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# Annubar Theory

P + 1/2pV
Pf 1
Vf 1
2

## pgh = K The Pitot Tube: Forefather of the APT

Bernoullis energy balance for an incompressible, non-viscous fluid:

Pf 2

Pf 1

V f 12 2 gc

Pf

Vf 1 =

2 gc Pf 2 Pf 1

## Phase II - DP Primary Element

Annubar Theory
The Pitot Tube
Advantages: Can be inserted through a small opening. Can be used to sample the velocity at several points. Low pressure drop, minimal obstruction. Disadvantages: Single point measurement. Pitot traverse requires a technician, and is timeconsuming. Pitot tube is fragile (not suited for industrial app.) DP signal is low.

## Phase II - DP Primary Element

Annubar Theory
Pitot Traverse: no longer required !

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. .
sensor holes to sample flow profile

Mathematical sampling methods provide an averaged flow profile value Annubar uses the Chebyshef theorem to determine sensor hole locations

## Phase II - DP Primary Element

Annubar
Diamond II + Sensor
A multiple-tube, rigid structure that provides dual averaging chambers with a diamond-shaped cross-section and bi-directional flow sensing.

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## Phase II - DP Primary Element

Annubar Theory
Theory of Operation High Pressure Signal (Stagnation Pressure)
Impact Pressure Pipe Static Pressure

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40% 60%
Blockage and Suction Pressure Low Pressure Signal LOW

DP

HIGH

Velocity Profile

Flow
Impact Ports
RMT Sales Training 07/99 Phase II - DP Primary Element

## Annubar - Flow Equations

Actual VOLUME rate of flow QA = N K D2 Faa DP GF DP F (liquids)

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QA

= N K D2 Faa

(gases)

## MASS rate of flow Q Mass = N K D2 Ya Faa

DP - Differential Pressure K - Annubar Flow Coefficient f - Density of fluid D - Internal Pipe Diameter Ya - Annubar Expansion Factor
RMT Sales Training 07/99

## P * DP (gas and steam) T

Faa - Thermal Expansion Factor GF - Specific Gravity factor P - Static Pressure T - Flowing Temperature N - Units conversion factor

## Phase II - DP Primary Element

Benefit of Annubar
Easy Installation
63 linear inches of weld to install orifice 4 linear inches of weld to install annbar

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10 inch line

Drill
RMT Sales Training 07/99

Weld

## Insert & Wire

Phase II - DP Primary Element

## Benefit of Annubar over Orifice

ANNUBAR normally uses a much smaller flange

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## Benefit of Annubar over Orifice

Low Permanent Pressure Drop....

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## ...translates into Energy Savings!

RMT Sales Training 07/99 Phase II - DP Primary Element

## Benefit of Annubar over Orifice

Energy Savings / Low Pressure Drop

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Annubar
Low blockage of the Annubar reduces permanent pressure drop !

Orifice Plate

## Benefit of Annubar over Orifice

Pressure Diagram
P r Stagnation e Static s Differential s Pressure Pressure Pressure u r e

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Orifice
Permanent Pressure Loss

P r e Static s s Pressure u r e

Annubar
Stagnation Pressure Differential Pressure Permanent Pressure Loss

## Phase II - DP Primary Element

Benefits of Annubar
Low Maintenance
- Insensitive to wear - Non-plug design - No moving parts

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Flow