The Future of Nanotechnology

Jason Montesanto February 27, 2001

What is Nanotechnology?
Materials and Manufacturing Health and Medicine Energy and Environment National Security Nanoelectronics and Computing

Carbon Nanotubes National Nanotechnology Initiative Summary

What is Nanotechnology?

How important is Nanotechnology?
National Nanotechnology Initiative Neal Lane, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology

New behavior at the nanoscale is not necessarily predictable from what we know at the macroscale Dominance of interfacial phenomena
Van Der Waals forces, Coulombic forces

Quantum mechanics

Examples of Nanostructures
Carbon Nanotubes Thin films Proteins, DNA Single electron transistors

Nano beginnings
Richard Feynman, 1959 Emergence of instruments in the 1980’s AFM, STM

Works by “dragging” a cantilever with an extremely sharp tip over a surface or sample

AFM Image
Two DNA strands

AFM Image
IBM written with single xenon atoms on nickel

AFM Image
Nanolithographic techniques used to create an image on a substrate

Scanning Thermal Microscopy
Measures thermal conductivities, or temperatures of surfaces

Scanning Thermal Microscopy
Temperature contrast mode Conductivity contrast mode

Impact on Manufacturing and Materials
Lighter, Stronger Materials Bio-inspired materials Adaptive, or self-healing materials Manufacturing to exact shapes without machining

Health and Medicine
Improving ability to sequence genetic codes More effective, less expensive health care New drug formulations, delivery methods Sensors for early detection, prevention

Energy and Environment
Ordered mesoporous material by Mobil Oil to remove ultrafine contaminants Nanoparticle reinforced polymers to replace metals in automobiles

National Defense
Chemical/biological/nuclear sensing Increased use of automation and robotics

Biomimetic Modeling after biological systems
One gram of DNA could possibly store all the data in the Library of Congress The human brain contains 1014 interconnects and operates at 1016 ops/sec using very low power and imprecise information Human immune system is ‘self-repairing’

Carbon nanotube transistor by IBM and Delft University

Carbon nanotubes
CNT is a tubular form of carbon with diameters as small as 1nm, and lengths of over 130 microns

Carbon nanotubes
CNT’s exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties Young’s Modulus over 1 TPa Tensile strength approximately 200 GPa

CNT Thermal Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Comparable to diamond

Changes with temperature and current

CNT Synthesis
Grown by laser ablation, carbon arc process, and chemical vapor deposition

CNT Synthesis
Chemical Vapor Deposition

CNT in microscopy
CNT tip is strong, and offers better resolution

CNT Applications
CNT’s as interconnects AFM imaging NEMS Flat Panel Displays High Strength, light weight composites, cables

National Nanotechnology Initiative
Multi-agency initiative in nanotechnology starting in FY01 “Leading to the next industrial revolution” Information:

National Nanotechnology Initiative
$495 million dollars in funding
NSF - $217M DoD - $110M DOE - $94M NASA - $20M DOC - $18M NIH - $36M

Foreign Nanotechnology Research
U.S. does not dominate 1997 Government expenditures
U.S. - $118M Japan - $120M Europe - $122M Others - $65M

“A technological revolution” The National Nanotechnology Initiative is in place to combine the efforts of the United States in pushing Nanotechnology


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