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# CHAPTER 21 - ACOUSTICS AND NOISE CONTROL

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21-1. A tube 1.5 m long has a speaker at one end and a reflecting plug at the other. The frequency of a pure-tone
generator driving the speaker is to be set so that standing waves will develop in the tube. What frequency is
required?

Solution: Eq. 21-3.
= c / f
= x = 1.5 m
c = 344 m/s

f = c / = (344 m/s) / (1.5 m/s)
f = 229 Hz

At x = 2
= x / 2 = 1.5 m / 2 = 0.75 m

f = (344 m/s) / (0.75 m) = 458 Hz

Ans. 229 Hz, 458 Hz, etc.,

21-2. The sound power emitted by a certain rocket engine is 10
7
W, which is radiated uniformly in all directions.
(a) Calculate the amplitude of the sound pressure fluctuation 10 m removed from the source.
(b) What percentage is this amplitude of the standard atmospheric pressure?

Solution:
(a)

Watts
2c
Ap
E
2
o

=

2
r 4 =

=
2c
p r 4
E
2
o
2

r = 10 m
c = 344 m/s
= 1.18 kg/m
3

E = 10
7
W

( )
( )( )
7
2
o
2
10
1.18 344 2
p 10 4
E =

=

p
o
= 2,542 Pa - - - Ans.

(b)

0.0251
Pa 101,325
Pa 2,542
Percentage = =

Percentage = 2.51 % - - - Ans.

21-3. At a distance of 3 m from a sound source of 100 W that radiates uniformly in all directions what is the SPL
due to direct radiation from this source?

Solution:
Combine Eq. 21-8 and Eq. 21-9.
CHAPTER 21 - ACOUSTICS AND NOISE CONTROL
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2
2
rms
r 4
E
c
p

2
2
rms
r 4
c E
p

=

E = 100 W
c = 344 m/s
= 1.18 kg/m
3

r = 3 m

( )( )( )
( )
2
2
rms
4
344 1.18 100
p
3
=

2 2
rms
Pa 359 p =

p
ref
= 20 Pa = 20x10
-6
Pa

Eq. 21-11.

( )
(
(

= =

2
6
10 20
359
10log
2
ref
2
rms
p
p
log 10 SPL

SPL = 119.5 dB - - - Ans.

21-4. An octave-band measurement resulted in the following SPL measurements in decibels for the eight octave
bands listed in Table 21-1: 65.4, 67.3, 71.0, 74.2, 72.6, 70.9, 67.8, and 56.0, respectively. What is the

Solution:

12
10

=
I
log 10 SPL

Eq. 21-14.

1 1
12
1
SPL IL
10
I
10log = =

\
|
=

10
SPL
12
10 10 I

|

\
|
+ + + + + + + =

10
56
10
67.8
10
70.9
10
72.6
10
74.2
10
71
10
67.3
10
65.4
12
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 I

84,653,020
10
I
12
=

12
10

=
I
log 10 SPL

( ) 84,653,020 10log SPL =

SPL = 79.3 dB - - - Ans.

21-5. A room has a ceiling area of 25 m
2
with acoustic material that has an absorption coefficient of 0.55; the walls
and floor have a total area of 95 m
2
with an absorption coefficient of 0.12. A sound source located in the
center of the room emits a sound power level of 70 dB. What is the SPL at a location 3 m from the source?

Solution:

inc
abs
I
I
=

CHAPTER 21 - ACOUSTICS AND NOISE CONTROL
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Eq. 21-17.

2 1
2 2 1 1
S S
a S a S
+
+
=

S
1
= 25 m
2
,
1
= 0.55
S
2
= 95 m
2
,
2
= 0.12

( )( ) ( )( )
95 25
0.12 95 0.55 25
+
+
=

0.2096 =

SPL = 70 dB

Eq. 21-18.

=
1
S
R

S = 25 m
2
+ 95 m
2
= 120 m
2

( )( )
2
m 31.82
0.2096 1
0.2096 120
R =

=

Fig. 21-9, at Distance = 3 m
SPL - PWl = -8
SPL = PWL - 8
SPL = 70 - 8
SPL = 62 dB - - - Ans.

21-6. In computing the transmission of sound power through a duct, the standard calculation procedure for a
branch take-off is to assume that the sound power in watts divides in ratio of the areas of the two branches. If
a PWL of 78 dB exists before the branch, what is the distribution of power in the two branches if the areas of
the branches (a) are equal and (b) are in a ration of 4:1?

Solution: PWL = 78 dB

Eq. 21-10.

o
E
E
10log PWL =

( ) ( )
63,095,735 10 10
E
E
10
78
10
PWL
o
= = =

(a) For equal area:

( ) 31,547,735 63,095,735
2
1
E
E
o
1
= =

PWL
1
= 10log(31,547,868)
PWL
1
= 75 dB - - - Ans.

(b) For ratio of 4:1:

( ) ,619,145 63,095,735
5
1
E
E
o
2
12 = =

CHAPTER 21 - ACOUSTICS AND NOISE CONTROL
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PWL
2
= 10log(12,619,145)
PWL
2
= 71 dB - - - Ans.

( ) ,476,588 63,095,735
5
4
E
E
o
3
50 = =

PWL
3
= 10log(50,476,588)
PWL
3
= 77 dB - - - Ans.

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