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ENERGY RATING SYSTEMS IN HOUSING
SUBMITTED BY: Janani T., Maitreyi Y., ShubhiSonal, Tushar H., Somreeta Das.
Abstract: The world energy crisis is a rising matter of concern. Various countries have formulated energy rating systems for buildings to evaluate their impact on our environment. This term paper attempts to analyze some of the major energy rating systems and understand their implications on the housing scenario.
Keywords: rating, energy efficiency, certifications, climate change, energy crisis
A rating system is a benchmark/label that signifies the efficiency of usage of energy in a system and how the energy consumption could be minimized yet optimized outputs be obtained from them… A dwelling can be rated before or after it is built. The rating, in general, depends on:
The layout of the home The construction of its roof, walls, windows and floor The orientation of windows and shading to the sun's path and local breezes How well these suit the local climate.
Energy consumption by hot water systems, lights or household appliances is not part of the rating because those fittings are usually replaced several times during the life of the building.
B. Energy Rating and its significance
Energy Rating is highly applicable to buildings as they are the largest contributors of carbon emissions by generating 39% of the total carbon emissions. Energy efficiency is not only about reducing green house gas emissions, it is also about social equity, equipping people to manage their energy needs whilst producing carbon pollutions at the least rate.
Rating a green building informs tenants and the public about the environmental benefits of a property, and discloses the additional innovation and effort the owner has invested to achieve a high performance building.
Geographic locations of Green Building Councils
A chronological order of the rating systems and their origin.
The earlier ones were basic guidelines defining the concept of ―energy efficiency‖ however, the later ones (that came after the Earth Summit and those after the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord) portrayed subsequent refinement in terms of efficiency calculation and formulation of rating as per that. Also every energy summit witnessed a pronounced peak in the awareness level of the nations. There were attempts made to upgrade and maintain the systems adequately with respect to the changing trends of sustainability and its definition.
3.Origin of the concept
The need for the energy rating system arisen not merely from the fact that natural resources are limited, which are instrumental in the production of energy that is readily available for consumption. It might have arisen from many other factors such as: Colossal increase in ―green house effect‖ & the resultant global climate changes. World political scenario and energy consumption based on developmental index of a country. 3
4. Climate change: a matter of concern:
Climate changing and global warming have been a serious matter of concern and worry to the international community. These concerns were reflected in the Kyoto protocol and it was a major step in trying to control this phenomenon. Major concerns: Rise in earth temperature by0 .3-0.6 degrees centigrade in the last century Rise in sea level by 15 to 25 cms India is ranked as the 2nd most vulnerable country to climate change by the Maple craft climate change vulnerability index (2010) India has witnessed an average temperature rise of 1.7 degrees centigrade from 1970. A rise by 1degree reduces the wheat growing season by one week. The report submitted by Indian network for climate change assessment also points out that sea level is rising by 1.3mm per year and a 1m rise can displace 7 million people.i
TIMELINE OF EFFORTS REGARDING CLIMATE CHANGE CONCERNS 1968 1972 1972 1979 1987 1987 1988 1990 1992 1995 1996 1997 1997 - Club of Rome formed - Club of Rome published ―the limits to growth‖ - Stockholm Conference on man and environment - First World Climate Conference -Brundtland commission- concept of sustainable development -Montreal Protocol signed in Montreal - The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) established - Second World Climate Conference - EARTH SUMMIT: Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) signed at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio - The First Session of the Conference of the Parties to the FCCC (ratifying States) in Berlin [Berlin Mandate established] - The Second Session of the Conference of Parties (COP2) in Geneva - Meetings of the Ad hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) - The Third Session of the Conference of Parties (COP3) in Kyoto. THE Kyoto agreement aimed at bringing back the emission during 2008-2012 to 1990 levels - Conference held in Hague to resolve the Kyoto protocol details. Conflict over carbon sinks between European and US experts. - Rio +10 conference held to review the situation
5. Kyoto protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. ii The Kyoto Protocol is generally seen as an important first step towards a truly global emission reduction regime that will stabilize GHG emissions, and provides the essential architecture for any future international agreement on climate change.
6. Copenhagen Accord
A brief summary: Endorses the continuation of the Kyoto Protocol. Underlines that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and emphasizes a "strong political will to urgently combat climate change in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities" Emission declaration : To date, countries representing over 80% of global emissions have engaged with the Copenhagen Accord. 31 January 2010 was an initial deadline set under the Accord for countries to submit emissions reductions targets, however UNFCCC Secretary Yvo De Boer later clarified that this was a "soft deadline." Countries continue to submit pledges past this deadline. A selection of reduction targets is shown below. All are for the year 2020. Compared to 1990:
EU: 20% - 30% Japan: 25% Russia: 15% - 25% Ukraine: 20%
Compared to 2000:
Australia: 5% - 25%
Compared to 2005:
Canada: 17% US: 17%
Compared to business as usual:
Brazil: 36.1% - 38.9% Indonesia: 26% Mexico: 30% South Africa: 34% South Korea: 30%
Carbon intensity compared to 2005:
China: 40% - 45% India: 20% - 25%
China also promised to increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 15% by 2020, and increase forest coverage by 40 million hectares and forest stock volume by 1.3 billion cubic meters by 2020 from the 2005 levels. Possible Drawbacks:
The accord itself is not legally binding. No decision was taken on whether to agree a legally binding successor or complement to the Kyoto Protocol. The accord sets no real targets to achieve in emissions reductions. The accord was drafted by only five countries. The deadline for assessment of the accord was drafted as 6 years, by 2015. The mobilisation of 100 billion dollars per year to developing countries will not be fully in place until 2020. There is no guarantee or information on where the climate funds will come from. There is no agreement on how much individual countries would contribute to or benefit from any funds. COP delegates only "took note" of the Accord rather than adopting it. The head of the G77 has said it will only secure the economic security of a few nations. There is not an international approach to technology. Forgets fundamental sectoral mitigation, such as transportation. It shows biases in silent ways such as the promotion of incentives on low gasemitting countries.
With this agenda in mind, the 1st step would be to analyze how emissions could be reduced and overall energy consumption patterns be regulated. A glance at the usage of energy by different sectors shows that homes are a major consumer of energy.
7. Energy usage by different sectors
The Indian construction industry is the second largest employer of workforce and a major contributor to our GDP.. This sector accounts for more than 50% of natural resource consumption and around 40% of energy consumption worldwide. Some statistics which reinforce this alarming fact are: In France 17 % of the carbon dioxide emissions come from the construction industry In Germany, 30 % of Carbon dioxide comes from the construction Industry In UK, 50 % of Carbon dioxide comes from the construction Industry
Also, a study conducted at the University of Limerick suggested that houses are getting bigger, hence directly indicating that their energy consumption will also be higher. With this perspective, home energy rating systems become a very useful tool for evaluating and regulating the energy consumption and energy efficiency performance of homes. The primary purpose of a home energy rating would be to make available to future tenants or buyers information on the energy needs of the desired home. In addition to constituting an advantage for the buyer or tenant concerned about his home‘s energy performance, the appreciation that would result from better information on energy performance would be a major incentive for doing work to improve home energy efficiency, particularly in the case of rental property owners, who currently have practically no interest in improving the energy performance of their rental units when tenants are the ones paying the energy costs.iii 7
8. Major rating systems around the world:
8.1 Benefits of using rating systems: ROLE OF ENERGY RATING SYSTEMS IN HOUSING Energy rating systems are an important tool to measure the energy efficiency or sustainability of a building by quantifying its negative and positive impact on the environment. They facilitate the comparison of all kinds of products be it electrical appliances or homes. The Rating systems play an important role in housing sector for the reason that they allow the users to make an informed choice about the kind of home they want to buy or rent from the available horde of choices in the market. This leads us to the next question as to why our homes need to be energy efficient as this is basically the main cause for us applying the rating system that compares the energy efficiency and sustainability of the homes. Also the extra credentials and benefits a rated home can fetch in place of a non- rated home need to be understood to realize the full potential of these systems. PERSPECTIVES OF BENEFITS:Housing market involves a lot of stakeholders who are directly or indirectly benefitted by the product in concern i.e. the house and have their own perspectives for reaping benefits from the house. The major stakeholders can be viewed as 1. Owners 2. Tenants 3. Investors & 4. Property managers OWNERS: - Their expectations are majorly concerned with Minimizing operational costs and maximizing investment costs Maximized performance of the building Expedite and uncomplicated paperwork in case of new renovations and constructions Tax benefits Added benefits TENANTS:- Tenants not being the permanent residents of the house in concern have more issues related to their liveability than the long run economic concern of the house. Their needs are: Minimum utility and operational costs A comfortable environment that improves productivity of the inhabitants An improved quality of living 8
INVESTORS:- Investors are majorly concerned with the profit and think of a home as a potential investment. They yearn for returns and are concerned more with the value of the house in the market. Their expectations are: Long term value that does not have a high operational and performance risk Authenticity or credibility that promotes the reliance on the product PROPERTY MANAGERS:- They are intermediate parties who are involved with just the management of the homes. Their motives are partly profit oriented and partly consumer-benefit oriented. They have the following expectations: Easy to manage homes with increased comfort, high performance and reduced operating costs Minimum complaints from the consumers Marketability of the house The benefits realized by energy rated homes may be classified into the following broad categories:1. Structural incentives 2. Financial incentives 3. Personal incentives 4. Other incentives 5. Awareness and education among the people STRUCTURAL INCENTIVES:These include physical benefits that are given by the authorities for building sustainable homes. They include: Expedite paperwork and permitting process: This allows the processing of the plans and similar such requirements to be faster and in some cases may be exempted from the fee of processing. E.g.:- ―Costa Mesa, CA: The city improved an incentive program which includes expedited permitting processes for green buildings, which includes LEED certified buildings‖ Density and height bonuses: Increasing the Floor Area Ratio for green buildings improves the participation of private developers for constructing green buildings as they get to earn more profit. Special tie ups may be there between the local bodies and the municipalities for such exemptions. Height bonuses also aid in increasing the FAR and are mostly used in urban infill projects where space is less. But making a green building in such kind of projects 9
increases the FAR inviting long term dividends for the developers and more number of saleable units e.g.:- “Arlington County, VA: The County’s Green Building Incentive Program, allows commercial projects and private developments earning LEED certification to develop sites at a higher density than conventional projects with bonuses varying depending on the level of LEED certification” FINANCIAL INCENTIVES:They cover incentives that are monetary in nature i.e. which are related to the economizing the whole process of energy efficiency which is measured by the rating systems. They can be of the following types: Tax Credits and Abatements: Tax deductions in terms of property tax and income tax exemptions are covered under this sector. E.g. ―State of New York: The New York State Green Building Tax Credit Program provides an income tax incentive to commercial developments incorporating specific green strategies informed by LEED” Fee Reductions or Waivers: Exemptions in paying processing charges and reduction of fees in general are incentives to create a green buildings. E.g. ―Gainesville, Fl: In addition to an expedited permitting process, private contractors who use LEED can receive a 50% reduction in the cost of building permit fees” Grants: Grants are petitions that a house owner or developer needs to submit to the issuing authority for subsidy in the construction/ procurement costs or a requisition seeking funds for the project. E.g.: “Pasadena, CA: Pasadena Water and Power’s Pasadena LEED Certification Program offers $15,000 grants for applicants who achieve LEED Certified ($20,000 for Silver, $25,000 for Gold and $30,000 for Platinum).” Revolving Loan Funds:- This facilitates reduced interest rates and large funds to projects which are oriented towards sustainability. Most of these funds are designed in such a way that the instalment is lesser than the operational cost savings from the building.
E.g. ―Milwaukee, WI: The Milwaukee Energy Efficiency (Me2) program offers financing of
home energy retrofits for building owners and occupants with immediate savings and no upfront costs. Using both public funds and private capital, Me2 offers longer-term repayment for retrofits through simple additions to municipal services or utility bills at less than the value of energy saved. Repayment schedules are attached to the home in the event of change of owner.”
PERSONAL INCENTIVES: These include the qualitative aspects of liveability of the house like the lighting, ventilation, power consumption, indoor climate and other aspects of physical comfort. The QUANTITATIVE aspects are Reduced operational costs that is a result of low energy consumption Incentives in manufactured products that are rated The QUALITATIVE aspects are Increased comfort levels within the premises Increased productivity Less dependence on nonrenewable sources of energy thus reducing the impact of the built form on its environment. OTHER INCENTIVES:These are allied incentives that may boost participation of developers and builders to raise green buildings. Technical assistance: Assistance from the government or any organization helps in imparting the knowhow of green buildings to developers E.g. “State of Minnesota: Established a law requiring utilities provide technical assistance for commercial or residential projects that incorporate green building principle” Marketing assistance: the fact that a organization or a third party is certifying the work of a builder adds credibility, value, authenticity and increases the marketability of the building. The government may also partake in increasing marketability of such buildings by advertisements and press releases. E.g. ―Oakland, CA: Promotes the use of green building strategies in private sector development by offering free technical assistance, green building guidelines and public promotion for qualified projects.”
TABLE : Summary of incentives with respect to the stake holders INCENTIVES OWNER TENANT INVESTOR/ DEVELOPER STRUCTURAL INCENTIVES Expedite paperwork and permitting process Density and height bonuses FINANCIAL INCENTIVES Tax Credits and Abatements Fee Reductions or Waivers Grants Revolving loan funds PERSONAL INCENTIVES QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE OTHER INCENTIVES Technical assistance Marketing assistance √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √
PROPERTY MANAGER √ √ √ √
AWARENESS AND EDUCATION AMONG THE PEOPLE: Rating systems are a blessing as they increase the awareness amongst the people about the importance and significance of energy efficient buildings. They popularize the concept of energy efficiency and give the people an incentive to develop such buildings. Hence the role of rating systems in housing may be summarized as follows: Help in availing incentives that are related to green buildings Tag of authenticity Lay down standards and schemes which are benchmarks for measures Quantitative and qualitative measure of energy efficiency Create awareness amongst the people about energy efficiency ISSUES OF RATING SYSTEMS:Though rating systems have quite efficiently established themselves as a milestone in the energy efficiency of housing they still have some draw backs which need to be rectified for its better functioning. Some liabilities of the rating systems are: Rating index:-every rating system has different ways of allocating points to particular criteria. Thus it makes it impossible to compare between a top rating of one system and another. 12
Rating systems are not accurate in many cases owing to lack of quality control Sometimes the energy rating systems though may be good enough to earn a star rating might in reality be a very costly affair. Thus the rating systems must take considerations from feasibility point of view on a large scale The rating systems must be accessible to the people, but unfortunately availing the facility is costly and requires a lot of paperwork that is unfavourable. Rating systems must not be commercialized and should focus more on genuine rating of buildings Standards and norm must be upgraded every year so that the latest innovations and technologies are kept up to date
8.2 Rating systems: A. LEED: The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System, developed by The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), provides a suite of standards for environmentally sustainable construction. Features of LEED India The LEED India Green Building Rating System is a voluntary, consensus – based, market-driven building rating system based on existing proven technology. It evaluates environmental performance from a whole building perspective over a building‘s life cycle, providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a ―green building‖. The rating system is organized into five environmental categories: Sustainable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy & Atmosphere, Materials & Resources and Indoor Environmental Quality. LEED Certification: Point Rating Different LEED versions have varied scoring systems based on a set of required "prerequisites" and a variety of "credits" in the six major categories listed below. • • • Sustainable Sites: Restore the Natural Environment Water Efficiency: Reduce the burden on Municipal Water supply Energy and Atmosphere: Reduce the effect on the environment by using Equipment Efficiently
Materials and Resources: Reducing the effect on the environment by careful selection of materials. Indoor Quality: Protecting the atmosphere; Low-Emitting materials Innovative Design: Education the importance of a Sustainable Environment
In LEED v2.2 for new construction and major renovations for commercial buildings there are 69 possible points and buildings can qualify for four levels of certification: • • • • Certified - 26-32 points Silver - 33-38 points Gold - 39-51 points Platinum - 52-69 points
The Cost of LEED rated Green Building Concept of Green building is not much older, which causes lack of industry experience, understanding and agreement on the added costs to build a new Green Building. Some sources have claimed that there is no additional cost, and other estimates range to over 10% of the base building cost. The information about additional costs is discussed below. Design Fees Design Team requires more efforts and time for a Green Building than a normal code obedient building.At least one of the team members (most probably mechanical engineer) has to perform software simulations to keep an eye on energy efficiency of the building. One extra line item that will appear on the project budget is the LEED facilitator, an added role to coordinate the design process and help the Owner make informed decisions to resolve conflicting priorities. The LEED facilitator is also responsible for maintaining and expediting the substantial record-keeping task involved in all LEED projects. A LEED consultant will base their fees on the number of hours expected to complete the project. A very low quote may mean that the consultant has underestimated the time needed to complete the job. A very high quote could mean they don‘t have systems and processes in place to execute the job efficiently or they‘ve added a contingency to allow for a lack of green experience on the design team.
LEED Facilitator: • Rates are US$65/hr. to US$150/hr. depending on team member used. Total cost of LEED Facilitation: LEED Certified $110,540; LEED Silver $111,840; LEED Gold $127,240. (US General Services Administration, Oct 2004, Document GS-11P-99-MAD-0565, pp.6, 403-406) • Range of 0.5% to 0.9% of total project cost, with 0.7% as best estimate. (Northbridge Environmental Consultants, April 2003) $60,000 for LEED documentation. (The Brendle Group, 2004)
Construction Cost By their nature, green buildings must not be ―over-designed‖. Because redundancy and oversizing leads to material waste and energy waste, the design team strives to make sure that systems and equipment are sized carefully to meet the requirements. This tends to drive down the cost of green buildings. • LEED Certified 0 to 2.5% on project cost; LEED Silver 0 to 3.3%, LEED Gold 0.3 to 5.0%, LEED Platinum 4.5 to 8.5%. (Kema Green Building Consultants, 2004) • • Overall cost increase of 1.0%to 10.3%. (David Langdon, July 2004.) Overall cost increase of 1% to 6%. (National Conference on Building Commissioning, May 2007, p.4.)
Extra costs can be controlled at the design stage by following some basic principles. 1. Nail down and document the functional requirements of the building early. Make room for early input from the mechanical, electrical, and LEED consultants even before the site plan is prepared. 2. Make sure everyone on the design team understands their responsibilities with respect to the LEED process and is committed to an Integrated Design Process. 3. Very systematic and professional management at the design stage as well as the construction stage. Online collaboration tools are an excellent aid. 4. Keep the mechanical / electrical systems as simple as possible. Avoid complex technologies that have little chance of being operated correctly once the building is occupied. 5. Keep the owner engaged and informed, understanding the nature and impact of decisions being made to achieve competing goals. Buildings at the higher end of the cost scale will be those that didn‘t follow these fundamentals of green building design.
Advantages LEED certified buildings use key resources more efficiently. LEED certified buildings are healthier work and living environments, contributing to higher productivity and improved employee health and comfort. LEED strategy improves air and water quality, reduces solid waste. These benefits are reaped by anyone who comes into contact with the project which includes owners, occupants and society as a whole. Disadvantages LEED principles may not be well understood by the design professionals undertaking the project leading to more time for research. Ahigher-than-orthodox standard of service from the construction team could possibly lead to misunderstandings between the design team, construction team, and client, resulting in delays. There may be a lack of abundant availability of manufactured building components which meet LEED standards. Pursuing LEED certification for a project is an added cost in itself as well. These high initial constructional costs can be effectively mitigated by the savings incurred over time due to the lower-than-industry-standard operational costs which are typical of a LEED certified building.
LEED CERTIFIED BUILDINGS IN INDIA LEED - Platinum Rated CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, 63% Energy Savings Wipro Technologies (Gurgaon), 40% Energy Savings ITC Green Centre (Gurgaon), 45% Energy Savings
LEED - Gold Rated NEG-Micon India (Pvt) Ltd (Chennai)
B. BASIX, New Southwales, Australia BASIX is one of the most robust sustainable planning measures in Australia, delivering equitable and effective water and greenhouse gas reductions. iv Mode of access: It is an online program that is accessible to anyone. The user (usually the building designer) enters data relating to the house or unit design such as location, size, building materials etc - into the BASIX tool. BASIX analyses this data and determines how it scores against the Energy and Water targets. The design must pass specific targets (which vary according to location and building type) before the user can print the BASIX Certificate. BASIX is flexible and easy to use, allowing users to determine how they will meet targets from a wide range of options such as rainwater tanks, water-saving fixtures, improved insulation, passive solar orientation, natural lighting and native plants for gardens. Use: Every development application for a new home must be submitted to Council with a BASIX Certificate. BASIX uses information such as site location, house size, type of building materials and fittings for hot water, cooling and heating. It is important to realise that the commitments made during the BASIX process are shown on the final certificate and must be marked on the plans, and adhered to during the building process. Any changes made to the house design means another BASIX assessment must be completed and a new BASIX Certificate submitted to Council. Key features: BASIX sets clear sustainable housing targets. BASIX provides much greater market certainty for sustainable industries, such as manufacturers of solar hot water systems, rainwater tanks, insulation, performance glass and storm water systems. BASIX provides new home owners with better quality homes that are more suited to their environment and less expensive to run. 17
BASIX is subject to ongoing monitoring: since implementation, the Department has conducted a monitoring program of 100 BASIX-compliant home designs that are now in the development approval and construction process.
C. BREEAM: BREEAM stands for the Building Research Establishment‘s Environmental Assessment Method which is one of the most widely used energy efficient rating systems in the world for assessing buildings of all typologies. It has become a model for many other rating systems that have evolved from it and has immense credibility attached to it. Credits are awarded in ten categories according to performance. These credits are then totalled to give a final score that is graded on a scale of Pass, Good, Very Good, Excellent and Outstanding. However the processes of the BREEAM are supervised by an independent sustainability board which is a representative of all the stakeholders of the construction industry which include designers, developers, financiers, and regulators AIMS OF BREEAM:
To understand the impacts of buildings on the environment and find assess methods to mitigate them To recognise buildings according to their environmental benefits To provide a credible, environmental label for buildings To stimulate demand for sustainable buildings
OBJECTIVES OF BREEAM:
To provide market recognition to low environmental impact buildings To ensure best environmental practice is incorporated in buildings To set criteria and standards surpassing those required by regulations and challenge the market to provide innovative solutions that minimise the environmental impact of buildings To raise the awareness of owners, occupants, designers and operators of the benefits of buildings with a reduced impact on the environment To allow organisations to demonstrate progress towards corporate environmental objectives
AUTHENTICITY OF BREEAM:1. Quality standards: - The quality of the rating system is overlooked by the Sustainability board as mentioned before. It overlooks the scheme documents, standards and the BRE global networking services that helps meet the requirement of the stake holders. In short the Board represents the decisions of the stakeholders.
The Sustainability board is however not the apex body of the whole system. It reports to the BRE Governing body which is a independent body that takes decisions with respect to the BRE Global's schemes and activities. Some of the responsibilities taken by the Sustainability board include: Creating awareness on the importance of new standards and certification schemes Proving the need for certification Advises on the schemes, standards and modification of the same if required Promoting public participation with uniform importance to all Look into the grievances of the consumers and rectify the same 2. Technical integrity:- The technical committee responsible for the BREEAM standards are highly qualified and give their expert advice on all the schemes and issues introduced by BRE Global. The assessment of the buildings also technically sound which are aimed at recognising the energy efficient and environmental performance of the buildings. Some of the criteria are: The assessment criteria must be genuine and must take into account the significance of energy efficiency in buildings Ratings must be done as per the scientific evidence The rating must exceed the general expectations and the normal standards prescribed by the norms and standards Focus onto the financial feasibility of the projects 3. Commercial reliability: - The organisations licensed by the BRE Global Assessors take the responsibility of assessments of buildings. They ensure Healthy standards and competent products for assessment services Mingling with the industries that may use these rating systems Upgrade their quality and standards regularly as per the BRE Global Assessors requirements BREEAM SCHEME DOCUMENTS:The Scheme document is a technical user guide or manual that can be used to assess the buildings. However it is not meant to be used by unqualified i.e. unapproved by the BRE Global Assessors. But it still provides a good understanding as to the assessment pattern and the requirements needed for a rating.
The document covers many categories of buildings and there is a separate scheme document for every typology of building: BREEAM Courts BREEAM Education BREEAM Industrial BREEAM Healthcare BREEAM Offices BREEAM Retail BREEAM Prisons BREEAM Multi-residential BREEAM Data Centres The organization of these scheme documents is as follows: Issue Information: Issue ID, issue title, number of credits available for meeting the Performance target and whether the issue forms part of BREEAM‘s minimum standards. Aim: Formulation of objectives and identification of problems associated with the buildings and how to mitigate them. Assessment Criteria: The assessment criteria are case specific and hence the buildings are assessed with respect to the bench marks. Schedule of Evidence Required: The assessment is done with respect to some evidences collected by the assessors. Without evidences or proof of the performance of the building the credits cannot be awarded. Additional Information: Other information that may support extra assessment points or other details that may add to the compliance of the building with some innovative techniques of energy efficiency. Assessment criteria in scheme documents in brief: The assessment criteria in the scheme document are concerned over ten broad topics that are concerned with the sustainability and energy efficient norms (credit —section weightage): Management (10-- 0.12) Health &Wellbeing (14—0.15) Energy (21—0.19) Transport (10—0.08) Water (6--0.06) Materials (12—0.125) Waste (7—0.075) Land Use and Ecology (10—0.1) Pollution (12—0.1) Innovation (10—0.1)
TABLE 1: BREEAM Categories and issues under them Management Waste Commissioning Construction waste Construction site impacts Recycled aggregates Security Recycling facilities Health and Wellbeing Pollution Daylight Refrigerant use and leakage Occupant thermal comfort Flood risk Acoustics NOx emissions Indoor air and water quality Watercourse pollution Lighting External light and noise pollution Energy Land Use and Ecology CO2 emissions Site selection Low or zero carbon technologies Protection of ecological features Energy sub metering Mitigation/enhancement of Energy efficient building systems ecological value Transport Materials Public transport network connectivity Embodied life cycle impact of Pedestrian and Cyclist facilities materials Access to amenities Materials re-use Travel plans and information Responsible sourcing Water Innovation Water consumption Exemplary performance levels Leak detection Use of BREEAM Accredited Water re-use and recycling Professionals New technologies and building processes
STAGES OF ASSESSMENT:The assessments are done in two stages: Design Stage – for an interim BREEAM certificate Post construction Stage – Final BREEAM certificate DESIGN STAGE:- In this the assessment stage the planning is evaluated. The new methods which are in the process of being applied is taken into account. However this stage is before execution and thus does not get the credential to fetch the final certification. Post construction stage:- This stage is after the building is built and the respective evidences for the appropriate assessment criteria is taken into account. This is the final
stage of assessment that provides concrete evidence of the energy efficiency of the building. There are two parts to the post construction stage: A post-construction review of an interim design-stage assessment A post-construction assessment The post construction review of an interim design stage assessment refers to the initial design stage of assessment only but only with conclusive evidence with respect to certain management criteria, site selection, procurement of materials etc which do get points and rating for being energy efficient. The post construction assessment is when the liveable spaces are monitored and then based on their performance the rating is given. This is the final stage that makes the building eligible for the certificate. PROJECTS THAT ARE ASSESSED BY BREEAM:The projects that can be assessed by bream are the following: New Construction: New structure that is about to be erected, there Major refurbishment to existing buildings New construction to an existing building i.e. an extension of existing building A combination of new construction and major refurbishment to an existing building New construction or major refurbishment, which forms part of a larger mixed use building New Construction: This is a new structure that is about to be erected and hence the concept of design assessment is more valid here. Refurbishment to existing buildings:- This stage also requires planning and meticulous management so that the existing buildings are not affected. But rating will be credited to the building as a whole. New construction to an existing building:- This may be the extension or addition to an existing building. Assessment is done for the complete building at the end. So suppose the existing building has a BREEAM rating then the assessment is given finally for the whole building as the extension may affect the quality of the other building. Combination of new construction and refurbishment: - This is a combination of the prior two types of construction.
Part of a larger mixed use development: The impact of new developments may influence the existing structure for which the rating criteria are different as compared to a detached building. SCORING:Scoring is a process through which a building is rated on the scale of 5 of pass, good, very good, excellent and outstanding. However to get a rating or a score there must be compliance with the minimum standard that is set by the BRE Global. TABLE2: BREEAM 2008 rating benchmarks BREEAM RATING UNCLASSIFIED PASS GOOD V GOOD EXCELLENT OUTSTANDING* % SCORE <30 ≥30 ≥45 ≥55 ≥70 ≥85
BREEAM CREDITS FOR INNOVATION:Innovation here refers to new techniques that may be employed in sustainability which are not covered under the normal BREEAM ratings. This innovation points help create new ideas and new techniques that boost the creativity in clients. This gives extra 1% point weightage. This innovation credit is awarded despite the minimum standard criteria. D. CASBEE: CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency) was designed in the year 2001 as a part of a government project. Then it was tested in the year 2002, after which specialized tools were developed for different building typologies like New construction, Existing building and refurbishments.
The three basic assessment principles of CASBEE are: Assessment through lifecycle of the building Assessment of built environment quality and built environment load Assessment based on BEE indicator The rating system can be put to the following uses: To check the environmental performance of the building The CASBEE brand helps in increasing the value of the built space in environmental terms It can be used to monitor buildings for its entire life time and to generate proposals for the same ASSESSMENT:CASBEE assess by two ways, the Quality (Built Environment Quality) and Load (Built Environment Load). Quality (Q):- the Built Environment Quality evaluates the amenities with respect to the users. It is further divided in to three subcategories of 1. Q1-indoor environment, 2. Q2-Quality of services and 3. Outdoor environment on site Load (L):-The Built Environment Load evaluates the impact of the built form on the environment. These are categorised as 1. L1-Energy, 2. L2-Resources and materials and 3. L3- Off site environment.
Building Environment Efficiency (BEE):- It is the indicator calculated from Q and L given by:Building Environment Quality (BEE)=Q/L The Graph above indicates that steeper the line better is the efficiency. SALIENT FEATURES: Different criteria for different building typologies and scale i.e. housing scale, building scale and urban scale Every assessment is context based and follows context specific assessing criteria It is a software tool which is assessed by certified professionals 24
E. NatHERS: Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme NatHERS is an initiative of Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments through the Ministerial Council on Energy. The role of NatHERS Steering Committee is held by the Energy Efficiency Working Group (E2WG) of the Ministerial Council on Energy and the role of NatHERS National Administrator is held by the Department of the Climate Change and Energy Efficiency on behalf of E2WG. NatHERS provides a framework that allows various computer software tools to rate the potential energy efficiency of Australian homes. It defines the minimum set of information that must be used by all software tools. NatHERS provides for energy rating assessors to be registered by Assessor Accrediting Organisations.
Miscellaneous characteristics defining its software correlation: Building material performance characteristics – that are in compliance with the Australian or International Standards. Design interpretation guidelines – which help in design of spaces that follow the comfort parameters etc. Weather files- a complete record of the climate and weather of the regions over a time period Rating:
Zero stars means the building shell does practically nothing to reduce the discomfort of hot or cold weather. A 5 star rating indicates good, but not outstanding, thermal performance. Occupants of a 10 star home are unlikely to need any artificial cooling or heating.
Accredited NatHERS software tools
Some of the accredited NatHERS tools are:
AccuRate (Version 184.108.40.206) AccuRate Sustainability Version 220.127.116.11x BERS Professional (Version 4.2.110811) FirstRate 5 v 5.1x
F. Some other rating systems in Europe: Rating System
Developed at a time when the country‘s aim was to reduce the energy consumption in newer buildings by 25% and water consumption by 10% and towards significant reduction in GHG‘s by 2002. Catogorised buildings into 4 levels of interventions: i. Autonomous situation with near zero environmental impact. ii. Little environmnetal impact iii. Conventional Construction with reduced environmental damage. iv. Conventional Construction Utilizes a software tool known as Building environmental Assessment Tool which combines data on values of life-cycle, energy sources and green house gas emissions. Provides data on the life-cycle of the buildings
Gronlund LCA-tool software HQE system Minergie
Standard for green building, sustainable development
Aims to promote rational use of energy, use of renewable energy services, reduced pollution, etc. Has to be followed by all new buildings by 2001. Aims at reducing energy consumption in buildings by 20%. Highlighted need for retrofitting old buildings.
9. Policy tranisitions from Global Level to Grass Root levels.
The above is aschematic chart drawn to understand the translation of policies drawn at the global level and their penetration to the lower most administrative systems. The results and implications of global summits such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen Summit influence the policy framework adopted by the MNRE. Energy Efficiency aspect was included in the 8th five year plan itself (1992-1997) but only as a measure for saving energy consumption. It can be observed that after the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, the 9th five year plan (19972002) drafted in India made provisions for a plan which included passing of Energy Conservation act and setting up of Bureau of Energy Efficiency of which the Energy Conservation Act was only established in 2001 and under which the BEE was passed only in march 2002. This reflected directly on formulation of a NBC in 2005 which was aimed at including certain regulations for all new constructions besides formualtion of the IGBC and GRIHA- Indian Green rating system.
10.Energy Rating and Energy Efficient Buildings in the Indian scenario: India, with a GDP of 8.9% is regarded as the second fastest growing economy in the world. This has led to major investments in the urban infrastructure sector. A study indicates that the amount of energy consumption in the Indian buildings (residential and commercial) has increased consistently by 8% annually. Thus, the energy consumption has increased from 14% in 1970 to 33% in 2004-05. Since the building sector forms a major industry in the energy consumption scenario, it is essential to address energy efficiency by adopting energy rating systems. It is observed that the building industry in the Indian context underwent rapid growth since 1991. The architectural style majorly adopted by the construction industry was much similarto that of the western culture and did not take into purview the Indian Climate and the Context. The sudden boom in the construction industry and particularly that of the retail and commercial has led to the increase in consumption of energy in the construction industry. The use of materials with high embodied energy, such as aluminum, steel and the external glazing have all led to the heat gain factor. In addition, the changing lifestyle calls for use of heating and cooling equipments such as the Air Conditioners, the room heaters, and other electrical appliances for heating and cooling. This triggered the need for developing a secure system that ensures energy efficiency.
11.Inclusion of Energy Efficiency in 5 Year Plans: The Kyoto Protocol had a major impact on the Indian Energy Sector and the outcomes that followed were making provision for energy conservation and energy efficiency in the plans drawn from then on. The 8th five Year plan made a provision of Rs. 14 billion (USD 0.3 billion) for energy efficiency to provide targeted energy savings of 5000 MW & 6 million tonnes in electricity and petroleum sectors respectively. This was the first time energy efficiency was targeted but had no association with the building industry. The 9th five-year plan (1997-02) proposed the passing of Energy Conservation act and setting up of Bureau of Energy Efficiency. 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12):Aims to increasethe energy efficiency by 20%. 12th Five Year Plan: Realised that increaing energy efficiency, is the only way to meet the energy demand without endangering growth and thus, received maximum priority in the twelfth plan. 28
The Expert group recommends for Low carbon Strategies for inclusive Growth and the suggested Policy Actions was the need to evolve and institutionalise Green Building Codes at all levels of government – centre, state and ULB‘s. A major challenge for the 12th five year plan is also to integrate green and clean technology into the existing research, development and innovation. Emphasis is laid on exploration of traditional knowledge and practices.
A technical group formulated by Karnataka State, mentioned that if efficient appliances can reduce the demand for power to a certain extent, then the design and the structure of the building can act as a multiplier in reducing the overall demand. This highlights the changing approach to energy efficiency in buildings and the rising importance of buildings to adhere to energy rating systems. For instance, the Karnataka State has made it mandatory for all new government buildings in the state to achieve 3 or 4 star GRIHA rating. The current attempts for achieving energy efficieny in buildings that have been carried on are due to the initatives of mentioned by the i. ii. Ministry of Power Ministry of New and Renewable Sources of Energy, where they have emphasised on programmes that focus on generating more energy and use of renewable energy and implementation of passive techniques in construction of newer buildings.
The first government initiative towards energy efficiency in buildings was taken by the Indian parliament by passing the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 that led to the establishment of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency. This led to the formulation of the Energy Conservation Building Codes (ECBC) as India‘s first effort towards energy efficiency in buildings. The ECBC(Energy Conservation Building Code) program‘s objective is to reduce the baseline energy consumption by supporting adoption and implementation of building energy codes. These codes consider the account location and occupancy of the buildings and provide minimum standards that can be followed to reduce the energy demand of the buildings through design and construction practices while enhancing the occupant comfort. The Bureau of Indian standards formulated the National building Code as a unified guide that has to be followed by municipalities and development authorities in framing and adoption of building bye Laws. This was done primarily, as the building byelaws in India are framed under the state governments and thus vary across India. In the revised
NBC 2005, provision has been made for the aspects of energy conservation and sustainable development. In 2001, for the first time, USGBC‘s LEED rating was applied to the Indian Building Sector. It was for the first time then, that a building from Hyderabad (CII-IGBC) was rated platinum outside India. BEE: Bureau of Energy Efficiency Mission: The mission of Bureau of Energy Efficiency is to "institutionalize" energy efficiency services, enable delivery mechanisms in the country and provide leadership to energy efficiency in all sectors of the country. The primary objective would be to reduce energy intensity in the economy. Sectors served by BEE: Lighting Building Appliances Agriculture Municipiality Industries The rating system and BEE’s role: The BEE Star Energy Efficiency Labels have been created to standardize the energy efficiency ratings of different electrical appliances and indicate energy consumption under standard test conditions. However for buildings, the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) – launched in 2007 by the Ministry of Power, Govt of India is directly applicable. The labels for all the sectors are in the form of star ratings. These labels indicate the energy efficiency levels through the number of stars highlighted in colour on the label. The BEE Star Labels include a Star Rating System that ranges from One Star (least energy efficient, thus least money saved) to Five Stars (most energy efficient, thus most money saved)
The state-wise status of activities for the implementation of ECBC
But, since the majority of Indian buildings are designed differently in comparison to that of the buildings in developed countries, there is a need to have a rating system that addresses to the Indian environment and context. The simplest of example is that of airconditioning as a a fundamental requirement in buildings and rating systems across the world, whereas in India buildings are designed to be non-air conditioned. Most of the internationally devised rating systems are framed to suit the building industry of the country where they were intially developed. Inorder to bridge this differences in the international systems and the approach followed in India, TERI – The Energy and Resources Institute developed a new rating system - GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment). This system was formulated to specifically prioritize on national concerns of India such as extreme resource crunches in the Power and water sectors and a fast eroding biodiversity as already mentioned. It stressed on the solar passive techniques for achieving optimization of indoor visual and thermal comfort and relying on refrigeration based air-conditioning systems only in cases of extreme discomfort. Thus, India currently has two major rating systems: LEED India, run by the Indian Green Building Council, which is more concerened with the energy efficiency measures in AC buildings and Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA), keeping in view of the Indian agro-climatic conditions and in particular the preponderance of non-AC buildings, a National Rating System.
11.1 GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) It is the National Energy Rating system of India. The system of GRIHA has been conceptualized by TERI – The Energy and Resources Institute and has been formulated in collaboration with the Ministry for New and Renewable Energy. The GRIHA is a green building ‗design evaluation system‘ and is considered to be applicable for all types of buildings situated in the different parts of the country with different climatic conditions. The motto of GRIHA is to bridge the gap between the International rating systems and the Indian context and conditions. The rating system consists of a GRIHA evaluation tool which provides scope for users to register their projects into the interactive tool and also participate in the regulation of the progress. GRIHA as a rating tool was initially developed for those interested in the construction industry with the aim of building green and sustainable structures. GRIHA evaluates the environmental performance of a building holistically over its entire life cycle.
The stages of the life cycle that have been identified for evaluation are: 1. Pre-construction stage (intra- and inter-site issues like proximity to public transport, type of soil, kind of land, location of property, the flora and fauna on the land before construction activity starts, the natural landscape, and land features). 2. Building planning and construction stages (issues of resource conservation and reduction in resource demand, resource utilization efficiency, resource recovery and reuse, and provisions for occupant health and well-being). The prime resources that are considered in this section are land, water, energy, air, and green cover. 3. Building operation and maintenance stage (issues of operation and maintenance of building systems and processes, monitoring and recording of energy consumption, occupant health and well-being, and also issues that affect the global and local environment). All buildings, except for industrial complexes and housing colonies, which are in the design stage, are eligible for certification under GRIHA. Buildings include offices, retail spaces, institutional buildings, hotels, hospital buildings, healthcare facilities, residences, and multi-family high-rise buildings.
The current rating system of GRIHA comprises of 34 criteria under the following four main sections: 1. Site Selection and Site Planning The objective of which is to maximize the conservation and utilization of resources (land, water, natural habitat, fauna, and energy conservation) and enhance efficiency of the systems and operations. 2. Building Planning and Construction The objective this section is to maximize resource (water, energy, and materials) conservation and enhance efficiency of the system and operations 3. Building Operation and Maintenance The objective being to validate and maintain ‗green‘ performance levels/ adopt and propagate green practices and concepts. 4. Innovation Innovation points are available under the rating system for adopting criteria which enhance the green intent of a project, and the applicant can apply for the bonus points.
Some of the probable points are: Alternative transportation Environmental education Company policy on green supply chain Lifecycle cost analysis Enhanced accessibility for physically/mentally challenged Any other criteria proposed by the client
Scoring GRIHA is a guiding and performance-oriented system where points are earned for meeting the design and performance intent of the criteria. Each criterion has a number of points assigned to it. It means that a project intending to meet the criterion would qualify for the points. GRIHA has a 100 point system consisting of some core points, which are mandatory to be met while the rest are optional points, which can be earned by complying with the commitment of the criterion for which the point is allocated.
Points scored 50–60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100
Rating One star Two star Three star Four star Five star
GRIHA also provides certain incentives for construction of green buildings examples of which are; 1. Ghaziabad Development Authority The Ghaziabad Development Authority announced 5% extra FAR for developers that are in compliance with a minimum of 3 star rating. 2. The PimpriChinchwad Municipal Corporation announced a rebate in the property tax for GRIHA rated buildings. The developers in PimpriChinchwad Municipal Corporation will get the following discounts on the premium amount of building permission charges, as per the rating awarded by GRIHA.
Discount in premium Points Scored Rating 50-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100 * ** *** **** ***** Discount in Premium 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
For home owners Once the construction is complete, the developer will hand over the green building to the flat owners, and henceforth, the flat owners of the green building will get a discount of 10% on property tax.
3. SBI Green Home Loan The State Bank of India has announced the following incentives in home loans for the GRIHA projects. Product feature Margin Values for SBI Green Home Loan 5% less than the margin stipulated for SBI Home Loan, subject to the condition that the margin does not go below 15% under any condition 0.25% concession (Instead of 0.10% being offered presently) Maximum cumulative interest rate concession will be within the ceiling prescribed from time to time (presently 0.25%). (Note - Concession shall not be applicable on 8% interest rate under SBI Happy Home Loan Offer, as well as 8.5% and 9.25% rates under SBI Special Loan Offer).
11.2 LEED in Indian Context? GRIHA has incorporated most criteria developed by LEED which was adopted by the Indian green Building Council in 2001along with certain changes that contribute to a rating system which suits the Indian Context. Besides, Buildings need to obtain a GRIHA rating as made mandatory by the MNRE for availing financial benefits and subsidies that are allotted under the green development by the GoI. MNRE also provides rebate in property tax for buildings with a Green Certification. The fundamental difference in both the rating systems is a that the since LEED originated in the US, where basic construction norms and regulations such as construction worker safety, health & sanitation, minimum visual and thermal comfort are strictly complied with and without which construction approvals are not granted. LEED‘s criteria assumes adherence to these basic codes and norms which may not be mandatory in India. GRIHA is compliant with the basic codes and norms prescribed by Indian standards such as the National Building Code (NBC), Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), by selectively enforcing a few of these even though they may not be required by local development authorities for construction approvals. This helps in ensuring that basic standards are achieved along with environmental performance. 1. Also, as discussed earlier, GRIHA has focusses on non-airconditioned buildings, which are designed in view of the climate and the context of the region such that thermal comfort is achieved without the use of mechanical interventions. GRIHA‘s criteria provide more credit to climate responsive architecture and design to minimise energy use compared to LEED criteria considering the situation of energy consumption in India. 2. GRIHA requires, has a mandatory criterion, where 1 per cent of the total energy needs for the development to be sourced from solar power. Plus, the quality of ground water in India is not guaranteed as in other countries such as the U.S. Therefore, GRIHA mandates the treatment of ground water for drinking and irrigation. 3. LEED does not evaluate acoustical comfort. GRIHA requires adherence to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and NBC guidelines for acceptable outdoor and indoor noise levels. Thus, GRIHA is more comprehensive.
Incentives and subsidies by the MNRE: 1. Buildings achieving a minimum of 3-star GRIHA rating will be eligible for reimbursement of registration fees and cash incentives to their architects and consultants.
2. Financial support for solar PV installations is also being offered. 3. Offers Rs.50 lakhs to municipal corporations and Rs.25 lakhs to other urban local bodies that announce rebate in property tax for GRIHA rated buildings and make it mandatory for new government and public sector buildings to be rated under GRIHA. Today, LEED is widely recognized across the globe as the rating system most preferred for eco-friendly development. Whereas, the incentives from MNRE and its relevance to the Indian context makes GRIHA a viable option to government, quasi-government and private corporations with a predominantly Indian customer base. TERI GRIHA has adopted the ECBC within its framework and thus promises to deliver buildings in conformance to the ECBC. Along with new buildings, there is also a large number of existing buildings that need to be renovated or retrofitted from an energy efficiency point of view, for which the BEE has planned for conducting energy audits of buildings. 11.3 IGBC VISION To enable a sustainable built environment for all and facilitate India to be one of the global leaders in sustainable built environment by 2025. IGBC Green Homes Rating System Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) Green Homes is the first rating programme developed in India, exclusively for the residential sector. It is based on accepted energy and environmental principles and strikes a balance between known established practices and emerging concepts. The system is designed to be comprehensive in scope, yet simple in operation. Benefits of Green Homes A Green Home can have tremendous benefits, both tangible and intangible. The immediate and most tangible benefit is in the reduction in water and operating energy costs right from day one, during the entire life cycle of the building. 36
Tangible benefits Energy savings : 20 - 30 % Water savings : 30 - 50% Intangible benefits Enhanced air quality, Excellent day lighting, Health & wellbeing of the occupants, Conservation of scarce national resources Enhance marketability for the project. Eligibility IGBC Green Homes Rating System is a measurement system designed for rating new residential buildings which include construction categories such as Individual homes High rise residential apartments, Gated communities Row houses Existing residential buildings which retrofit and redesigned in accordance with the IGBC Green Homes criteria. IGBC Green Townships Rating System IGBC continuously works to provide tools that facilitate the adoption of green building practices in India. The development of 'IGBC Green Townships Rating System' is another important step in this direction. The rating system is designed to address large developments and it is mandatory to include residential development as part of the township. Some typical examples of large scale developments are integrated townships, satellite cities, gated communities, campuses with multiple buildings etc.
However, it is to be noted that the rating system is not applicable for individual buildings and land parcels. Townships IGBC Green Townships rating system is applicable for large developments & townships. Townships can be predominantly commercial, industrial or retail but should necessarily comprise of a residential component. Atleast 25% of the total built-up area (in sq. m.) within the township should be earmarked for residential use, for it to qualify for certification. The 'IGBC Green Townships Rating System' is designed to address the issues of urban sprawl, automobile dependency, social and environmental disconnect. Developments are evaluated on the following broad aspects: Environmental planning & Large Developments Land Use planning Resources management Community development
12. Economics of energy labels on the housing market: As we appreciate the importance of having a mandatory energyrating system for homes, it becomes important to analyse and understand what role do market economics play in this realm. The Netherlands was one of the first to experience the formal introduction of energy labels for residential dwellings in January 2008. Various studies were carried out to explore how the market dynamics work with respect to this new commodity of energy certification. In a study conducted by Dirk Brounen and Nils Kok, Maastricht University, Netherlands the following findings were postulatedv: Regarding implementation of energy labels: energy labels are adopted at a declining rate, lead by negative sentiment in the public media. More heterogeneousdwellings of moderate size, constructed post-war, and between 1970 and 1990, are most likely to be labeled, but thermal and other quality characteristics of the home have no relation to the label adoption rate The rating is NOT an indicator of superior housing. labeled dwellings are mostly located in neighbourhoods where density ishigher, monthly household incomes are lower. 38
results imply that the initial lack of transparency in labeling practices, in combination with the current legislation regarding energy performance certification that provides a simple escape clause, hinders a complete uptake of energy labels in the market.
Regarding effect on the housing market: homebuyers are willing to pay a premium for homes that have been labeled as more energy efficient, or ―green‖. this price premium varies with the label category of the energy performance certificate and is immune to variations in housing quality. The energy performance certificate is instrumental in creating transparency in the energy performance of a dwelling .
12.1 Challenges in Universal Implementation: In a country like India which is grappling with acute housing shortages, the main challenge lies in providing homes for all. In such a scenario it is but obvious that the objectives need to be prioritized and achieving 100% energy rating for homes can at present only be a sub priority. It has been often observed that any energy certification requires considerable amount of time , money, user initiative and documentation. Adequate awareness needs to be spread regarding the access options for these rating systems. In most cases, an individual user may require professional help or advise to follow the guidelines set by the certification authorities. Adherence to guidelines during the planning and design stage of the building is much more easier . architects, engineers and building construction professionals can be the first level of dissemination of information regarding home energy rating systems. 13. Potential sources of error in rating systems: Most energy rating systems follow standardized procedures which have their own benefits and risks. At times, the energy rating awarded to a home may not represent the true picture. Some of the potential sources of error in the process are:vi
Occupants‘ behavior is the most significant determinant of actual energy use. It was suggested by onestudy that 54% of the variation of energy consumption was attributable to the building envelopes and46% was for occupants‘ behaviorvii 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Takeback effect Weather changes Energy prices Rater inspection Physical assumptions about recommended features Setting standards: negotiated, life cycle cost, statistical, expert knowledge approach
14. Drawbacks in the implementation of energy efficient measures in indian scenario are: • Failure in adopting passive techniques or certain energy efficient measures in design and construction as a compromise for space. • No control on the construction of energy efficient buildings due to involvement of too many stakeholders. • High initial building cost. • Lack of awareness over the long-term benefits. • Unavailability of efficient equipments in India and the increase in cost as a result of export. • No attractive incentives from the government. Currently, there are 8 registered projects under GRIHA that are under construction. But, this system has been developed for the largest upcoming energy consuming segment of the construction industry, i.e. commercial, institutional and residential buildings (new construction), and is in the course of developing a similar standard to address the needs of other building typologies such as existing buildings, industrial buildings, etc. Now, in consultation with the experts from various related fields in India, the MN&RE is planning to develop a national rating system for green buildings, which will be a voluntary system to be adopted by builders and individuals. The MN&RE is trying to develop an incentive mechanism for the same as well. In context of the implementation of building energy efficiency policies in India, i. There is a need of an effective management system/ implementation infrastructure for new buildings and for upgrades in existing buildings. 41
There is no integrated framework for management and implementation of energy efficiency. There is a need for an institutional framework with well-defined authority and responsibility. The capacity of the state level bodies, which would be responsible for the final adaptation and implementation of the energy code, should be strengthened.
1. The government has to make implementation of GRIHA compulsory building‘s resource consumption, waste generation and maintain ecological impact. Awareness needs to be generated regarding the incentives and following energy rating. Proposal for a new universal rating systems to be formulated overcome the errors and drawbacks of the present rating systems. to minimise the overall benefits of which can
Through this paper we have attempted to analyze various energy rating systems, their benefits and implications on housing. We can safely conclude that energy rating systems are here to stay and we are on a path towards making this mandatory for all buildings. As architects and planners it becomes our duty to spread awareness about these measures and ensure compliance.
References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. http://www.grihaindia.org/ http://www.asiabusinesscouncil.org/docs/BEE/papers/BEE_Policy_India.pdf http://urbanarchitecture.in/2009/10/griha-indias-answer-to-leed.html http://www.scribd.com/doc/55549965/Analysis-of-GRIHA-Certified-Buildings The technical report to the Karnataka State Action Plan on Climate Change Chattopadhyay S, Climate change and the issue of sustainable urbanism, NCHF bulletin, Sep- Oct-2011 7. http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php 8. For energy efficiency :A home energy rating system, research project final report presented to industry Canada’s office of consumer affair, http://uniondesconsommateurs.ca/docu/energie/eeratinghouses.pdf 9. www.basix.nsw.gov.au 10. The economics of energy labels in the housing market,dirkbrounen, nilskok, program on housing and urban policy, university of california, berkeley, http://urbanpolicy.berkeley.edu/pdf/bk_energy_labels_nk082410_wcover.pdf 11. Accuracy of home energy rating systems jeff ross stein,building energy analysis group, bldg 90-2000,environmental energy technology division,lawrenceberkeley national laboratory,june 1997, http://energy.lbl.gov/ea/reports/40394/pdf/40394.pdf 12. Towards the development of a home rating scheme for free 13. Running buildings,mariakordjamshidi, steve king and deoprasad,faculty of the built and environment, University of New South Wales,Australia, http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/lua/010.pdfviii 14. Cost of LEED (www.ee-solutions.com) 15. www.leed.net 16. Official website: http://www.leedshomes.org.uk/ 17. Official website: http://www.nathers.org.au/ 18. Japan Greenbuild Council (JaGBC), CASBEE brochure. 19. SD5064_2_1_BREEAM_Multi_Residential_2008
Chattopadhyay S, Climate change and the issue of sustainable urbanism, NCHF bulletin, Sep- Oct-2011 ii http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php
for energy efficiency :a home energy rating system, research project final reportpresented to industry Canada‘s office of consumer affair, http://uniondesconsommateurs.ca/docu/energie/eeratinghouses.pdf
the economics of energy labels in the housing market,dirkbrounen, nilskok, program on housing and urban policy, university of california, berkeley, http://urbanpolicy.berkeley.edu/pdf/bk_energy_labels_nk082410_wcover.pdf vi accuracy of home energy rating systems jeff ross stein,building energy analysis group, bldg 90-2000,environmental energy technology division,lawrenceberkeley national laboratory,june 1997, http://energy.lbl.gov/ea/reports/40394/pdf/40394.pdf
towards the development of a home rating scheme for free running buildings,mariakordjamshidi, steve king and deoprasad,faculty of the built and environment, university of new south wales,australia, http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/lua/010.pdf
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