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• A traditional approach • Learners imitates, copies and transforms teacher supplied models. • It focuses on the steps involved in creating a piece of work.


• Stage 1 : Model texts are read, and then the features of the genre are highlighted. • Stage 2 : Controlled practice • Stage 3 : Organization of ideas • Stage 4 : End result


• Sentence-level writing • Paragraph-level organization • Formal letter


• Easy to use with large classes • Easier to grade because emphasis is on form • Useful approach when form is important

• Has no practical applications • Resulted in 'mindless' copies of a particular organizational plan or style • Devalues the learners potential, both linguistic and personal • Does not teach how to write independently WEAKNESSES • Does not teach how to think • Does not make writing a manageable and intentional activity • Limits creativity

respond to drafts STUDENT'S ROLE 2. > Communication of the message is paramount and therefore the developing.The process of how ideas are developed and formulated in writing .Focused on the steps/process of writing STAGES OF TEACHING 1. > Classmates and others. > Teachers may not have enough time to schedule individual writing conferences in large classes. Evaluation : assessment of the written work individuals to discuss where changes in their text are needed and how they can most effectively be made.Writing : Collaborative writing (students work together to write a previously agreed text) 3.CONCERN TEACHER'S ROLE > As a facilitator > Sitting with . > Lots of grading for the teacher > Learners who are unused to process writing will view revision as a sign of failure > Encourages students to 1. > These skills are further developed in individual and small group conference interviews. STRENGTHS APPLICATION IN THE CLASSROOM WEAKNESSES > Could be timeconsuming with large classes. but inaccurate attempts at handwriting. Revising : making changes to improve the writing 4. Revision : Peer editing (students exchange their first drafts of a text and point out changes which are needed to help the reader) 4. > Writing moves naturally from invention to convention. Whole class discussion : of how a particular text might need adjustment according to the audience it is addressed to 5. Prewriting : Group brainstorming on a given topic (students work cooperatively and write down all the ideas that come to mind in connection with a topic) communicate their own written messages. Prewriting : Selecting a topic and planning what to say 2. spelling. Writing : putting a draft version on paper 3. Evaluation : Negotiated feedback in which the learner decides the focus of the given evaluation > takes responsibility for the content and organisation of their work . including the teacher. and grammar are accepted.

FEATURES -emphasize that writing varies with social context . Learners are given samples of the focus genre 2. and is a reflection of a particular purpose .learners are largely passive .Writing takes place in a social situation.learners study texts in the genre they are going to be writing STAGES OF TEACHING 1. TYPES OF WRITING Sales letter Letter of apology Reports Recipes GENRE APPROACH Research articles etc STRENGTHS .learning can happen consciously through imitation and analysis WEAKNESSES . The learners begin their own writing.does not provide learner with adequate linguistic knowledge to write succesfully . Learners look at the sample and analyse the key features. 2.