jestingly have at last found our prefect. When speech was reported to Alphonsus. he ceased to give them money. But sometime after he was told that this same man was in prison for debt. he sent gave the same for all the prisoners at St. and that you will not have the cruelty to let him die in prison. and I will not fail to recommend you to The administrator asked him for a medical certi ficate as a security. ALPHONSUS. &quot. because he is dying of hunger.428 LIFE OF ST. he has nothing but alms to live on. he only smiled at it. do to me this God. in allusion to a confrater which was called^ in derision.&quot.I after: send you the it hope that will Alphonsus wrote to him a few days certificate you asked me for. were poor. and that if he could not satisfy all it but through his own poverty. A priest stated that even when Alphonsus was at Arienzo.

for will what you Alphonsus store of apples once visibly diminished. but I imprisonment. but that of Alphonsus knew no bounds. and perhaps destitute of spiritual aid. was arrested and put in prison.&quot. this is why I hope you me consolation by releasing him.LIFE OF ST. A canon had suspicions about a person who frequented the palace. He the young time in writing to prisoner. he even extended persons out of his diocese. imprison a poor crea directly. He wrote St.. that this farmer is an honest he has not satisfied you. and lost no the Duke of Maddalon s agent. Thus he wrote to the above salt mentioned administrator of salt at in favor of the farmer of Salerno if man. and went with Alexis and the commissioner to his hou.What! praises for their zeal. and to treat him with all the charity with which your good heart is filled I shall always be grateful to you . and found there the missing apples and an iron in strument by means of which the theft had been committed. and fault. The magistrate was informed of it. it has riot been his &quot. and spare the sorrow of hearing that he has died in this mournful prison. : I therefore earnestly entreat you to leave this man in his farm. go to the magistrate and . my dear N. The canon and Alexis carried the news to Alphonsus. in his also to the governor of the fortress of Agatha to the same and obtained what he de sired. 429 reply I shnll hear that this poor old man has been set at Believe me. expecting to But Alphonsus exclaimed ture for a few apples! receive : &quot. I try to assist this cannot remedy will kindly give his unhappy man by alms. Alphonsus pitied also interceded for criminals. me and implored the cle of the them. A soldier in a barons and for mency judges country regiment having been found carrying prohibited arms. I assure you. deed. you could not do a better liberty. and the thief was put in prison. and also his aged father. him with the commissioner effect. to beg for him to intercede name. to This kind of charity by intercession. deign to do in his favor/ Compassion often ceases when one has to exercise it at his own expense.

He was not at rest till released. to it were not the produce of fraud. &quot.Our question tain . example be made of the delinquent. &quot. where one of the immunities of the church. As mass was not said for the numerous prisoners who were . other instances of his procuring the release of prisoners. I will buy them. The poor man took church. but he immediately wrote confined at their prisoners. and refuge dragged him to prison. the right of asy in Arienzo. The constables were irritated at having missed their aim to . and arrested him. . if I had to sell my mitre. Meanwhile. whither the country courts also sent Alphonsus managed to get the Duke of Maddalon to Among lum.&quot. ALPHONSUS. that is. and demanded that the a vicar. trate to Alphonsus yielded to the magis beg him to stop all proceedings. and they all told him that he ought to let an &quot. through prudence. and as to the npples.The apples are your own.Well. not seeing any other means of escape. who was examine if The constables met with a man at question. As this was probably the case. get him to set him at liberty. and ordered him to write out the statement of all that had passed. Arienzo.LIFE OF ST.&quot. I would do so the immunities are in to ob prisoner was justice. replied arid make haste and deliver this unfortunate man. was allow a chapel to be erected for them. When Alphonsus heard of this. a dealer in tobacco. he immediately sent for the gaoler. and to send him the iron which had been the instrument whereby the of fence had been committed.&quot.&quot. not trouble yourself about that. and he added: &quot. from which they tore him away. remonstrated with him. we will relate only the two following. and even gave something to the guards and the gaoler to cause them to deal well with the poor man and as soon as he was set at liberty. answered Alphonsus. he sent for him. the man had made away with it. the grand-vicar and several gentle men came in. and wanted in put him in prison. and gave him a large alms. they bastinadoed him. He then turned to the grandprisoner should be set free. He sent food to the prisoner morning and evening.&quot.

came much alarmed.&quot. . to ask for the if pardon of these criminals. Alphonsus obtained full par don.Nothing but answered the officer. On see more than he had asked the deserters received a ing them he was in filled with joy . he let the allotted month pass without giving any decision. Five Albanian soldiers deserted at 431 the bridge of the Magdalene. but as he was in lege of sanctuary. and immediately sent for an officer quartered with a company at Arienzo. to be put to death. from which he. and asked him what be condemned to he could do for these unfortunate them. for. your intercession can save Immediately. and all three. Let us cite a last instance of Alphonsus charity towards prisoners and persons accused. &quot. and the three others took refuge in a suit little country church.&quot. and application was made to Alphonsus to decide if they might or might not enjoy the privi They could not. Anthony del Rio.LIFE OF ST. ALPHONSUS. he he were not assured of life would be endangered. expected a more However. The was got ready. he said to him !t My lord. accompanied by an officer of justice. your pity injures the culprits for now that the mixed court must decide their case. clock in the evening. Alphonsus be death. an officer of justice came from Naples for the papers relating to the trial but on seeing that Alphonsus decision was not there. he also wished to save their souls. them were killed in the mountains of Arienzo. A chanter belonging to . they will assuredly left to the favorable decision. so that the matter might be mixed court. para would then go in person and throw himself at the feet of : the king. he remonstrated with them that. At these words. horror at the idea of delivering these men into the hands of justice. came to thank their deliverer. saying that their safety. and had the rashness to turn their arms against Two of the officers who were sent in pursuit of them. : . to the Marquisses of Tanucci and of Marco. by order of the colonel. secretary of war. a paternal manner and showed not satisfied with having saved their lives. that is men. at six o Alphonsus despatched a courier to General Prince Taci. as well as to D. his own lytic as he was. to say.

doing thus by others what he could not do by himself. but as the matter could not be cleared up.&quot. justify set at liberty. were also invited they came from a distant place. and but as the evidence was not sufficient. he said. even if he were the lowest of all. however. if Agatha or at Arienzo. for it does not do to send any of these priests to an inn.&quot.432 the cathedral LIFE OF ST. &quot. appointed a He had. very poor. and at his own expense.What you do for this poor creature. He was gave the unhappy Alphonsus. Paul among the duties of poor. more parents by allowing him a pension. arid es finding a lodging there. for it was always open. his palace was like a hotel. and Alphonsus was also remarkable for that vir tue indeed. Agatha. as well as the candidates. to know if he could not reinstate him. he made them also pass the night at the palace: and it was the same in regard to the agents of the priests. he once give and take of what I destine for the poor. this request. evening. &quot. shall feel as if done to suspended. Touched by it. He sent him to Rome. a bishop. an arch-priest came He at the dinner hour. am obliged to said to a priest.&quot. to beg that they would grant him the half of what he would have gained by his presence in the choir. &quot.&quot. they man the whole of statement of the case. he was when Alphonsus saw him with the treasurer. took the opinion of enlightened persons. pecially the candidates lor holy orders who had no ac quaintances to dinner. ALPHONSUS. he was sure of All strange ecclesiastics. became an accomplice As he could not. still sorrowing over his position.I was put he was in prison. who daily When there was a meeting for the election to a living. he used to make the examiners dine at his table. at St. he interceded for &quot. canon as an advocate in favor of the who was bound to defend them gratuitously in case of need.1 period of his residence at St. he assisted the chanter arid his over. accompanied by two ecclesiastics. and his misery. in a homicide. During the first carne in great numbers to see him. If any one of the clergy went to the palace in the . .At dinner. with a myself. Hospitality is numbered by St. himself from having taken some part in the murder.

he never arrived sulting him.&quot. very often came to visit. the episcopal turned into a public hospital. Salvador Tramontana. . when visiting him.Hospitality. he wrote to him &quot.&quot. the palace. We may ill. who did nothing without con . telling them that the house of a bishop larly is at the service of all. and not of pov this However. ALPHONSUS. the daughter of charity. he caused them to stay. &quot. and he treated them just like strangers. noticed that the table was well sup &quot. hermit. Another time. sumptuousness only consisted in an extra dish and this was all the difference he made for the Duchesses of Borino and of ?&quot. A who had come 37 . erty. to ask his advice. and said laughingly to Alphonsus : sumptuousness agree with your poverty he answered. and as the two companions were getting up to go to the hotel.How does this plied. &quot. When any trav they appealed to the charity of the bishop. not even excepting his brother Hercules on his first visit after his second mar The pilgrims who applied to him. &quot.&quot. he kindly dismissed whomsoever might be. besides receiving provisions for their journey. remember that I lodge a great many other The grand chanter of the Cathedral of Girgeriti. him without bringing either fruit or some cake. 433 was ignorant of Alphonsus way of acting. : &quot. D. palace was eller fell also say. I shall be glad. and particu of priests. that in Alphonsus time. were lodged at riage.&quot. He charitably received him into the palace.LIFE OF ST.&quot. and begged him to receive him into the palace. perceived his delicacy and said do not trouble yourself to bring any thing a bishop is bound to be hospitable. The members of his own Congregation were always wel come. and was terminated. : . and other gentlemen and ladies who came to consult him.By all means. lengthened stay without there being when the business in question it a necessity for it. giving them the same kind of food but he did not allow them any . but you it be without thinking of paying me for the little bread will come you may eat. was taken ill. said Alphonsus. but Alphonsus When you come here. often visited him. people.If let here for four days.

Mgrs. at Benevento. sacrifice what accrued to me you can he answered: to Villani F. paid for the doctors and the medicines. the last sacraments were administered to him. When the father was convalescent.that I do not practice I know. &quot.They say. Alphonsus caused light food to be procured for him. &quot. Alphonsus wrote to a priest who had informed him of this. as Arienzo is a town through which a great many people pass. their coachman fell ill. ALPHONSUS. I should &quot. . Although Alphonsus was so careful in fulfilling the duty of hospitality. and did not let him go away till after a month. and was received also with the greatest kindness. and Alphonsus immediately gave him a bed and a room. which are said to amount to four thousand ducats. he could not escape censure on this score. episcopal court according to the customs a tax on the lessened which considerably great many regis trations. and the I guests are sometimes so numerous that am obliged to borrow beds.&quot. always keep several beds prepared. them to be gratuitous. and treated him with the greatest atten tion. who was only economical in order to be was also admirable in his detachment from all selfHe detested the shadow of that cupidity which interest. however. of revenues the to As on this subject: my bishopric. The father and the son remained in the palace for upwards of a month.I . from those who would have liked to see at his house a splendid table whei^e they might have good cheer and amusement. The illness became serious. wrote he what See take what is your due. The son of the coachman hastened to visit his father. when he was entirely recovered. and Alphonsus did not fail to console him frequently by his own presence.&quot. Alphonsus. how much it costs hospitality properly! me. As to those relating to the ordinations. for whom I my palace is almost always full of strangers. Borgia and Pallante coming once to speak with him. and when the secretary complained.434 LIFE OF ST. arrival his at St. liberal. he wished the apostle anathematises so severely.&quot. &quot. From the time of all the fees of the he regulated Agatha.

and knowing that a priest . and no recompense be expected or received for doing what one ought One day in the spring. for he As would not receive any other than the dust from the feet of the poor. send him a dozen. I have greatly reduced my income. He himself wrote often remit considerable sums. I the poor. 435 be thankful retrenched had two thousand two hundred! I have many of the suras which I formerly received. to but this pay him four ducats at the principal solem sum he generally left in the hands of the administrators for the poor. because I consider it a very good kind of alms to abandon the fees on marriages. and assured him that these melons cost him It was quite a connothing. moreover generously abandoned all that was due to him for the patents for livings. The dean on complaining of it. which formerly formed a large of the income of the bishopric of St. of which he had the administration. but which I felt scrupulous about. after his appointment to the charge. and those who serve me know what horror I feel in vio He lently exacting the payment of what is due to me. while in Alphonsus time there were a great many. were each bound nity . Agatha. a canon examined the archives of the church at Arienzo. ALPHONSUS.&quot.I have only done my duty ought to to do. The sixty-four rich chapels. as was said above. and said that he did not When find a single marriage celebrated for nothing by the pre ceding bishops. who refused it. especially to one of his friends: among &quot. The priest then came in person. Let us give some other instances of this.LIFE OF ST. had a The quantity of melons. to gifts and presents. When Alphonsus saw them he asked what they would cost. we have part seen above how particular he was in refusing them.&quot. back. making you dean. he wished to have some of in the fruits of the season.&quot. The dean of the cathedral. and I think with reason. received this answer: &quot. if I especially when there is poverty or danger in the case. sent a present to the bishop. he resigned the episcopate. priest hastened to . he sent to buy four from him. and the porter He immediately sent them replied that it was a present.

or rather the farming of the property of the bishopric. of the great re farmers complained one day of the bad harvest. as he Alphonsus yielded.436 test. in which the was in set upon it. The poor woman began a no- vena to St. He and into.&quot. in order not to pain him.&quot.&quot. a canon made priest or any other.Ah was most devoted. well. he asked her When to she was what saint she &quot. however. &quot. &quot. liberality. The woman encouraged by this good he. from more than two hundred ducats of what he owed him. Her rent amounted to twenty-seven ducats. that he never . This agreement pleased Alphonsus. said F. told him what they cost him.he made counts. St. him a present of three melons : Alphonsus positively de termined that they should either be paid for or sent back again. and said that he left the money also in his hands for the poor. But the canon. LIFE OF ST.Alphonsus at once released him. the greatest disinterestedness. but he did it with so much regret that he took care future never to ask for any thing of the sort from this On another occasion. to insure their being released from ZL good part of their rents. whatever conditions the farmers might have entered in showed it sufficed for them to expose their distress and the hardness of the times. in order to get out of the difficulty. ductions on considerable One &quot. said for he had been beginning. Joseph. and went to Arienzo. she offered one and twenty. asked her how much she wished to pay him.&quot.amount of his lease. A great number of them obtained arrears. and &quot. ushered into his presence. said that the rent was very high.&quot. she answered. &quot. had a farmer a many such who paid the so disfull Alphonsus dismissed woman from a house belonging to his see. ALPHONSUS. Alphonsus agreed to this. previously undeceived. and . Alphonsus touched by her poverty.In ^aid the grand-vicar Rubini. priest got the victory. Buonopane. especially if they were men who feared God.&quot. &quot. a word. arid has told me not to turn you out. whom he had been led to suspect of bad char acter through a false report. Joseph has been gracious to you.&quot. Joseph.To St.

Virgil let give a final proof. &quot. on seeing him shed tears and confess his negligence. Alphonsus. Peter of Alcantara. ruin him outright. was satisfied with discharging him. Agatha. for the sake of his own interest! When he nominated D. Raphael de Nuvo. I am an old man of &amp. instead of the ordinary thing? sum &quot. Virgil Cimino as his secretary. Several persons said that he ought What do you say about bring him to justice. the trea surer of St. On the first Christmas after his arrival at St.LIFE OP ST. What a thing it satisfied justice by confessing his fault.D. table and disinterested as Mgr. six.&quot. But though his disinterestedness was so great. But when Archbishop Rainone had brought the deeds and shown that this gift was not optional but a part of the teries. why deprive him of any him receive what has been given before. would be to see a bishop bring an unfortunate man to justice. his vigilance on this point was extreme. he not only received them. for he knew how to distinguish between his own individual interests and those of the episcopal revenue. replied poor.Why is of &quot. &quot. though afterwards she had to pay thirty-one instead of twenty-one. ALPHONSUS. but he doubly paid what he himself owed. ?&quot. and yet I always open to give. let be parsimonious?&quot.&quot. and sent him away in peace. courts of justice said he with emotion. Nay. to &quot. us add the testimony of F. even those of the monas presented him with four capons. every priest or rector.this man has to &quot. To never saw a prelate so chari ninety. Every thing was gratis for others. His purse was he said. believing that this was a spontaneous present. revenues of the diocese. A steward was found to have a deficit of about four hundred ducats. and only closed against receiving. but 37* . 437 she continued to pay the same sum during the whole time he was bishop. which is very striking and touching. Liguori. it did not go so far as to injure his successors. the grand-vicar thought that as he was of the diocese he might give him only four ducats a month..&quot. he did not wish to receive it.

am sur &quot. without caring about receiv ing the accustomed homage.&quot. it is not one for archpriests. ALPHONSUS. ing Arienzo had forbidden his paying the accustomed tithes. the episcopal revenue demanded that an archpriest should give to the bishop the fifteen measures of corn due according to the terms of the ancient quit-rent.&quot. Alpredecessors had substituted a large sum of money instead of the present. the fend the common law. and if rights. rectors and superiors of monas renewed their protestation of obedience on the As teries.I your reverence can prised. who are people of no consequence. he hastened to write to all his priests to tell them to repair :lo . If mild measures are not enough to make you pay what you owe. when Alphonsus heard of this. he applied to a poulterer each time. the squire or others prevented justice being rendered. and that in place of the prescribed sum. in order to know the price.that answered Alphonsus. because ceive the tribute which is I am determined to re due to me.&quot. they brought the The phonsus bishop a present as a testimony of their submission. he required that they should renew their promise of obedience. Metropolitan undecided. jestingly: us. we will have &quot. Learn answer to this. for the future. thus forget your obligations after having taken an oath to defend the rights of the church.adding that to state their rights before the royal council. recourse to the tribunals. according to old custom.. each a little present. and said to those around him even exacted them This is a dish for the poor.438 LIFE OF ST. Naples. priests. he would in that event himself undertake to de In spite of his representations. .. and in order to make a capital out of them. as Alphonsus gave in his resignation mean- revenue. and sumption. the Alphonsus then . to Naples to defend his archpriest would not have recourse in question to the rental the nor would he pay felt obliged to denounce him to but the cause remained of Benevento. since the payment of tithes had been forbidden. at any price. one should again make him The steward of the archpriest replied that he was not bound to do so. that the squire at the in from priest.

I riage I would have sent it for you long ago &quot. on the subject of the right of A pasturage over a fief which belonged to the episcopal reve nue. to extremities. and the ministers. he in formed him of the reasons which proved his claims. Alphon sus again wrote to him. that he recourse to the law. : . and humbly said If I had a car come. Rossi went order not to neglect the interests of to St. 439 However. good law suit. I would about this affair. when Mgr.LIFE OF ST.&quot. while. and the Duke length resolved to have arose between Alphonsus dispute of Maddalon. am &quot. God knows what yield and say no more a horror I have for .I agent. he wrote to ask him to come and have an interview with him. If I am pushed &quot. saying that a bad accommodation is better than a . respect for his person. And in another letter. which possesses the double right of pasturage and lordship I beg you to tell the officers of the obliged. they &quot. and as these rights had been refused for two years. by heard. reasons in his favor.&quot. and he only determined to resort to them through necessity for he was opposed to law suits. Liguori. It was only when he found at that these ad vances were useless. Agatha.That which is taken from Mgr. rejected the claims of the &quot. &quot. ALPHONSUS. Alphonsus was not able furnished to the troops quartered at St. he said will cile it whom : hope to be If I could recon to my conscience. said. because I will only yield to evident reasons for so doing. whenever any difficulty defend the property of the see. The episcopal income had been lessened by the contribution of wood this. for I am bound in conscience to Duke defend the revenue. Before proceeding against the arch-priest. Agatha.&quot. in the revenue. and tried. I I apply directly to the regency.&quot. These measures were very painful to Alphonsus. he wrote to the Duke s .is taken from the poor. he defended himself with apostolical courage. and as he did not even deign to answer him. entreat you. As to obtain any compensation for he appealed to the royal court. their He alleged strong who were moved by parish. to bring things to a happy end by gentle means. not to act with violence.

and when any of the ground was uncultivated. at once. but reflecting on the difficulties in which he was placed. he caused the steward to oblige the debtor to appear every year. he added: &quot. olive trees Agatha. terestedness thus struggling together in our saint. placed the case in the hands of one of the Duke s advocates. and wrote to tell the agent to observe the ancient custom. As he was summoned by the steward. and saw that all pos Where . poor gentleman. He wrote also to the Count of Cerreto. and to pay up the It was a beautiful sight to see interest and disin arrears. A debt Nevertheless. the see possessed a good deal of property. he implored the in tercession of a pious widow. who. ing to the episcopal revenue being also out of repair.440 LIFE OF ST. not to be outdone in civility. law suits. The Count was satisfied with such a generous proceeding. he immediately ordered the suitable repairs. he caused them to be replanted he every year had the dead trees replaced. the young Duke s governor. and assigned him a measure of corn every month. the . thanks to his firmness and prudence. ALPHONSUS. all the in the habit the moment he came to St. The Count had a great veneration for the saintly bishop. were wanting. of satisfying the claims of charity at private expense alone. the very name makes me tremble but how can I yield. owed the revenue about twelve ducats for quit-rent. he took sible care to prevent its being depreciated in value. who was burthened with a numerous family. As one wing of the palace was in a bad state. tage of Alphonsus. or rather to see his justice contending with his charity.What shall be done for this man?&quot. in order to pay it. who told Alphonsus of the He forgave him the state in which the gentleman was. he had its value increased by plantations. in order to prevent the right as to the rent from being injured. and the affair ended to the advan . which A house belong cost him more than six hundred ducats. thus preserved and was his own From rights of the revenue uninjured. and then He to give him the money under the title of an alms. after having taken an oath to defend the rights of my church?&quot.

free from his accustomed fears. and that he was even bound to do so as he would abridge his life were he to continue to support the . all this he even sought to property did riot become lessened it still more valuable. who. He not only took care that the value of . Villani. He the decision of his director. let us how Alphonsus shone all now follow him virtues of the episcopal into his retreat. He leaves his Diocese.&quot. to and in particu Mgr. CHAPTER XXX.and I wish this house thoroughly. now ad vised it. He was not. and Mgr. he again opened his heart to F Vilask his advice and the assistance of his prayers. the burthen of the episcopate seemed no longer endurable to him. he wished to have a number of plants of those trees. But he took no resolution until he had received lar. thus seen in the duties detail HAVING forth in state. being then an octoge narian and paralytic. 441 enant was unwilling to do any thing to it. however. I feel scrupulous about to do all that is necessary in order to repair &quot. XIV was lani. The successor and of Clement not even elected. though he had not approved of this resignation at first. it. rather than diminish the ground&quot. bishop of Lucero.&quot. Lusco. yet on account of the state to which Alphonsus was reduced. and that a great quantity of mulberry trees were needed for its production. and His manner of life in his retirement. on it. but he insisted he wrote to a canon. Borgia. and as he felt doubts as to the validity of his reasons. ALPHONSUS. rent.LIFE OF ST. ere he again thought of resigning his bishopric. As he knew that silk was make much sought after. and even inquired as to whether white mulberry trees were more profitable than black ones. and told him that he ought to resign without any scruples. also consulted various zealous bishops. jllphomus resigns ihe Episcopate. returns to Nocera. F. and they all thought that he need have no scruples in resigning his office.

often quite stupified. I have continued to bear the burden of the episcopate for thirteen years but I am in I have many infirmities capable of bearing it any longer. &quot.&quot. have attained the advanced age of severity&quot.&quot. will accept for I am certain that I ought to die in the Congregation. and you and he twice will see that I shall die in it as a subject He die as a that he must repeated prophesied. painful burthen. am he wrote to F. 1775. new ever. nation of the free from the Alphonsus anxiety to be set How of the episcopate increased. ALPHONSUS.he to is no one of the it. Villani. March. By the aid of God. I times brought me to the brink of the grave that I feel head of weakness a such at have great present . Fathers of the Congregation. reason to doubt about he answered &quot. I fear that the presented to the Pope. F. I ensued upon this.&quot. Besides all these maladies. Cardinal Braschi was After the coro elected Pope under the title of Pius VI. I wish to represent to your Holi in the king I.&quot. however. but the mystery was not then understood. and also gives a short account of the diocese: Holy Father. as it describes perfectly the state of health he was then in. he &quot. which foretell a speedy death I suffer from an affection . which has several times reduced me to great the palpitations of my heart have also several extremities . the Pope would doubted whether &quot.Most ness that nine years. me the cross. I am also subject to divers dangerous attacks.442 LIFE OF ST. &quot. weight pontiff. The fear of again apprehension of having acted through self-love will torment me during the whole of the short The following is the petition he time I may have to live. besides this. . Villani. We give it entire. God only knows how on the 9th of in order to church abandoning my have been should I anew.There accept the resignation. disturbs escape very glad if your reverence had spoken to Mgr. for which I have to make use of bleed- . it. Borgia tormented. the Bishop of St. Agatha de Goti. On the 15th of February. during the proceedings which still felt his accustomed scruples. subject. . : of the chest. dom of Naples.

which I formally tender in this petition. and I do I have become it so badly that it is very difficult to read it. which such a cripple. think I am bound to beseech your Holiness to accept my resignation of rny bishopric. government of my console flock me may by accepting my resignation. ing. and also that I may be freed from the scruples which torment me when I reflect on my unfitness for &quot. : wish to lay the state of my church before you The diocese contains about thirty thousand souls. and what is still worse. The I cannot walk a step. I have received the holy viaticum four times. there is a college which num bers twenty-four canonries. paralysis has made such progress. and also . There are three convents of cloistered nuns. I can scarcely sign my name. I cannot now visit my diocese. I necessarily suffers thereby. and in the confidently hope that your Holiness will take pity on me.LIFE OF ST. that I have other &quot. and I require the two people in making the least movement. the income amounts to about twenty-six thousand ducats annually. dur ing the time that I have been bishop. in order that my be relieved. nor can I preach. blistering. I much impaired. I can not go through ordinations now. and in the territory of Arienzo. infirmities which prevent is my fulfiling rny duties as a bishop. those of St. ac cording The to a calculation made during the last four years. for ters. In the territory of Arienzo. I must add to what I have just stated. that I cannot now write a single line. because I see that the state in which I am causes right me to fail in the duties of flock. in consideration of the miserable state to which I am reduced and that you will . those in the town of Airola. 443 and other remedies. I my office. and my subjects suffer much when they wish to speak to me of private mat raise cannot hear them unless they their voices. My hearing from it. I pass my time on my bed. for they obtain little assistance from so incapable a shepherd. Agatha. and extreme unction twice. with five prebendaries. that aid of All this being the case. namely.I government. ALPHONSUS. or I sit helpless in my chair. cathedral has thirty-one canons.

but redoubled his exertions and labors for the welfare of the diocese. &quot. He sent this letter to Cardinal Crescensi. however. Calcagnini. begging him to consent to pre sent it to the Pope. No sooner was it discovered at Arienzo that Alphonsus had sent in his resignation to the death. out all the diocese. he was also careful to have it entirely visited siastical state. also a church in which the sacred functions are celebrated.&quot. to the last. and to edify them by their own examples. ALPHONSUS. the Pope s chamberlain. he was therefore. He wrote also to the same effect to Mgr.I : throughout by faithful laborers. as kind in rewarding the zealous as he was vigilant in chastising the Before he left his tepid and expelling the incorrigible. than the news spread through and caused general affliction. to the general of the Dominicans. the nuns. which will shortly befall me. en couraging the priests to labor for the salvation of souls. in order to obtain a good . der to have a sufficient number of missioners to preach to Rome throughout all the diocese he had even written . Pope. having applied. is two asylums where there &quot. and to Cardinal Castelli. vineyard. People sent consoled themselves.444 LIFE OF ST. as well as your blessing. the clergy felt as if in him they lost the soul of the eccle wept and the seculars. I very confidently look forward to receiving (he consent of your Holiness. for that of a father and a comforter. a tender and vigilant pastor and so they all addressed the most ardent supplications to heaven for the preservation of their saintly bishop. In the meantime Alphonsus was not idle. so that I may have nothing else to think of than to prepare myself for who loved him and favored him very much. and to support it by his mediation. for said do not wish to leave my successor overbnrthened he. The students of the seminary were always especially in his thoughts.&quot. from the in or preceding September. to the various Congregations. by the thought that the pre Pope would not accept it any more than his prede cessor had done. with old debts. The superiors of the religious orders for the loss of a protector who was both powerful and zealous.

On pre the 12th of one of the N. form him about to him this He wishes you to in soon as possible.&quot. Besides. details of this great work. From the following fact. In order also to excite the faithful to compassionate the dolors of the Blessed Virgin. Thus he succeeded in riot leaving an estate. for instance. he caused a picture of it. Arienzo and Durazzano. we might almost fancy he was sent every where to watch over every thing. as large as life. the laybrother. as well as by the image of our Lady of Sorrows. knowing too well how to appreciate Alphonsus zeal and the great good which he was con38 . to be painted in the most moving manner. which had not been cultivated by zealous missionaries. himself. from his bed or arm-chair. &quot. such. a village. and pointing out what was to be observed in order to awaken must be done obstinate sinners. In order that the passion of Jesus Christ should be well impressed on all hearts. 445 number of his religious from La Sanita in Naples.LIFE OF ST. and you must see whether he continues to visit the house of N. The Holy Father. ALPHONSUS. for this purpose. as blasphemy or licentiousness. to April. to those of his own Congregation the missionaries he had He himself formed at Airola. he pointed out in a circular. having joined. prescrib ing at the same time the malediction of habitual sinners in all places where corruption or any special vice existed. You know the convent where he lives. and to last be carried in procession through the church on the evening of the exercises of each mission. he caused his secretary to write to missionaries You must be careful in watching : the scandal of the neighborhood. he caused the statue of our Lady of Dolors to be exposed and carried processionally in the same way. and to come here morning to speak to him by word of mouth this as touching this monk. arranged the smallest even to the providing for the ac commodation of the missionaries and all they required. or a ham let throughout the diocese. all thai in order to succeed in inspiring the people with compunction through the picture of Jesus crucified. 1775.

&quot.. If this this said &quot. we must not he determined to accept his resignation. as they show how go far Alphonsus charity and we felt went: &quot. and who will His lordship could plead our cause with the magistrates? do every thing. were inconsolable at These. Archdeacon Rainone. with tearful eyes and even those who had experienced his severity . was not in the least disposed But two fathers of the Congre gation happening. The Pope then turning tinually effecting in his diocese. and ordered this to be signi Upon Alphonsus. This news filled Alphonsus with joy. We of a poor villager. he is in a state which quite makes one grieve for him: he is deaf. that he has no longer even the appearance of a man. for he was a saint. and going to pay their homage to the Holy Father. We shall not have Mgr. &quot. feel hearing the tidings of his departure.&quot. Liguori any more.&quot. he asked them about Mgr. poor girls. to Mgr. we have not known how to appreciate him. But the poor were the most afflicted of all. as well as the infirm. and did justice ing only regret at to his merits.&quot. &quot. but in the diocese the lamentations became universal. fied to on receiving the letter.Most Holy Father. They answered: &quot. say? be the case. said &quot. : of Alphonsus which announced is it chastisement from God. will now intercede for us with our creditors. though he did so with much regret. to accept his resignation. were now undeceived. . and laden with so many infirmities. and a great number of indigent fami on his assistance. and every one honored cannot forbear quoting here the words him as such. there was not a single canon or priest who to the chapter.&quot. to pass through Rome. after giving the mission in the Abbruzzes. Calcagnini. blind.When we used to to the mountain. : Do you hear what these fathers distress him. Liguori. Penitent women. on the 9th of May. As soon as the news spread. Who lies who had relied losing him. weeping. he said.446 LIFE OF ST. and who did not complain of the step he had taken. we left our children at his lordship s palace. who used to send us comfort or to come and console us himself. 1775.It a did not go to Arienzo to see him at his palace. ALPHONSUS. said.

graciously assigned him eight hundred ducats.&quot. thinks of reserving to you a dinal Giraud wrote to him. several names were mentioned to him. &quot. Car phonsus had not asked for. which overtops St. Rossi. to whom shall we have recourse?&quot. in con sideration of his circumstances. who. Alphonsus replied Pope deigned to grant him a pension. suitable pension secured on your church. that since his resignation had been ac cepted he appeared to hold his head straighter than before. The college of Doctors at Naples decreed also to give him the whole of his pension. gard to the portable in the fullest sense. four hun dred ducats would be enough for him. Before this election was decided on by the Pope. on the 17th of July. bishop of Ischia. saying not do enough for Mgr. because the weight of Mount Yes. (a very high After he had shoulders. on hearing this news. that if the amount with yourself. the candi dates being very numerous. &quot. : just as he had been receiving was not entitled to it unless in Naples. and also released a debt of one hun dred and five ducats he owed to the apostolical chamber. sure they would be fed. and he wishes to &quot. especially in re &quot.&quot. replied Alphonsus. it up to that time. He caused him also to be freed from all expenses for the settle as to its One can composition and despatch of the letters. this request and added another favor which Al Our Holy Father.&quot. This moderation was extremely edifying to the Holy Father. The resignation was formally accepted by the consistory. altar. divers reports were spread about concerning the person who would succeed to the vacant see. some one said to him jestingly. Liguori. ALPHONSUS. Aga mountain Taburno. The Pope granted &quot. he asked him to allow him to preserve all the privileges annexed to the episcopate.&quot.) thanked the Pope for the great favor he had deigned to confer on him. though he on the condition of residing Mgr.LIFE OF ST. off taken has been my tha. Alphonsus himself inquired as to which of the conjectures on this subject had any foundation.&quot. but 447 is now that he going away. but he . was elected as the succes sor of Alphonsus.

&quot. wishing to last moment. Rossi. until a canon one day said: the bishop of Ischia. but. contrary to all expectation. according to a ibishop new rule of discipline. Agatha. Alphonsus had prophesied however. useful to his church up to the Alphonsus. although he was so infirm and broken down. on the point of separating from church of St. heard them with indifference. that I have learned during thirteen years of labor. and above all. who will be elected. and poor church. as follows: &quot. opposed the translation of their bishop to the church of St. ALPHOKSUS. As soon as Mgr. to be of the new exclaimed: a bishop. he wished to visit* his chil dren once more in person.&quot. for the clergy of Ischia. He hastened to widow.448 LIFE OF ST. Rossi went afterwards to Nocera. perseverance in his dear When Alphonsus was well-doing.Mgr. Mgr. I hope that your lordship. write to Rome. Rossi!&quot. a who had resigned was obliged to leave his diocese truly. write to {i My God! My God! I will at once Rome &quot. and devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary asking at the same . Two inform you of all. is talked of as the one &quot. allowed to reside here until the arrival He then became more animated. which remained a widow for nearly five years. he for the last time inculcated on them When your lordship shall have taken possession of this church. the frequentation of the sacraments. the avoidance of sin. in hopes that the Pope would allow him to continue to rule over his church until the arrival of his My remain successor. immediately. In making this visitation of the parishes. replied Alphonsus &quot. wrote to him on the 17th of June. Agatha. . how long wilt thou have to and without a pastor?&quot. will be able to carry on the government in an days will suffice to excellent manner and for God s glory. Rossi was duly elected by the Pope. I trust you will do me the favor to come to Nocera for two days. the love of Jesus Christ. and of all &quot. and Alphonsus informed him of the state of the diocese with tearful eyes.&quot. when I will give you full particulars of all that can interest you regarding the bishopric. Mgr. by means of what I will tell you and your own experience. with earnestness.

who be fore long became converted. floods He was of tears. which he had kept in his room. she said that she hoped he would not forget his daughters in Jesus Christ. we may conclude from the following instance. Agatha. and died in sentiments of the most &quot. and the scandal he might have given. and being attacked by a sick ness which made him think seriously. The emotion with which he pronounced these words penetrated the heart of the unhappy man.&quot. they wish to The present he sent Mother Raphael. heart!&quot. &quot. reminding them of his paternal lessons and exhorting them to a zealous observance of their rules and a fervent striving after perfection. they will throw it away. rendering a thousand thanks to Mgr. and which 38* . to make if of it? It the soul that has value as for my please me. particularly when they should hear of his death. when he came to these heart indeed is ! what dish do they want . Among other things. on account of the fatigue. 449 time pardon for his numerous failings. he made a public confession of his sins. a surgeon. to go to St. the foundress of the Nuns of the Holy Redeemer. he wrote a letter to the chapter. a simple wooden cross with the emblems of the passion. you also leave off sin. have always considered Mother Raphael as a sensible woman. He determined to make a last appeal to a hardened sinner. and recommending himself to their prayers. of both sexes. could not see him at St. the reading of which caused many tears to be shed. ALPHONSUS. but I have now lost my good opinion of her. He visited also all religious communities.&quot. As he was unable. As Sister Mary Raphael.LIFE OP ST.I Alphonsus words. in order to make his farewell in person. he said to him. leave my church. My said. whom he had Now that I am going away to imprisoned at Nevano. How much every where answered by sobs and impression these his last words of exhortation must have made. Bequeath &quot. to them was. my &quot. sincere repentance. Agatha. besides a letter of advice and counsel for body.&quot. she wrote to him a most affectionate letter. and would bequeath his heart to them by will. as he called them.

he gave some books which belonged to him. She had scarcely touched it. but shed tears at the affecting scene of such The other things of which he had humility and poverty. his &quot. and taking it.&quot. and which he had also been in the habit of To the kissing whenever he went in or out of the house. he remembered these words. he sent the little picture of our of Lady good counsel. Some asked others -took what they wanted secretly. as well as all his own works. when she was delivered and . he asked Alphonsus for a crutch of which he had made use when he had the rheumatism. who had went out of for a little keepsake. Capuchin Fathers he left some artificial flowers which had adorned the altar of the Blessed Sacrament in his chapel. he gave the large cross with the emblems of after his death. who also asked him for a remembrance. even the little images he had at the head of his bed.&quot. he said. every thing disappeared. In son wife being serviceable to you some some years afterwards the crutch and in labor for three days. the passion. A little wooden crucifix was even violently carried off by a gentleman of Arienzo.&quot. . and as the barber of the house did not see any thing else to take. who readily granted what he wished for. for s it may be day. fact. who worked if you have faith. made use were carried off as relics. and will only take it.This crutch be so many miracles . Agatha. the habit of kissing whenever he entered or it. and as each wished to have something. Take it. The furniture and valuable goods he left in the palace as belonging to the chapter of St. said to her: &quot.450 he was asked in LIFE OF ST. you will be cured. To the Seminarists who had come to Arienzo. and to recite the litanies for him for three days To the canons. The mattress and arm chair he asked to be allowed to take with him as an alms from the two canons who were deputies from the chapter of St. which he had had always on his table begging them to say a Salve Regina for him every Saturday. To the Nuns of the Annunziato. were some few miserable beds and some cooking utensils. Agatha. longed to our late bishop. ALPHONSUS. &quot. which had been on the first landing place of the stair-case.

as it were. . canons and gentlemen intended to follow him. As soon as his departure had been cer he had considerably increased his alms to them. four of the canons were determined to ac company him. as had despaired of her safety. be all had the gratification of sharing At last. Arienzo. and celebrated it in presence of the whole seminary. When he saw that the priests. Caputo and a great number of gentlemen. The sight of the affliction of the and people was like a two-edged sword that pierced his heart. although he was in a stale of great suffering and weakness. canonical hours with F. but the treasurer and some others would not yield to his entreaties. St. Agatha to an immense concourse of people he distributed large alms to a crowd of poor per sons who solicited his charity. Alphonsus was anxious they should return. early in the morning. ALPHONSUS. so. aided by his household. the palace was. tears began to flow from his eyes. after having ruled over the church of St. and left on the day he sieged by them. Every one shed tears of tenderness at seeing the devotion with which he celebrated the august sacrifice. When they had gone on for some miles. and continued the journey while reciting the rosary and He had not said mass in morning on account of the emotion which his depar ture caused him to feel he therefore went to the Semi nary at Nola. On the way he addressed his usual prayers to his saintly patron. on the 27th of July 1775. and amidst the groans of these. all 451 to his beloved poor. out of danger. and assured them that their presence only increased instead of relieving his distress. and accom panied by F. though tain. Agatha for thirteen years and fifteen days. and they in his last donations. but would not permit them to do However. he thanked them and assured them of his gratitude for this mark of their affection. he gave his last blessing in his dear church of .LIFE OF ST. and accompanied him to Nocera. Villani. the . he got into his carriage. as well as the tears of the clergy and the people. as well as F. Villani. and particularly commended the whole diocese to the protection of Jesus Christ and his Blessed Mother.

Gloria Patri. As soon as he had entered the carriage again. arid tears him. arid to get in his carriage he threw himself shedding tears. and the rest of the time was employed in saying the office and other prayers. and the complaint had got so much worse that he had become at length completely blind. : My God The ! I me it from so heavy a burden. to thank God having restored their com mon father to them. than the blind man recovered his sight. was felt by the inhabitants. Various remedies had been fruitlessly tried at Naples and at Nola. the mass was ended. Sanfelice ordered that all the bells should ring out to welcome Great rejoicing. to pay him their respects came Nola. thank Thee for having re My Jesus I could ! endure the no longer. was heard leased to say &quot. though mingled with compassion at the state he was in. He arrived just . .&quot. without omitting the most minute rubric.&quot. Villani. whose sight had been so much weakened for upwards of a year through inflammation. Menichino. day cast himself on his face before the Blessed Sacrament. after which. he Gloria Patri. and ! he was on the steps. hastened ceive his blessing. Mgr. The cross &quot. When he arrived at Nocera. making his thanksgiving. When his arrival had become known at . hand and to re When claimed with transport: which I wear at my breast was very heavy when I ascended the stair-case at Arienzo. but how light has it become to When he reached the choir. that he was no longer able to walk without being led. &c. Alphonsus recommenced the recitation of the rosary with F. at When the request of the superior. several gentlemen o among these was D. All the clergy and a great to kiss his number of gentlemen. Villani. notwithstanding his age and sufferings. entreated him to make the sign of the cross on his eyes. Alphonsus had no sooner done so. when Alphonsus at his was going feet.45*2 LIFE OF ST. fathers in the for meanwhile sang Te Deurn. Michael . ALPHONSUS. he heard that of F. he addressed an exhortation to all the pupils and gave them his blessing. he ex &c. of emotion were in all eyes.

he wrote to F. as well as those of all the superiors of the monasteries. Sanfelice carne to visit him him and conferred full powers on him to exercise all. and of the nobles and persons of rank of the neighboring places in the diocese. mode of life at Arienzo was admirable and was no less so at Nocera.Because it has lost a pastor who did much good. on the 26th . grand-vicar of Nocera to came him to see pay his respects to as the him the same evening. God. Alphonsus asked.what vicar say of me. the grand-vicar observing that he thought that the diocese was very much displeased at his departure.&quot. Majone.&quot. Sanfelice. the bishops and grand-vicars in the neighborhood. When he saw that he was lodged as the poor are. who have done no good at none If any good has been done. He was told F. In the course of the conversation. He was only re lieved from the burden of the episcopate in order to bear If Alphonsus it that of the Congregation. Mgr.This cross has become The but there I sank under its weight. deputy of Mgr. none. which prevented him from resting for several days. answered the grand-vicar. &quot. but he would not yield till it was represented to him that he ought to have a room for visitors. must I live in the midst of ornaments? I will have my old room. ALPHONSUS. as now all had recourse to their common father and left him no rest. when he consented to take two little rooms on the third floor. &quot. when he was conducted there. Alphonsus was disturbed at these words. laborious. which formed the ceiling.&quot. all He received also the visits of authority in the diocese. none. he observed a piece of tapestry with a kind of black border. very light here .Jesus and Mary!&quot. he exclaimed. and taking his little cross in his hand. had hoped to &quot. 453 till then used for strangers. for been prepared &quot. God alone who has done self next day. and exclaimed: What.&quot.&quot.&quot.LIFE OF ST. had him.0 how much better satisfied I am in this cell than A comfortable room. he joyfully said to the gentlemen who surrounded him: &quot. &quot. &quot.I find relief at Nocera. it was ! does the grandall. Villani occupied it. in the palace at Arienzo.why?&quot. repeated several times: &quot.

454 of January 1776. of and of monks. and I am forced to have a wet cloth con the stantly beside me. which deprive me of all rest. he did not fail to have himself conducted to the church by the laybrother and his servant on the Saturday after his arrival. us in the dangers. though they had the greatest difficulty in placing him in the pulpit. they all and wept people. der to become saints? The end which God had he would have left view in if this delivering us from the world. our sanctification had not been midst of its his intention. rejoiced also in seeing ful the prophecy he had made of coming to die amongst them. wished him in their midst to obtain a constantly increasing fervor . and it is this gives letters. is &quot.&quot. LIFE OF ST. In consequence of the vow he had made of preaching on the glories of (he Blessed Virgin every Saturday. As soon as he appeared before the who had hastened in crowds to hear him. and to animate his sons to &quot.&quot. counsels. broken down by filled at seeing the saintly bishop but infirmities. he one day said. for God not grant to write so many knowledge others.&quot. and all afterwards did the same on Saturdays. established to the themselves apostolical ministry by giving mis voting sions and the exercises of Lent. uttered a cry of compassion. He preached as if he had been quite well. and all the bishops who went to Naples or re turned from thence. &quot. preaching. God be praised! My head is exhausted. to assist at the chapter. concourse of persons of distinction.if it is not in or in . and on those of their dioceses. and daily hear often to have ing confessions in their own church.. to superiors which he does thought which makes me He never omitted to drag himself to the chapel every Saturday. in the Congregation.Why are we greater perfection. made it a point to consult him on constant their A own necessities. de congregation of zealous priests. hastened to be directed by his priests. I feel scrupu lous in neglecting to write the inspirations which God gives me. . to prevent giddiness or fainting through number of letters I have to write..but I have met with a thousand thorns. A at Nocera. ALPHONSUS.

according mand of the doctors and F. upon merely seeing him. and which He encouraged doctors looked upon as incurable. to comply with their wishes and exer cise his zeal. the mother prioress asked him to remember her he might obtain for her the cure in of a cancer which she had the her left breast. . and at the foot of it a beautiful figure of the Blessed Virgin. ALPHONSUS. to bathe the diseased part with it tumor disappeared. 455 through his exhortations and the nuns also wished to hear his instructions. From morning till night. of the inmates. It was covered with some old damask silk which the grandhis devotion. On an Two in his prayers in order that other day. were living there in a state of scandalous enmity. One of his rooms served him as an oratory on the altar there was to be seen a large crucifix. Other ornaments it had none: three or four straw chairs and a little table formed its whole furniture.LIFE OF ST. he did not fail to visit both places from time to time. This room was also adorned by German figures represent ing the different mysteries of the passion on a grand scale. by placing herself in the hands of God and embracing the cross. called the CarWhen he first arrived at Nocera. to the express com to take a short airing he was to be seen before these objects of engaged in his exercises of piety. except the time he went. the . with the roughly made arm chair which he had received as an alms at St. minella. When he returned he sent her a bottle of pure water. humbled herself. so that wherever he turned his eyes. he effected in asylum what several confessors had attempted in vain. Agatha. placed between two others of the divine Shepherd and the Blessed Virgin with the Holy Ghost on her breast. and they both asked each other s forgiveness for their offences. . Villani. they met with objects which served to gratify his devotion. but one of them. telling her after she had done so. her to bear the malady patiently. to the house. in the carriage. and ran and cast herself at the feet of her enemy. though consecrated to God. and she was perfectly cured. this He visited also the asylum. or occu pied in reading and in the composition of his works.

this ous counsels fitted to encourage a soul in desolation. but by going corridor. Villani that he could not en dure it. and so at last he had it taken off the chair. the second containing vari of Man. Bonaventure ments. for for hours the . He went through all the exercises of the community. riot in his chair as at Arienzo.I &quot. and others obliged him this stuff. on the Economy of the Redemption He He added to work two treatises. Margaret of Cortona.456 vicar LIFE OF ST. and had himself brought. on the love of God. The poor were his privileged friends at Nocera . the year of his arrival at Nocera. to the different stations in a long put the finishing stroke to his book on Divine Provi dence. and the methods of acquiring it. but at Nocera although torn. and the and these were its sole orna seraphic St. or rather dragged from the third floor to the his church^ before the visit Blessed there. he gave all the rest to the on the devout prayers and titles commonly given to the Blessed Virgin by the faithful in the litanies and in the as well as from hearing him call the scapular Salve Regina and the rosary childish devotions. to keep while at Arienzo . whereas they are most been dear to me from my religious practices. with some others of St. After he had paid the wages of his servant and his coachman. he devotion to the Blessed Virgin write these few pages from seeing that says himself. that is to say. poor. daily. His bed-room was orna mented with the same kind of pious pictures. was a great pain to him. . and for what the keeping of his horses and his own miserable nourishment cost. Michael. he several times declared to F.&quot. the first. Abbe Rolli (a Calabrian priest) wishes to throw discredit : &quot. ALPHOJN SUS. and have earliest infancy. and as it inflicted a wound on his love of poverty.&quot. At this time he took up also the pen against an enemy of the am determined. making way of the cross he performed which lasted often Sacrament. which he had covered with leather. St.

in and I will never refuse it to you. hastened to offer his most Holy Father. you cannot ask us for any thing which piety is more just. over whelmed by so much kindness. however. and embraced an opportunity of testifying it to him by dedicating to him his work on Divine Providence. he by the present of his works. and testified his satisfaction to him by a brief of the 19th of November. purgatory and antichrist. of the holy fathers. and of theologians. ALPHOJN SUS. he also there treats of private judgment. There also after his return to another work of Alphonsus composed Nocera. a fresh &quot. Alphonsus.LIFE OF ST. 457 Alphonsus was full of gratitude to the Holy Father Pius VI. Pius VI ac cepted this little present. renounced the solici tude and the duties of a bishop. and Pius VI.&quot. which he sent him together with his last writings. hell and such like. in a book entitled Dogmatical Dissertations. you have not. Alphonsus again attacked them in 1776. who was sensible of his gratitude. all said.They are. whose we delight is acknowledging nor to your Congre gation. replied to him in a new brief dated the 16th of December 1776. and convincing proof to us of your inde fatigable zeal in feeding the flock of Jesus Christ as far as lies in your power.&quot. It is a treatise on the sacrifice . as he had over paid for &quot. although you have resigned the episcopate. saying that his thanks were super humble thanks Congregation to the to fluous both as regarded the augmentation of his pension and the dues which were remitted to him. in which he sets forth each of these dogmas in all its parts on the authority of the Scrip ture. and recommended his him. judgment. such as the resurrection. As to the protection of the apostolic see which you implore for the Congregation of the Holy Redeemer. as mere fables. and a short of the used at mass. so that. and speaks of the signs and the circumstances of the end of 39 . altar. As there was no explanation prayers lack of individuals who wished to act like of Jesus Christ on the cross and on the free-thinkers^ and who therefore designated eternal truths.

and thus his opinion in favor of St. JlJphonHis anxieties in regard to the sus labors in its defence. ALPHONSUS. on account of this work viz that there is no dif first. We have rpHESE seen above. and up all kinds of study. of the state of the damned. the world. enjoining it upon those three commisports. and of infants who have died without baptism. to drink the cup of bitterness which God had prepared for him in the continual persecutions to which his beloved Congregation was exposed. published three ordinances.458 LIFE OF ST. Thomas prevailed and the dispute was terminated. After having written three times to the examiner. . work. and that three not over well-intentioned individuals had been commissioned inoo to take information with regard to it and make their re The Marquis of Tanucci. houses in the Pontifical States. of the blessed. at the commencement of cannot now either read or write. Cajone. The Congregation is bitterly persecuted at Naples. Augustine to that He : had to clesiastical . on which subject the examiner wanted him to prefer the doctrine of St. on the 3d of October 1775.&quot. Thomas. though it is the common opinion and secondly. . were the pious and useful occupations of the JL saintly bishop in his retreat at Nocera. in regard to an assertion ference between the love of the blessed in heaven and that of the souls on earth. on several occasions. endure again some opposition from the ec examiner at Naples. moved by incessant calumnious petitions. how fierce. I am troubled I with a constant headache. of St. But he had all the time. in regard to infants who of theologians died without baptism. have been obliged to give CHAPTER XXXI. 1777: for &quot. moreover. how intriguand obstinate were its adversaries.I He was very ill when he published this he wrote to F. he appealed to the archbishop.

and the many &quot.&quot. besides. especially my very heart. fathers at Naples. he used to Persecutions are to the work of God.&quot. In these critical redouble their fury against us.I will not abandon us. and to the documents to the chief ministerial council. subjects of the Congregation who were cast down by the constant fear of being turned out of their houses. and therefore. The enemies of the missionaries already began to glory in their triumph and in the destruction of the Con circumstances. he says: &quot. .. most faults. he will preserve us if What pains me not. which had happened not long before. for our enemies gregation. Do not cease to pray. and wrote a circular to all the houses. in which. . for if you neglect prayer our ruin is certain. ALPHONSUS. but hope am quite contented. The suppression of the Jesuits. as usual. and after having examined every thing. Clare. Pray about the persecution which we endure. If we pray and act as we ought towards God. but I trust in Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin^ who &quot. say : vexations they were daily exposed to. . on the 4th of November. after a compilation of all the proceedings and ac cusations in the council of St. 459 sioners. very serious pression of the Congregation difficulties had arisen between the courts of Naples and . and in the royal council. &quot.because I feel he wrote to the sure that our Lady will In order to comfort the protect us during this storm. Thus Alphonsus was preponderated.LIFE OF ST. . redouble your fervor in prayer. what a storm .&quot. Rome. that of Sommaria. confirmed the forebodings of the speedy sup and. turned to God with redoubled fervor. He recommended himself again to the prayers of several monasteries. not the seeing one of you ill.My very dear brethren.. we shall assuredly be destroyed. I bless against obedience and poverty. Alphonsus despaired of the aid of men. to make all transmit their opinions known to his majesty. among other advice and exhortations. . that rends you all. affected by hope and fear. or even leaving the Congregation I wish him well but to see one commit is . one by one. and which is more in tense now than ever.

and what The advocates and the other magistrates on the missionaries side themselves looked upon their cause as a desperate one when they saw it in the hands of the three persons of whom we have spoken.&quot. &quot. &quot. the procurator advocate. We can see said others. for my . would be Your reverence has again written to tell me that a good plan were I to come and speak to the Marquis of Tanucci. let us keep to put forth . on seeing his Alphon- speedy death. it would at least become extinct with the life of Mgr.&quot.&quot.&quot. I say. helps them deeper roots. and this was cause for new shouts of triumph. one of the commissioners mentioned above. The fathers therefore were anxious to see Alphonsus in Naples. my father. he wrote to impaired health. far from hurting them. Yes. certainly. . The worms which we ought to avoid are faults and volun Let us kiss the walls of our cells. all the more closely united to Jesus Christ. I am ready to give my life to prevent the destruction of this work of God. Liguori. they exclaimed.that when I die all will be ended. but it would require an extreme necessity to justify rny placing it in evident peril. meantime. the houses of Scifelli and Frosi&quot. and had such palpitations of the heart that I thought I should have died. but you well know that I am no Last night I suffered from my longer fit for any thing. proportion to the amount of our persecutions.They say. There is nothing but the worm which can injure plants. had allowed himself to be persuaded by the adversaries they also succeeded in acting on the mind of the prime minister by means of in trigue. &quot. asthma. The adversaries on the other hand. Majone.&quot. and every where said that if the Congregation were not forced to come to an end by the weight of their accusations. and renders them more fruitful.460 is to LIFE OF ST. who had solicited him to come: it &quot. on the 26th of January 1776. and in tary failures. In the * The casuistical tribe now. it trees in winter. ALPHONSUS. . . predicted none. what this kind of people he has for disciples.&quot. Liguori is. to F. and that would be the case sus now. But he answered. is extirpated.

and that this that of God. part.&quot. and it was no sooner made than commissioners were sent with urgent 39* . This decision was and Al phonsus himself appeared to be disconcerted at it. accusing him and his missionaries of laxity. but that it should be rigorously examined in the junta of abuses. This accusation was also of great weight with the Marquis. and representing his doctrine as opposed to the Gospel and de structive both to church and state.) in making an impression on the mind of the Marquis of Tanucci.LIFE OP ST. succeeded. and considered it as an insurmountable barrier. But he rejected all these pro positions with horror. : have seen not a chief superior of the Congregation. as it has done for Fear nothing. till then The affairs of the Congregation had become still more involved by the two following circumstances. and the event will show but too well that he had indeed prophesied. Its enemies by attacking anew the doctrine of Alphonsus. 461 Congregation. will &quot. and that they should also preach Latin sermons. which is not my work but endure after my death. to the accuse the missionaries of having carried money from kingdom into the Pa