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A traditional approach Learners imitates, copies and transforms teacher supplied models. It focuses on the steps involved in creating a piece of work.


Stage 1 : Model texts are read, and then the features of the genre are highlighted. Stage 2 : Controlled practice Stage 3 : Organization of ideas Stage 4 : End result


Sentence-level writing Paragraph-level organization Formal letter


Easy to use with large classes Easier to grade because emphasis is on form Useful approach when form is important

Has no practical applications Resulted in 'mindless' copies of a particular organizational plan or style Devalues the learners potential, both linguistic and personal Does not teach how to write independently WEAKNESSES Does not teach how to think Does not make writing a manageable and intentional activity Limits creativity

CONCERN TEACHER'S ROLE > As a facilitator > Sitting with - The process of how ideas are developed and formulated in writing - Focused on the steps/process of writing

STAGES OF TEACHING 1. Prewriting : Selecting a topic and planning what to say 2. Writing : putting a draft

version on paper
3. Revising : making changes to improve the writing 4. Evaluation : assessment of the written work

individuals to
discuss where changes in their text are needed and how they can most effectively be made.


WEAKNESSES > Could be timeconsuming with large classes. > Teachers may not have enough time to schedule individual writing conferences in large classes. > Lots of grading for the teacher > Learners who are unused to process writing will view revision as a sign of failure

> Encourages students to

1. Prewriting : Group brainstorming on a given topic (students work cooperatively and write down all the ideas that come to mind in connection with a topic)

communicate their own written messages. > Communication of the message is paramount and therefore the developing, but inaccurate attempts at handwriting, spelling, and grammar are accepted. > These skills are further developed in individual and small group conference interviews. > Writing moves naturally from invention to convention. > Classmates and others, including the teacher, respond to drafts

2.Writing : Collaborative writing (students work together to write a previously agreed text) 3. Revision : Peer editing (students exchange their first drafts of a text and point out changes which are needed to help the reader) 4. Whole class discussion : of how a particular text might need adjustment according to the audience it is addressed to 5. Evaluation : Negotiated feedback in which the learner decides the focus of the given evaluation

> takes responsibility for the content and organisation of their work

FEATURES -emphasize that writing varies with social context - learners study texts in the genre they are going to be writing

STAGES OF TEACHING 1. Learners are given samples of the focus genre 2. Learners look at the sample and analyse the key features. 2. The learners begin their own writing.

TYPES OF WRITING Sales letter Letter of apology Reports Recipes


Research articles etc

STRENGTHS - Writing takes place in a social situation, and is a reflection of a particular purpose - learning can happen consciously through imitation and analysis WEAKNESSES - does not provide learner with adequate linguistic knowledge to write succesfully - learners are largely passive