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absence, unauthorized, 6 see also escapes abuse, allegations of, 69 Adams, John, 109 admission records, 9 after-care for mentally deficient, 67–8, 74 for mentally ill, 109–23 age structure, workhouse, 83 agency of mentally deficient, 71, 72 of mentally ill patients, 7–8 of prisoners, 7 in public libraries, 134 air, need for, 21–2, 26, 33, 57, 87 airing courts, 11, 55–7, 58 alcohol consumption excessive, 54 and insanity, 114 in workhouse, 86, 87 Alderson, Charles, 48 Alexandra Orphanage (Hornsey Rise), 21 alienists, 7, 56, 58, 59, 63 see also psychiatrists All the Year Round, 98 Allen, William, 105 Allpress, Flowers, 48 Altman, Irwin, 20 Andover workhouse, 37 Andrews, Jonathan, 52, 53 apomorphine,71 apprenticeships, 83 Archbishop Tenison’s Library and School, 80, 81 architecture and design asylums, 51–3, 54, 56, 59, 61, 106

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halls of residence, 157, 159–61, 166 public libraries, 130–1, 133, 134 Rowton Houses, 93–4 universities, 157 armed forces accommodation for, 2 and masculinity, 14 privacy and privilege, 24 servicemen’s accommodation, 144–5 and social identity, 12 women in, 13, 14, 141–54 Army Council, 144 art, displayed in Rowton Houses, 96–7 Ashby, Eric, 165 assaults in prisons, 27 in Rowton Houses, 105 in workhouses, 88 Association for the Improvement of the Infirmaries of Workhouses, 38–9 asylums, 2, 4, 5, 6, 51–64 airing courts/exercise yards, 11, 55, 57, 58 architecture and design, 51–3, 54, 56, 59, 61, 106 continuity of care after discharge, 111, 118–19 county, 3 depictions of interiors, 18 economy and self-sufficiency, 54 furnishing and decoration, 10, 11, 58, 59, 60, 64 gardens, 11 gender in, 14, 52, 53 girls from Waverley Park discharged to, 74

– 213 –

214

Residential Institutions in Britain, 1725–1970 bedsteads, iron, 21 beer, for sick, 38, 42, 43 behaviour institutions designed to influence, 4, 8 regulation of, 6 space and regulation of, 55–8 violent, 27, 77, 88, 105 see also resistance behavioural problems, 68, 69, 87 Bentham, Jeremy, 5 Berwick, George, 85 Bethnal Green workhouse, 39 Beveridge, Allan, 122 Bexley asylum, 8, 53–64 Birmingham University, 156 The Birth of the Clinic (Foucault), 52 Black, Alistair, 133 Black, John, xii, 6, 8, 9, 79–91 Bland, Lucy, 154 blasphemy, 86 Blunt, Alison, 30 Board of Control for Scotland, 67, 68, 69, 70, 76, 77 Board of Lunacy, 69 boarding schools, 4 Boer Wars, 2, 61, 143 bondage, 42 Booth, Charles, 18 Borough of Marylebone Mercury, 49 Borsay, Anna, 65 borstals, 3 Boulton, Jeremy, xii, 6, 8, 9, 79–91 Bourdieu, P., 36 box beds, 21 Boyd, Kelly, 154 bribes, 86, 87 Bridewell penal institution, 85, 87, 88 Bristol University, 156 Brown, Alyson, 7 Brown, James, 7 bullying, at Waverley Park, 72 Burdett, Henry, 56 Burleigh, Horace W., 103 cadging, 105–6 Calder, Anna, 72 Caldwell House Certified Institution, 74

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bachelor life, 98 Bailey, Peter, 136 Baird, Jane, 72 Baldovan Asylum, 66 Baldwin, Stanley, 156 Bard family, 115 Barnardo, Thomas, 24, 30 barracks, 4, 143, 145, 150 Barrett, Jane, 88 Barter, Edwin James, 47 bastardy, 87, 88–9 bathrooms, 19 librarians’, 131 see also washing facilities Battersea Library, 130 bed, being sent to, 76 bed-sharing, 82, 88 Bedlam, 90 bedrooms halls of residence, 151, 152, 161 pictorial representation of, 21 WAAC, 148 see also sleeping spaces

London County Council, 51–64 and mentally defective children, 66 nursing in, 57, 59, 61–2, 63 patient numbers, 54 private madhouses, 82, 88 proliferation of, 53–4, 63, 80 relapse and readmission, 118, 119, 122 resistance in, 7–8 role of Victorian, 53–4 Scottish, 73 segregation in, 55 as shelters for women, 116, 120, 122 shift to mental hospitals, 52, 59–63 single accommodation for difficult patients, 24 space in, 9–10 stigma of, 59 villa system, 12, 51–2, 59, 60, 61, 63 voices of residents, 9 see also mental hospitals Attfield, Judy, 10, 94 Australia, asylums in, 52 Ayahs’ Home (Hackney), 26, 27, 29 Ayr District Asylum, 62

Index Cambridge University, 155, 156, 157, 158, 163, 164, 165, 166 Camden Town Rowton House, 1, 13, 93 Campbell, Agnes, 73 camps, WAAC, 141, 144, 148, 150, 153, 154 cancer, 39 carceral institutions, 4, 5, 6 control and resistance, 6–8 voluntary entry, 8 Cardiff University, 162, 164 care homes children’s, 6 for mentally deficient girls, 65–77 Careless, Mrs, 110 Carmarthen Gaol, 7 Carnegie, Thomas, 127 carpets, 58, 64, 160 Casella, Eleanor Conlin, 3 Cavallo, Sandra, 3, 11 Central Association for Mental Welfare Public Health Congress, 116 Chadwick, Edwin, 36 Channon, John, 45 charity for convalescent mental patients, 109–23 depictions of shelter interiors, 18 Waverley Park as, 73 Charity Organization Review, 105 Chelsea public library, 130 Chesler, Phyllis, 62 children abuse of, 88 access to relatives, 73–4 disabled, 65 institutions for, 6 mentally deficient, 65–77 in workhouse, 79, 83, 84 Children Act (1908), 67 children’s homes for mentally deficient, 65–77 modelled on ideal family, 12 outdoor space in, 11 cholera, 39 Christmas, 35 church attendance, 73, 86 Church of England, halls of residence, 158 cinema visits, 73 citizenship

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definitions of, 65 and feeble-minded, 73, 77 civic buildings, libraries as, 126, 127 civic pride, 69 civic universities, 8, 12, 13, 125, 155–66 Clapham library, 131 Clark, Anna, 7 Clark, Frank, 104 class 19th-century class relationships, 95 and design of institutions, 19 and environment, 27 identity, 19 influence of institutions on, 12–13, 15 and interior spaces, 18 and librarians, 127, 133–4, 136 and WAAC recruitment, 143 in workhouse, 82, 86–7 Claybury asylum, 8, 53–8, 61 Clicker, Henry William, 45 clothing asylum patients’, 10 burning of foul, 86 in Hampstead Smallpox Hospital, 43 and identity, 13, 19 selling as rags, 71–2 tearing of, 7 in Waverley Park, 69–70 clubs as extra-familial space, 11, 94, 98 grand design of gentlemen’s, 134 Cobbett, William, 37 Cohen, Deborah, 94 Coleborne, Catharine, 52 colleges, Oxbridge, 163, 164, 166 ‘colony’ principle, 66 Colville, Quintin, 13, 94 commercial interiors, 20 Commissioners in Lunacy, 55, 56, 57 Common Metropolitan Poor Rate, 39 community probationary release into, 117 psychiatric care in, 111, 121, 122 release of inmates into, 69 return to the, 5, 12 conformity, 5 Connaught Club, 144 convalescent homes, 2, 6, 11, 12

216

Residential Institutions in Britain, 1725–1970 Dalton Hall (Manchester), 158 dances, 73, 153 Dartmouth Naval Training College, 13 Daunton, Martin, 94 Davidoff, Leonore, 94 Davies, W. H., 102 Davin, Anna, 29 dayrooms asylum, 56 Rowton Houses, 99 death rates, workhouse, 82 decoration see furnishings and decoration degeneracy, 54, 59 delinquency, and defectiveness, 65 demobilizations, 85, 150, 153 Dendy, Mary, 74 Denham, Mary, 88 Denton, Albert Emerson, 42 department stores, 2, 20, 134 deterrence, 4 Diary of a Nobody, 136 Dibelius, Wilhelm, 163 Dickens, Charles, Oliver Twist, 35, 37, 38 Dickers, Stefan, 139 Digby, Anne, 52 dining rooms librarians’, 131 photographic depiction of, 21 WAAC, 145, 148 disabled children, incarceration of, 65, 68 discipline at Waverley Park, 69, 71, 75–6 function in local prisons, 6–7 in Rowton Houses, 105 varieties of practice, 5–6 in WAAC, 149, 152 in workhouses, 87, 88 Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Foucault), 5, 9, 52 discretion, role in decision-making, 7 Disraeli, Benjamin, 93 domestic environment, 11–12 in cottage homes, 110, 111, 112–13, 114, 115, 117, 119–20 idealized, 17, 94 and identity, 10, 19 institutional, 94 in librarians’ apartments, 134, 139

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differences between general and cottage homes, 114, 119 for recovering mentally ill, 6, 61, 109–23 convalescents in Bexley Asylum, 61 in Hampstead Smallpox Hospital, 42 convents, 4 convicts, Australia, 9 cooking facilities see kitchens corporal punishment, at Waverley Park, 71, 75 cottage homes, 11, 12, 61, 109–23 as bridge between asylum and home, 110–11, 112, 118, 120, 121, 123 extension of observation beyond, 118–19 homely environment in, 112–16 length of stay, 113 location of, 113 management of, 117–19 as more homely than patients’ own residences, 116 not purpose-built, 110 patients’ responses to, 119–22, 123 psychiatric care in, 117–18 readmissions to, 121–2 refusal of places in, 119, 120–1, 123 relapsed patients in, 118, 121 small number of patients in, 113 country cottages, attributes of, 148 Cox, Pamela, 65, 69, 70, 72, 76 Crewe Hall (Sheffield), 165 cricket, 57, 149, 153 crime at Rowton Houses, 102, 103, 105, 107 and incarceration, 2 Crimean War, 2 criminality, 54 Cronin, Jennifer, 113 Crook, Tom, 21, 99 Crossick, Geoffrey, 94 Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 32 cubicles, sleeping, 20, 21, 22, 99, 102–3, 104–5, 107, 145, 149, 152 for couples’, 22, 23 individual, 24 Daily News, 39 Dale, Pamela, 66

Index Victorian middle-class, 19, 139 in WAAC accommodation, 145, 148, 150 domestic service, for mentally deficient girls, 74–5 domestication, and madness, 11 dormitories photographic depiction of, 20, 21 WAAC, 145, 150 see also sleeping spaces Douglas, Mary, 32 Dowling, Robyn, 30 drawing rooms, librarians’, 130–1 Driver, Felix, 10 drugs, used to control inmates, 69, 71 Dupree, Marguerite, 77

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exercise, as therapy, 56, 57 exercise yards, 11, 55, 100 Exeter University, 156, 158, 160, 161, 164

Factories, 5 family homes break up of, 75 of chief librarians, 129, 134, 135, 136, 137 children’s homes modelled on ideal, 12 comparison with institutional environment, 11 cottage homes modelled on, 116 Rowton Houses compared to, 103–4 transfer of care to institutions from, 80 family life constraints of, 165, 166 East Grinstead Sisterhood, 40 idealized, 17 East Ham public library, 135–6 as model for institutions, 24 East Ham Urban District Council, 128 of public librarians, 131–2 East Sussex Asylum, 51 and social stability, 17, 30 Easterbrook, Dr C.C., 62 total institutions work in opposition to, 4 eating areas, 18, 21, 131, 145, 148 family units, accommodation in residential Edginton, Barry, 52 institutions for, 18 education Farrant, Richard, 94 compulsory, 65, 66 Father Jay’s Lodging House (Shoreditch), for feeble-minded, 66–7, 68, 70–1 30–2 higher, 156 Federation of Conservative Students, 162 and public libraries, 125, 126 feeble-mindedness, 67, 76 for women/girls, 13, 85, 165 femininity working-class, 12–13 constructions of, 13, 142, 148 see also schools; universities martial, 14, 142, 148, 149, 153, 154 Edwards, John Passmore, 127 military life and erosion of, 143, 147 Egan, Matt, 66, 67, 68 see also women eggs, for sick, 46 Ferguson, Anna, 72 elderly, in workhouse, 79, 82, 83 First World War, 2, 11 electric lighting, 22 and concepts of masculinity, 14 Elementary Education (Scotland) (Defective Kitchener’s New Armies, 145 and Epileptic Children) Act (1906), 66 women’s auxiliary units, 14, 141–54 entertainment, at Waverley Park, 73 Fisher, Fiona, xii, 3, 11–12, 17–33, 100 entrance halls, 20 Fleming, Mrs, 121 epileptics, 68, 72, 74, 75 food escapes, 8 Christmas, 35 from Waverley Park, 71, 72, 76, 77, 89 complaints about, 8 from workhouses, 90, 91 in cottage homes, 120 eugenics, 65, 67 in Hampstead Smallpox Hospital, 10, evangelicalism, 94 35–7, 43–7, 48, 49 Evangelisti, Silvia, 3, 11 for invalids, 45–6

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Residential Institutions in Britain, 1725–1970 domestic chores in, 70 for mentally deficient in Scotland, 66–77 misbehaviour in, 8 Gittins, Diana, 116, 120, 122 Glasgow Association for the Care of Defective and Feeble-Minded Children, 66, 73 Glasgow Herald, 69, 73 Glasgow Royal Asylum (Gartnavel), 67 Glasgow School Board, 75 Goffman, Erving, 4, 5, 6, 14 Golden Jubilee (1887), 126 Govan Poor House, 74 graffiti, prison, 9 Grant, Margaret, 72 Green, David, 7, 79, 85, 87, 88 Greenwood, James, 39 Grieve, Dr Robert, 40, 43, 46, 47 Griffiths, Major Arthur, 26–7 gruel, 37 guardianship, 74 Guiness Trust, 93 Guyatt, Mary, 11 Gwynne-Vaughan, Helen, 144, 147, 151 Hall, Catherine, 94 halls of residence application to, 161 at civic universities, 155–66 benefits of, 162–3 class issues, 163–4 cliques in, 162 compared with family homes, 10, 11, 12, 157, 164–6 and creation of academic community, 157, 158–9, 162 as defining part of university life, 158–9 design, decor and furnishing of, 10, 157, 159–61, 166 growth in, 157 origins of, 158 reform of, 162 rejection of life in, 162, 166 and religious groups, 158 routine and regulations, 160, 162 and social identity, 13 space in, 6, 8, 10 stratification of, 161

in Rowton Houses, 102, 104, 105 in WAAC, 150, 152 in workhouses, 35, 37, 38 see also dining-rooms; kitchens; refectories football, 57, 64 Forsythe, Bill, 52 Foucault, Michel, 5, 8, 9–10, 14, 21, 52, 62 Fowle, Elizabeth, 43, 44 Fraser, Dr Kate, 67, 71 furnishings and decoration, 10 in asylums, 58, 59, 60 in halls of residence, 160–1, 166 personalization of, 29–32 photographic depiction of, 18, 20–1, 24–9 for public librarians’, 133 in WAAC, 145, 148, 150, 151–2 for women, 12 Galloway, Helen, 75 gardens hospital and asylum, 11, 57, 61 public library, 133 Rowton Houses, 100, 101 WAAC camps, 148 Waverley Park, 70 Gardiner, E. G., 113, 116 Gee, Emily, 95 gender and cottage homes, 114–15, 123 and design of institutions, 19 differences, 5, 24–6 and environment, 27 identity, 13–14, 19, 57 and mental illness, 14, 52, 53 and power relationships, 10 and public libraries, 126 and space, 57–8 studies, 13 and WAAC quarters, 142, 154 in workhouses, 85 see also masculinity; segregation; women; femininity General Mixed Workhouse, 83 Germany, asylums in, 61 Gibson, May, 151 girls’ homes

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Index student experience of, 157 to attract students from further afield, 158 traditions in, 162, 163 for women, 158, 160 Halsey, A. H., 157 Hamlett, Jane, xi, 1–15, 20, 64, 93–107 Hammersmith Rowton House, 20, 93, 99–100, 101, 106 Hampstead Smallpox Hospital, 6, 10, 35–50 allegations of mismanagement and inquiry, 40–1, 48–50 complaints about, 41–3, 47 diet in, 10, 35–7, 43–7, 48, 49 lack of cleanliness, 43, 47, 48 Hanway, Jonas, 82, 90 hard labour, 85, 88 Harris, Bernard, 77 Harrison, Miss (nurse), 47 Harrison’s private madhouse, 82 Hatcher, Thomas, 47 Hawkins, Henry, 112, 113, 119 Hawkins, Thomas, 88 Head, Sir Francis Bond, 37 Heath Asylum see Bexley Asylum Herklots, H. C. G., 159 Hewitt, Henry J., 125 Heywood, Colin, 77 Hicks, Dan, 166 Hide, Louise, xii–xiii, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 22, 26, 51–64, 111, 115, 117 Highwood House infant poor-house (London), 83, 86 Hine, George T., 51, 54, 56, 59, 61 Hitchcock, Tim, 79, 94 Hoggart, Richard, 160, 166 holiday villas, WAAC housed in, 144 Holloway Prison, 26–7 infirmary, 21 recreation room for wardresses, 26, 27, 28 home 19th-century ideas of, 94 asylums embody architectural features of, 61 feeling at, 12, 99, 102, 103, 107, 110, 120 halls of residence as better than, 157, 164–6

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identity construction of self and group, 20 and domestic interiors, 19 individual and collective, 142 individual and familial, 30

institutions presentation as, 11–12 libraries as, 130–4 meaning and emotions of, 30 middle-class, 132 as moral centre for family life, 17 and social stability, 29–30 spaces and places for men outside, 11, 13 support at, 121 workhouse as antithesis of, 36 see also family homes Home Office certified schools, 76 home-making, 30, 32, 33 home-working, 22, 29 homosexuality, 88, 104 Horton Asylum, 54, 58, 59 Hosgood, Christopher, 13, 138 Hoskins, Lesley, xi, 1–15, 64, 107 hospitals, 6 acute asylum, 59, 61, 62, 63 charity, 36 fever, 8, 13, 36 gardens, 11 infectious disease, 6, 35–50 mental, 52, 59–63 metropolitan infirmary reform, 38–9 public, 2, 82 voluntary, 2, 80 workhouse, 81, 109 see also asylums hostels post-war, 112, 123 university, 158 WAAC housed in, 144, 147, 150, 153 hotels, WAAC housed in, 144 Houlbrook, Matt, 104 Hull University, 156, 160, 161 humanitarians, 38 Humphries, Steve, 65, 69 Hunt, Samuel, 89 Hunter, Lily, 72 Hutchinson, Iain, 66, 77 hygienic regulation, 22, 33, 149

220

Residential Institutions in Britain, 1725–1970 institutions definition of, 3 total, 4, 6 interiors design of asylum, 58 institutional, 17–33 personalizing, 29–32 see also furnishings and decoration Ireland, Richard, 7 isolation, as punishment, 76 James, Colonel Lionel, 103–4 Jamieson, Theresa, 72 Jay, Rev. Osborne, 30–2 Johansen, Michelle, xiii, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 125–39 Johnstone, Helen, 7 Johnstone, Thomas, 45 Jones, Peter, 91 Jones, Dr Robert, 56–7, 58, 63 Jones, Simon, 154 Jones, Thomas, 46–7 journalism and reporting of inmates response, 6 representation of institutions, 3, 17–33 and Rowton Houses, 95, 96 juvenile delinquents, institutionalized resistance by, 7 juvenile justice system, 65 Keele University, 161, 163 Kelley, Victoria, 94 Kerr, Matthew L. Newsom, xiii, 6, 8, 10, 35–50 King, Peter, 94 King’s Cross Rowton House, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106 Kirkintilloch School Board, 71 Kitchener, Horatio Herbert, Lord, 145 kitchens photographic depictions of, 18, 20, 29 Rowton Houses, 105 Knight, Rex, 157 Koven, Seth, 95 Kynaston, Albert, 46 labour, institutional, 22, 26, 29 in asylums, 54

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of servicewomen, 148, 153 idiots, 67, 68 Ignatieff, Michael, 4, 5 imbecility, 65, 67, 68 immigrants, homes for, 18 incarceration, 4 incomes, early 1890s, 135 industrial schools, 2, 70 Industrial Schools Act (1866), 67 industrial training, for mentally deficient, 67 industry, workhouse-based, 82 initiation rituals, 160, 163 inmates access to relatives, 73–4 after leaving institutions, 5, 67–8 allegations of abuse, 69 choice over entry to institutions, 3–4 enforced pauperism, 36 experience of, 12 institutions as places of refuge for, 66, 75–6 interaction with environments, 15 positions of responsibility, 70 release into community, 69 resistance by, 7–8, 71–2, 77 Rowton House residents referred to as, 106 subcultures, 7 voices of, 8–9 workhouse, 83–90 see also residents ‘Inquiry into Matters Arising out of the Methods of Discipline Used at Waverley Park Certified Institution’, 69 insanity and boarding out in the community, 66 and domestication, 11 expansion of boundaries of, 52 in girls, 68 and incarceration, 52 rise in, 53–4 study of, 52–3 see also mental illness institutional environments, 9–12, 14 depiction of, 17–33 institutional life Brian Lunn and, 1–2 characteristics of, 3

Index lady visitors, 38 Laing, R. D., 7 Lambeth workhouse, 39 Lancet, 38, 49, 96, 98, 99 Land Army, 141, 154 landscape, regenerative qualities of, 11 Larbert National Institution, 66 laundries asylum, 57–8 in halls of residence, 160 in Hampstead Smallpox Hospital, 43 photographic depiction of, 24, 25, 26 in Waverley Park, 70 in workhouses, 81 leave of absence, from workhouse, 86 Leeds University, 156, 159, 160 Lees, Lynn Hollen, 30 Leicester University, 156, 158, 160, 161 leisure activities in asylums, 56, 57, 64 at Waverley Park, 71 see also dances; needlework; sport Lennox Castle Certified Institution, 73, 74, 76 letters, from asylum patients, 9 Lewisham public library, 135, 136 librarians benefits of residence for, 138, 139 competition for posts, 132, 137 extension activities of, 134 family background of, 137, 138 hours of work/responsibilities, 128 identification with their libraries, 129–30, 134 income, 135, 137 London, 8, 9, 10, 13, 125 married life of, 129 non-residential accommodation of, 129, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139 offices of, 133 reasons for residency, 128 relatively lowly origin of majority, 136–7, 139 residential accommodation, 12, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130–4 social identity, 13, 126, 127, 133–4, 136–7, 139 standard of living, 10

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libraries, circulating and subscription, 125 libraries, public, 2, 6, 125–39 budgets of, 127–8 design of, 130–1, 133, 134 division between domestic and workspace, 130 expansion of rate-assisted, 125, 126, 127 financing of, 135 furnishing and décor, 133 location of, 132–3 London, 8, 9, 11, 125–39 meeting of institution and home in, 127 as universities of the people, 125 library commissioners, 127, 128, 129, 132, 136 Library journal, 130 Life and Labour of the People in London (Booth), 18 light, need for, 26, 33 Liverpool University, 155, 156, 160, 162, 165 Livesey, Ruth, 95 Living London, 11–12, 17–33, 96, 100 lockers, 103 lodging houses common, 22, 93, 98, 105, 106 for couples, 22, 23 depictions of interiors, 18 furnishings and decoration, 10, 14 London County Council, 21–2 model, 95, 106 philanthropic, 2, 6 for poor single men, 8 single women’s (Spitalfields), 29 and social identity, 13 space in, 10, 11 for working men, 24, 93–4 see also Father Jay’s; Rowton Houses London City Mission, 29 London Congregational Union, 21 London County Council (LCC) asylums, 10, 11, 51–64 Asylums Committee, 54 municipal lodging house (Parker Street), 21–2, 29 London Journal, 54 London Society, 93 Long Grove Asylum, 54

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Residential Institutions in Britain, 1725–1970 Measures, Harry, 106 meat served at Hampstead Smallpox Hospital, 43, 44, 45 in workhouses, 37 medical assistance, depauperization of, 50 Medical Press and Circular, 41 medical superintendents, 40, 46, 56, 118 Medical Times and Gazette, 49 medico-legal power, 65 Medland Hall (Limehouse), 21 Melling, Joseph, 52 men convalescent homes for, 114 forge parallel domesticities outside the home, 11, 94, 98 girls consorting with, 71, 72, 76 relations of WAAC with, 142, 146–7, 151, 153 seek respite from social pressures in institutions, 122 Mental After-Care Association (MACA), 9, 109–23 mental deficiency and institutionalization, 65–77 manufacture of in Scotland, 67 Mental Deficiency and Lunacy (England and Scotland) Acts (1913), 2, 65, 66–7, 68, 74, 75 mental hospitals after care, 111, 122, 123 nursing in, 117, 118 relapse and readmission to, 118, 121 shift from asylums to, 52, 59–63 see also asylums mental illness, 2, 6 active participation of mental health service users, 9 convalescent homes, 6, 61, 109–23 and incarceration, 52 increase in, 53–4, 63 increasingly professional system of psychiatric surveillance, 120 medicalization of, 59 symptoms of, 7 treatment of, 59 Mental Treatment Act (1930), 119 Mental Welfare, 114

Lord, J. R., 59 Lowe, Roy, 157 lunacy see insanity Lunacy Act (1890), 119 lunatic asylums see asylums Lunn, Brian, 1–2, 3, 4, 13 MACA see Mental After-Care Association McDonald, Mary, 71–2 MacDougall, David, 19 MacDougall, Helen, 74–5 McGregor, Alison, 69 McGregor, Helen, 72 McInnes, Jessie, 70 Mackenzie, William, 102, 105–6 MacKinnon, Dolly, 52 Mclaren, Helen, 72 madness see insanity; mental illness Madness and Civilisation (Foucault), 52 ‘maimed’ holiday meal, 35 Malthusianism, 37 management records, 9 Manchester Guardian, 96 Manchester University, 156, 158, 161 Manor Asylum (Epsom), 55 Marland, Hilary, 64 married couples cubicles for, 22, 23 in WAAC, 153 workhouse quarters for, 30 Martin, Mary Clare, xiii, 6, 11, 12, 65–77 Martin, Sarah, 7 masculinity military, 148 study of, 13–14 Victorian notions of, 63 material culture, 94 material goods, 10, 14, 94, 99 material life, studies of, 10 maternity care, 39, 82 matrons cottage homes, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117–18, 119, 123 Waverley Park, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77 workhouses, 86 Maudsley, Henry, 64 Mayhew, Henry, 29

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Index Merryflatts asylum (Govan), 74 mess facilities, 148, 151, 153 Metropole Hotel (Folkestone), 144 Metropolitan Asylum Board (MAB), 36, 47, 48 Hampstead Smallpox Hospital, 6, 10, 35–50 hospitals have legal status as workhouse establishments, 36 origins of, 39 Metropolitan Poor Act (1867), 36, 39 middle-class, 13 at Rowton Houses, 102 domesticity, 19, 27, 94, 145 and private space, 21 status of librarians, 131, 132, 136–7 and WAAC, 149, 151–2 Midgley, Clare, 154 military quarters parlours and drawing rooms, 10 space in, 10 for women, 6, 10, 14, 141–54 milk, for sick, 45, 46 Miller, Daniel, 94 Milman, Rev. H. H., 36 Milne-Smith, Amy, 11, 94 Ministry of Labour, 147 M’Laren, Charles, 46 Monasteries, 4 moral imbeciles, 67, 68 moral inspection/management, 5, 52, 55–6, 57, 61, 63, 66 Moran, James E., 9, 53, 64 morgue, parish, 81 Morning Post, 35, 49 Morse, Elizabeth, 157 Moss, Stella, 107 munitions workers, 141, 142 Myers, Kelvin, 66

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Oastler, Richard, 37 off-shore hulks, 2 officers’ quarters, 94 Old Bailey, 102, 103, 104 Old Poor Law, 87 Oliver Twist (Dickens), 35, 37, 38 Oram, Alison, 154 orphanages depictions of interiors, 18, 21, 24, 25 gender differences in, 24–6 orphans, boarded out in the community, 66 Ottaway, Susannah, 107 outdoor spaces, 11, 57, 58, 61 see also airing courts; exercise yards; gardens outpatient clinics, 122 outside world contact with, 4, 5, 6, 58

needlework, 22, 58, 70 New Armies, Kitchener’s, 145 New Poor Law, 2, 35, 36, 37, 39, 79, 87, 90 Newcastle Weekly Courant, 98 Newington Butts Rowton House, 93, 102 Newington public library, 132 Newman, Thomas, 88 Newport Market Refuge for the Destitute, 47 Nicholls, William, 88 Nightingale, Florence, 38, 39 Nissen huts, 147–8, 161, 163 Noel, Conrad, 104, 105 Nolan, Peter, 117 nomadism, 29, 32 Nottingham University, 156, 160 nursemaids, homes for foreign, 26, 27, 29 nurses army, 143 in asylums, 57, 59, 61–2, 63 children as, 83 in cottage homes, 117 in Hampstead Smallpox Hospital, 40, 41–2, 47 parish, 82 for paupers, 38, 41–2 recovered patients as, 42 women as asylum, 14, 61–2, 63, 117–18 in workhouses, 82, 86, 87

Napoleonic Wars, 85, 91 National Health Service, 68 National Service Department, Women’s Section (WS), 145, 147 National Union of Students, 158 National Waifs Association, 24 naval cadets, 13 Neate, John, 105

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Residential Institutions in Britain, 1725–1970 Ponsonby, Margaret, 94 poor institutional suppression of, 13 residential institutions for, 2 voice of, 94 poor law, 2, 3, 7, 35, 39, 49, 53, 79, 87, 90 Poor Law Board, 44–5, 46 Poor Law Commission, 37 poor relief in Scotland, 66 and workhouse conditions, 90 Poplar public library, 132, 133 Porter, Roy, 52, 119 porters Rowton Houses, 102–3, 104, 105 Workhouse, 86, 89–90 possessions, personal, 32 poverty and mental illness, 54 Victorian ideas of, 30 power relationships, 5, 6–7, 14 and gender, 10 and privacy, 20 of residential librarians, 139 and space, 10 prayers in halls of residence, 160 in workhouses, 86 prefabricated huts, 148 Preston, Rebecca, xi–xii, 1–15, 20, 64, 93–107 Prior, Lindsay, 52 prison officers, role of, 7 prison studies, 6–7 prisons, 2, 4, 6 airing courts/exercise yards, 11 control and resistance in, 6–7 depictions of interiors, 18 disturbances in, 7 Foucault on, 5 local, 6–7 narratives, 9 see also Holloway privacy and class, 22, 24 and identity, 20 need for, 21 regulation of, 33

relationship of Waverley Park with, 73–5, 77 release into community, 69 and workhouse inmates, 90 overcrowding 8, 54, 63, 91 Overy, Paul, 33 Owen, Thomas, 44, 45 Owens College (Manchester), 156 Oxford University, 155, 156, 157, 158, 163, 164, 165, 166 paedophilia, 88 Pall Mall Gazette, 133 Palmer, James George, 47 Panopticon/panopticism, 5 paper flower-making, 29 parish aid, 36, 47, 80 parish lunatics, 88 parish workhouses, 80 Parker Street lodging house, 22, 29 Parliamentary Committee on Vagrancy, 105 parlours, 10, 12, 27, 29 recreational spaces modelled on, 26 parole, 69 Partridge, Arthur, 42, 44 pathways, covered, 144, 148 pauper farms, 2 paupers being treated as, 8, 13, 36, 41, 43, 45–6, 47–8, 49, 50 Christmas feast, 35 protests by, 85 voices of, 39 and workhouses, 36–7, 79–91 Peers, Edgar Allison see Truscot, Bruce penal colonies, 7 penal system, 2, 5 penitentiaries, 2 personalization, of institutional space, 10, 30 Peters, William Charles, 43, 44, 45 philanthropy, 2, 93, 95, 158 Philo, Chris, 10, 115 photographic depictions, of residential institutions, 11–12, 17–33 Pickford, Dorothy, 150, 151 picnics, 58 Pilgrim, David, 119 Plaistow public library, 134

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Index and respectability, 13, 22 in Rowton Houses, 98, 99, 104–5 visual and acoustic, 24 in WAAC, 151, 152 privileges, loss of, 76 ‘problem people’, 6, 53 prostitution, 54 psychiatrists, 62 see also alienists public health, 36, 49 public houses, 20 Public Libraries Act (1850), 126, 128 public schools, 2 athletics, 3 house system, 3 punishment at Waverley Park, 71, 75–6, 77 exercise of power through, 5 in WAAC, 152 in workhouses, 87, 88 Quakers, halls of residence, 158

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Ravenscourt Park Library (Hammersmith), 131, 133 Rawling, Katherine, 15 Rayner, Henry, 114 reading rooms public, 125 Rowton Houses, 96, 98 Reading University, 156, 158, 161, 163 recreational spaces in asylums, 57 in halls of residence, 151–2, 153, 161 photographic depictions of, 18, 26–7, 28, 29 in Rowton Houses, 96–7 in WAAC, 145, 148 redbrick universities, 8, 12, 13, 125, 155–66 refectories, 20–1 reformatories, 2, 4 for girls, 69 reformers, 38 refuge halls, 21 refuge, places of, 66, 116, 120–1, 122 rehabilitation, 4 of mentally ill, 111 relatives

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access to children, 73–4 contact with asylum inmates, 111 inability to cope with mentally deficient, 75 lack of caring, 121 return of escapees by, 89 religious instruction in asylums, 56 in workhouses, 86 residential institutions architectural styles, 106 definition of, 3 and fashioning of social identity, 12–14 indifference to aims of, 8 photographic depictions of, 11–12, 17–33 positive expectations of, 8 presentation as homes, 11–12 temporary care in, 109 see also by type residents of cottage homes, 119–22 experience of, 12 feelings and behaviour, 4 interaction between, 103, 104 as paying guests, 98, 99 range of outcomes for, 6 resistance by, 7–8 Rowton Houses, 100–6 voices of, 8–9 of WAAC quarters, 150–3 see also inmates resistance, 6–8 at Waverley Park, 71–2 and carceral institutions, 7–8, 14 in workhouse, 36, 85–7, 89 restraint, use in hospitals, 42 Review of Reviews, 102 Richardson, Charles J., 81 Robert, Krisztina, xiii–xiv, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 141–54 Roberts, Alec, 27 Rogers, Anne, 119 Rogers, Helen, 7, 8–9, 15 Rose, Jonathan, 132 Rosebery, Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of, 156 routine

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at Rowton Houses, 106 importance of, 56 precisely timetabled, 5 Rowen, Lawrence, 88 Rowold, Katharina, 154 Rowton, Montagu Corry, Lord, 20, 93–4, 96 Rowton Houses (London), 1, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 93–107 decoration and furnishing, 96–7, 98, 99, 102, 107 design and accommodation in, 93–4 discipline in, 105 domesticity of, 95, 97–8, 99, 107 as example of class-crossing, 95, 98, 102, 103 experience of residents within, 100–6, 107 as institutions for working men, 93–5 MACA and access to, 114 material culture, 94–5, 99 more like hotels than common lodging houses, 98 photographic depiction of, 20, 95–6, 97, 99–100, 101, 107 portrayal in press, 95, 96, 97–9, 100, 106–7 privacy in, 98, 99, 104–5, 107 psychiatric care in, 122 rules and regulations, 94, 99, 107 self-supporting nature of, 93 Roxby, H. Thornhill, 117 Royal Commission on Lunacy and Mental Disorder, 117 Royal Engineers, 144, 151 Royal Institute of British Architects, 51 Royal Western Counties Institution in Devon (Starcross), 66, 70–1, 75, 76 Rutland Hall (Loughborough), 159–60

St Marylebone workhouse, 30, 84 Salmon, James, 48 Samuel, Raphael, 127 Sanderson, Michael, 156 Sandlebridge colony, 74 sanitary requirements, 21 in isolation hospitals, 49 in metropolitan pauper infirmaries, 38, 43, 47 school boards, 66, 67, 69, 71 school masters/mistresses, accommodation for, 12 schools, 5 boarding, 4 boys’, 13–14 district, 2 girls’, 13 Home Office certified, 76 industrial, 2, 70 and mental deficiency, 66–7, 70–1 night-, 157 public, 2 reformatory, 70 and social identity, 12–13 workhouse, 81, 84, 86 Schwarz, Leonard, 91 Scotland, mentally defective girls in, 65–77 Scull, Andrew, 52, 56, 59 Second World War, 2 segregation, 19 in armed forces, 143, 146–7, 154 in asylums, 55, 115 in cottage homes, 114–15, 123 of mentally deficient from outside world, 66 in workhouse, 82, 88 self, sense of, 32, 142 self-improvement, 6, 137 self-scrutiny, 5 self-sufficiency, asylums, 54 St Anselm’s Hall (Manchester), 158, 161 servants’ quarters, 4 St Martin-in-the-Fields public library, 133 sexual relations St Martin-in-the-Fields workhouse, 8, 79–91 in Rowton Houses, 104, 107 built structure and internal organization in workhouses, 88 of space, 80–3 Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th inmates’ behaviour, 87–9 Earl of, 93 Sharpe, Pamela, 94 population of, 83–5 sheds, workhouse, 82 rules, regulations and resistance, 85–7

Index Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 156 Sheffield University, 156, 165 Shepherd, Anne, 120, 122 ships, 4 shop assistants residential accommodation for, 13, 138 Victorian/Edwardian underclass of, 138 shopping trips, 58 Shoreditch Public Library, 133 Shorter, Edward, 109 Showalter, Elaine, 52, 57 sick bays, WAAC, 149 Simpson, Andy, 154 Sims, George R., 11–12, 17–18, 19, 96, 100 ‘In the Workhouse: Christmas Day’, 35 sitting-rooms (Rowton House), 98 slavery, 5 sleep, quality of, 104 sleeping spaces halls of residence, 151, 152 photographic depiction of, 18, 21, 22, 24, 30, 31 Rowton Houses, 99, 102–3, 104–5, 107 single accommodation, 24 WAAC, 145, 148 see also bedrooms; cubicles; dormitories; wards slums, 95 smallpox, 39, 40, 47 Smith, Leonard, 7, 9, 122 Smithers, Jack, 106 smoking rooms (Rowton Houses), 96, 97, 98 Soanes, Stephen, xiv, 6, 9, 11, 12, 61, 109–23 social control, 52 social housing, 95 social identity, institutions and fashioning of, 12–14, 15 social withdrawal, 20 Society of Public Librarians, 126, 134 sodomy, 88 soft furnishings, 10, 58, 64, 148, 160 Somerville, W. A., 98, 103 Southampton University, 156 Spa Road Library (Bermondsey), 131 space in asylums, 52–3, 63 depiction of institutional, 18 distribution of, 9–10, 14

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and gender, 57–8 in reformatories, 69 as technology of control, 53, 55–8 in workhouses, 80–3 spatial separation, 5 sports facilities army, 153 university, 161 Stadler, Laurent, 20 staff accommodation for, 12 cottage home, 117 library, 127, 129 recreation rooms, 26 Rowton Houses, 104–5, 107 in WAAC quarters, 142, 150, 151 workhouse, 86, 87–8, 89–90 Stansfield, Dr T. E. K., 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 63 starvation diet, 37, 44–5 state institutions, 4 Steedman, Carolyn, 127 Stobhill lunatic asylum, 74 Stockwell Orphanage, 18 laundry, 24, 25, 26 Stoneyetts Certified Institution (Glasgow), 68, 74 straightjackets, 42 students experience at redbrick universities, 155 experience of halls of residence, 157 and formation of academic community, 158–9 middle- and working-class, 163–4, 165–6 rejection of halls of residence amongst, 162 subaltern studies, 9 suicide, attempted, 71, 72 superintendents asylum, 12, 56, 110, 118 Rowton Houses, 100, 104 WAAC, 144 surveillance, 5, 12, 52, 55, 63, 120, 123, 137, 138 Suzuki, Akihito, 111, 122 Swedish gymnastics, 57

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Residential Institutions in Britain, 1725–1970 University College London, 158 University Grants Committee (UGC), 156, 161, 162, 164 University Hall (Liverpool), 158 urinals, 58, 63 Usborne, Cornelie, 154 vagrancy, 87, 105 vagrant industries, 29 Vauxhall Rowton House, 93, 96, 99, 102, 104, 105 venereal disease, 39, 82 ventilation, 26, 38 vestry boards, 128 Vickers, Ethel, 117–18 Victoria, Queen, 126 villa system, 12, 51–2, 59, 60, 61, 63 visitors to asylums, 111 to workhouses, 86, 87, 89–90 visual stimulation, 64 voluntary entry, of carceral institutions, 8 voluntary institutions, 4, 6, 80 Volunteer Force, 143 WAAC see Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps Wakefield, Stephen, 48 Waldron, Thomas, 88, 91 Walker, Alf, 165 Walker, Lynne, 19 Walker, Masoah, 48 walks, supervised, 58 Walsh, L., 73 Walton, J. K., 55–6, 111, 122 War Office, 147, 150 Warburton’s private madhouse, 82 warders and wardresses, prison, 26–7, 28 wards, workhouse, 81–2, 83 washing facilities, 19, 131, 145, 148 Waverley Park Home for Mental Defectives (near Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire), 6, 11, 12, 66–77 allegations and inquiry, 69, 71, 73 discharge and after-care, 74–5, 76 economy and management of, 70 health at, 75 misbehaviour and resistance, 71–3, 77 organization of, 69–71

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unemployment, and workhouse population, 83 United States asylums, 53, 61 fraternity houses, 157, 161 universities, 2 architecture and design, 157 civic/redbrick, 8, 12, 13, 125, 155–66 and class, 163–4 co-educational, 158 collegiate system, 163 establishment of, 155–6 funding, 156 halls of residence, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 155–66

tables, communal, 21 taste, 36, 46 markers of, 48 and paupers, 47 and public services, 50 and social class, 49 in workhouse, 37 Taylor, Jeremy, 52 tea-making, 57 theft in libraries, 128 in Rowton Houses, 105, 107 Third Reform Bill, 50 Thompson, Paul, 127 Thompson, Rhiannon, 91 Thomson, Dr D., 57 Thomson, Mathew, 65, 73, 77 threshold architecture, 20 and domestic boundary, 22 Tidbury, George, 42 The Times, 21, 22, 37, 40, 41, 46, 47, 48 timetable, workhouse, 86 tobacco, 86 Topp, Leslie, 9, 53, 61, 64 Tothill Fields Bridewell, 88 Tough, Alistair, 77 trenches, 148 Truscot, Bruce, 155, 156, 157, 164–5 tuberculosis, 39 turnstiles, entrance, 20 Twining, Louisa, 38

Index punishments at, 71, 75–6, 77 as a refuge, 75–6 relationship with local community, 73–5 Waxman, Zoë, 166 well system, 22 Welshman, John, 111, 112, 122 Western Front, 142, 145, 153 Westminster School, 1, 13 Whitechapel public library, 132 Whitechapel Rowton House, 93, 97 Whyte, William, xiv, 8, 10, 12, 13, 125, 155–66 Wilkinson, T. W., 22, 23, 30, 31, 32 Willesden public library, 129, 132, 134 Wills, Abigail, 7 Wills, James Henry, 42, 43 Wilson, Bryan, 159 Wilson, Edward, 43 Wilson, Jacqueline Z., 9 Wilson, Keith, 18 wine, for sick, 38, 46 women activities in asylums, 57–8 and armed services, 141–54 asylums as shelters for, 116, 120, 122 cottage homes for, 109, 114 education of, 13 and exercise, 57–8 feminized spaces for, 10, 12 halls of residence for, 158, 160 and mental disorder, 52, 63 as nurses, 61–2, 63, 117 prisons for, 26–7 university education for, 165 in workhouses, 85 see also femininity Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), 6, 8, 13, 14, 141–54 administration of, 142, 147, 151 comradeship with soldiers, 153 establishment of, 143 experience of quarters, 150–3 First World War propaganda, 11, 141, 144, 145, 147, 154 furnishings and decor, 145, 148, 150, 151–2 living quarters and conditions, 141–54

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lodgings compared to servicemen’s, 144–5, 154 marital quarters, 153 material environment and identity, 142, 148, 153 opposition to, 143–4, 146–7 photographic and press portrayal of, 141, 144, 145, 149 privileges of officers and NCOs, 151, 152 recruitment drive, 147, 149 rules and regulations, 148–9, 152 seen as rivals by some soldiers, 146 segregation from servicemen, 146–7, 154 shared facilities with troops, 147 social background, 150, 151–2 Wood, Mr, 121, 122 Woodall, Susan, 15 Woodilee Lunatic Asylum, 74, 76 Woolmer, D. L., 24–6 work mentally ill return to, 121–2 as therapy, 54, 56, 57–8 undertaken in workhouse, 82–3, 87 in Waverley Park, 70 Workhouse Test Act (1723), 79 workhouses, 2, 3, 4, 6 age structure, 83 airing courts/exercise yards, 11 built structure and internal organization of space, 80–3 campaigns for change, 7 comings and goings from, 5 curiosity about, 90 death rate, 82 depictions of interiors, 18 employment in, 82–3, 87 as epitome of pauperism, 36 food in, 35, 37, 38 gender imbalance in, 85 as institutions, 79–80 length of stay, 84 MAB hospitals as workhouse establishments, 36 married couples’ accommodation, 30 model of, 36 population, 83–5 psychiatric care in, 122 reform of infirmaries, 38–9

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Residential Institutions in Britain, 1725–1970 home life of, 94 housing of, 135 origins of chief librarians, 137 in WAAC, 151, 152 working environments, 18, 25, 26, 81, 82–3 Worth, Reginald, 116, 117 wrapper writing, 29 Wright, David, 111, 122 Yanni, Carla, 53 Yarmouth Gaol, 7 Yellowlees, Dr David, 67 Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), 143, 146, 152 Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), 148

relationship with the dead, 81 repeated entry to, 84–5 resistance in, 7, 8, 85–7 rules and regulations, 85–7, 90 St Martin-in-the-Fields, 79–91 scandals and exposés, 37, 38, 39, 41, 48–9, 50 social status in, 82, 86 treatment of sick in, 38, 39, 79, 81–2, 84, 87, 109 visitors to, 89–90 working class access to reading matter, 125–6, 132, 137 communality of, 21 education of, 12–13

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