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Base method: This is very suitable when numbers are close to a base like 10, 100, 1000 or so on. Let's take an example: 106 × 108 Here the base is 100 and the 'surplus' is 6 and 8 for the two numbers. The answer will be found in two parts, the right-hand should have only two digits (because base is 100) and will be the product of the surpluses. Thus, the right-hand part will be 6 × 8, i.e. 48. The left-hand part will be one multiplicand plus the surplus of the other multiplicand. The left part of the answer in this case will be 106 + 8 or for that matter 108 + 6 i.e. 114. The answer is 11448. 12 X 14. 10 would the most suitable base. In the current example, the surplus numbers are +2 and +4. If 8x7 were to be performed and base of 10 were chosen, then -2 and -3 would have been the deficit numbers. Try the following numbers (a) 13 X 16 (b) 16 X 18

(c) 18 X 19

(d) 22 X 24

Once you get comfortable, do not use any paper or pen. 27 X 28 53 X 57 99 X 99 322 23 X 18 622 382 102 X 105 98 X 107 46 X 48 42 X 46 112X113 5255 9698 1082 582 92 X 93 123 X 127

Using Other Bases In 46 X 48, the base chosen is 50 and multiplication of 44 by 50 is better done like this: take the half of 44 and put two zeros at the end, because 50 is same as 100/2. Therefore, product will be 2200. It would be lengthy to multiply 44 by 5 and put a zero at the end. In general, whenever we want to multiply anything by 5, simply halve it and put a zero. Multiply 32 by 25. Most of the students would take 30 as the base. The method is correct but nonetheless lengthier. Better technique is to understand that 25 is same as one-fourth. Therefore, one-fourth of 32 is 8 and hence the answer is 800. An application of Base Method to learn multiplications of the type 3238, where unit's digit summation is 10 and digits other than unit's digit are same in both the numbers. In the above example, 2 + 8 = 10 and 3 in 32 is same as 3 in 38. Therefore method can be applied. The method is simple to apply. The group of digits other than unit's digit, in this case 3, is multiplied by the number next to itself. Therefore, 3 is multiplied by 4 to obtain 12, which will form the left part of the

answer. The unit's digits are multiplied to obtain 16 (in this case), which will form the right part of the answer. Therefore, the answer is 1216. Try these now 53 X 57 91 X 99

106 X 104

123 X 127

The rule for squares of numbers ending with 5. e.g., 652. This is same as 65 X 65 and since this multiplication satisfies the criteria that unit's digit summation is 10 and rest of the numbers are same, we can apply the method. Therefore, the answer is 42 / 25 = 4225. Try these: 352 952 Cubing

1252

2052

Finding the cubes of numbers close to the powers of 10. e.g., cubes of 998, 1004, 100012, 10007, 996, 9988, etc. Some of the numbers are in surplus and others are in deficit. Explain the method as given below. Find (10004)3 Step (I) : Base is 10000. Provide three spaces in the answer.The base contains 4 zeros. Hence, the second and third space must contain exactly 4 digits. 1 0 0 0 4 = —/ —/ — Step (II) : The surplus is (+4). If surplus is written as 'a', perform the operation '3a' and add to the base 10000 to get 10012. Put this in the 1st space. 1 0 0 0 4 = 1 0 0 1 2 /—/— Step (III) : The new surplus is (+12). Multiply the new surplus by the old surplus, i.e. (+4)(+12) = (+48). According to the rule written in the step (I), 48 is written as 0048. 1 0 0 0 4 = 1 0 0 1 2 / 0 0 4 8 /— Step (IV) : The last space will be filled by the cube of the old surplus (+4). Therefore, 43 = 64, which is written as 0064. 10004=10012/0048/0064 Therefore, the answer is 1001200480064. Find (998)3

Step (I) : Base = 1000. Hence, exactly 3 digits must be there in the 2nd and 3rd space.The deficit = (+2) 9 9 8 = —/—/— Step (II) : Multiply the deficit by 3 and subtract (because this is the case of deficit) from the base. 9 9 8 = 9 9 4 /—/— Step (III) : (old deficit) x (new deficit) = 2 x 6 = 12 9 9 8 = 9 9 4 / 0 1 2 /— Step (IV) : The cube of the old deficit = 8. Since it is the case of deficit, -8 should be written. All that you need to do to write the negative number in the third space is to find the complement of the number, in this case 8. But since the third space must have exactly 3 digits, the complement of 008 must be calculated. The complement of 008 is 992. Don't forget to reduce the last digit of the second space number by 1

998=994/012/992 -1 ———————————— 994/011/992

Therefore, the answer is 994011992 As an exercise, try the following : 999943 = 9 9 9 8 2 / 0 0 1 0 8 / 0 0 2 1 6 = 99982/00107/99784 100053 = 1 0 0 1 5 / 0 0 7 5 / 0 1 2 5 = 10015/0075/0125 1000253 = 1 0 0 0 7 5 / 0 1 8 7 5 / 1 5 6 2 5 = 100075/01875/15625 99999883 = 9 9 9 9 9 6 4 / 0 0 0 0 4 3 2 / 0 0 0 1 7 2 8 = 9999964/0000431/9998272

Calculating Faster

Maths in the Quantitative Ability (QA) and the Data Interpretation (DI) section is not only about solving the questions accurately but also solving them with speed. For faster calculations:1. The first requirement is to mug up tables till 30, reciprocals with respect to percentage and decimals, squares & cubes till 30, square roots and cube roots till 7. 2. Practice various questions to become comfortable with the various types of problems and understand by which method you can solve a particular problem faster. Exposure to various types of questions is required so CAT does not come as a surprise to you. 3. Be very thorough with basics of all arithmetic topics like profit, loss and discount, ratios, basic number theory and formulas. 4. Take sectional tests and analyse your performance. This helps you to understand your strengths and weaknesses. Remember, a test is not conducted to tell you that you perform at 80% efficiency but to point out the 20% area where you are making mistakes. 5. Try vedic maths and learn short-cut methods that work for you. Also, try doing mental calculations and minimise the use of using pen and paper. 6. Approximation is the best tool to arrive at answers quickly but using it is an art, you will have to learn this through trial-and-error and practice. 7. Often you can arrive at the correct answer by the process of elimination. For some questions you may see that two or three of the given options are pretty far fetched and it is easy to select the right answer. Again, this method needs practice to perfect. 8. Whenever you try to calculate faster then your comfort zone speed, you are bound to make silly mistakes. So, try to build up your speed slowly so that it peaks in November when all the entrance tests are about to begin. The Importance Of Reciprocal Percentages And Fractions The CAT tests your ability to interpret and understand questions based on facts and figures. To tackle the QA & DI sections, you need to have a good understanding of number theory. Lets take an example. Suppose you are to calculate 5.26% of 760 as a sub-step of a DI calculation say something like

(526/200) X (760/100) => {(5.26/100) X (760/1)} 1/20 You should know the equivalent fraction of 5.76% (It is actually 1/19 ), it reduces to (40) X 1/20 = 2

This can save you vital 15 – 20 seconds (at least) and saving this much time in almost every question means a higher attempt and higher accuracy. So, be sure to spend time learning equivalent fraction & percentages from 1/1 to 1/30. Here are some tables to help you out…

Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Reciprocal 1/1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10

Decimal 1.0 0.5 0.33 0.25 0.20 0.166 0.142 0.125 0.1111 0.1

Percentage 100 50 33.33 25 20 16.66 14.28 12.50 11.11 10

Tips To Remember Some Values: The values of reciprocal percentages (RP) for 6 is exactly half that for 3 (half of 33.33 = 16.66) The RP for 8 is exactly half of 4 (half of 25 = 12.5) Seven is easy to remember just 7 into 2 (14), followed by 14 into 2 (28) which makes it 14.28 9 is one-third of 3 (33.33 divided by 3 = 11.11) Please start with the next ten only after becoming absolutely comfortable with the first ten

Number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Reciprocal 1/11 1/12 1/13 1/14 1/15 1/16 1/17

Decimal 0.09090 0.0833 0.077 0.0714 0.0666 0.0625 0.0588

Percentage 9.09 8.33 7.7 7.14 6.66 6.25 5.88

18 19 20

1/18 1/19 1/20

0.0555 0.0526 0.05

5.55 5.26 5

Tips To Remember Some Values: By now you would have figured out that the difficult ones are the prime numbers. We have already dealt with 7. Now we need to work out 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 and 29. 9 and 11 are interrelated as 1/9 is 11.11 and 1/11 is 9.09 13 is considered unlucky. The way you remember it is through the year 1977,which proved unlucky for Indira Gandhi and Coca Cola. All even numbers can be worked out by dividing the RP for the number that was their half or quarter by two or four respectively. For example, 12 is half of 6 (half of 16.66 = 8.33) Workout the rest of the primes and your own unique way to remember them. We cannot emphasize the importance of having the percentages of the 1st 30 reciprocals on your fingertips.

Number 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Reciprocal 1/21 1/22 1/23 1/24 1/25 1/26 1/27 1/28 1/29 1/30

Decimal 0.0476 0.04545 0.0434 0.0416 0.04 0.0384 0.0370 0.0357 0.0344 0.0333

Percentage 4.76 4.54 4.34 4.16 4 3.84 3.7 3.57 3.44 3.33

Composite Table

Sl.No 1 2 3 4

RV 1.00 0.50 0.33 0.25

% RV 100 50.00 33.33 25.00

Squre 1 4 9 16

Cube 1 8 27 64

Forth term 1 16 81 256

Squre Root 1.00 1.41 1.73 2.00

Cube Root 1 1.25 1.44 1.58

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

0.20 0.17 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.4 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03

20.00 16.67 14.29 12.50 11.11 10.00 9.09 8.33 7.69 7.14 6.67 6.25 5.88 5.56 5.26 5.00 4.76 4.55 4.35 4.17 4.00 3.85 3.70 3.57 3.45 3.33

25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 441 484 529 576 625 676 729 784 841 900

125 216 343 512 729 1000 1331 1728 2197 2744 3375 4096 4913 5832 6859 8000 9261 10648 12167 13824 15625 17576 19683 21952 24389 27000

625 1296 2401 4096 6561 10000

2.24 2.45 2.65 2.83 3.00 3.16

1.70 1.81 1.91 2 2.08 2.15

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