Globalisation and Human Rights

Globalization is the process of extending social relations across world-space. Such extensions arise from the movements of people, things and ideas. It cannot be defined in terms of internationalization or integration as some theorists have suggested, though these developments might be an outcome of globalization. Globalization describes the interplay across cultures of macro-social forces. These forces include religion, politics, and economics. Globalization can erode and universalize the characteristics of a local group. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities. Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discovery and voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium BCE. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the pace of globalization has intensified at a rapid rate. The term globalization has been in increasing use since the mid 1980s and especially since the mid 1990s. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment.

Dimensions of Globalisation
Economic Dimension Economic globalization refers to the intensification and stretching of economic interrelations around the globe.[26] It encompasses such things as the emergence of a new global economic order, the internationalization of trade and finance, the changing power of transnational corporations, and the enhanced role of international economic institutions. Political Dimension Political globalization refers to the intensification and expansion of political interrelations around the globe. Aspects of political globalization include the modern-nation state system and its changing place in today’s world, the role of global governance, and the direction of our global political systems. Cultural Dimension Cultural globalization refers to the intensification and expansion of cultural flows across the globe. Topics under this heading include discussion about the development of a global culture, or lack thereof, the role of the media in shaping our identities and desires, and the globalization of languages. Ecological Dimension Ecological globalization refers to the global environmental issues. Topics of ecological globalization include population growth, access to food, worldwide reduction in biodiversity, the gap between rich and poor as well as between the global North and global South, human-induced climate change, and global environmental degradation.

Globalisation has made tourism a popular global leisure activity. Depending on the paradigm. Economic globalization comprises the globalization of production. Shell and BP. logistics and transportation) that take place between two or more regions.[97] Whereas the globalisation of business is centered around the diminution of international trade regulations as well as tariffs. consumer electronics companies like Samsung. leisure or business purposes. International business arrangements have led to the formation of multinational enterprises (MNE).000 people are in flight at any one time. and equality of opportunity. corporate consolidation. and other impediments that suppresses global trade. vehicle manufacturers such as General Motors. Economic inequality affects equity. service. and corporations and industries. immigration. countries. the reduction of trade barriers as well as other economic reforms and. beliefs. In 2010. equality of outcome. International business includes all commercial transactions (private sales. Inequality Increasing international commerce with high barriers to entry. leading to the emergence of a global marketplace or a single world market. international tourism reached $919B. competition. markets. economic globalization can be viewed as either a positive or a negative phenomenon. by means of foreign direct investment. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 500. taxes. Although earlier studies considered economic inequality as necessary and beneficial. LG and Sony. and narratives about the phenomenon itself. there were over 940 million international tourist arrivals worldwide. investments.Ideological Dimension Globalization operates on “an ideological dimension filled with a range of norms. and individuals. claims. International tourism Tourism is travel for recreational. and political corruption have all caused increases in income inequality and wealth concentration: the increasingly unequal distribution of economic assets (wealth) and income within or between global populations. in many cases. Aspects of Globalisation Global business organization With improvements in transportation and communication. tax havens and other methods of tax avoidance. companies that have a worldwide approach to markets and production or one with operations in more than one country. technology and capital. Current globalization trends can be largely accounted for by developed economies integrating with less developed economies. and energy companies such as ExxonMobil. countries and nations beyond their political boundary. has more recently come to be seen as a growing social problem . An MNE is often called multinational corporation (MNC) or transnational company (TNC). Economic globalisation Economic globalisation is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase incross-border movement of goods. international business grew rapidly after the beginning of the 20th century. Ford Motor Company and Toyota. Well known MNCs include fast food companies such as McDonald's and Yum Brands. economic globalisation is the process of increasing economic integration between countries. In 2010. International tourism receipts grew to US$ 919 billion (€693 billion) in 2010.

269 and 1. nature and justifications of human rights to this day. and international law.806. the GDP per capita in countries with high. within international law. Economic. regional. and economic. Indeed. meaning that they will take significant time to implement vague. Human rights can be classified and organized in a number of different ways.national. "if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language. Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). at an international level the most common categorisation of human rights has been to split them into civil and political rights. meaning that they are expensive and difficult to provide progressive. has been a cornerstone of public policy around the world. it is that of human rights. social and cultural rights are argued to be:      positive."[1] Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone).International inequality is inequality between countries. Francis Hutcheson. and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui. meaning that there is no consensus on what should and shouldn't be provided as a right . and featured prominently in the political discourse of the American Revolution and the French Revolution. in local. the strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about the content.184 PPP$. These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights. 4. culminating in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. the question of what is meant by a "right" is itself controversial and the subject of continued philosophical debate.[4] Many of the basic ideas that animated the human rights movement developed in the aftermath of the Second World War and the atrocities of The Holocaust. respectively (PPP$ = purchasing power parity measured in United States dollars). in the policies of states and in the activities of non-governmental organizations. Economic differences between rich and poor countries are very large. social and cultural rights.[2] The doctrine of human rights in international practice. meaning that they require active provision of entitlements by the state (as opposed to the state being required only to prevent the breach of rights) resource-intensive. The ancient world did not possess the concept of universal human rights. Human Rights Human rights are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being. medium and low human development (a classification based on the UN Human Development Index) was 24.[5] The true forerunner of human rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval Natural law tradition that became prominent during the Enlightenment with such philosophers as John Locke. meaning they cannot be quantitatively measured." Despite this. Economic. global and regional institutions. Civil and political rights are enshrined in articles 3 to 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). The idea of human rights[3] states. social and cultural rights are enshrined in articles 22 to 28 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International Covenant on Economic. and whether they are adequately provided or not is difficult to judge ideologically divisive/political. According to the United Nations Human Development Report for 2004.

it is now considered by some to have acquired the force of international customary law which may be invoked in appropriate circumstances by national and other judiciaries. meaning that their provision. Although the UDHR was a nonbinding resolution. meaning they can be immediately provided if the state decides to precise. social and cultural rights comprising the second portion). Economic. civil." The declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behaviour of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality. . assembly and movement. gender.   socialist. the right to petition. right to adequate standard of living. Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples' physical and mental integrity. the right to seek redress or a legal remedy. protection from discrimination on grounds such as race. Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from unwarranted infringement by governments and private organizations. meaning the state can protect them simply by taking no action cost-free immediate. speech and expression. The theory of three generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights". Civil and political rights form the original and main part of international human rights. asserting these rights as part of the "foundation of freedom. sexual orientation. justice and peace in the world. the freedoms of thought and conscience. religion. such as the right to education. due process.[39] The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human. economic and social rights. partly in response to the atrocities of World War II. or the breach of them.[4]They comprise the first portion of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (witheconomic. the right of self-defense. the right to assemble. as opposed to real 'legal' rights Similarly civil and political rights are categorized as:         negative. and theright to vote. and the theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights. gender identity. cannot be judged in a court of law aspirations or goals. Economic. and the right to health. national origin. meaning their provision is easy to judge and measure non-ideological/non-political capitalist justiciable real 'legal' rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly[7] in 1948. such as the rights of the accused. as opposed to capitalist non-justiciable.[1][2][3] and individual rightssuch as privacy. including the right to a fair trial. and ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination orrepression. ethnicity. life and safety. color. and rights of participation in civil society and politics such as freedom of association.religion. right to housing. social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights. or disability. the press. Political rights include natural justice (procedural fairness) in law.

entry into force: 1981) United Nations Convention Against Torture (CAT) (adopted 1984. Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) were adopted by the United Nations. The Human Rights Committee promotes participation with the standards of the ICCPR The Committee on Economic. are:       Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) (adopted 1966. Social and Cultural Rights(ICESCR) is the primary international legal source of economic. social and cultural rights. social and cultural rights recognised in the ICESCR in relation to children and women. created at the 2005 World Summit to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women recognises and protects many of the economic. The Committee Against Torture monitors the CAT and receives states' reports on their performance every four years and comments on them.      . entry into force: 1969) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (adopted 1979. They are generally known ashuman rights instruments. Social and Cultural Rights monitors the ICESCR and makes general comments on ratifying countries performance The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination monitors the CERD and conducts regular reviews of countries' performance. referred to (with ICCPR and ICESCR) as "the seven core treaties". entry into force: 2008) International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (ICRMW or more often MWC) (adopted 1990. The Universal Declaration on Human Rights recognises a number of economic. Since then numerous other treaties (pieces of legislation) have been offered at the international level. Some of the most and cultural rights are recognised and protected in international and regional human rights instruments. entry into force: 1984) Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (adopted 1989. social and cultural rights and are expected to take "progressive action" towards their fulfillment. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women monitors the CEDAW. protect and fulfill economic. creating human-rights law. between them making the rights contained in the UDHR binding on all states that have signed this treaty. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination prohibits discrimination on the basis of racial or ethnic origin in relation to a number of economic. entry into force: 1989) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (adopted 2006. International treaties In 1966. social and cultural rights and the International Covenant on Economic. has a mandate to investigate violations of human rights. Member states have a legal obligation to respect. entry into force: 2003) Treaty Bodies  The United Nations Human Rights Council. the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities also prohibits all discrimination on the basis of the disability including refusal of the reasonable accommodation relating to full enjoyment of economic. social and cultural rights. social and cultural rights.

Non-governmental Organizations International non-governmental human rights organizations such as Amnesty International. .   The Committee on the Rights of the Child monitors the CRC and makes comments on reports submitted by states every five years. supranational bodies and national governments to adopt their policies on human rights. Human rights organizations have been said to ""translate complex international issues into activities to be undertaken by concerned citizens in their own community". International Service for Human Rights and FIDH monitor what they see as human rights issues around the world and promote their views on the subject. The Committee on Migrant Workers was established in 2004 and monitors the ICRMW and makes comments on reports submitted by states every five years The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was established in 2008 to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It does not have the power to receive complaints. Human Rights Watch. Human rights organizations frequently engage in lobbying and advocacy in an effort to convince the United Nations. Many human-rights organizations have observer status at the various UN bodies tasked with protecting human rights.

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