You are on page 1of 336

J

I
I
J
I
J
I
J
A Primer
.. fOF
Classical Literary Tibetan
.Volume 1: The Grammar
JOhIl Rockwell, Jr.
1111
{
{
I
(
I
[
}
}
,
J
I
,
A Primer
for
Classical Literary Tibetan
Volume 1: The Grammar
John Rockwell, Jr.
IIII
x.., H ~ ~ , ' I,q
~ Se,. \""T
~ " l l ~ ~
Second Edition, 1991
Copyright 1991 John Rockwell, Jr.
All rights reserved.
Distributedby: Samadhi Bookstore
Karme-Choling
Barnet, VT 05821.
(800) 331-7751
I
I
]
!
I
f
}
f
I
j
!
1
1
I
!
Table of Contents
Volume 1: The Grammar
Preface viii
Abbreviations of Sources ix
Lesson One : 1
1.. The Language: General Remarks 1
2. The Tibetan Syllabary 1-r 1
<,
3. The Thirty Consonants ......................... 1
2
4. The Four Vowels}'2. .
5. Exercises 3
LessonTwo 5
1.The Structure of a Tibetan Syllable 5,
2 Th
. hr S ibed Le 5
. e T .. ee uperscrl e tters . . II . I .
'. . 9
3. The Four Subscribed Letters 'J I ') I 'J I 'v
4. Combinations of Superscribed and Subscribed Letters Together !2
Lesson Three 14
-e:
1. The Five Prefix Letters C . 14
'v
<,
2. The Ten Suffix Letters -f:)" - .......... 17
'v
3. The Two Second Suffix f:)" "l and . "l 19
'v
'" C'\.
4. Finding the Main Letter c, -1 21
5. Dictionary Order ' 22
Lesson' Four 25
1. The Fonnationof Tibetan Words 25
C'\. C'.
. . .
2. Nouns I and the Possessor Particle I I .. 25
3.The Possession Particle --6 B) . 27
.....-
4. Adjectives l" 27
5. Nouns and Adjectives Together 28
<,
6. Pronouns: Demonstrative 'i- -and Personal. 28
c-,
7. Indefinite Article -.:j - .........................29
30
8. Plural.Particles. I ..
9. Numbers: Cardinal and Ordinal.I-20 30
10. Word Order 31
11. Exercises '32
Table of Contents
Lesson Five ' 35
<"
1. The Use of Particles a5 . - ... 35
,.
2. The Nominal Use of the Relational Particle f\J. :j ......7: .. ..: ............................ 35
3. The Nominal Use of the Coordinating Particle l C - :J - ::'!i.;..: Al

4. The Etc. Particle , '........................... ......M


5. Compound Words 45
6. Translations of Sanskrit Words 46
7. Abbreviation of Compounds .- 48
8. Apposition 49
9. Exercises :.50
Lesson Six 55
1. Parsing a Sentence ................................................................................................................... 55
2. To Be or Notto Be 56
C'\.
3. The Linking Verb tl.J <3) -":I - .......... 56
4. Sentence Punctuation 57
C'\. -e: C'\.

5. The Nominal Use of No Particle or / I' (1) 57
C'\.
6. The Topic Particle <3). ..... 58

7. The Eleven Completion Particles I I or ':L-J 58
"\,j
8. The Verb of Existence u:JlC"J- 59
-e:
9. The Nominal Use of the Seven Locative/ObjectivelPurpose Particles f\J l<3) -q l <3). (1 ) 60
'u
10. The Nominal Use of the Concessive Particle j- OJ - or OJ - 62

11. Exercises 64
Lesson Seven 67
. .
1. Verbs I . 67
2. Sentence Structure of TransitivelIntransitive Verbs 67
3. Verbal Forms: Tense and Mood 68
C'\. -e: C'\.
0
4. The Nominal Use of No Particle or / I (2) 7
<,
5. The Nominal Use of the Agentive Particle l - 11
6. The Nominal Use of the Seven Locative/ObjectivelPurpose Particles n.J' OJ' <:;J l OJ - (2) 74
, 'u
7. The Four Negation Words l . 81
8. Exercises 82
LessonEight 85
lGerundsandl'articiples 85
2. Relative or Adjective Clauses , 86
90
3. The Nominal Use of the Source Particles I .
'u 'u
iv
I
\
}
1
}
I
I
1
\
}
j
I
!
1
Table of Contents
C\-.
4. Pronouns: Interrogative, Relative, Indefinite Q, -j - 94
<,

5. The Eleven And/or Particles: 1 :t I 98

6. The Gaps in Tibetan: Omissions and Context. 99


7. Exercises ........ lOO
Lesson Nine 103
1. Verbal Particles andCompound-ComplexSentences 103
<,
2
. 5l c.: -. -
. The Verbal Use of the Agentive Particle I .103
C\-.
3. The Reason Particle .104
4. The Verbal Use of Six of the Seven LOP Particles Oi -q l Oi - 106
'-='
5. The Verbal Use of the Locative Particle c3) - 109

6. Auxiliary Verbs I . 111
7. The Use of - to Form.Nouns 114
8. Exercises 115
LessonTen 118
1. The Verbal Use of the Source Particles c -r r; - 118
, ""-' '-='
2. The Continuative Verbal Particle 120
3..The Verbal Use of the Coordinating Particle l c; - &1- .125
C\-.
4. The Verbal Use of the Coordinating 125
.. ..,
5. The Lack of a Particle after a Verb 127
6. Exercises............................................................................................................. 129
LessonEleven 132
<,
. . 32
1. The Verbal Use of the Relational Particle ............ _ 1 .
2. The Verbal Use of the Concessive Particle "]' OJ' or OJ' 132

3. The Concessive Particle - .. 133


4. The Emphatic Particle a{l' 133
5. The ComparativeParticle -.................................................................................134
6. Exercises.. 135
LessonTwelve 137
1. The Structureof a Tibetan Text. 137
<,
2. The Quote Particle - - 141
<,
3. The Hypothetical QuoteParticle T'i d) - 145
4. Exercises 146
v
Table of Contents
LessonThirteen ....'........................................................................................................................... 149
L'Tibetan Translationsof Sanskrit 149
"" c::nc:-
2. Relative andCorrelativeClauses . 1 I 1 150
3. Exercises 153
Lesson Fourteen : 155

1. The ImperativeMood .1. 155
2. The PrecativeMood .' 157
as-
3. Temporal Particles and Words -I 1 -II I I 159
"'v "'v
4..Exercises 163
LessonFifteen 164
1. The Use of Honorifics 164
2. The Reflexive Pronoun .::I\C: - 165
d4 - rfi- a:; - ..s:I - c::n -
3. The Particles 1 -II? I ................ 166

4. The Abstract Particle ?l- - 167


5. The. DiminuativeParticle - - 167
6. Numerals 168
7. The ComparativeFormof Adjectives 168
8. Exercise: Milarepa'sThree Vows 168
Lesson Sixteen 170
1.Verbs:SeparativeINonseparative,Intentional/Unintentional 170
2. Verbs that Take - 174
3. Compound Verbs .................................................................................................................. 178
Lesson Seventeen : 179
1. Past Auxiliaries 179
2. Future Auxiliaries 181
3. Present and/orDurational Auxiliaries 183
4. Intransitive Auxiliaries Q, l - and 'l Q, - 185
"'v
5. Oilier Verbs and Auxiliaries 186
6. Exercises 188
LessonEighteen 189
. 189
1. Poetry: Meter and Abbreviation ? -I ' I
-r <,
. . 191
2. Reading: LIneage Supplication 1 c,.
Glossaries: 194
English-Tibetan 194
Tibetan-English........................................................................................................................200
vi
Table of Contents
vii

}
J
}
I
I
l

)
!
1
!
J
I
{
I
Answers to Exercises 232

NOtes for the Reader: TheOrnament ofPrecious Liberation 261
Translation of the Reader: TheOmamentofPreciousLiberation 274
Appendices 281. S-
1.Calligraphy 281 s
2. Summary ofPronunciation
3.Summary of Particles and Punctuation 293
4. Abbreviations(for 299
5. Questions for Parsing a Sentence 300
6. The Tibetan Transliteration of Sanskrit 301
Indices: 305
TibetanIndex 305
English Index ' 3o_,9
Volume 2: The Reader-The Ornament of Precious Liberation
1. Introduction & The Primary Cause (I) (1-53) 1
2.. The. Basis (II)" (1-6) :16
a. The Three Kinds ofFaith(I-17) 18
3. The .: Supporting ConditionHll) (1-28) u ..23
Method (IV) .(1-18) 31
4. Impermanence (1-24).....................................................................................................................36
5. The Faults ofSamsara (1-23) .................................................... 44
6. Karma and Its Result (1-23} .............................................................................50
7. Love and Compassion (1-15) 57
8. Refuge (1-24) ..................................................................................................................................63
9. Arousing Bodhichittatl-LO) 70
10. Training in Bodhichitta: Aspiring (1-7) u , 73
11. Training in Bodhichitta: Entering (1-13) 75
1'2. Generosity (1-2) : 79
13.I:)iscipline.(I-.5) 80
14. Patience' (1-2) 82
15. Exertion (1-5) 83
16. Meditation (1-16) 85
. a. Dependent Arising (1-37) 89
17. Prajfia: The Two Kinds of Ego (1-31) 102
18. The Paths (I-6) 114
19. The Bhumis Il-S) , 116
20. The Fruition (V): The Three Kayas (1-17) 117
21. Activity (VI) (1-10) 122
1st'
. /\1,$
Preface
This is the second edition of a never ending project to complete a primer for classical Tibetan. The
first edition was surreptitiouslyreleased in 1985and subsequently spread around the world via a
spontaneous xerox lineage. This time, I have aecided to make the present version more formally
available, since again I havereached a plateau where I will be unableto workintensively on this project
for several years.
In many ways, the primer is much improved. In general, I have tried to incorporate more of the
traditional Tibetan grammarterms and explanations. However, the fundamental approach of this text is
descriptive, i.e. I have tried to explain the forms and patterns of Tibetan sentences, even when I could
not find any traditional explanation of it Moreover, rather than the simple sentences which I made up
for exercises in the first edition, this edition contains sentences drawn fromactual texts. Unfortunately,
this "improvement" also makes the exercises more difficult, since actual Tibetan sentences takenout of
their larger context are usually much harder to understand. To help with this difficulty, I have included
the" answers" to the exercises, which indeed many people requested for the first edition. I have also
included English to Tibetan exercises, which my students at Naropafound very intriguing and helpful.
The reader has also proved to be quite helpful for beginning students. I would suggest that
students work through about the first nine lessons and their exercises before beginning the reader.
However, it is possible to try it earlier, as there are notes for many of the grammatical forms, or one
can at the very least usethe index to find any forms not included in the notes. I have found that it is
very helpful to alternate the all-at-once approachof just reading a text andcovering the grammatical
points as they come up with the step-by-step approachof covering the grammar in an ordered and
gradedmanner.
Though somewhat improved, thistext is still an unfinished work. The farther you go in the primer,
the rougher the lessons become and the more gaps in terms of explanations, exercises, and the like you
will find. Please forgive all the many omissions and duplications.
My thanks to my many Tibetan teachers: Jan Nattier, Kesang Tashi.Sonam.Hiroshi, Michael
Azzato,Mark Tatz, KhenchenThrangu Rinpoche, Khenpo Chodrak Tenphel, Dzokchen Ponlop
Rinpoche, Khenpo SonamThopgyal, Khenpo Palden Sherap, Khenpo Tsewang Donyo, and many
others. My deepest gratitude goes to my root guru, the and
my spiritual friend, Lama Ugyen Shenpen, whotaught me much more than a language, but rather a
whole view and way of life. Also, sincere appreciation to my colleagues, Judith Simmer-Brown,
Reginald Ray, Jules Levinson, and my fellowtranslators, Larry Mermelstein, Scott Wellenbach, and
the rest of the Nalanda Translation Committee for their support of this project. My special thanks to
my friend Martha Bonzi for her unwavering and inscrutable support of the Translation Committeeand
this project.
May this work be of benefit to understanding the words and meaning of the holy dharma,
John Rockwell, Jr.
The Naropa Institute
Boulder, Colorado
August 13, 1991
I
}
I
I
l
\
f
Update to
A Primerfor Classical LiteraryTibetan
4/1/92
PRINTING PROBLEMS ,
Thereare certain combinations of letters that for some reason did not print properly on a laser
printer (though they were fine on a dot matrix printer). Especially, the "shapchu" vowel has
\v
problems with the consonant combination - ~ -..Moreover, Appendix 6 on Sanskrit transliteration is
very confusing, because many ofthe vowels and special combinations did notprint correctly.
Unfortunately, this chapter is virtually worthless at this point.T will correct these problems in a future
update of this text. The vagaries of laser printers also affected the English text in places, mainly by
ignoring the spacing between words and running them together.
THE EXERCISES
In trying to make the exercises more realistic by taking sentences from actual Tibetan texts, I have
also made themmuch more difficult. Beginners in particular find it very demoralizing to not be able to
figure out correctlymost, if not all, of the exercises. I will find some way to make these sentences
more accessible in-the future, but for the time being, the only advice lean give.especially for those
who are using this text on their own without a class or teacher, is to tty working with the Reader
earlier, perhaps beginning as early as Lesson 7 (which is when the exercises start becoming more
difficult). Oftentimes, the main difficulty in figuring out an exercise sentence is the lack of a larger
context for their meaning..Therefore, the longer sections of The Precious OmamentofLiberation
(with its notes) might be a little biteasier. -- In any event, it has been my experience that no,matter how
much preparation you give students, they still find it quite difficult when they directly encounter a
Tibetan text. _Having an oral explanation and commentary from a teacher is extremely important.
CORRECTIONS
I have not included minor typos in the following corrections. Please feelfree to submit mistakes
n.ot listed-here for future updates for the benefit of others.
PAGE LINE
x 2
24 4up
39 10 up
52 9
56 18
57
61 27
75 4
78 11
91 9up
92 3 up
107 21
110 23
CORRECTION
-e: o, -.c-'-.r-
Insert: IDCM qc;- ~ -d5 ~ - ~ ( c; -en 0) -~ -
...Merit on page iv of Volume 2: The Reader. [The tape that the text mentions is
not available at thispoint.]
...relative clauses will be covered in Lesson 10.
....-., C'\.
< J ~ - ~ - ~ ~ -
Appendix 7 wasomitted, once I realized how difficult it was to give simple
explanations of English grammar! -I may yet get the courage to attempt this, but
until then I recommend checking a book out from the library on basic English grammar.
, ""'
Q1h.:r.. -a5 en- vhichi ". .. - _.
I") I ,W cniswntten asa ...
ADVERB [instead of "LOCATION"]
...thatuse ~ - for the...
...aspointed out in 7.4...
For the comparative forms of adjectives, see Lesson 15.7.
See alsof. below.
PURPOSFJINFINITIVE
..... their speculative nature...
Update 4/1/92 2
115 4
135
136 1
139 spaces
.....-
(For the possessor particle C-J - .,
From Lesson 11 onward, the glossary is not complete for the exercises. Therefore,
it is necessary .at this point to purchase a Tibetan English dictionary to do the
exercises. 1 would recommend Das' dictionary as the most economical and easy to
use. Many of its definitions are dated and misleading, but there is really nothing
.much better at this point.
<,
.. - q -
'-=>
Tibetan pages omitted.
144 23&25
174 14
181 11 up
207 7
217 10
229 11
239 9
240 3 up
247 9 up
247 4up
"" C"\.

Delete "(these terms will be explained below)," since they have already been
explained in Lesson 7.
...usually has a passive sense.
...often used with a preceding l C -)
splendor
...imp. particle, see Lesson 14
... ja + shap eu = JU
...da + shap ell = QU + ba sa =QUP
[since] death is certain to ...
...this whole area where I am standing...
GLOSSARY
Due to the speed of mind and the late addition of this reading, the vocabulary for the Lesson 5
reading was not included in the Glossary. Therefore, the terms that are not in the Glossary are given
below. My apologies for any anguish you may have suffered trying to look up words that were not
there.
all-pervading
embodiment
white
Update 4/1/92
3
to have leisure, freedom, time
throne
'"' '"'
q%- - wisdom, compassion, and power-these three (see 5.3.a)
'\..:)
lists
1
}
\
I
,
l
}
!
<,

-


, .....-

-e:
l-Cflq-
""" c-,

hooked knife
friend
volume (of a text)
back, behind
S: tantra,tantric text
blue
dharma protector, S: dharmapala
fearful, tenifying
tree
palm (of hand)
skull cup
surrounding, all around
higher realms
solid
leisure, freedom
captain
tonight
bell
bells
seat
guide
v- '"' '" e-, v-
. f:\ - f\J - O-l- c - .vajrasana, vajra posture
'\..:)
v-


opposite
topics
-c: <,



Update 4/1/92
three places (above, on, & below the earth)
malefactor, one who harms us
S: padma, lotus
wishfulfilling
hanging garlands
intermediate space, in between
immature, naive, ignorant person
crown of the head
resources, wealth
4
-..r e-,

cis-


<,

..
P.N. Maudgalyayanaputra, one of chief disciples of the Buddha
animals that are liberated, i.e. protected fromslaughter
"" -e:
P.N. short for UJ - 4 . en - ., oneof the two main consorts of Padmasambhava
beautiful
companion
branch
mother, consort
right
left
spontaneous sound
place of hope
implementation, use,practice
direction; region, locale
lion
" "
- inconceivable
vowels and consonants
-..r -..r "
- 0) . - . en C - Uddiyana Vajradhara, P.N. of one of the 8 names of Padmasambhava
J
1
1
1
t
j
AS
ASPP
AT
BCA
BY
CB
CKDT
CSC
HS
HT
JOL
JOLLM
KGGG
KGLP
KGT
KJ
KP
KS
KTR
KZ
LC
MASC
'MKK
MM
NTNG
PL
RM
RN
SBD
SCG
SCP
SH
l4>P ':(1. +2..

p
Abbreviations of Sources
Abhidhannasamuccaya by Asanga
Astasahasrika-prajfiaparamita-siitra
Avatamsaka
BodhicaryavatarabyShantideva
Bodhicittavivarana byNagarjuna
-e: -e: C\" .... -.""
cD -q c - by 11-q ai - Oi -ffi -
"" ""
....-.
- - ai -c,: 1- by. 1 c, -
"" . ""
Catuhshataka commentary by Aryadeva
"" c\"....-
The Heart Sutra, - - c, -"J -
Hevajratantra
Jewel Ornament of Liberation, 5"l -c:J -B - <3\- ,by (l,j -c:J. .
-e: .,,-
OA"..:ha::-
Jewel Ornament of Liberation, Punakhaedition.vj I'" <J' -I by --.,
-e: ""....-""
-n - q "'l c, - b 11" q'l 0) -ffi - q "

"" C\"
1Oi -'l q- -"J,q - ai"
""
The Rain of Wisdom.compiled by
C\"
ai r -q 1- by ai- ai-
""
Kasyapaparivarta-sntra
Kshitigarbhadashachakra
-r: C\"....- ""
CN r0) - - -0.1- Oi - -ffi-
, ""
C\" C\" ....-""
10:
1
- c, - - q " " C - by c
1
n.J. - 0) - - cD -
""
-e: C\" ....-"" C\" "" ....-
n.J -ai ffi 1- Oi - "cD q - " " ai - " -
C\"
Mahayanasutralamkara commentary by ai - -
Miilamadhyamaka-karikabyNagarjuna
"" C\"....-"" ....- C\"
Moonbeams of Mahamudra, 1- ffi <31 - - q q-q'i - by J - - f\]-
....- "" C\" C\" -r: -e:
c, - ffi <31- r; " 1- COi - (yellow cover)
....- C\" C', ....- ""
q -n.J - q ::J 'i - q-4c; - ?" by 'i q c, - 1- - "
""
Ratnamegha
Ratnamala
<, -c: .... -....- -e:
by -1
'."j
Samcayagatha
-:j -t- .,Jacques Bacot edition
Suhrillekha by Nagarjuna
SM
TRA
TSND
IT
UT
YN
YPC
Abbreviations of .Sources
,
Sadhana of Mahamudra, -co 0) -ffi- c, -"-J -co - - -t -
'\:l "-='
Arya-triratna-anusmriti-siitra
C'\..' C"\...
cD CN o),l- CJc; "l 1 by - -"-J -ffi --

"C"\.. C"\..
f5 c, - 0)- t; - f:\ -C:. - by
UttaratantrashastrabyMaitreyalAsanga
" C"\.. -: C"\..

y '\:l ,J

'\:l
x
1
j
J
1
)
I
I
I
~
}
1
1
1
j
}
I
Lesson 1
1. The Tibetan Language: .General Remarks
Tibetan is considered to be a branch of the great Sino-Tibetanfamily of languages, though its closest
relative within this family is the Burmese language. In general, Tibetan is a monosyllabic and isolating
language. It is monosyllabic in that a Tibetan word basically consists of one syllable (though there are a few
instances of original two and three syllable words). It is isolating or analyticin that, like Chinese, there is a
consistent one morpheme per word. A morpheme is the minimal stretch of language that has meaning" In
Tibetan, this minimal stretch is the syllable. Moreover~ like Chinese,Tibetan does not inflect nouns or verbs.
Instead, it relies mainly on particles which indicate the case relations between nouns and the clausal relations
between verbs.
One also has to take into account the heavy influence that Indian culture as a whole and the Sanskrit
language in particular has had on Tibetan. It has influenced its structure, vocabulary, style, and subject matter.
In terms of subject matter, of course most ofTibetan literature concerns the buddhadhanna. It has been said
that Tibet has no real secular literature. There are no novels, though there is the long epic of Gesar. There is
very little romantic poetry, save for the love poems of the sixth Dalai Lama and the songs of devotional
longing for the guru. The fact that thedhanna is the primary subject matter of Tibetan means that when a
student first starts reading a text in Tibetan,she is not just studying a foreign language, but is also learning a
very different philosophical, psychological, and cultural viewpoint. It is not just a matter of learning different
words for the same description of reality, but of learning a different way ofthinking about reality altogether.
This might be a little like trying to learn German by reading a work by Heidegger.
These few words of introduction are intended to alert the student that we are entering a language whose
structure and expression are in many ways far afield from English and other Western languages.
2. The Syllabary 1- r -
According to traditional accounts, Tibetan did not have a written form until King SongtsenGampo sent hi:
minister Thonmi Sambhota to India in the early seventh century A.D. Thonmi Sambhota then devised an
alphabet modeled after an Indian script and also composed several grammatical treatises on the Tibetan
language following the model of the Sanskrit grammars.
Tibetan is written and read left to right, like English, There are thirty letters in the Tibetan alphabet
Arranged for the most part phonetically (after the Sanskrit system), they are given in Appendix 1 in
alphabetical order with their English transliteration. Please be sure to keep two important terms straight.
"Transliteration" indicates how one spells a Tibetan word using English letters. It is not meant to indicate hov
a word is pronounced. In fact, most often, the way a Tibetan word is spelled in English can look very
different from how its sound is written in English. For example, the syllable transliterated or spelled 'bsgrogs
is pronounced something like "drok." This pronunciation is indicated by what is called the "phoneticization''
of a word. The phoneticization of a word tries to represent as closely as possible in English the actual sound
of the word. These two terms-transliteration and phoneticization--can be confusing at the beginning becaus
for many single letters the transliteration and phoneticization are written the same way. For example, r -can
be transliterated and phoneticized as "kha."
'"
3. The Thirty Consonants ~ ~ t),J - ~ c;-
'"
There are thirty consonants or "salche," ~ . ~ t),J - ~ c;-. "Salche" literally means "that which makes manifest,
referring to the consonants' making their sounds manifest. The consonants are also referred to by the Sankrit
"
term"kali," 1 ~ ' , meaning"[theconsonants] ka and soforth." Eachofthese thirtyletters by itselfis a
syllable containing the vowel sound "a" implicit in it. Each syllable is concluded and thus separated from the
"'
next syllable by a dot at the top right which is called "tshek," roCl] -
The letters rearranged according to their pronunciation are as follows:
Lesson 1 2
guttural
palatal
dental
labial
palatal
sibilant
Unaspirated Aspirated Aspirated
high tone high tone low tone
1-
"ka"
r-
"kha"
~ -
"kha"l
-.0"
"ca"
d)-
"cha''
~ -
"cha"
5-
"ta'
~ -
"tha"
C;-
"tha"
~ "
"pa"
14-
"pha"
~ -
"pha"
-6"
"tsa"
a5-
"tsha"
E:-
"tsha"
Unaspirated
low tone
4 nasals
C." "nga''
,- "nya"
0;" "na"
~ - "rna"
4 semivowels
Besides the vowel sound "a" which is implicit inany consonant, there are four other vowelsor "yang,U
l SC ~ - , which literally means "melody" or "tune." The vowels are-alsoreferred to by the Sanskrit term "ali,"
j
!
\
sibilant
aspirate
4.. The Four Vowels l SC. ~ -
1-
"shaft
~ -
"sha"
~ -
"sa"
~ -
"sa"
~ -
"ha"
~ -
",g"
~ -
"a"
~ - "wa''
UJ- "ya"
.:I\- "ra"
l\J- "la"
1 The underlining here indicates low tone. It will only be used when there is a high-tone sound with the same phonetic spelling.
a. Spelling: For purposes of reference and spelling aloud, eachof the four vowel signs has a name.
Thus a vowel sign is placed above or below any consonant in order to give that consonant this vowel
sound. The four vowels can be combined with the consonants and are transliterated as follows (see Appendix
1for an authentic rendition of these):
"
~ - '\J -, which means "[the vowels] a and so forth." As pure vowel sounds without a consonant, they are
n.
written and pronounced as follows (the ~ - "a-chen" merely serves as support here for the four vowel signs):
o e u i a
"
"
..r- ~
"
..r- . ~
"
..r- ~
""'
1- r-
~ -
C.- -0- d)-
~ - ,- I)- ~ - C;- 0;- ~ - "1- q'
~ '3 ~
~
ki khu ge ngo ci chu je nyo ti thu de no pi phu be
..r- C'
'"
..r- ~
"
..r- ~
"
..r-
"
-
-6"
cD-
E:- ~ - ~ -
~ - f:\- UJ- .:I\- l\J-
1-
~ - ~ . ~ .
~ ~ ~
."
mo tsi tshu dze wo zhi zu 'e yo ri Iu she so hi u
j
)
!
J
I
J
j
1
Lesson 1 3

1 - "khi khu"

u- "shap chu "




"
"
.e - "deng bu"

-r-
0- "naro"
0)-.71\ -
The method of spelling a syllable out loud is basically a matter of "adding up" the components and
pronouncing the final result.

ka + khikhu
=
ki

ka + shap chu
-
ku
1-

"
ka + dengbu
=
ke
1-
-r-
ka + naro
=
ko
1-

kha + khikhu = khi


r-
kha + shapchu
=
khu
r-

"
kha + deng bu
=
khe
r-
-r-
kha + naro
=
kho
r-

kha + khikhu = khi



kha
+ shap chu = khu

'"
kha + deng bu = khe

-r-
kha + naro = kho

nga + khikhu
=
ngi
c-
nga + shap chu
=
ngu
c-

"
nga + deng bu
=
nge
c-
-r-
nga + naro
=
ngo
c:
5. Exercises:
a. Alphabet: Make multiple copies of the ruled practice sheet, and practice writing each letter at least tell
times, using Appendix 1 as your guide.
b. Tibetan:' Write out and say aloud the spelling and pronunciation for the following.
a. b. c. d. e. f.
"
1.
1-.71\-
E:-UJ-

-r-
"
-r-
"
2.
1-1-



-r-
"
"
-r-
3.
r-<3)- ,- t:::J-
1
I
1
\
}
.

J
J
I
1

l
1
J
I
Lesson 1 4

"'
..,..
4.


1-

'\..)
..,..
"'
..,..
1-as -
5.


S-<rJ-
\.)
..,..
"'

6.


1-
..,.. ..,..
"'

..,.. ..,..
"'
7.
c:
sz



8.

l-

..,..
"'
"'
9.
c;-

..,.. ..,..

10.
cD-

..,.. ..,..
"'

12.
cD-


'\..)
"'

"'
..,.. ..,..
13.
cD-
0l-<rJ-
UJ-<rJ-

t' t'
"'
..,..
14.
0)- L\I-

"
..,..
15.

as-
'\..) '\..) '\..)
"' "'
..,..
"
..,..
"'
16.
as-

..,.. ..,... ..,..

..,..
17.

l4- en-
..,..
"'
"'
18.
l4- ?-
c. English to Tibetan: Write out in Tibetan scriptand spell aloudthe following words.
a. b. c. d. e.
1. shi go zhe-sa tha-ma ma-rno
2. che tsi-tsi ja ri su
3. ye me-ri Ie-lo bu ti-Io-pa
4. nyi-ma ngo-tsha gi-gu kho-na za-rna
5. a-rna 'o-na do-po ca-co ho-rna
6. ji pho-nya ne-tso me sa-ya
7. ra-ro zhu wa nya dza-ya
8. Io-rna e-ma-ho tha-co ni yo-ga
9. he-ru-ka cha si-li-li du-ma yi-ge
10. 'o-rna tshe ha-go tsa-na sho-re
11. zho wa-le pha-tshe ba-rno hu-ru-ru
d. Words for Memorization
r-
mouth
cD-
part

tea
?-
fish
l-
now
l4-
father


human,man

mother
cD-
hot
"'

son
L\I-
beginning

sun '\..)

1-
rneat

earth

mountain
Lesson 2
5.A vowel (above or below the main letter) called "yang" ~ ~ ~ ~ -
~ ~
~ ~ - ~ ~ -
-- ~ ? ~ ~ -
)
"ra[on the] head"
"la [on the] head"
"sa [on the] head"
Phoneticization:Q.up
..,...
~ - ~ ~ - - "sago,"
.;J;, - (N ~ . _ "rago,"
'l.J. (N ~ - _ "lago,"
q ~ q ~ -
'-S .
1. A prefix letter called "ngonjuk"
2. A superscribed letter called.">. go"
3. The main lettercalled "mingshi"
4. A subscribed letter called "-- ta"l
Transliteration: bsgrubs
6.A suffix letter called "jenjuk"
7. A second suffix letter called "yangjuk"
1. The Structure of a Tibetan Syllable
In itsmost complex form, a Tibetan syllable can contain all of these elements:
- r: : 5:::J
2 . 6 7
1 [S]I <'"'J. I[S] ~
I Cfl31
t ~ 14
I ~ Is
There are three letters that can be placed on top ofthe mainletter, They are "ra" .:1\-, "la'' ~ - ~ and "sa" ~ ..
In thisposition, they are called:
..,-
2. The Three .Superscribed Letters .:1\- ~ ~ -
We will cover each of these possible combinations in this lesson. and the following lesson. The important
thing to keep in mind at this point is that few Tibetan syllables have all these elements and that most are in the
two to five element range.
~
)
j
(
r
~
~
1
I
1
j
a. Calligraphy: For an authentic Tibetan rendition of these letters, see Appendix 1.
I), "Rago" is superscribed on twelve consonants, 'and except with.nyaY.fhera .3\-,is abbreviated
as . The twelve combinations are written and transliterated as follows:
1 Theaccentmark" over thevowel indicates a falling tone.
7f(
rka
<1) - E-
rga rnga
Lesson 2
~ - ~ - ~ -
rja rnya . rta
~ -
rda rna
~ .
rba
~ - g- ~ .
nna rtsa rdza
2) "Lago" is superscribed on ten consonants. It keeps the same shape, but is written slightly
smaller.
~ .
lka
Qi-
19a
~
lnga
~ -
lea
e:-
lja
~ -
Ita
~
Ida
Lj-
lpa
~
lba
~ -
lha
3) "Sago" is superscribed on eleven consonants. It also keeps the same shape and is written slightly
smaller. One letter to note is . ~ .. The flag on the ~ goes down to avoid running into the ~ - on top.
~ - c.-
sga snga
~ -
?
snya
~ -
sta
~ -
sda
~ -
sna
Lj-
spa
~
sba
3j-
sma stsa
b. The Effect of Superscribed Letters on the Pronunciation of the Main Letter:
1) No Change: All the unaspirated, high-toned consonants are pronounced as before, i.e. the same
as without the superscribed letter.
"ka"
=
"ca"
=
"ta"
=
"pa"
=
"tsa"
=
2) Change of Voicing and Aspiration: The pronunciation of many aspirated, low-toned
consonants is changed. They remain low-toned, but become unaspirated and voiced, i.e. the vocal cords
resonate. This change could be said to be caused by the "protection" of the main letter by the superscribed
letter. (As will be seen in Lesson 3, this "protection" of the main letter is also caused by the prefix letters.)
"ga''
=
<1)- Qi-
"ja"
=
~ - e:-
"da"
=
~ - ~ -
"ba"
=
<j-
CJ-
"dza"
=
~ -
~ -
3) Change of Tone: The pronunciation of the nasals is changed in that they become high-toned
with "rago" and "lago, "I and even a slightly higher tone with "sago."
higher toned =
highest toned =
E- "nga"
c. - "nga"
~ - "nga'' ~ - "nya"
~ - "nya"
~ - "na''
~ - "na''
~ - "rna"
~ - "rna"
Lesson 2
4) Special Case: Finally, ~ . is pronounced "hla."
7
c. Spelling with the Superscribed Letters: In spelling out these combinations, one again simply
adds the partsup. Start by saying the headletter, then say the main letter followed by the word ~ 5<f} ~ . "tau)
which means "affixed."Lastly, say the whole syllable. In some combinations this final pronunciation will be
no different than the main letter alone, while those in which the mainletter is "protectedbythe headletter, the
sound will be voiced and unaspirated.
Lesson 2
sa + gata
=
ga
~ .
sa + ngata
=
nga
~ .
+ nyata
~ .
sa
=
nya
?
sa + ta ta
=
ta
~ .
sa + data
=
da
~ -
sa + nata
=
na
~ -
sa + pata
=
pa
~ .
sa
+ bata
=
ba
~ .
sa + mata
=
rna
~ .
sa
+ tsata
=
tsa
~ .
8
Withvowels, the logic is the same. Just "add" the name of the vowel at the end, and say the final
combination with the vowel after that.
~
ra
+
ma ta = rna
+
khikhu = mi
~ .
"'
la
+ tata = ta
+ "eng bu = te
~ -
sa
+
kata = ka
+
shap chu = sku ~ -
..r-
ra
+ data = da + naro = do
e, '.
"'
la
+ cam = ca + deng bu = ce
: ~ .
..r-
sa
+
gata = ga
+
naro = go
: ~ .
~
ra + dza ta
=
dza
+
khikhu
=
dzi :E:
la
+ hata
=
hla
+
shap chu = hlu
: ~ .
"=>
d. Exercise: Write out and spell aloud the following words.
a. b. c. d. e. f.
~ ..r- ~
1.
~ .
~ . ~ . ~ .
~ .
c..
?
"'
C'.
"'
..r-
2.
~ . i)-
~ - ~ -
E.-
~ -
..r- ..r- ..r-
3. ~ -
~ - ~ -
~ .
~ - ~ -
~
"'
4.
~ - ~ .
~ -
~ - Lj-
~ -
~ ~ ~
"'
.,,-
5.
~ .
~ -
~ . ~ .
~ -
~ -
?
..r- ~
6.
~ - c- ~ -
~ - ~ - ~ -
~
'"
7.
'"
8.

9.
..,..
10.
Lesson 2 9

..,.. ..,.. ..,..


g"

'do ,
?
"
-..r
'" '"
..,..




'?>
..,..
'"

c
"
'" K-
rmi sku ste rna
sna lho sdu ske
spu Ide lba rta
sbo Iha lei rmo
snya 19a spo rde
Next are the four subscribed letters "ya'' UJ", "ra'' .:1\", "la" and "wa" which are calledrespectively:

"yata" "yaaffixed''

"rata" "ra affixed"
t\J --q5
"lata" "laaffixed"

"wasur" "wa corner"
'->
a. Calligraphy: For an authentic Tibetan rendition of these letters,see Appendixl.
1) "Yata" is subscribed to seven letters in an abbreviated form: UJ ---> . These forms are written
and transliterated as follows:

kya khya gya

S"
pya phya bya mya
J
}
}
f
J
2) "Rata" is subscribed to thirteen letters in an abbreviated form: .:1\" __>

..

kra khra gra tra thra dra pra pbra bra mra shra sra bra
3) "Lata" is subscribed to six letters in its usualform, though a little smaller.

,ij-
kla gla bla zla rIa sla
4) "Wasur" is subscribed to sixteen letters in an abbreviated form: ?;J - --> 4
1 1-
Lesson 2 10
kvakhva gva eva nyva tva dva tsva tshva zhva zva rva Iva shva sva hva
b. Pronunciation with Subscribed Letters
1) "Yata":
The three gutturals are pronounced differently in the dialects of Lhasa (Central Tibet) and Kham
(Eastern Tibet). In Lhasa, they are pronounced with a tty" sound added. The tone of the main letter remains
the same.
~ - "kya" ~ - "khya" ~ . _"khya"
In Kham, these combinations aretotally palatalized (compare these with the next group) and are pronounced:
~ - "ca'' ~ . "cha" ~ . "cha"
We will be using the Khampronunciation throughout, mainly because the teachers that we will be listeningto
on tape come from Kham.
The four labials are totally palatalized, and the tones remain the same as for the main letter.
~ - "ca" ~ . "cha" S "cha" ~ - "nya"
In one dialect of Kham,2 three of these syllables become palatal sibilants. For example:
~ - "tsha'' S "tsha"
2) "Rata": The sound changes for letters with "rata" form a fairly consistent pattern. The sounds f01
the first three rows are made with the tongue curled back and pointing up to the top of the head. Hence, these
sounds are often called retroflex or cerebral sounds. Often a faint "r" sound can be heard. The tones remain
the same as for the main letter.
"ta"
=
~ . ~ . ~ .
"tha"
=
~ . ~ .
"tha"
=
~ . ~ . ~ .
~ -
"rna"
~ .
"sha"
~ -
"sa"
~ -
"hra"
3) "Lata": With one exception, "lata" has the same effect in every combination. They are
pronounced as a high-tone "la." The one exception is ~ . which is pronounced as a low-tone "da."
"la" = :I] . ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ .
"da" = ~ .
4) "Wasur": "Wasur" has no effect on pronunciation. or tone, and is mainly used as a device to mar
the main letter of a word (in case there's any ambiguity) or to differentiate two words that sound the same and
that would otherwise have the same spelling.
2 It is importantto be awareof this particularKhamdialect, as thereare severalwell-known teachers whospeakin this way,
namelyKhenpoTsiiltrim Gyamtso, KhenpoPaldenSherap, DzigarKongtrulRinpoche, etc.
~
I
1
I
1
J
}
}
j
)
Lesson 2
or
J ~ ~ - ~ -
dvags-po "takpo" = place name
(6-
tsha "tsha" =hot
a5-
tshva "tsha" =salt
4
c. Spelling with Subscribed Letters
1) With subscribed letter "yata" alone:
ka
+
yata
=
ca
~ -
kha + ya ta = cha
~ -
kha
+
yata
=
cha
~ -
pa
+
yata
=
ca
~ -
pha
+
yata
=
cha
~ -
pha
+
ya ta
=
cha
~ -
rna
+
yata
=
nya
~ -
2) With vowels:
C'\.
ka
+ yata = ca
+
khikhu
=
ci
~ -
kha
+
yata
=
cha
+
shap chu = chu
~ .
~
"
pha
+
yata
=
cha + dengbu
=
che
~ .
-r-
pha
+
yata = cha +
naro
=
cho
~ -
3)
With,
subscribed letter "rata" alone:
ka
+
rata = ta
~ .
kha
+
rata
=
tha
~ .
kha
+
rata
=
tha
~ -
4) With vowels:
C'\.
tha + rata
= ~
+
khikhu =
lhj
~ -
"
sa +
rata,=
sa + deng bu
=
se
~ -
S) With subscribed letter "lata" alone
ka
+ lata
=
la
:u-
kha
+
lata
= la
~ -
za + lata
=
da
,iJ-
11
Lesson 2
6) With vowels:
pha
+
lata
=
la
+
shap chu
=
lu

"'
sa
+
lata
=
la
+
dengbu
=
Ie

-r
za
+
lata
=
da
+
naro
=
do :
J1.
Unlike the other subscribed letters, "wasur" is not spelled out.
d. Exercise: Write out and say aloud the spelling for the following words.
a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
'\. -r
1.



K

4
"'
'\.
2.
S-


'\. -r '\. '\.
3.
.. S-
OJ,-
or
"'
4.



'\,)
-r -r '\. '\. -r
5.





'\. '\. -r -r
6.



'\,) '\,)
'\.
"'
-r -r
7.

e. Exercise: Write in Tibetan script and spell aloud the following words.
a. b. c. d. e. f.
1. phyi sle gyi dri-ma bya zlo
2. eIre mya khro zla bla-ma gri
3. glu khyi kla-klo blo myu-gu
4. sra kyi phyu khri bro
4. Combinations of Superscribed and Subscribed Letters Together
12
a. Calligraphy: There are several combinations that have both superscribed and subcsribed letters on
the same main letter. They are given below with their respective transliterations. Note that there are no
combinations with the head letter "la-go" or the subscribed letter "la-ta." Again, for the authentic Tibetan
rendition of these letters, please see Appendix 1.
rkya
rgya
skya sgya
Q.
spya

sbya

smya
Ej. skra sgra

spra

sbra

smra
b. Pronunciation:
1) No Change:
"ca"
=

Lesson 2 13
"ta'' =
~ . ~ .
2) Change of Voicing and Aspiration:
"ja" = ~
"da'' =
J-
~ . ~ .
~ -
c. Spelling: The spelling of these combinations employ the same, basic principles as before.
..,.-
"
..,.-
1.
~ - ~ , - Q:-
~
~ -
J-
'\,)
..,.-
"'
2.
J-
~ - ~ -
~ . ~ .
e. Exercise: Write in Tibetan script and spell aloud the following English transliterations.
a. b. c. d. e. [
d. Exercise: First, transliterate the Tibetan into English letters. Then, write out and say aloud the Tibetan
spelling for the following words.
a. b. c. d. e. [
rkya smre sgro rgyu smyo
skye
1) With yata:
ra
+ ga ta
=
ga
+ ya ta
=
ja
+
shap chu
=
ju ~
"
"'
sa
+
kata
=
ka
+
yata
=
ca +
deng bu
=
ce
a-
".
sa
+ pa ta
=
pa + yata
=
ca + khikhu
=
ci
Q-
..,.-
sa + ma ta ma+ yata
=
nya
+
naro
=
nyo
~ .
2) With rata:
"'
sa
+ gata
=
ga + rata
=
Qa
+ deng bu =.Qe
~ -
..,.-
sa
+
pa ta
=
pa
+
rata
-
ta +
naro
= to
~ -
sa
+
bata
-
ba + rata
=
Qa
+
shap chu =Qu
~ -
'\,)
3) Change of Tone:
~ - ""ya" (high -toned)
~ - "ma'' (high-toned)
1. sbru
2. skra
I
I
l
I
~
~
}
1
1
1
l
1
1
j
1
Lesson 3
1. The Five Prefix Letters i 3}-
'\,)
There are five prefix letters or " OJ-/J, E. '<] -, "ngonjuk," which means literally "before-enter." They are:
'\,)
is used before -?-?-C) -3}- - - -UJ - -
l- is used before'
q- is used before

is used before r -c: - -C) -3}- cD-E:-
is used before r - -co - - -l- .q - cD E: - S- . - - . -
a. Pronunciation: Like the head letters "rago," "lago," and "sago," the five "ngonjuk" can cause no
change in pronuncation, can change the voicing and aspiration, can change the tone, or can create a special'
exception.
1) No change: All the unaspirated, high-toned consonants are pronounced as before, i.e. the same
as without the superscribed letter. For many of these syllables, we have added the -,."a-chung," after the
main letter, since this is the full form of these syllables. It does not affect the pronunciation of the syllable in
any way. The necessity of the a-chung is explained in Lesson 3.2.a.5.
"ka" =


"kha"
=

"ca"
=

"cha"
=

"ta" =


"tha'' =

"tsa''
=


"tsha''
=
cDf:\ -

"ca" =
"cha" =
Tag tiger. "The tiger's lightningflashes abroad. "
~
~ ~ ' ~ ' . ' . - - <:!:-" ,. ,
....... .....' ..
"The lion's mane spreads turquoise clouds. "
Seng, lion. J I
J
!
I
]
1
j
I
Lesson 3 15
"ta' =
"tha'' =
"ja"
=

"da"
=

"ba"
=

"dza"
=

"za"
=

"ja"
=

"da'' =

2) Change of Voicing and Aspiration: The pronunciation of many aspirated, low-toned
consonants is changed. They remainlow-toned, but become unaspirated and voiced, i.e. the vocal cords
resonate. This change is said to be caused by the "protection" ofthe main letter by the prefix. letter.
.
3) Change of Tone:' The pronunciation of the nasals is changed in that they become high-toned as
with "rago" and "lago," but not the slightly higher tone with "sago." Also the main letter becomes high
toned with its only possible prefix .. This two-letter combination gy is possible both as the combination of
the main letterg and the subscribed letter y, and as the combination of the prefix letter g and the main letter y.
Therefore, to avoid any confusion between these two, the former case is transliterated in English as 'gy' and th:
latter case is transliterated as 'g.y'. For example, the word is transliterated 'gyu, and the word is

transliterated as 'g.yo'. Practically speaking, there are very few of the latter combination.
"nya"
=


"na''
=

"ya''
=

4) Special Case: One peculiar combination which has a unique pronunciation is the "ngonjuk" l-
plus the main letter = -.
When l does not have a written vowel or a subscribed letter, it is pronounced "wa."
l <J c.. "wang"
"wap"
When l -has a written vowel but no subscribed letter, only the vowel sound is pronounced..
"u" "ti"
Lesson 3 16
When l -has a subscribed "yata," only the'y" sound plus whatever vowel is present is pronounced.
'"
"ye"
(
I
}
1
I
J
J
)
)
J
J
When l - has a subscribed "rata," it is pronounced as "4" (or "r'Tplus whatever vowel sound is
present. This combination is very rare.

"Qi" (or "ri


tl
)
5) Liason: Normally, "ngonjuk" or prefix letters are themselves never overtly pronounced.'
However, many times a "ngonjuk" is pronounced (though not always with its original sound}when it begins
the second syllable in a.two syllable compound word and the first syllableends in a vowel or in consonants
that are not pronounced (e.g. <fJ. -<fJ -). There are no hard and fast rules here. In fact, some native
speakersinsist that if one speaks in the most correct way, these prefixes should never be pronounced.
However,in listening to the way in which the language is spoken,one will find that the "ngonjuk" -OJ
are regularly pronounced in many words. and n.. nasalize the preceding syllable and adds a up" sound.
The superscribedletters "rago'' and "lago" are also sometimespronounced.
'"

"gendiin"

"kanjur"
'-.) '-.)
..r-
.
..r-
'"
cDl . E;. f\] .
"chonjal"
..
"dorje"
..r-

"cupshi''

"col-nga"

"sapche"

"than-ta"
b. Spelling with Prefix Letters: You pronounce the "ngonjuk" first, following it with the syllable
"0. "Then continue spelling as before in "adding up" the parts of the syllable.
'"
kha-o
+
ta
+
dengbu
=
te

tha-o
+
ga
+ shap chu
=
gu

'-.)

pha-o
+
sha
+
khikhu
=
shi

..-
ma-o
+
kha
+
naro
=
kho
-r

a-o
+
da
+
khikhu
=
di
n. c;-
kha-o
+
sha
+
shap chu
=
shu

'-.)
'"
tha-o
+
pa
+ deng bu
=
pe

..-
pha-o
+ ca +
naro
=
co
c-s
"
ma-o
+
cha
+ khikhu
=
chi
<1)-
a-o
+ da
+ shap chu
=
du
n.c;-
'-.)
Lesson 3
c. Exercise: Write out and spell aloud the following words.
a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
"-
'"
-r -r
1.






"- "- "- "-
'"
2.



n.c;-

-r-
"-
-r-
3.


- n. cD-
<J1- <J 1-


-r- -r

-r
'"
'"
4.
"l LlJ-
l1-
c;CN-
CNE:

-r -r
'"
"-
-r
5.
n.r-

'='
'"
"'
'"
f'
6.
-


<J c;-
'=-
'"
-r -r
"-
7.

C;S-
-

<, -r
'"
-r-
8.

<Jg-
.
d. Exercise: Write in Tibetan script and spell aloud the following words.
a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
1. mgu gzhi 'di bsho 'gro gti bcu
2. bse blta dku brtse mchi bgo gshe
3. dge gso 'gyu dbye bsgo g.yo brje
4. 'tsho brda gdu

bOOu bzhi bsku
5. mgo bsngo dme gzi gtso mdzo gci
'"
2. The Ten Suffix Letters

'"
There are ten suffix letters called "jenjuk," - -, which literally means "after-enter." These ten

"jenjuk" are the five "ngonjuk'' letters, - l- - - -, plus five other letters, r;: 0) - .:I\ - -
Altogether, they are:
a. Pronunciation:
,I) Umlauting the Vowel Sound: Four of these "jenjuk" letters l- Oi alter the
pronunciation of certain preceding vowels. All four umlaut a preceding 'a,' 'u,' and '0' vowel.
a ---->a: short a = met; long a =
u ---->ii: French syr; long vowel is held longer
o ---->0: French jeu; long vowel is held longer
In phonetic spelling, these sounds are written e, u, and 0 respectively. These vowel sounds tend to be
Lesson 3 18
short before C) - and 0) - and long before - and -.
The vowels 'i' and 'e' are generally unaffected by these suffixletters in their pronounciation, though
their tone and length may be affected.
Final C) - and - are both always silent. They both produce a falling tone, though - also lengthens the
vowel. Sometimes you can hear a very slight "t" sound with a word that ends in C) -
UJl- "yo"
"le"
Final 0) - nasalizes the vowel. It becomes a "m" sound before the labials -l<3 - - - in the same word.
t"\. or",
- -en- "rimpoche" l cllOi -t,J. "gompa"

"khang"
en c
"chung"
'-:)

"nyam"

"lam"

"la"

"lakpa''

"lap"

"thup"
'-:)
3) The, two, nasalsF and are pronounced normally and both produce a falling tone.
4) Final - lengthens the vowel and is either pronounced softly or sometimes is silent. The tone of
the syllable is not changed.
"palden" (insteadof Lhasa "pendenIt)
"kalsang" (instead of Lhasa "kesang")
"jalwa" (instead of Lhasa "gyewa")



Final n.J - in the dialect of Eastern Tibet, is generally pronounced after all the vowels, and is a partial
exception to the above rules in that it does not umlaut a preceding 'a' vowel, whereasit does umlaut the other
three vowels. However, in the Lhasa dialect, the "jenjuk" - is usually not pronounced and the preceding
vowel 'a' is umlauted, justas with the othervowels. For example:
2) Final and a very soft or swallowed sound of"k" and "p." In fact, is
pronounced so slightly as usually to not be heard. It shortens the vowel and produces a fallingtone (which is
marked in the phonetic spelling by a 'over the vowel). However, when followed byasyllablethatis part of
the word, the"]. is often clearly pronounced as a"k" and does not affect the length'ofthe preceding vowel.
I
I
t
I
I
j
J
1
J
J
1
1
I
"marpa"
Lesson 3
"thar pa"

5) Final t:\ - (called - "little a") is not pronounced and does not affect the vowel quality or
length. It functions simplyto mark the main letter when there is a prefix letter, the main letter does not have a
superscribed or subscribed letter, and the vowel is 'a.'
"ka" "ga"
"' or
'Final f":\- is also used to support and add vowels to syllables, e.g. f":\- - f":\- f":\ -. This use will be
explainedlater.
3. The Two Second Suffix Letters UJ c. - - and l- "l

a. "Yangjuk": One second suffix letter, is called "yangjuk," which literally means
"
"again-enter." It only occurs after the four letter -c - - - and does not affect pronunciation. This means tha
the final sound is determined by the first suffix letter, though the combination - - is oftentimes more silent
than with just the final suffix letter -, and it lengthens the vowel and produces a falling tone.

"kham''

"sang"

"lap"

"la"
-r

"thu"

"ro"
b. "Thadak": In ancient Tibetan, there existed another second suffix letter l-, called "thadak," -=; - -,
which literally means "da-extra." It was placed after the "jenjuk" letters <3) - <: - of certain words. It seems
mainly to have occured after the past tense of verbs that end in <3) - - -, but it also occured after several nouns
and adjectives. Although it has not been written in a long time, the l- is still understood to be indivisbly
present after these words ending in ,0) -.:I\ - -. Thus, as will be seen later, the spelling of certain particles can be
affected by its implicit presence. This is its only significance today. Examples with l- -from old texts are:

"
"'



or

now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
;
/

Lesson 3 20
c. Spelling with Suffix Letters: Since the "yangjuk," the second suffix letter does not alter the
pronunciation in any way, when spelling a word that has a "yangjuk," one simply says it immediately after the
"jenjuk" before saying the final pronunciation.
ra + tata = ta + na TO =. to + ga + sa = tok : '<J .
a-o + ba + ra ta = da + shap chu = QU + ga = duk : .

cha + deng bu = che + na = chen ffi Ol


kha-o + da + rna +
pha-o + ka + a = ka
sa = dam
pha-o + ra + ga ta = ga + ya ta = ja + shapchu = ju+ da
= ju : l-
'-:>
kha-o + sa + shap chu = su +nga + sa = sung

tha-o + w'a + ya ta = ya+Qeng bu = ye + ra = yer :


a-o + ba + rata = da + la = del
a. b. c. d. e. f.
1. nags rmongs brgyud mched sprod g-yo
2. khams gshegs 'gyur klong rgyas dbyings
3. bzlas sngags mdzad bzhengs longs spyod
4. brgal sbyin khrims bcas mkhyen brtse
a. b. c. d. e. f.
-r
1.
t\]
t\JOl



f".\ Ol
'-:>
..r -r ..r
2.

.



ffil-
'-:>

3.


t\J
.
-r -r
4.
.:I\c. .
.


f".\ 1.4 nJ

d. Exercise: Write out and spell aloud the following words.


jun
+ la 13.= la + na.ro = 10 + ba + sa = lop
+ cha +na ro = cho + da = ffi l- ma-o
ra
ra + ga ta = ga + ya ta = ja + shap chu = ju + na =
e. Exercise: Write in Tibetan script and spell aloud the following words.
kh
q"l:; n,
+ sa + na ro = so + la = sol: I
ra + na 13. = na + rna + sa = nam : c3l -
I
I
I
I
I
1
J
]
]
j
]
1
Lesson 3 2

4. Finding the Main Letter
Since the "mingshi" or main letter is fundamental to figuring out both how to pronounce a syllable as well
as how to look this word up in a dictionary, we will cover all the possibilities to be found.
a. The main letter is easily found:
..r
1) if there is -a written vowel above or below (except for. the panicles f":\ f":\ ., which are use
as part of a word).
..r
- 'ch'
"
- 'm'
2) if there is a superscribed or subscribed letter.
-' 'b' ell - 'g'
_ 'b'
- 'm'
3) if there' is any combination of 1. and 2. above.
'"
- 'ny' 0) - - 'g'
b. If there is no written vowel (which means that the vowel is an implicit 'a') and no superscribed 0]
subscribed letter(s), then:
1) if there are two letters, the first one is the main letter.
If the second letter were to be the main letter and the first a prefix letter, then an f":\ - must be added afte
the second letter to indicate this spelling.
- 'm' - 'ng'
- 'g'
2) if there are four letters in a row, the second one is the main letter.
- 'sh'
_ 'b'
3) if there are three letters in a row, this is the only case that can be ambiguous.
a) If the final letter is not a then the second letter is the main letter. Another way to chec
this is that the first letter must be a prefix letter Cf) -C;- < 0-1-
t":\. r:: .:LI-
_ 'j'
b) If the final letter is - and the second letter is not "l t; . <J - 0-1 -, then the second letter i
the main letter.
- 'd'
4) Prefix or head letters + vowels + "jenjuk" and "yangjuk": Now, the prefix and head
22
- 'm'
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.
-e:
1.


q ffi c..




'" '"
..r ..r
2.

Ql


-e: ..r
3.




Q

d) Exceptions:
Lesson 3
c. Exercise: Find the main letter of the following' words.
If c;- in were the main letter, then it would be indicated by adding a wasur on the 1. Of
these exceptions, - is the only word found to date whose first or second letter could be the main letter.
c) If the final letter is and the .second letter is C . . . , then the. first letter is the
mainletter.

suffix letters. Then the same is done for - and so on.


5. Dictionary Order
a. The Main Letter: Words are listed under the main letter, not under, the prefix, superscribed, or
subscribed letter. Main letters are in Tibetan alphabetical order (see Lesson 1).
b. For any given .main. letter:
1) Vowel 'a' + "jenjuk" and "yan.gjuk": The first entries are the syllables with just the main
letter and the vowel fa.' Then come the words withjust the main letter and the vowel 'a' plus the final suffix
letters and second suffix letters. These would beordered according to the alphabetical order of thefinalletters,
i.e. c. -c;- 0) . Q - - q . <: . .. c.. would come before - since ccomes before .:f\ - Words that
have a second suffix letter are placed after the lastentry of the suffix letter it follows.
2) Other vowels + "jenjuk" and "yangjuk'': This same pattern is then repeated for each of the
written vowels. in the order'i,' 'u,' 'e,' '0.' Therefore, first comes and then with the suffixand second
3) Subscribed letters + vowels + "jenjuk" and "yangjuk": Next are the main letters with
"
the subscribed letters in the order UJ, .:f\ -, and -. First comes with the suffix letters, then with the
suffix letters and so on as before. Then the same is done for - and ..
I
I
I
j
I
I
I
]
I
1
]
j
1
J
1
}
I
j
J
Lesson 3
letters in alphabetical order ~ . C ; . ~ .. . ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ . arelisted with the main letter. Thus.f ~ . ~ . would come
before ifi 0) . , sincec;. comes before ~ . in the alphabet. For each combination of prefix and main letter is
repeated the process outlined in 1',. a, and .3 above. Thatfs, first the main letter with each vowel plus the
suffix letters. Then, the main letter with the subscribed letters with each vowel plus the suffix letters.
5) Prefix or head letters + subscribed letters + vowels + "jenjuk" and "yangjuk":
, ..,..
c; ~ <: would come before ~ ~ . , since the "ngonjuk"C;comes before the "sago" ~ . in the alphabet.
23
6) Prefix 'and head letters + vowels + "jenjuk" and "yangjuk": Finally, there is the
combination of one prefix letter ~ . plus the three head letters . ~ . , ~ ., and ~ . . They occur in the ~ t; ., ~ ~ ., and
q ~ . and for each one is repeated the pattern of 7fi -, ell-, and E . above.
Many of the combinations possible in4. and 5. simply do not occur. Look at the "Summary of
Pronunciation Chart" on pages (1) to see what combinations do occur.
7) Prefix and head letters + subscribed letters + vowels + "jenjuk" and "yangjuk":
q ~ . ~ . would come before ~ ~ ., since ~ . comes before ~ . in the alphabet.
8) Two and three syllable words: Most dictionary entries are not monosyllabic. When words
of more than one syllable occur, they are alphabetized first by the first syllable. If, however, two words have
..,.. ,
the identical first syllable, then the second syllable determines the order. For example, ~ ~ . coO) will come
before ~ 3-/" <J"] ~ Cl)". If the first two syllables are identical, then the third syllable (if there is one) will be used,
..,.. ..,.."
and so on. In general, monosyllables are listed before polysyllables; so ~ . comes before ~ . ~ -.
Summary Example: main letter ~ -
plus suffix letters
plus suffix letters
plus suffix letters
plus suffix letters
plus suffix letters
plus each vowel with the suffix letters
plus each vowel with the suffix letters
plus each vowel with the suffix letters
plus 1) each vowel with suffix letters, then 2) subscribed letters with each vowel with suffix leners
Lesson 3 24
I
1
1
I
I
1
1
I
I
1
l
(J "l plus 1) each vowel with suffix letters, then 2) subscribed letters with each vowel with suffix letters
plus 1) each vowel with suffix letters, then 2) subscribed letters with each vowel with suffix letters
f":\ plus 1) each vowel with suffix letters, then 2) subscribed letters with each vowel with suffix letters.
. plus 1) each vowel with suffix letters, then 2) subscribed letters with each vowel with suffix letters
. plus each vowel with the suffix letters
. plus 1) each vowel with suffix letters, then 2) subscribed letters with each vowel with suffix letters
. plus 1) each vowel with .suffix letters, then 2) subscribed letters with each vowel with suffix letters
. plus 1) each vowel with suffix letters, then 2) subscribed letters with each vowel with suffix letters
Please note again that many combinations of prefix and main letter,.headletter and mainletter, and main letter
and subscribed letter do not actually occur {see Appendix 2). Also look at the entries in the Glossary forthe
main letter ',
c. Exercise: Alphabetize the following words.
a. b. c. d. e. f.
"'

1.


CJ


'-:I

2.




3.




..

"'

4.

c.



5.

-r-
6.



e
'-:I '-:I
d. Exercise & Vocabulary. for Memorization: Look the following words up in the Glossary, write
down the main meanings,and memorize their spelling and meaning.

"'
101-


"'
-r'


UJ fl,J.

.:I\

e. Spelling and Reading Practice: First, spell aloud the Praise to Mafijushri and the Dedication of
Merit on page . Then, listen. to the tape of these chants being spelled by Lama Ugyen Shenpen.Then,
work on your own spelling again. You should first practice spelling these chants aloud, and then gradually
begin chanting them. It is traditional to recite the Praise to Mafijushri before any kind ofstudy as away of
arousing one's prajfia or wisdom, and to chant the Dedication of Merit verse at the end of each class.
Khyung, xaruda. "Garuda spans the threefold world."
Drug. dragon. "In heaven the turquoise dragon thunders."
I
I
I
I
I
l
I
I
J
1
J
I
1
1
I
Lesson 4
1. The Formation of Tibetan Words
There is a fundamental difficulty facing the beginner who first tries to pick out the words in a Tibetan text.
This difficulty is the syllabic nature of Tibetan. Almost every syllable(except for the grammatical particles)
has its own independent meaning. Thus, there are many words that are simply one syllable. Yet many words
are two, three, or four syllables and learning to groupthese syllables correctly to form the proper words is
-r '- '
initially a somewhat trial and error process. For example, the syllables - - cD C literally mean"stone-lord..
hold." However.the firsttwo syllables forma common compound meaning "vajra, diamond (= the lord of
stones), indestructible,It and combined with the last syllable they are a name, Vajradhara, literally, "thevajra
holder."
-r'-
Much of the difficulty in recognizing this compound word, - cD C -, is due to the fact that written
Uhelan does not separate words from each other by a space or anywritten punctuation (though, as will be
seen, the grammatical particles can be very helpfulfor separating words, phrases, and clauses fromeach
'"
other). There is simply a line of syllables, each one separated from the next by a dot called C6 . Therefore,
especiallyin poetry where oftentimes the grammaticalparticles are omitted, it is mostly up to the reader to
group the appropriate syllables into words. Another difficulty is the fact that there is no capitalization in
Tibetan to help with the recognition of proper names of people and places.
The process of picking out the words in a sentence is not as difficult or possiblyrandom as it might sound,
and overcoming this difficulty is a matter of understanding how words are formed in Tibetan, of progressively
building up one's vocabulary, and of understanding the two- and three-syllable groupings that are the
"rhythym"of Tibetan writing, both prose and especially poetry. We will begin by outlining the different ways
in which a Tibetan word maybe formed.
t\.
2. Nouns C - - and the Possessor Particle <J l "l
t\.
Nouns in Tibetan are called j" c- literally "name-word." There are several differentways in which
nouns are formed.
a. Nouns of One Syllable: These nouns are simply one syllable and do not require the addition of a
final particle as with many words in Tibetan (see below). '
-r -r

-tea
<fl-
- door

- path
cD
-dharma


-man

-deity

- tiger

-time

b. Nouns with the Possessor Particle -: A great number of Tibetan words are formed by
the addition of a final particle (which usually has no inherent semantic meaning). They are called? C; -:j.,
literally "possessor-word." These particles are:
./t::J-
1) Occurence: ort::J- is the most commonly used and important of the particles. In general,
is used after words that end in a vowel or that end with the final letters c. ., ., or As a final particle
Lesson 4 26
here, - is pronounced "wa.' .. is usedafter theother final letters, - . eli . (J . .
"dawa," moon (J.' "jalwa," victorious
Exception: With nouns, oftenused even if they endina vowel or
",
::1\1- [,J- play
house
2) Meaning: -/(J. canhaveseveral different meanings when conjoined with afirst syllable.
a) Noun: It cansimply form anoun, adding no additional meaning.
foot hand
'-\<'0 ' .. 'I
b) user: It can signify One who practices the activity or uses the substance of
the first syllable (which is anoun).
..r ..r

dharma

dhannapractitioner
..r ..r

yoga

yogin

medicine

doctor

cottoncloth
.
cotton clad[yogin]
c) Connection with: It can signifyone who is associated with a particular group orplace.
1 f:\ - (J l - Kajll lineage

r; - - Buddha a Buddhist
aTibetan person
onefrom Gampo
(J 1 f:\ - l- - oneof the Kaju lineage

Gampo (P.N.)
Tibet

.. '.. - -
d) Possession:
5:. -t:::;J - [,J - possessing a hundred flavors
"
1 ? . . possessingtwolegs, biped
..r ..r
e) Gender: Sometimes, -, - / <J. are usedto indicate themasculine gender and Oi are
used to indicate the feminine gender. here, like t:::;J. before, is pronounced "wo"; however it does not
follow <J. as far as what final lettersit appears after.
king queen
Lesson 4 27
-r -r -r -r

nobleman

, lady
-r -r

yogin

yogini
-r

son

daughter, girl
However, these particles are also usedto form nouns without indicating any gender. Examples:
all
head
sun
festival
-r -r


guru
"one who possesses a body" = an embodied being
"that which possesses snow" =Tibet _
"one who possesses- a mind" =a sentient being
"possessing kindness" =kind
"possessing laziness" =lazy
riddle
emperor (of China)
essence
"' -r



new

dry

pretty
"' "'

bad

good

large, larger
"'

1) Adjectives rnaytakeY just like nouns.
supreme
b. With a particle:
4. Adjectives
Adjectives are generally formed in the same way as nouns.
a. No particle: A few adjectives have no special particle.
3. The Possession Particle -s OJ. (c:.J. po eft, 2.l. "),-. lJ.a,.k Jl. )
This particle signifies possession. When added after a noun, it can mean that which possesses or the one
who possesses the noun, or it can turnthenoun into an adjective.
For the use ofthe particle toindicate the agent of a verb, see Lesson 9.7.C fM-.}
..
I
I
I
,
I
i
I
I
I
j
]
1
I
I
I
I
Lesson 4
...r ..,..
2) The particle -I - is by farthe most common in forming adjectives.
'"
..,..
."'"
..,..

great

white

hot
..,..
-r -r

good

many

long
..,..

many colored
-r
3) The particles

and

are also used.
..,..
-r
..,..

profound

cold

sweet

..,..

earlier

later

superior
28
5. Nouns and Adjectives Together
Generally, adjectives immediately follow the noun that they modify. However, they can precede the noun
they modify, and then will usually beconnected by the relational particle (see Lesson 5). Note that there is no
plural form of the noun, but the plural of the noun must beindicated by a plural particle, which will becovered
below.
..,..
eD -10} . all dharmas

d
o 1
n. a J.
dharma all
'" "'-r
<f) - . cD eli . - greatvehicle
D. adj.
vehiclegreat
Sometimes, an adjective will precede a noun with no connecting relational particle. This is usually just an
abbreviated form, whereby the relational particle has been left out, though it is implicit. (The widespread use
of abbreviation in Tibetan will be discussed in Lesson 5.) Other times, the combination is such a common one
that you never see a so-called "fuller form."

adj. n.
profound path

adj. n.
holydharma
6. Pronouns
profound path
holy dharma

adj. n. "
secretmantra
secretmantra
'"
a. Demonstrative Pronouns!Adjectives c; . .: There are two main demonstrative pronouns,
'"
namely c;., "this" and c;. "that," which can also be used as demonstrative adjectives, i.e.to modify a noun.
Like adjectives, they are usually placed after the word that they modify, but at times can precede the noun, eve]
without a connecting relational particle. (The relational particle will be covered in Lesson 5.)
that truth
1 For the key to these abbreviations, see Appendix (1).
Lesson 4 29
e-,
after final letter '1-1-
q
-
"" ""
1- can indicate something far away, whereas 'i- can indicate something close. 1- can also often refer
that truth
that speech
"" ""
(J'101-"J-l-
n. da.
truth that
<,

da. n.
that speech


V1 - they (nonhon.)
<,
.. we
- they (hon.)
- you (hon.)
"" (\.,
this life
n. da.
life this
c-,
1 -91- this speech
da. n.
thisspeech
e-,
after final letter CJ) - - -;r\ -11.J- - and vowels
e-,
4 - after final letter
...- ""
---1 '1 - -cD1- 1-'"'3 - -- MINT 74:9
an immeasurablejoy...
1.
2.
3.
b. Personal Pronouns: -The most common of the personal pronouns are:
person literaty nonhonorific honorific plural
. - - (\.,
back to something that was mentioned previously inthe text.whereas "can refer forward to something
which hasyetto come. There is no real equivalent in Tibetan for the English word "the." Therefore, the
demonstrative adjectives can often be used in contexts where we would use "the."
q 1 is simply a more classical and literary equivalent of c, - Don't confuse its usage as the personal
pronoun "I" or "me" with its more technical and negative meaning of "ego" or "self" (the bane of the Buddhist
world).
The plurals of the personal pronouns are also often formed by the addition of the plural particles (see
below) to the singular form and even to the plural form.
(\.,
The indefinite particle - "a, an, some" is taken from the word meaning "one." It has three
differentspellings:
e-,
7. -Indefinite Particle -
I
I
I
I
j
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
J
I
I
I
I
Lesson 4
30
o.r '"" c-,

n. adj. art.
joy immeasurable a
An indefinite particle is almost never used together with a demonstrative adjective (just as in English).
8. Plural Particles C:. " and the Dual
The two most common plural particles are - and , of which is perhaps more commonly
used. They also follow the noun or pronoun that they modify.
sutras men, people
o.r '""
co . - dharmas . - those
')Often, Tibetan will not use a plural particle, even though from the context it is obvious that the word must be
plural.
"- '""
JOL
sentient beings of the three realms
c-,

n. adj. (R)
realm 3 of
n.
sentient being
There is a dual case that occurs in Sanskrit, which indicates "two" of something. In translating the dual
into Tibetan, the Tibetan translators use the plural particle - (but never CN -). Thus, you have to be aware
that most times will indicate the plural, but that sometimes it will indicate the dual, that there are "two" of
whatever it ismodifying.
9. Numbers: 1-20
a. Cardinal numbers: These numbers can be used as adjectives to modify nouns. When there is a
number, there is generally no need for a plural particle, though they are used after a modifying demonstrative
adjective.
e-,
"-

one

six

eleven

sixteen

"-
e-,

two

seven

twelve

seventeen

-e:

three
q . eizht

thirteen

eighteen

C'.
"-

four

nine
q-c-qra -
fourteen

nineteen
'...:> 1

-e: e-,
c"
five
"
ten
q-o-c
fifteen
?-4"
twenty

Lesson 4
31
-e: -:
Exceptions to the pattern are and which are pronounced "chol-ngaand "chop-je"
respectively.
the six sense.fields
the three kayas
the fourmudras or basic Buddhist tenets
the one yana
the two truths
the five sense faculties
the first bhumi
the third path
the fourth abhisheka
adjectivets) number demonstrative adj. pluralparticle
""' '"

""' '"

.
c-,
-

noun
-:

first

third
e-,

second

tenth
-e:
eN - . a group of three
e-,
. the second buddha
-.r- c-, e-,
'-1q t; <N - - 0)._.
---
all these four profound abhishekas
-e: -e:

r; .. . . t: 1 - f
L.- the group of the ive skandhas
e-,
b. Ordinal numbers: All the ordinal numbers, except for "l, are formed by adding ,C,,}. to the
e-,
-1- both (a group of two)
'" -.r- '"
cardinal number. The ordinal number for is 1c:. , whereas ... - means "the same."
-.r-
c. Collectives or groups: The particles 1- and C-J. can be added to a cardinal number to indicate a
group of that number.
10. Word Order
The word order of all the modifiers (i.e., adjectives, demonstrative adjectives, indefinite particles, and
plural particles) can be as follows:
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
I
!
Lesson 4 32
-v- c-, e-,

f:\ l-
10) -
"..;)
n. adj. nurn. da. pI. adj.
abhisheka profound 4 this -s all
However, most of the time one will find much simpler combinations of two or three of these elements.
11. Exercises:
a. Tibetan to English: Using the glossary, translate the following phrases.
-e: -e: "'"
7. c, - - c - -l-l -
8.
-e: ""'-v-

14. I -,
"..;)
"'" ""'-v-
15.
"..;)
"- "-
16.
-v- -e:

17. eN-'
18.
"..;)
"'" "'" -v-
19.
"..;)
'20.
-e:
22.
"..;)
"- "-
23. 34
Lesson 4
2

5. -, l'v
26. - --00) -

C'\. -e: .......
27. .
b. English to Tibetan: Using the glossary, translate the following. phrases.
1. all sentient beings
2. the first path
3. the Great Vehicle (Mahayana)
4. those great yogins
5. this profound dharma
6. good fortune
7. the four yogas
8. the inferior vehicle
9. a bad aeon
10. great siddhas
11. eighth bhumi
12. supreme, holy guru
13. all mandalas
14. these bodhisattvas
15. all great qualities
16. the completely pure view
17. supreme blessings
18. these four profound abhishekas
19. the three realms
20. twelve years
21. lots of gold
22. all those holy gurus
23.a bad thought
24. stainless white mind
25. the three jewels
c. Vocabulary for memorization
33
Buddha inferior
dharma
sangha
<,
c.. q - CN -l C-J. . bodhisattva
good
bad
virtue
Lesson 4 34
C"\

enlightenment, S: bodhi

evil deed
<,
-c:

mind

samsara
-..r-
CNC -
surra
-c. c31- t1.J . Q, c
1
- "
nirvana I
<,

'i-
tantra; mind, being; continuity

vehicle, S: yana
"-='
<, -.r
111" q cf\l"
suffering, duhkha

big, large
<.
q'i- q-
happiness
co c. -c: .
small
'-::> "-='
Lesson 5
1. The Use of Particles ci "l .~ c; -
'"
2. The Nominal Use of the Relational Particle. ~ ~ QJ - ~ -
The primary waythat the Tibetanlanguageindicatesthe functions and interrelationshipsof the words in a
sentenceandeven the relationshipof one sentencetoanother is through the use of so-called "particlesIt
i ~ ' ~ l ' , literally "littlewords." These particles havealsobeen called "postpositions,"in contrast to the
Englishprepositions. This is because, unlike English, these particles are positioned after the word, phrase, or
clausethat they modify. For example:
English Tibetan Literal translation of Tibetan
..,... '"
in the monastery l ~ <3} - t.J .. c ; - ~ monasterythat in
BuddhaQy
sangha to
Qy the Buddha
to the sangha
'"
Therelational particle, f:\ ~ QJ .. 1- , literally "relationword," has a rather restrictedfunction. In its nominal
usage, it only deals with the relationshipof nominal words to each other. In fact, the, words that it connects are
generallyright next to each other. As we shall see, almost all the other particles mainly serve to showthe
grammaticalrelationshipof their modifiedword withtheverb, and thereforedo not indicate any kind of
relationshipto the words that precede or followthis word. This holds in English as well.. For example:
The teachingwas heardQy the disciples of the Buddha at the monastery.
The word "of' connects the words "disciples"and "Buddha." One can not placethis phrase "of the Buddha"
anywhereelse in the sentencewithout changingthe meaningcompletely. However, the phrase flat the
monasterycan be movedto several different places in the sentencewithout changingthe meaning. Note that it
cannot beplaced between"disciples"and "of the Buddha"without againchangingthe meaning.
The relational particle must be placed betweenthetwo words that it is connecting.. Onthe other hand.the
other particles and the words that they modifycan be placed next to almost anyof the other words of the
sentencewithout affectingtheir meaning. Therelationalparticledoes not have anyfunctionwithreferenceto
the mainverb, though as weshall see in Lesson 8, it can serve to connect a modifyingrelative clause to a
noun.
The Tibetanparticle will always be the last wordin the-phrase that it modifies, whichis to say that all
adjectives,demonstrativepronouns,plural markers andthe likemodifying the mainnounwill precede the
particle.
The particles are summarizedin Appendix# 3, andwe will be introducingthe particles a fewat a time. We
will first be looking at howa particle shows the relationshipbetween two nominal words, then howthey show
the relationshipof the different nominal words to the main verbin" a sentence, and finally howthey showthe
relationshipof different clauses or sentences to each other.. Thefirst two uses we will be designating as the
"nominal" use of theparticle, whereas the third use we will be callingthe "verbal" use of the particle. These
"nominal" and "verbaltI uses of the sameparticle can ofcourse be closelyrelated, but at times they arequite
different.
I
I
I
I
I
)
1
I
J
I
j
J
]
]
I
I
I
Lesson 5 36
a. Spelling: The relational panicle has several different spellings (all with the same meaning) depending
'"
on the final - - or UJ C - - of the preceding word.


- or UJ
after final letter C;- - -
after final letter -c-
after final letter 0} - -.:1\ - -

after final vowels, except if the word ends in - in which case the -J-

is placed over this. For example, 1 --> -.


"pe-i"
"pu'' (long)
"po" (long)
"pii"(long)


pa'i


pu'i


po'i


pi'i
'" "
pe'i
"
b. Pronunciation: The particle - - is joined directly to the preceding syllable that ends with a vowel
and affects the pronunciation of that vowel. The possible changes are:
combination transliteration pronunciation
"pe" "pay" (long)
. c. Meanings: With nouns, this particle can usually be translated as "of." Of course, as in English, "of"
can indicate many different kinds of relationships between the two words.
1) Ownership, possession, connection: In Tibetan, this relationship is called the "Relation of
...r '"
Owner and Thing" C; - -l C -l C - - . . The particle could be translated into English by "of,
belonging to, related to."
...r "'"
,<3). - - -_. SBD n467:6-7
the vehicle of the shravakas
...r "

n. (R)
shravakaof
n.
vehicle
2) Agent: This meaning is very closely connected with the previous one.
" C - . - 51 - MINT
the Buddha's teaching
" -
n. (R) n.
buddha of teaching
Lesson 5 37
t\.
MINT
the guru's command
t\.

n. (R)
guru of
n.
command
" t\.
SBD
the true nature of mind
t\. " t\.

unvirtuouskarma
t\. t\. t\. "
... ffi <3) KZ 26B:4
Yama, [who is] the lord of death,
n.
Yama
t\. t\.

n. (R)
deathlordof
or t\. or
... l MINT76:4
disciple, [who is a] worthy vessel
or t\. or

n. (R) n.
vessel endowed of student
t\. " t\.

neg. n. (R) n.
nonvirtue of karma
" t\.

n. (R) n.
mind of naturalstate
3) Modification: In Tibetan, this relationship is called the "Relation. of Modifier and Modified"
or or t\." .
l cD lr;: l ffi . -s .<3),. 1":\. '\] Here, a preceding adjective or noun simply modifies or qualifies the
wordandtells wha.t kindor it is. Remember tha,t, adject,lv,es generally.. followthe nounthat theymodify
(see Lesson 4.4); so placing .e adjective before the modified noun and showing its connection to this noun
with the relational particle is a second option. However.It does seemthat there are some adjectives that can
only precedethe noun it modifies. (At present, this is only a general hypothesis.) On the other hand.with
nouns, the only way that one noun can modify another is through this usage of the relational particle. Of
course, oftentimes, Tibetan words can have both a noun and adjective meaning.
4) Apposition/Identity: In Tibetan, this relationship is called the "Relation of Identity"
t\.or oror t\. t\."
d) t":\ . t":\ Two nouns are equated, either in the sense of saying the same thing in
different words or in adding newinformation.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
]
J
1
I
1
Lesson 5
-r
... 3)c.. ... MINT75:2
'\,:)
amrita, [which is] the inner offering
38
or

n. (R)
inneroffering of
n.
amrita
5) Location: In Tibetan, this type of relationship is called the "Relation of Location and Inhabitants"
-r "
. The panicle can be translated into English by "of, in, on, at, during."
-r
MINT
the devas of the mandala
or

n. (R) D.
mandala of deva

l 0) . . 0) . r ... NTNG 14A:3


'\,:)
the space in front


'\,:)
n. (R)
frontof
n.
space

... c. . . . . .. NTNG 26A:6
...the guru at [one's] heart center...


n. (R) n.
heart centerof zuru

0) CJ .. KGT50B:3
'\,:)
...a dream during the last night. ..


'\,:)
D. adj. (R)
night last of
D.
dream
6) General and Specific/Part ana Whole: In Tibetan, this relationship is called the "Relation of
"
Part to Whole" UJ Ol .c; c.. UJ 0} . . .Ol . . The point is that the modifying word is a specific
example or member of a group or type, which is indicated by the modified word.
or "
. JOL
all sentient beings, ourselves and others
Lesson 5 39
-r
.
ppr. pI. adj. (R)
we etc. of
"
n. adj.
sentient being all
7) Objective: In this case, there is almost an understood verb between the two nouns, with the first
noun being the direct object of the verb and the second noun being the agent. '
-r -r -r
MINT
protector of beings [the protector who protects beings]
-r
f:\ qf:\ -
n. (R)
being of
n.
protector
8) Material: The modifying word indicates the composition of the modified word.
-r -r
MINT
'-:)
colored-sand mandala
n.
ornament
n.
mandala
n, (R)
bone of
-r

'-:)
n. (R)
particlecolorof

. l.J f:\ - 0} --- NTNG
bone ornaments
-r
f:\ - l- - .
n. (R) n.
rainbowlight of sphere, dot Less""" S" ".84
9) Relation to a Verbal Modifier: Adjective or relative clauses will be covered in Lesson11(fJ. ( ".")4
10) Multiple Relations: The relational particle generally connects the word beforeit with the word
that it follows. However, if there are more than one modifying word or phrase, the connection might not be
with the immediately preceding noun, but with a later adjacent noun. This has to be determined by the context.
The same problem occurs in English.
For example, the pattern is different in the following three examples. In the first two examples, there is
and then the third noun is connected to this first unit. However, in
Iastexample.fhe lasftwo nouns form a unit, and then the initial pronoun modifies this unit.
-r "
f:\ NTNG17B:2
spheres of rainbow light
".
MINT
the chief of the practice places of the Jetsun
i
I
I
I
1
J
]
J
]
]
I
Lesson 5 40


n. (R) n. (R)
Jetsiio of practice place of
POSSESSION SEPARATIVE
11 1
o.
principal
D.
hearth
2 2

<1l q-, <n. t; . . .
'-! I I I NTNG 16A.4
hearth of [three] human heads, [which are] the three kayas


O. Dum. (R) O. n. (R)
body 3 of human head of
IDENTITY MATERIAL
1 1
2 2
-r
MINT
the ornaments of Naropa, [which are] mine
-r

\.:l\-L,Jf".:l,
.
'b
ppr. (R) pn, (R) n.
me of Naropaof ornament
POSSESSION POSSESSION
1 1
2 2
11) The Ambiguity of an Adjective between Two Nouns: A seemingly ambiguous situation
crops up every now and then when there is an adjective followed by a relational particle situated between two
nouns. Since the adjective could either modify the preceding noun by means of its immediately following
position or it could could modify the following noun by means of being connected to it by the relational
particle, the question is which noun does it modify? For example, is the title of Gampopa's famous work, the
-r
. <3i . . co . <3) . , to be translated as TheJewel Ornament of Liberation, as Professor Guenther has
done, or is it instead to be translated as TheOrnament ofPrecious Liberation? It seems that the usual pattern
is that the adjective modifies the preceding noun, and so the title should read TheOrnament ofPrecious
Liberation.
.."..
... .:1\ 3i . .co . 3i ... JOLLM lA
TheOrnament ofPrecious Liberation

. .:I\<3) ..
n. adj. (R)
liberation precious of
MODIFICATON
D.
ornament
Lesson 5 41
'"
l Cf) -
D. (CO) /
femalenovice
D.
symbol great (mahamudra)
'"

D. (CO) /
malenovice
'" ..,-

D. (CO) /
probe nunand
'" ..,-

D. adj. (R)
tradition not corrupted of
D.
sanzha
'" '"

n.(CO) /
laywoman
IDENTITY
..,- '"
q 1 - l- c3) - .cD -

n. adj. (R)
command lineage precious of
MODIFICATION
'" '"
C; ..q 0) -C; 1
D. (CO) /
layman and
'" -r '" -r

n. (CO) / D. (CO) /
monkand nunand
..,-

D. n. (CO)
buddha dhannaand
The coordinating particle is similar to the relational particle in that in its nominal use it does not indicate any
grammatical function of the preceding word with respect to the final verb, butrather just indicates the
relationship of adjoining words with each other. The most common meaning of this particle is to show that the
preceding word is joined with or coordinated with the following word, which would simply be translated by
the word "and." However, it has otherless common, but equally important meanings, such as "from" and
"with."
3. The Nominal Use of the Coordinating Particle l t; - -
-r '"
. - . t; . - cD -l c. -l - l <3) - - - KP 3A:6

the buddha, the dharma, and the sangha


"'"" '" '"
C; "l -q 0) -C;C-1 l - c3) - _. - JOLLM59B:5-6
monks, nuns, probationary nuns, male and female novices, male and female lay practictioners...
'" ..,- "'-r
--- - l- - - - - - --_. CKDT IB:4
'='
...Mahamudra, the uncorrupted tradition of the precious Kaju ...
Alrhoughfi'< can appear between each member of the list, this need not be the case. It can be used not at
all, only once, usually just before the last member of the list, or any number of times.
a. "And": The particle can be used between each member of a list. Generally, the words connected
-together by this particle will play the same role in the sentence. If there is another particle. (such as an agentive,
relational, source, etc.) at the end of the list, that particle will modify allthe members of the list. The panicle
l C- will often be followed by the vertical stroke, the '4l- ,much like a comma will be used after members of a
list in English. However, don't regard these'4l-'s as indicating any real grammatical or syntactic meaning.
1
I
I
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
J
I
J
1
I
1
J
j
Lesson S 42
When the plural panicle is used at the end of a list, it could mean that all of the members of the list
are plural, but more often it just indicates that this is the-end of a list of many things, and that each member of
the list is singular.
... JOLLMl15A:4-5

...oldage and death, anguish, lamentation, suffering, unhappiness, and chaos...


n. n. (CO)/
oldagedeathand

.n. (CO)
anguishand
" -r
- :l - <31- -c; c. -1
D. (CO)/
lamentation and

D. (CO)/
suffering and
"

n. (CO)/
unhappiness and

n. pI.
chaos
Sometimes, when there is a list, the total number of the list will be totaled up by a number at the end of the
list. There could be al c.- between each member of the list and even after the last member and before the
l''''''f' summarizing number. On the other hand, there could also be no c;c.-'s used at alL Just aswith the plural
particles, it is important to recognize that most commonly the final number will be summarizing up the whole
listrather than modifying the last member of the list.
"
.
I I I I I I JOLLM 125A.2
scripture, reasoning, andexample-[these] three...

n. (CO)/
scripture and


n. (CO)/
.reasoninz and
"

n. (CO) num.
example andthree
b. "With":

1) .'2\ <3) -l.,J -: The participle '2\ <3) -l.,J. is similar to <3) - (see Lesson 4;, as it also has the meaning of
"having, possessing, or endowed with." It is added after nouns and can be connected to this noun by the
particle l c.. or less commonly the locative/objective/purpose particle (hereafter, abbreviated as the "LOP"
particle; see Lessons 6 & 7) _.:I\. etc. In this context, the panicle l c.. does not mean "and," but, like the LOI
particle, is just connecting the noun to this participle. You could understand these panicles as meaning "with'
as in "endowed with. It The whole participial phrase can be used as a noun itself or as an adjective to modify (
noun.



"endowed with glory" = glorious, glorious one
"endowed with intellect" = wise, wise one
"endowed with wealth" = wealthy, wealthy one
Lesson 5 43
D.
world
'"
n., . (J - to be connectedwith
n.,a5 - in accord with

-I in harmony with
n., q"l (J - in contradiction with
equal with space, as vast as space
in accordwith reasoning.
"endowed with family" =of noble birth; or =Shambhala king
"endowed with [long] life" =venerable, venerable one
wise
to be equal with
together with
together with
to meet with
glorious
a Shambhalaking
wealthy
t'\,. C"\. t'\,. t'\,.

n. (CO)/ n.(CO)/ D. (LOP) tv. (R)
human and asura (non-god) and gandharva including which

.n. (CO)/
god and
t'\,.

t'\,.


t'\,.
0)

t'\,.

-r-

t'\,. C"\. C"\. C"\. C"\. '"
--- -1 c: 1 -1 r; -1 .UJ 0)-1c; - -0 - n., tf] -i) 0) --- HS
the world with its gods, men, asuras andgandharvas...
"'"' t'\,. C"\. -r--r- '" "
- - - - -n- - '.'Tl.:!\- (J-o -,.1:'.. - 04 - --
I -I I I '0 1 II 1 1 ")1 NTNG 12A:1-2''
, '-i -",........"..".
white elixir of great bliss, together with immeasurable rays of light... i f t t i ) t +.)'
k-__ _- _.___ __ -_) --
Some ofthe other words that use a preceding 1c:.- in the sense of "with" are:
Oftentimes, these four-syllable phrases are abbreviated in the usual manner by dropping the
nonessential second and fourth syllables. On abbreviation, see section 5.7 below.
2) The verb (J - means "together with, including, possessing, having," Like . O) - it is
added after nouns and can be connected to the noun by the particle c;c.. or the LOP particle (see Lessons 6 &
7). It is often used at the end of alist after the final member.
r:1\ -1 r; - - -
together with a retinue, possessing a retinue
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
!
I
I
I
J
I
I
I
I
"""" C'\,

D. (R)
great bliss of .
Lesson 5
C'\, -r

'-:)
D. adj. -
elixir white
-r ""

n. (CO) tvn.>
light rays with together
44
""

adj.
immeasurable
c. "From": When used with the verb '\J - - , "to be separated, free from," l r; - can take on the
meaning of "from." These phrases can also be abbreviated down to two syllables.
C'\,
- -l c - '\J - 'J - free from impurity
-r-
-l C - '\J - - free from conceptual mind
- -l r; - '\J - 'J - free frommental fabrication
C'\,
--->
--->
___> ij -
d. "To": This is a rare meaning that can only occur with certain verbs, but it still must be kept in mind.
- -l - - - similar to a dream
"" CO\, CO\, -r
-c3) - - - r c3) -1 t; - 1 AT in MM 6A:6
The mind is similar to an artist.
e. With numbers: The coordinating particle l can be used between two parts of a number to show
that the two parts are added together. ( t..(. p.t.+l, ...... "
<:' ....cf'o+.. t )
....... -----
S 13(lit. "ten and three"))
CO\,
'J - - 'J -1 r; - - - 112 (lit. "ten groups often and twelve")
r ",-r, ?, ( .tt
V
\
t
T
-, "G(,'1 l'..:-) /.. I :.; .... .." .......-._-
4. The Etc. Particle -
This particle is used at the end of a list or quote, and essentially means "etc., and so on, and the like." At
the end of a list, it could either indicate simply that one could list many other such words or that a well-known,
standard list is being given and it is assumed that the reader knows the rest of it. At the end of a quote, it
indicates that the text being quoted continues on and does not end (even though the quote does).
This particle can simpy be ti . or in a more full form ti .t,J
-r -r -r ..,...,. "'..,.
-5 -'\J "l 5 - -0l MINT 81:13-4
'-:)
all the collection offaults, such as not understanding, wrong understanding, confused
understanding, and so forth
D.
not understanding
D.
wrongunderstanding

D. etc.!
confusedunderstanding etc.
"" -r

D. D. adj.
fault collection all
Lesson 4S
t\. '" '"
- - - - cDl- -s O}. SBD ill 141:10-1
the internal material sense fields-the eye and so forth...
Note that usually the main noun that comes after the "l {\.J' particle is the general tI group tI word of which the
words preceding the "l {\.J' are the list of specific examples. This is a very common pattern.
5. Compound Words
Compound words canbefonned by the joining of two nouns, two adjectives, a noun and an adjective, or
two verbs. In.Tibetan as in English, the distinction between a noun and .a verb is not hard and fast. Many
words are both nouns and yerbs Douns and de. .. I u . , ----...
a. Noun compounds
1) Synonym compounds: Manycompounds are formed by putting together two synonyms to
clarify or emphasize the basic meaning. This is also a characteristic of a language in which there are so many
homonyms. .
I
]
I
1
I
1
t\....,.. t\.
- <TJ - 0} "l
n. etc. n. (R)
eye etc. inside of
'" '"

n. adj. pl.
sense field material -s
2). Relational compounds: In these compounds, .thefirst noun modifies .the second, as if there
were a relational particle between them that has been omitted-. This type of compound is very common.
...,..

desire
+
attachment = desire
...,..

effort
+
effort = effort
...,..

joy
+
delight = joy
...,..

Tibet
+
language = Tibetanlanguage
...,..
'"
stone
+
lord
=
diamond, vajra
...,..

dhanna+ kaya = dharmakaya, body of truth
spiritual and temporal
causes and conditions
4) Polar compounds: These compounds have nothing to do with arctic regions, but instead are
compoundsmage up oftWo or two ends of a spectrum of experience. In many cases, the meaning
of these compounds can be "conjunctive" (see above), i.e., as if they were connected by "and" or "or."
However, they can also indicate the abstract quality or experience of these opposites.
3) Conjunctive compounds: These compounds are understood to be connected by the
coordinating particle l "and." Though they arefonnedoftwo separate words, they form a cohesive unit,
just as in the English sentence, "It was raining cats and dogs. It
J
I
I
j
I
I
I
I
I
]
Lesson 5 46
'"


height, lit. "high/low"
Siit "large/small"
quality, lit. "good/bad"
all experience, lit. "happiness/suffering"
all the time, lit. "day/night"
Remember that these combinations of opposites can also be read as simple conjunctive compounds, e.g. "high
and/or low," "large and/or small," etc.
b. Adjectival compounds: These compounds are composed of an initial noun followed by a
modifying adjective. Unlike the general relationship between a noun and an adjective, these two words form a
unit or compound word. They are very commonly abbreviated (see belov./).
or .."'. or. I..
E: "l cD Ol great perfection, mahasandhi, ati
'" ..,-
. cD Ol - . great symbol, mahamudra
. .3i .t:j. blackhat
6. Translations of Sanskrit Words
Translating the vast amount of technical terms of Indian Buddhisminto Tibetan was a feat that stretched
the Tibetan translators' ingenuity to the limit. As we will see in Lesson (?), they were very precise in mirrorin,
the form of some words by even translating their prefixes. But, with other words, the translators were forced
to create a new word in Tibetan that was often unrelated to the literal meaning of the Sanskrit word. This was
primarily done by creating acompound word, combining the meanings of two or more words to either
describe or interpret the meaning of the Sanskrit word. It is interesting to note that it was very rare for the
Tibetan translators not to translate a Sanskrit word into Tibetan.
a. Literal translations: The basic meaning of the Tibetan translation is essentially the same as the
literal meaning of the Sanskrit.
or

') -e -I gone to the other side, So: param-ita
'-:)
,.
'\,:.
other side to
"-

gone
hear listen
?3i'1j{\j' listener. S: sravaka (lit. "listener")
1 1
make

'-:)
begathered
'"
c;- c;- karmic formation, S: samskara (lit. "make together)
'-:)

Lesson 5 .... (;
47
know

"
begathered
'"
l-1 - perception, S: saIJ1jfia (lit. "knowtogether")
"
I
'" '"

I

, thus gone
b. Explanatory translations: The meaning of the Tibetan is quite different from the literal meaning of
the Sanskrit; rather it tries to explain or describe the overall significance ofthe word.
c. -. . Buddha (S =awakened, enlightened one)

-
dispelled [thekleshas] expandedIthewisdomsl
3./. 3i .f:l, l {\J bhagavat (S =blessed one)

passedbeyond[anguish]

passed
-
endowed[with virtues]
attained
supreme

"
desiring

beyond
sangha (5 =community)
bodhi (5 = awakening,enlightenment)
rare
s-:
virtue

conquered [thernarasl
cleansed

anguish
1 -------
-c. <3) . l - - nirvana (S =extinguished)
:rn .. ffi Q1-
I. I -I 1 ratna (5 = jewel, as in "three jewels")
I

J
I
j
1
}
1
I
1
Lesson S 48
7. Abbreviation of compounds
When two words are joined to make a compound word, there is almost always a process of abbreviation,
either in the loss of final particle [,J. / <r or / .etc. and/or the loss of a connecting grammatical
particle (which is very commonly the relational).
a. Loss of grammatical particles: Usually a four syllable word is contracted down to a two syllable
word, with the second and fourth syllables being dropped. The general pattern ofa two-syllable Tibetan word
is that the first syllable is the primary meaning element of the word and the second syllable is secondary and
therefore can be dropped without any meaning loss or ambiguity.
--->
-r "
>
--->
-r " -r -r
--->

- --->
-r

I _--->
>
>
'" '"











great vehicle, S: Mahayana
body of dharma, S: dharmakaya
skilled in means
glorious
protector of beings
go for refuge
completeliberation, life example
completelyrenowned
panoramic awareness, vipasyana
discursive thought
free frommental fabrication
b. Loss of particles and/or parts of the words: These are less common, but still important to
recognize. Again note that generally the first syllable of a word is kept.
1) Compound words
--->
--->
Vajrasattva
ordinary person
2) Conjunctive compounds
'" "
'"
'" '"

--->

"
-r
"
Cl]-31a
c
--->
Cl].
-r
?"l.a ..
--->

-r -r

--->

dependent arising
shamatha and vipashyana
shravakas and pratyekabuddhas
samsara and nirvana
kleshas and purification
Lesson 5 -,. .t
I
49
--->
--->
--->

I -I f1J master and disciple
-'S1- India and Tibet
- - - karmic cause and effect

f c. Loss of particles between separate words: It is very often the.case that grammatical particles
(most notably the relational particle and the coordinating particle 1C -) are omitted between nouns. This is
especially true in poetry, but it is also common in prose.. This type of abbreviation might be a reflection of the
heavy use in Sanskrit of compounds, which have two or more independent words with no grammatical
particles between them. This kind ofcompound is different from the ones above in that they are not
independent lexical units themselves, i.e. they are not anew "word" when put together. They are more of a
type of standard phrase. However, they might even be.included in a Tibetan dictionary as a separate entry; so
the line between these and the compound words above can be blurry.
, ,
- - - a; m cD <11 . - t..J - - - .. . a; -ma: -. Q1 - :%'" <11 .. -t..J -
-II KJ 133B:5 ---> . -I WI
"-.;) . . "-.;) ._-
collection of causes and conditions
-
"-.;)
n. n. n.
cause condition collection

--->
D.
mahasattva
D.
buddha

\.:)
D. num.
time 3
D.
bodhisattva
, , , -e:
Sc - -l - -C; t..J cD.O) -t"J.-
bodhisattvamahasattva
1 - - C - - - -
"-.;)
the buddhasofthe three times
8. Apposition
There are numerous instances in Tibetan where two or more nouns or nominal clauses are placed next to
each other as different but equivalent names or descriptions for the same thing. The elements in apposition can
be virtual synonyms, titles, or epithets. They are simply placed next to each other in the sentence. For
example:
I
1
!
I
J
t
J
I
J
Lesson 5
- - OJ
buddha bhagavat
50
n. -
buddha
n.
bhazavat
t'\, t'\, ..r ..r""
<3) - CB 510:1
the essence of the teachings, the secret mantra, the vajrayana
t'\,
"-
..r
..r " "

n. (R)
n. n.
n.
teachingof essence secretmantra vajrayana
POSSESSION
APPOSITION APPOSITION
" ..r t'\, ..r
MINT 86:10

Lord, buddha of the three times, protector of beings...


n. -
lord
APPOS.
c; -<oj c3.l- c. - - - - c3.l <lj 0} 1
'-:a
{l. num. n.> n. (R) n./
time 3 [on buddha being of protector
APPOSITION OBJECfIVE
Only the last element in apposition will have the grammatical particle or the lack of a particle, which will
indicate the function of all the words in apposition.
9. Exercises:
8. Tibetan to English: Please keep in mind that at times, the vocabulary, images, and context will be
quite foreign for you. This is again due to the fact that you are learning new ideas and perspectives at the sarm
time that you are learning Tibetan grammar and vocabulary.
t'\,..r """..r ..r
- - cD -l f\J - q . l-l c -1 l - l- . -if> - - . - We have contemplated this by means of
-C; c. -1 C; -c; c. -1 c. - <oj -, but still this is very difficult to obtain, and even if we have obtained this

Lesson S Sl
t
J
I
t
I
t
1
I
I
J
1
i
J
1
J
,
and r; -t.J - will ultimately be destroyed by - C;c3i - and -, and at that en -not even the .a will
'-:)
,
remain. After 01 r; - l- - - c3i - -..0 C;- are born, there is not one who is ro- -..Therefore,

willcertainly die. Moreover, we have no -that we will not die l- <3)q -:0 . At the

-r -r
r;.cl) - -en-, nothing except -3} -l <l] - -r -c3) - will help. us.. Once we have died, we do not become
-r
nothing, but follow after If we arebom in the. c:-<l] - dueto -t..J f":\-1\1 -,there

will be unbearable -q c -q -. Although we arebom in the - - - due to
, , f\.
we will not pass beyond the and the ..
-r . ..,...,..,..
Therefore, right now we must liberate ourselves by all means from r -q - - - -31 a)" mOi - .. 'i -.
'" '" , ,
In order to do this,we should attend through the a
CO'. - .. -r -r
a} 0) -?l-l r;: 5l- t.J-. Not falling under the influence -t..J -c:;c:- -t.J l":\ - t.J -, think that you will
-r . '"
practice - - - as much as you [since] is certain to befallyour
-r CO'. -r
of the c l - - 0} -, the C; 0) - - which have been taught.... NTNG4B:6-5B:l
Lesson 5 52
..r- ..r-' ..r ..r ..r ..r' ~
~ . ~ 0) . ~ . ~ . ~ roC., who is ~ . ~ l ~ .~ 01- ~ - and who holds a ~ -i;. -l C-~ ~ . ~ . . He is joined in union with
..r ~ ~ ..r ..r' ~
and they sit in ~ (J ~ . c; .i;. ~ -a -. ~ c -. Above the l ~ - ~ <f] - are the ~ ~ ~ -ro 0)..(J ~ l- ~ ~ - .~ .~ ~ ~ .
~ ~
~
one above the other. Moreover, they are surrounded by an inconceivable array of the ~ . (J ~ l- ~ .
~
~ ~ -r- ~ -r- " -r-
~ -O-l -lO-l -[,J - <3) O-l ~ -l c. -1, the UJ -lO-l -l ~ '\l - ~ r.:I;, - ~ - ~ - cD ~ ~ - associated with the ~ l- ~ -en OJ -[,J - ~ ~ , and thi
Lesson 5 53
I
I
1
u
1
1
J
t
J
I
j
J
-r -r -r '" -r-r
0) - in the form of stacked up - -, which are r - and which proclaim the
'" C'\. C'\. C'\. -r
.:rC.-'AC;1 To .. '.-. U1- Q"lUJCf. 3-!-
with great love. In I V'i \-1 is > "/ I 1 IS our L.Tothe1 -i is our . In .j-I

is our
C'\. -r -r C'\. l'
-J -[,J - .a -3l- joined. They all together chant aloud the a<l - they think,
'" '" '" <,
c; - - -rely on l- , offer to c; -, there is no other -c; C.- .:I\ - - .than l-. Therefore, you
know whatever we do." Thus, imagine that you go for a<l with l c. . (J- - (j -.

-r '" C'\.
Finally, radiate out from a':J - and enter into
" . -r ..r- C'\. -r ..r-
our d5-lC.'O 0) increase further and further. NTNG9A:I-IOA:5
Lesson 5
b. English to Tibetan:
1. the truth of the relative and the absolute
2. the root of virtue of the three paths
3. the six greattantras
4. all blessings and siddhis
5. the suffering of samsara
6. the king of noble persons
7. ornaments of silk and bone
8. sentient beings of the three realms
9. body and mind of myself and all sentient beings
10. samsara, this great ocean of suffering
11. the material external ayatanas, fonnand so forth
12. crown ornaments of the five [buddha] families
13. we students
14. the dharma lineage of my buddha activity
15. profound prajfiaof discriminating awareness
16. your son disciples
17. the dakas and dakinls of the eight great charnel grounds
18. the principal root of the cause of sarnsara
19. the prajfiaand compassion of the buddhas and bodhisattvas
20. the basis of the treasures of merit
21. the holy dharma of scripture and realization
22. the mahasiddhas of Tibet
23. the sangha of the Mahayana, the eight close sons and so forth
24. the meditation of the noble ones, nonconceptual wisdom
25. unperverted experience and realization
c. Vocabulary for memorization:
mandala
vajra,indestructible
wisdom, jfiana
karma,action
klesha, conflictingemotion
quality, virtue
profound
offering
devotion
aspiration
" "




"




compassion
yoga
supreme
guru
yidam
daka, hero
dakinl
dharmapala, dharmaprotector
noble, noble one, arya
teaching
I
j,
1
!
}
1
1
J
}
J
J
J
,,, ..., .
Lesson 6
1. Parsing Sentences
. One way to understand your own language better and to understand what "language" itself is about is to
study a foreign language. At the beginning, there is a linguistic chauvinism. You may think that this foreign
language is simply bristling with exceptions, that it simplydoesn't make logical sense,and that it can't saythe
simplest things in the straightforward way that your own language can. After you have studied a foreign
language for some time, you begin to appreciate that there is more than one way or style in which to say
something. It is also important to realize that oftenin studyinglanguages, you cannot ask "why?" but that you
must ask "how?". If you ask, "Why do they say it that way?," the answer usually is, "That's just the way they
say it." However, if you ask, "Howdo they say it?," and appreciate that there are many different ways to say
the same thing, then your studies will prosper.
Studying the grammar of a foreign language will bring you back to re-study the grammar of your own
language. Most of us have not given any serious thought to English grammar since high school, or even
earlier. The distinctions in English grammar of subject andpredicate, active and passive moods, transitiveand
intransitive verbs, and the like are rather distantmemories. Yet the irony of the matter is that to understand
fully the uniqueness and commonality of another language's structure and style, you must also understandthe
rules and ways of your own language. Therefore, we have included a glossary of English grammatical terms
in Appendix 7.j so that we can be sure of exactly what we mean when we use these terms. Of course, we are
making no claims to definitiveness for our descriptions of English grammar.
On the one hand, we will have to be careful not to reduce Tibetan grammar toEnglish grammatical terms,
To that end, we will be learning the traditional Tibetan grammaticalterms and their explanations. This can be
at times a dry and difficult subject, and so we will be modest in the depth to which we go, especially in the fin
year of study. On the other hand, we do not need to be too puritanical and say that they are completelyisolate
fromeach other. This is especially true, because most of us are interestedin translatingTibetan into elegant
and lively English. Therefore, we have to see howthe Tibetan grammar can be translatedinto proper English
grammar. If we are too literal in our mirroring of the Tibetan grammar, we will end up with a hybrid
Tibetanized English. To some extent, this is unavoidableat the beginning.
In order to begin training ourselves to make this translationfromTibetan to English grammar, we will
develop the discipline of parsing sentences. This will be a goodexercise for beingvery precise about the role
of each word in a Tibetan sentence. There will be four levels in our parsing: .
a. Analysis of the Tibetan: Identifying the types of words, the particles, the kind of verb, etc.
according tothe Tibetan grammatical categories as muchas possible.
b. Literal translation: Giving a literal translation of the meanings of the words and particles; also
mirroring the word order of the Tibetan. This will serve to impress upon you the differences in structureand
style that are present in Tibetan. However, this should not make you think that Tibetan sounds stupidor
crude, which is our general reaction at first, since this literal translationsounds like very bad English indeed.
c. Grammatical analysis: Identifying the basic grammatical roles in the sentence according to English
grammaticacategories.
d. Meaning translation: Trying to translate into an English sentence that communicates the meaning c
the.Tibetansentence. This often may require violating the structureand style of the Tibetan withthe goal of
expressing its meaning more clearly.
Though this type of analytical approach is not very seductive, it is very helpful for the beginner in helping
to sort out what is going on in a Tibetan sentence. Later on, much of this process will fall away, as your
familarity with the structure and process of Tibetan grows. However, I still find that when I amcompletely
stumped as to the meaning of a particular sentence, I will go back to the basics of parsing it out.
Lesson 6 56
f
I
}
J
To make the parsing easier, we will be using abbreviations for the different grammatical terms. Pleaseuse
the chart in Appendix 4.
2. To Be or Not to Be
In this lesson, we will cover two kinds of sentences, both using the verb "to be." In English, we use "1
am" in both the sentence "I ama Buddhist" and in the sentence ttl amat home," whereas in Tibetan, a different
verb would be used for each sentence. In the first sentence, the subject "I" is being described as to what or
howhe, she, or it is. Other examples would be "I amhot," "He.is learned," "All phenomenaare emptiness,"
etc. This type of verb is called a linkingverb in that it links the subject withits description.(much as an equals
sign [=] does). '
On the other hand, the verb in the second sentence (i.e. "I amat home.") is called a verb of existence inthat
it describes where or howa particular person or thing exists. It describes a situationas in the examples, "They
are in Tibet," "There are many books here,It "The monks are in the shrine room," and so on.
Neither of these two ve.r.bs indi.cates person, numbe.r, tense, or mood. Thus, there is no subject-verb. II
agreement regarding person and number, as in English.
X "r''t'" .....L1 ",,",,-c ,"-4' v..toIt... '1- "..s>
3. The Linking Verb UJ
"
Essentially, the linking verb UJ means "to be" orTs," in the sense of "somethingis or is equal to
somethingelse." For example, "that house is red," or "the dharmais profound.It So, when you see this verb
at the end of a clause, you shouldask, "What is equal to what?" Itis also important to remember that in this
type of sentence, neither the subject nor thepredicate nominativeor adjective take anyparticle. The topic
. particle(see below) can be important in singlingout the subject, and word order is extremely important, since
the subject must precede the predicate words.
a. Sentence structure: In Tibetan, like English, the subject always comes first and the predicate last
However, unlike English, the verb always comes at the end of the sentence,with the rest of the predicate
precedingthe verb. Moreover, in sentences with the linking verb, the subject must precede the predicatenoun
or adjective. Word order is extremely important in this context, mainly because there.are no particles
for eitherthe subject or the predicate noun or adjectivein this kind of sentence. Also, as will be explained
below, the linking verb is often omitted.
Linking verb sentence structure:
C'\. '" -e: C'\.
110) S'i UJ eli 1 KZ5B:3 (verse)
'=>
The doer of all is the guru.
-r . t\. '" C'\.
cD 3) ..SJ 04 UJ OJ... MM4B:5-6
All phenomena are one's own mind.
!
1
1
J

J
)
Subject
t\. '" -r
SC;
'\,)
In. (R) D.
all of doer
SUBJECf
Predicate noun or adj.
C'\.
04 UJ eli 1
D. iv./
ID:!n! is.
PRED. NOM. VERB
Linkingverb

n. pI. adj. -
dharmas all
SUBJECT
Lesson 6
" "
rpn. (R) D. -
self of mind
PRED. NOM.
iv.
is.
VERB
57
"
b. Negation: To negate this verb, one simply adds - before UJ ot -. This can be (but does not have to
"
be) contractedto 0} -
..,- ..,- "..,-
lot l -UJ - - eli 1 MKK(verse)
The absolute [truth] is not an object of conceptual mind.
..,- .. .. :" ..,-
"

.
c3i 1
n. -
D. (R) D.- iv./
absolute mind of object is not
SUBJECT PRED. NOM. VERB
c. Ommission of the Linking Verb: The linking verb is generally the only verb that is commonly
omitted. See 7.a. below.
4. Sentence Punctuation
The only punctuation mark that has beenintroducedsofar is the d><1J , whichis the dot that separateseach
syllablefrom the next. Another punctuationmark is the 1-=;- , which literally means "stroke." It is writtenas
taperingvertical line- 1, andcan indicate theEnglishequivalent of a comma, semi-colon,or period, or it could
havenoreal punctuationsignificance.
Generally, the syllable that comes before the "'II:) does not have a d><1J o. except for syllables that end wit
the letter C:. c: is the only letter that has a d><1J before a "'II:) o. Note that a wordthat ends with the letter <1J'
does not have a d><1J or a "'II:) after it. The right vertical stroke of the letter '"l itself serves as the final "'Il
o

. ,""
A special kind of punctuationthat only occurs in texts that are terma, 5.:1\ - (treasure texts), is the
'" "-
?.:1\ - cD . , which is written as a i at the end of each line of poetry and prose, instead of a 1-=;-.
5. The Nominal Use of No Particle a1c. 0-0- or or ". )
" ..,-..,-"
The lack of any particle is called - -, "just the name," or c,- ':J- ?l- , "the entity itself." It is very
important to remember in reading Tibetan that the absence of any particle can be just as
significant as the presence of one. 'There are several important functions that are indicated by the lack
of any particle. At the conclusionof this lesson, we will have covered'thefollowing uses:
a. the subject of the linkingverb (Lesson6.3)
b. the predicate noun or adjectiveof the linkingverb (Lesson6.3)
c. the subject of the verb of existence (Lesson6.8)
d. words in apposition (Lesson 5.8)
e. the omission of grammatical particles betweenwords in compoundor abbreviation (Lesson5.5 & 5.7)
Lesson 6
58,
"'-
6. The Topic Particle <3} - J .
Q.. ..,..
Thisparticle is usedto separateout or emphasizea certainword, phrase, or clause in a sentence..
Oftentimes it will singleout thecentral that is beingdiscussed. It can usuallybe,translatedliterallyas
"concemiQg," "withrespect to," thoughit can often be left outof'thefinal Englishtranslation. This
particle,unlike most of the other particles,does not indicatethat themodifiedword servesanyparticular
grammatical functionin the sentence. It onlyindicates thatthe modifiedwordis important or is set off from
what follows insome way. The wordmodifiedcould be the agent, subject, direct object, etc. of the sentence.
Therefore,if a wordis followedbyonly the topicparticle, without any other particles,'thenit is just as if the
wordhadno grammaticalparticleafterit. This is important for determiningthe grammaticalrole of the word
in the sentence. (One other nominal particle c. -alsodoes not indicateanygrammaticalfunction, andin
somecases serves the samepurposeas the topic particle. See 6.10. below.)

,",- -r "'- ,.
r; - - <3} - CD - - UJ.clj ---
..,- "'- ..,- "'- "'-
cD -0) - c.- ?l-UJ 0) -.. JOL3B:5
The Buddhais thedharmakaya.
Thedharmakaya is emptiness.
"'- -r "'-
UJOj -
.D. -
(T) D.- iv.
buddha as for dharmakaya is.
SUBJECT PREDICATE VERB

-e: "'- -r "'- "'-


- <3}.
UJ 0).
D. - (1) D. iv.
dharmakayaas for emptiness is.
SUBJECT PREDICATE VERB
b.. Meter Filler: This use will be coveredlaterin Lesson 18.
}
.J
J
)
-r C'
7. The Eleven Completion Particles E:" -ro "l - or Duplication - .
Thecompletionparticle, If'"l -$"'"1- .Iiterally "completion word,"is essentiallya verbal particlethat is
placedat the end ofa sentenceto mark the end of that sentenceor the end ofa series of connected sentences. It
shouldnot be thought of as equivalentwith the Englishperiod, sinceoftentimes we would have to useseveral
periodsto translatea sectionof Tibetantext that has onlyonecompletionparticle.. (Seethe examplegivenin
Lesson9.1.) .Moreover,the completionparticle is not the onlyway that the endofa sentencecan be indicated.
The spellingof the completionparticlechanges basedonthe final letter of the precedingword. That final
consonantis duplicatedtojoin withthe sentenceparticle as a separatesyllable. Thus, this particleis also
-r
knownas .:I\ - "duplication.It Note that the. .. is dropped and the is simplywrittenon top ofthis
duplicatedconsonant. As wouldmakesense, thereare elevencompletionparticles, tenof whichcorrespondto
"'
the ten - - or suffixletters. (SeeLesson 3.3.)
"
<1i-after award that endsin .
E- after a wordthat ends in c:. -
Lesson 6
..,...
c;-
l-
after a word that ends in
..,...
0)-
after a word that ends in
0)-
..,...

after a word that ends in

-e:
- after a word that ends in

..,...

after a word that ends in
ora vowel
..,...
.:1\-
after a word that ends in
.:1\-
..,...
- after a word that ends in

..,...

after a word that ends in
\\l-
'5- after a word that used to end in the .c;- Cf] -, the second suffix letter c;-
S9
Some past tense verbs that end with the letter c . Oi - or . used to be followed by Cf] - in the
ancient texts (see Lesson 3.3.bll. Therefore, even today, the formation of the final sentence particle is affected
by that now unwritten but still implicitly understoodfinal Y. However, note that the letter used for the
completion particle is a ? and not a c;-.
..,... ..,...
-?1 - liberated
"
a. Omission of the Linking Verb: Often the linking verb <l) . can be omitted and understood to
be present. Then if the final letter of the last word is a vowel, the is added right next to the final vowel,
(unless the final vowel is an - in which case the is added on top of this). This is not the only particle th
can occur when a linking verb has been omitted, but it is a commonlyoccuring one.
. .,."" "' .,.
..:o DB inMM4B:3
These three realms [are] mind only.
.,." "

n. num. da. pI. (T)
realms threefold theseas for
SUBJECT
"' ..,...

D. adj. (CP)/
mind only.
PREDICATE NOM.
b. At the End of Quotes: It is also used at times to mark the end of quotes. This use will be coverec
later in Lesson 12.
..,...
8. The Verb of Existence UJ C;-
This verb denotes either just the plain fact of existence or nonexistence of something or the fact of
something existing or not existing at some place or time or in some context.
Lesson 6 ... it., 60
I
I
r
a. Sentence Structure: As with all Tibetan sentences, the verb comes at the very end. However.unlike
sentenceswith the linkingverb, here thereis no fixed order in terms of whether the subject or thepredicate
words or phrases come first. '
b. Existence
-r '" '" -r '" '" t'\. -r
---10)- a1-1h-l lOi -1 -UJll KZ169B:l

There are two[kinds]: the arousingof relativebodhichittaand the arousingof absolutebodhichitta.


-r '" ,"',
1cJ} ac;-c;h-l

n.n. (CO)I
relative mind arousing and
SUBJECT
-r '" '" t'\. -r
UJll
D. D. Dum. - iv./
absolute' mindarousing 2 exist.
VERB
'"
c. Negation: The negative of the verb = + UJ c; - is always contracted to the word C)-
t'\. '" -r t'\. '" '" t'\. '"
JOLLM38B:34
There is no refuge. There is no protector. There is no supportivefriend.
C"\.
'"
-r t'\.
'" '"
C"\.
'"
31-

CJ") OJ-Oj-



n.> (T) iv. -/ D. - (T) iv. -/ n. - (1)
iv. -/
refugeas for Dot exist. protectoras for Dot exist. friendas for not exist.
SUBJECT VERB SUBJECT VERB SUBJECT VERB
-r '"
a. Possession: When used with the verb of existence UJC; - or 1-, the particle - .(and not the
remainingsix) canindicatepossession. Notethat becausethe nounphrases are markedeither by a particle or
the lackof a particle, the word order can be freer. The subject mayprecede the predicate words or phrases or
followthem.
'"

iv./
not exist.
VERB
'" t'\.

n. - (T)
certaintyas for
t'\. t'\.t'\.
-
dp. (LOP)ivn. (R)
here dying of
t'\.

ip. ivn. (CO)
when dying and
SUBJECT
t'\. t'\. t'\. t'\. '" t'\. '"
--- Cl - CD t;: l.:l'\- -<3) -31c;l KZ28A:2
Thereis no certaintyof the timeorplace of death.
9. The Nominal Use of the Seven Locative/Objective/Purpose Particles 1\1. rl Oi -q Oi - (-+f"
- means "the seven [particleswith the] meaningof 1\1-." We will be referringto themas the

"LOPparticles,"short for "locative/objective/purposeparticles.Theyarethe most common1Y.llsed particles


and at times the most difficultto pin down, since theycan have so manydifferent uses. In this lesson we will
be onlygivingthreeof their meaningsin connectionwith theverb of existence.
1
l
I
I
1
I
J
f
J
J
J
t'\. C' -r -r
KGT70A:l (verse)
Youhave the superiorsamaya.
I
}
Lesson 6
" ..,..

. adj.. (R) D.- ppr. (LOP)
superiorof .samaya youfor
:SUBJECT REF./POSS.
lG1l
iv.-'
exist.
"VERB
61 ,
Literally, the above sentence could be read as, "The superior samaya exists for.you."
--
...r "'..,..
. roC; KZ 114B:3
'"
One has immeasurable devotion...
rpr. (LOP)
self for
REF./POSS.
..,.. "'..,..
UJl
'\,:)
n. adj. - iv.-
devotion immeasurable exist.
SUBJECT VERB
b. Location: Since is essentially a static verb, i.e, not a verb of action or motion, the LOP particle a
is used with it to indicate location at a particular place or time.
'" ..,..
.. OJ. UJC;
Demons exist allover the land.
'"
D. adj. (LOP) n. -
. land all on demon
LOCATION SUBJECT
KGT76A:5
iv, -
exist.
VERB
c. Adverbial: The other Locative/Objective/Purpose (LOP) particles ?.C;. _.:I\. are mostly used
. '\,:)'\,:)
adverbially with the existential and other verbs. These forms will be explained in detail in the next lesson.
" ..,.. "'"
l f:\ lOl -C; ..:I\c.. 11 BVK30:3 (verse)
'\,:)
In absolute truth, there is no self-nature.

'\,:)
adj. (R) D. (LOP)
absolute of truth in
LOCATION
D. -
self-nature
SUBJECT
neg. iv, -
not exist.
VERB
."..

...., I JOLLM124B:2
reallyexist
..,..

n. (LOP) iv. -,
substance... ly exist
ADVERB VERB
"-r ."..
..."l .?UJ C;... C;. .':1\. UJ II JOLLM124B:4
'\,:) '\,:)
exist as one [thing] ... exist as many [things] ...
-r
---1l- <rj -?-UJ 1---JOLLM 125B:2

exist for an instant


Lesson 6 -'.1 ... e
-r
.:G
1
1

UJe;-

Dum. (LOP) iv. adj. (LOP)
iv.'
oneas exist. manyas exist.
ADVERB VERB ADVERB VERB
1
I
1
1

n-. (LOP)
instantfor
ADVERB
.:Gr;-
iv,!
exist
VERB
62
} lQiThe Nominal Use of the Concessive Particle Ii 'iJ "i" or "i " 1"
This particle is. called 'iJ " "i", "word ornament," or "i - 1-, "ornament gather." This last name is ratl
obscure, but seems to refer to thisparticle's role of modifying or joining (when itis a conjunction with a verb) ..
We have translated it as the "concessive" particle, which reflects its verbal meaning of "but, although." It has
different spellings depending on the final letter of the preceding word. They are:
J
J
1
1
c after final letter
UJ t; - after final letter 0)- 04 - .:1\ - -
r; . after final letter -and the vowels
It appears after the noun (or after any and allmodifiers to a noun) and also appears after other grammatical
particles as a "second" particle. Like the topic particle, this particle does Dot indicate any grammatical
role or function in the sentence, such as the agent, subject, direct object, etc.
a. Limiting: "Even, just, only" ( ""4 )
"'
---"l -s . 0411 KZ 170A:6
there does not exist even one...
"' - --.4 0: - - ..0 t: - -'T1 t:.- - - ...
-I
there is not even a little benefit...
I
1
1
l
Y
1
J
\
1


num, (CC)
oneeven
SUBJECT
.4 0} c t:-
D. adj. (CC)
benefitlittleeven
SUBJECT
"'
O4l1
iv./
not exist.
VERB
iv.
not exist
VERB
Lesson 6
b. Adding: "also, too, as well"

--- -q-t':\C;C;--- JOLLM117B:4
other sentient beings also desire happiness...
63

34 0)- - t:-
n. adj -. - (CC)
sentient being other also
AGENT
D. tv.
happiness desire
DIR. OB]. VERB
This particle is also often used in conjunctionwith pronouns or as a secondparticle.

C;- UJ t: - moreover C; - -UJ t; - also, with regard to that
c. Topic: "as for" As mentioned above, the concessive particle can often function like the
In this case, it does not add much meaning and can be left out of the final translation. lip "if )
"-
-C; t:- 0) -C;t:-+) - -t: -UJ 0) _. - BVK 14:2-3
The practice of the bodhisattva in short is the unity of upaya and prajfia,
"- "-
t:- - -C; t':\ - - -c; -UJ c - C;.:I\ -0) - .e -C; c - +) - - - r; - - UJ. 0} -
n. (R) n. da. (CC) n. (LOP) n. (CO) D. (R) n. - iv.
bodhisattva of practice that as for short in upaya and prajna of entity is.
SUBJECT ADVERB PREDICATENOUN VERB
d. Distributive: possibilities are presented, this particle can be used with
both phrases, adding the sense of "both/and"or "either/or."
" "- "- "- "-
'4 - -UJ 0) _.- -1':\ - t:-34 -UJ c3i -c3i 1BVK 14:3-4
[The practice of the bodhisattva] is not just prajfia, neither is it just upaya,
" "-

D. adj. - (CC)
prajna only
PREDICATENOUN
"- "- "-

neg. iv, D. adj. (CC) neg.' iv. (CP)/
not is. upaya only not is.
VERB PREDICATENOUN VERB
"-

? -I AM 14a
Both appearance is mind andemptiness is mind.

"-

"
"-

[UJOj-]
t:- UJ t:-
UJ <31-
D. (CC)
n.
[iv.]
n. (CC) n. -
iv.
appearanceboth mind emptifnessl too mind is.
SUBJECT PRED. N. VERB SUBJECT PRED. N. VERB
c. Indefinite: Forits use as an indefinite particle, see Lesson 8.
f. As an adverb: UJ c..- itself is also an adverb, meaning "again, further." In this meaning it has only
........
11
UJ t:-
one spe lng, I.e.....
Lesson 6 .. --t 0 I 64
-- -UJ r; - <3i - UJ t; -1- -- (whichcan beabbreviatedto simply UJ t; - UJ c, -)

againandagain

adv. (5)
again from
UJc:-,-
'-:)
adv, (LOP)
again to
11. Exercises
a. Tibetan to English: Using the glossary, translate the following sentences into English.
1TIB:3
-r "\.-r or"
r - f:\ - cD - - - -0-111 KGT 78A: 1
"\. "\." -r
1. SH
or or..r or or
2. - c -01- UJ c -, - - - Cf] - 1 SH
" "\. " or "\. "
3. KZ 187B:3
or "\.-r "\. "" "\. -r "\.or
4. 3i l-c;r;: "l - -1OJ. - "l O}l- - "l - OJ -1OJ r;- <l] --4 <f) - - - 'l-r- Ol-UJ
'-:)
" -r . -r .. "\. -r
5. ---a- CJ - UJ t:- - CJ - 1 1cfJ - -UJ c:- - c. -UJ OJ - <3i 1 lOj - -UJ r; - - c. .UJ d) -5) 1
"\. -r
JOLLM34B:l
'-.)
" "\. -r
6. ---a- -5)- -a - - -UJc.-UJ OJ -0) 1JOLLM 34B:3
,,"\. "
l'l- - -3i-, -f:\ ,OJ---1
'-:)
"\." -r
110)- -s,- L.J - - 0-1- UJ<3} 1

-r "
1 - -l L.J - cD c: -1 KZ5B:3
"\.
11. - -5) - 0) 1 -
JOLLM124A:3-4
7.
or -r "\. "\. "\. or
8. c;- L.J -'lt; - f:\ c;- L.J- 0)- OJ. - - L.J. - UJ <3) -<3) 1
"\. "-r -r "\. . "\. -e:
- -'lr; - ?l-l r; - - -0) <l"J - 0-1 t; - - CJ - - UJ 0} -OJ 1

or -r" "\. "\.


- l'l-L.J - lO) -L.J -le: -0) - -1 -UJ3) -0) 1 SN inMM 12B:5-6

"\. "\. "\. -r -r


9. - -L.J f:\ - e: - - OJ -L.J '4t:-UJ 11 KGT74A:5
10. 1 . 3-l . . . 3-l ffi 1
J
f
}
J
I
J
}
J
f
1
}
1
J
)
-r or
13. JOLLM29A:2-3
. "" "\. or "\.
14. ?O} -.:J;C: - - - -di-l -L.J - UJdi- -- -L.J -<cD 0} - -::1\ - -UJ 0} _.. - JOL 6B:6 .7A:l
b. English to Tibetan: Using the glossary, translate the following sentences into Tibetan.
1. Theessenceof auspiciouscoincidenceis the divinedharma.
Lesson 6 65
2. Thing and nonthingare conditioned. Nirvana is unconditioned.
3. The mindis notmaterial.
4. Shamathaandvipashyanaare a pair.
5. Completelypure prajfia is the fruition.
6. The nonexistenceof discursive thought is emptiness.
7. All your evil deeds, obscurations, and degradingactions are purified.
8. The great medicineof the gradual [path] is a great poisonfor the sudden [path].
9. The servant of all virtue and evil deeds is this body.
c. Vocabulary for memorization
scripture
realization,torealize
earth
water
.:l\c: . . (fi b
pratyekabuddha,solitary uddha
death
sickness
harm
birth, to arise
old age
wind
space
benefit
fire




"



peace
hungry ghost, preta
animal
hell
shamatha,tranquility
vipashyana
to desire, accept; desire
shravaka, listener
f\.


..,-

f\.

f\.

d. Verse for memorization
. f\.


..,- "
1 1 1
f\.

All conditionedthingsareimpermanent,
All defiled things are suffering.
All phenomenaare egoless.
Nirvanais peace.

n. adj. -
conditioned all
SUBJECT
C'\.

adj. -/
not permanent.
PRED. ADJ.
I
j
1
J
1
j
\
f
r
1
J
J
J
1
j
J
1
r
j
Lesson 6


11. adj. D. -l
defilement possess all suffering.
SUBJECT PRED. NOM.
0r- "\.
cI:> . -

n. adj. adj. -/
dharma all ego-less.
SUBJECT PRED. ADJ.

-'\J f:\C; -l-J.



n.
.
n.-/
nirvana peace.
SUBJECT PRED.'NOM.'
66
Lesson 7
1. Verbs:
The verb in Tibetan is called a S literally "action word." In terms of understanding the structure of
Tibetan sentences, the most important distinction is whether the verb is transitive or (these terms
will be explained below), since the structure of the sentence and the type of particles used will be different for
these two kinds of verbs. Therefore, this should always bethe first question you ask in unraveling a Tibetan
sentence. Let us now look at the different sentence structures for transitive and intransitive verbs.
:ek
2.. Sentence Structure of Transitive/Intransitive Verbs
a. Transitive verb structure: A transitive verb is one that directly transmits its action to an object;
hence a transitive verb is said to take a direct object Actually, this is a rather simplistic definition, but let's kee
things simple for now.. We will begin to appreciate the complexity of Tibetan verbs in Lesson 16.
'" -r -r -r
-51
The Buddha taughtthe dharma to the monks.

'"
-r -r -r



n. (A) D. pI. (LOP)
D.
tv. (CP)/
buddha by monk-s to dharma taught
AGENT INDIRECT OBl. DIR.OBl. VERB
In this sentence, "taught" is a transitive verb that has "the dharma" as its direct object. The "dharma" is what :
"taught" and so directly receives the action of "taught." The buddha is the doer or agent of the action, and the
monks are the indirect object, as it is to them or for them that the action is done.
With transitive verbs, the main points are that the agent generally takes the agentive particl, and the direct
object takes either no particle or less commonly the LOP particle -. Since there are specific particles andth
lack of a particle (which is just as important) to indicate the function of the words in the sentence, the word
order of the sentence can be rather free. However, the following illustration is an example (not a rule) of a
common word order.
Trans
Ve
b. Intransitive verb structure: An intransitive verb is a verb that does not transmit its action to som
external object. For example:
'" -r
r -<f) - - . 0} . - c; - - 1 JOL

All sentient beings of the three realms are confused.


n. num. (R)
realm 3 of
SUBJECf
Lesson 7'" a,3
" 0} - .. -0l-
n. adj.
sentientbeing all
..,...

iv, (CP)!
areconfused.
VERB
68
In thissentence, the verb "tobeconfused" is intransitive, since it only relates to the sentient beings themselves.
(Of course, there is a transitive form of this verb, as in "to confuse" someone. Many verbs in English and
Tibetancan be bothtransitiveandintransitive.)
"" ..,...
.. UJ -1 -r -OJ . <l] _. TSND9B:3
Wisdommanifests fromwithin...
1
n.
wisdom
SUBJECT

n.(S)
within from
ADVERB
iv.
manifest
VERB
}
J
j
I
f
}
J
I
)
Sentences with intransitive verbs differ in that there is no agent (thoughthere may bean instrumentor
cause) and there is no direct or indirect object. Therefore, the subject is generally indicated by noparticle.and
there can be all kinds of adverbial phrases (as indeed there can bewith transitive verbs). The word order could
commonlybe:
Adverb Subject Adverbial Phrase Adverb Intransitive
of Spaceffime Verb
.........
Noparticle Noparticle LOPparticles LOPparticles
or
t
Topicparticle Agentiveparticle Agentiveparticle
LOP particles
rrl
. .
1
Sourceparticle - Source panicle <3i .
-n
Y
s:
(
L-lLt: >. IZC \)
Note the ubiquitous use of the LOP particlein both transitive andintransitive sentences with a widerange of
meanings.
3. Verbal Forms: Tense .and Mood (.-(.
Unlike the verbs in many Western languages.the Tibetan verb does not indicate person (I, you, he/she/it,
etc.), number (singular and plural), orvoice (active and passive). Onthe other hand, the Tibetanverb can
express.threetenses (past, present, and future) and two moods (indicativeandimperative). However, not all
verbs have different forms for the three tenses nor do allhave an imperativeform.
For the sake ofconvenience, we will be callingthe main part of the verb devoid of any particles
the 'i:22!: of the verb. However, the root ofthe verb need not bejust one syllable, as there are two, three, and
even four syllable "roots.It When the root of the verb occurs with the particle 4/e:J ., we will call this the
"infinitive"fonnofthe verb (though this fonnhasmany other meaningsthanjustthe infinitive).
Thereare two main ways to indicatethe tense or mood of a Tibetanverb.
1. One can add an auxiliary verb (andin the case of the imperative, a particle) to the main verb. This
method will be covered later.
2. One can change the spellingof thejmainverb itself.
( =.c.,,....." """'.""","'"'''''
Lesson 7 69
In this lesson, we will be coveting how to recognize the tense or mood of a verb by the change in its
spelling. Based on the number of different forms or spellings that they have, Tibetan verbs can be classified
into four main groups.
a. Verbs with one form: There are some verbs that have only one form, which is used for all the
tenses and moods. Oftentimes, the meaning is clear from the context. However, if the context is not clear, the
only way to specify the tense or moodof these verbs is to use anauxiliary verb or a particle (e.g., for the
imperative).
Examples of these verbs are:
."..
"
UJ eli-
to be
ac
toattain

to come, go (hon.)
."..
"
to see
I
"'1 0

to know

to dwell
b. Verbs with two forms: Since these verbs have only two fonns, obviously, these two forms will
have to do double or triple duty. The same form can serve for the present and the future, or for the past and th
future, or for the past and the imperative, etc.
Future

Imperative Meaning
to go
to enter
to become
to change
to teach
to do (hon.)
c. Verbs with three forms
-Clj.
Imperative Meaning
to say, speak
to explain
to hold, lean (
o
..

d. Verbs with four forms: Since most nonseparative verbs do not have an imperative form, the grea
majority of verbs with four forms are "separativeverbs. .
-e:
"

a><rt.
Present Past Future Imperative Meaning
"
."..
Sl- s-:

s-:
to do (nh)
70
to cut
tosee
Lesson
7 -- 3" 't
."..

<\1-
..,..
."..

cDC;-
.".. ."..



toteach, learn
The dictionary will generallylist the verb under its present formwith a - or following. In this
context, the present form with a - / be called the "infinitive" fonnof the vert>, i.e. "to ." For
example, -.[,J - can mean "to teach." Of course, the [,J -rJ. -can signify other meanings as well.
I
!
J
)
-
4. The Nominal Use of No Particle (2) f\ S7)
e. The Main Point of It All: Since most of us will not be writing Tibetan, but will reading and
translatingit, the key lies in the recognition of the patterns, rather than memorization of all the verbforms.
c. The Vocative -[,J-: When a person is being directly addressed by name,title, or word of
address.this word almost always comes at the beginning of the sentence, but with no particle. Infact, it is
only its possibly being a name, its lack of a followingparticle, its position at the beginning of the sentence, and
the general context that can alert youto this role.

We nowhave four more meanings that are'indicatedby the lack ofa particle (not including .01 ..and t; "). In
fact, it is precisely thelack of a particle that indicates their function, as all the other parts of the sentence will
have a particular particle tosignal their function. Therefore, the word order ofwords without a grammatical
particle is somewhat free, the same as with words with a grammatical particle. In away, the lack of a particle is
a kind of particle. The importance of the lackof a particle can not be emphasized enough,
a. Direct Object of a Transitive Verb: The direct object may have no particle or with some verbs it
may takethe LOP particle (see 6.b.l.a.below). Most often, it comes between the agent and the verb.
. .. (r'i'S")
b. Subject of an Intransitive Verb: The subject of an intransitive verb generally takes no particle..
When thesubject of anintransitive verb doeshaveanagentiveparticle, this generallyemphasizesthe intentional
natureof the action.

"
iv. -/
stay.
VERB
..,..

D. adj.-
time long
ADV.
iv.
went.
VERB
."..

"
ppr. (A) name(LOP)
you by Indiato
AGENT DESTIN.
-or

n. -
ttanslator
VOCAT.
-or -or ..,.. CO\.."..
- -q. eli 1 KGT 65A:2
" .. "
Translator! You went to India [and] stayeda long time.
J
)
}
}
J
J
J
1
J
!
1
}
J
1
)
Note the lack of any particle after the two verbs and after the adverb.
d. Adverbs: Generally, adverbs and adverbial phrases are formed by one of the LOP particles
(particularlythe dependent forms), by the agentiveparticle, or by the sourceparticle cJ} However, it is not
uncommonto see adverbs without a particle, especially adverbsoftime.. (See the example immediatelyabove.)
Lesson 7
...,-
MINT 99:11-2

...tomeet in the next [life] in the celestial realmof UddiyaI)a...


71
adv. -
later
ADVERB
- Oi- rn, - [ -'i-
PN D. (LOP)
Uddiyana celestial realmin
LOCATION
tv.
meet
VERB
"
S. The Nominal Use of the Agentive Particle Sc;.
"
The agentiveparticle, SC; . , literally "agent word,"has several commonandrelated meanings and thena
fewrather idiomatic uses.
a. Spelling: The agentive particle has several different spellings (all with the same meaning) depending
on the final letter of the preceding word.


after final letter


after final letter


after final letter

- or
after final vowels
If a word ends with n.., then the - will replace n..; e.g. "l n.. ---> "l
b. Pronunciation: Final - . added on to words that end in vowels has basically the same effect on
"
their pronunciationas does the n. - .. It is also very similar to the umlautingeffect of the relationa


particle -n.. on words that end in a vowel (see Lesson5.2.b.). With the - n.-, the vowel sound is long and
slightlyrising; :whereas with the - , the vowel soundis a falling tone and a little longer.
c.Meanings:
1) Agent: It marks the agent or doer of an action. This is used with a transitive verb (i.e., a verb th:
transmits action to a direct object). Note that it is sometimesused withverbs of motion (whichare considerer
,6""intransitive). Generally, whenused, it givesthe meaningof intentionalityor deliberateaction. Technically,at
. I:.agent be a being, one witha mind. Hthe "agent"is inanimate, thenmore appropriatelyit shouk
considered as an "Instrument." (See 2) below.)
c
.,.w -fe;:"- - -n, r 1 - -t,:r e;J1 a.I -- - MINT92:8
c
The guru constructedthe mandala; the mother arrangedthe offerings.
"
-r
"
-r



D. (A)
D.
tv. -/ D. (A) D.-
tv. -
gum by mandala build. motherby offering arrange.
AGENT DIR.OBJ. VERB AGENT DIR.OBJ. VERB
2) .Instrument: marks the instrument by which an action is done. A sentence could have both th
Lesson 7--S 72
agent and instrumental uses of the agentive particle in the same sentence.

tv./
fIll.
VERB

...
'\.:)
neg. tv.
notwash
VERB
..r "

n. (A)
light by
". " "'

D. (A) neg. tv.
handwith Dot clearaway.
INSTRillvfENT VERB
D. (A)
water with
INSTR.
AGENT

n.{CO)
rainbow and
n.-
evil deed
DIR.OBJ.

n.pl.>
sage-s
AGENT
..,..

D. (R) n.>
beings of suffering
DIRECT OBJ.
D.-
space
DIRECT OB1.
..,.. "
d) SM 20B:2-3
The space isfilled with rainbows and light.


..,.. " ""'
Q1 f:), . Q1 LdQ'l. ..Q'l -
-..J I -e . I I quote mKZ?
The sages do not wash away evil deeds with water
And do not clear away the suffering of beings with [their] hands.
Note that the agent "does not haveanagentiveparticle, as one would expect. This is probably
due to the fact that these sentences are in poetic meter,and there was no room for another syllable.
\
}
I
J
)
I
1
'1
I

1
J
'"
ususally connected by the .. .. - to the preceding words or clause. You do not have to be too literal in
translating them, as they all have the basic meaning of "because. "
by the power I ofj
by the power [00
-r "


dueto the main point [of]
by the power [of]
'"
"
"
" '" "





n. (A) neg. tv! 10. (A) neg. tv./ n. (A) neg. tv.!
frreby not bum. waterby not carry. earth by not crush.
AGENT VERB AGENT VERB AGENT VERB
'" "" ""' "..r
- 1 <3)0) 1 KZ29B:4-5
Fire [cOtfldl not burnthem; water not carry them away; earth them.
Notethe absence of anydirect objectsin this example. "They" are understood from thecontextofthe
preceding sentences of this text.
""
The Sl- . can also be connected with certain nouns to give an instrumental orreason meaning. Theyare
}
I
1
J
J
J
(
)
Lesson 7 73
" "-r "
Cl] Cl] a - - - Oi -- KZ IOlA:l
.'=>
Due to the more profound means of the secret mantra, special qualities arose in [his] being.

"
"
..,..
"

-



n.- D. adj. (R) D. (A) D. (LOP) n. adj. -
iv,
secret mantra means profounderof main point by being in guali tv special arose.
REASON LOC. SUBJECT VERB
3) Reason: This particle can also indicate the reason why something happens. Obviously, this usag
is closely related to the previous one.
..,.. "
1 :I\- 0} 31 - 1 KGT58B:6
[Naropa and Marpa] met because of previous practice and the same aspiration.

/adj. - D. -
previous training
REASON
-r "
a1 31- "l
D. adj. (A)
aspiration same by

tv. -/
met
VERB
"
4) Adverb: The l- - can be added after a noun or adjective to form an adverb. This adverb is
usually placed right before the verb that it modifies. 1" e .:.' I 1'1
0} Oi .?c3) - serious, earnest (adjective)
"
OJ OJ . - earnestly
stage (noun)
" "
:I\ 31 - - gradually, by stages
" " " " " ---:I\Cl] Cl] -Ci] 31 - 01- 31 - c;- -Cl] -Ci] - NTNG l5A:3
'=>
...instantly visualize all sentient beings of the six realms...
" "" " " :I\ - - 31 0} - . c; c;- - .
'=>
n. num. (R) n. adj. - D. (A)
kind six of sentient being all instant by
DIRECT OBJECf ADVERB
..,.. -r' "
- - Q1 - Cf1 mQ1 ffi -c:. - --- .
I I I '=> '=> ? I MM liB. 2
fmd food, clothing, and so forth with little difficulty
tv.
visualize
VERB
D. D. etc. -
food clothing etc.
DIRECT OBJECf
,
cD Cf1 ffi t; - t; -
I '=> '=>
D. adj. (A)
difficulty little with
ADVERB
"

tv.
find
VERB
In the above two examples, the agent is understood from the context.
"
5) Lack of: This is a rather idiomatic use of the c;- -. It only occurs with a few verbs.
" " -r
:I\ c:. c3) - - - empty of self nature
Lesson 7 .... SJ C 74
" "

n. (A)
self nature by
-r

iv.
empty
devoidofmentalelaboration
" -r" -r "
... .
? KZ26A.3
I amdestituteof the essentialdharma. (I lacktheessentialdharma.)
)
I

n. (A)
mental elaboration by
iv,
devoid, isolated
\
)
" -r "

n. (R)
essenceof
-r "

n.(A)
dharma of

iv, -/
after final letter -
?- after finalletter - -
'\,)
6. The Nominal Use of the Seven Locative/Objective/Purpose Particles 'lJ' Cj 0) -<JllO)'

.. .
As notedin 6.9, means "the seven[particleswith the] meaningof 'lJ "." We will be
referringto thesesevenparticlesasthe LOPparticles,shortfor theLocative/Obiective/Purp0 separticles-.
artiemost ubi uitous and troublesome of 1. They have by far the widest ranges of meanings,
and therefore are usedin all kinds () contexts. Fiveof these particlesforma, group, as they arereallyjust
differentspellingsfor the sameparticle. The sixthone, could also be includedin this group, as it has
almostexactlythe sameuses and meanings. However, thisis not the case withthe seventhparticle 0) -,as it has
a muchmorerestrictedusage, basicallyindicatinglocation. (Accordingto thetraditional grammar,theonly
" "
meaningthat the particles - and eli-do not sharewiththefirst five is theso-called "identity" usage, c;. ?l- ,but
the situationis not this simple.)
a. Spelling: The spellingof five of theseparticlesdependsonthe final letter of the preceding word(thus,
theyarecalled "dependent" forms), but allthese formshavethesame meaning. Thereare two "independent"
particles, - and eli ,which never changetheir spelling.
after final vowels (inthe case of final- -,:I\- replaces the ; e.g. ---> 2T).1\ -)
after final vowels (especially if anextrasyllableis neededfor theverse meter)
_:I\-
f

)
J
}
!
1
J
'\
I
j
I
]
b.Usage: According tothe traditional Tibetan grammar, these particles have four basic uses. Though it
is necessary to understand theTibetananalysisof their ownlanguage,for practicalpurposes, we will be
emphasizing the learningof theclifferentEnglishwordsthat can be usedto translate, the use of theseparticles.
Lesson 7
1) Objective This category covers a lot of territory.
75
a) Direct object: There are certain verbs that use the particle (and none of the other LOP
- . -
..narticles) for the direct object There is a parallel type structure in English, whereby certain verbs must occur ,
with a preposition, e.g. "to look at," "to be afraid of," etc. For a partial list of the type of verbs that use 1. for th
direct object, see 16.2.
KJ 133B:4
'-.)
examining the cause...

D. (LOP)
cause
DIR.OBJ.
tv.
examining
VERB

C.Ol KZ 133B:4
[One] is afraid of the suffering of the three lower realms.


D. Dum. (R)n. (LOP)
lower realm 3 of suffering
DIRECT OBJECT
tv.
fear
VERB
b) Indirect Object: "to, for" The indirect object of a sentence is generally the word that
indicates "for" whom or "to" whom the action is being done. Again, it is only the LOP particle that can be
used for the indirect object (as with the direct object), and not the dependent forms, '5 l- etc., or Ol .
'-.) '-.)
"'"' "'
... - .i\J- 1<l] <3) - l- t-J- -, -. AMC 3B:l
'\,)
The sugatas accomplish unsurpassable benefit for all beings...

D. pI. (LOP)
being-s for
INDIRECT OBJ.
"'"' " "' .

n. pI. (A) D. adj.
sugata-s by benefitunsurpassable
AGENT DIRECT OBJECT

'\,)
tv.
accomplish
VERB
c) Movement toward, into, on: This usage can be translated by "to, toward, in, into,
through, on." In Sanskrit, a destination that is the object of the verb "to go" and the like is put in the accusativ
or objective case rather than in the locative case as in English. This could account for why the Tibetans use
these panicles with verbs of motion. In this context, generally the panicle indicates the goal, end point, or
destination of the action.
KZ19B:l
'\,:)
entered the gate ofdharma...

KZ131B:l

The son went to India.


I
!
1
D. n. (LOP)
dharma door into
ADVERB PHRASE
Lesson 7'" t;
iv,
entered
VERB
76
n. -
son
SUBJECT

name. (LOP)
India to
ADV. PHR.
iv.
went.
VERB
d) Location of action in ,space or time: Here, the particles can be translated by "in, on, at.U
As noted above, the particle 3}. is generally used when the situation is static, whereas when the verb is active
the other particles are used.
-r -r
Q'i - c. -..0 0) - -E. c. -f':\l :1\. --. KZ29B:2
In this snowy land of Tibet, ..
I
1
-r
l - c. --s OJ- -
n. n. (R)
Tibet. snow possess of
LOCATION
-r
E. c. -f':\1:1\-
n. da. (LOP)
land this in
, -r -r
-l -.a -00 _. KZ39A:5
-'I
At all times and places, contemplate onlydeath,
KZ 144B:2
[He] sees samsaraassuffering.
e) Equivalence: Grammatically,this is another type of adverbial phrase. The particle has the
basic meaning of one thing is being equated with another. The particles 1\1 0 and . can!!Q!
used for this meaning.
..

1 "l OJ. f':\ 1 KGT65B:3-4
Buddha is in the palm of[your] hand.

tv.
meditate on
VERB
-e:
f':\<!{Q-r -0)-
n.adj. -
death only
DIR.OBJ.

iv, -/
exist.
VERB


n. (CO) n. adj. (LOP)
time and situation all at
LOCATION

1
In. - n.(R) n. (LOP)
buddha hand of palm in
SUBJECT LOCATION
J
J
1
1
J
J
j
I
n.
samsara
DIR. OBI.
D. (LOP)
suffering as
ADVERB
Lesson 7
tv.
see
VERB
77
C"o. C"o."..,.. "
SM2B:3

Apparent existence arises as the mandala of the guru.


C"o. C"o. C"o...,.. "

n. D. (R) D. (LOP) iv,


apparentexistence' guru of mandalaas arise.
SUBJECT ADVERB VERB
With several verbs, there is the pattern of the direct object using the particle;;:. and the equivalence
phrase using one of the dependent forms, i.e. ? c; . - ..

.a "l IlJ.,;-("), OJ' t,J SBDn465:7
taking to be a snake...
"



n. (LOP) D. (LOP) tv.
rope striped snakeas take
DIR. OBI. ADVERB VERB
f) Adverbs: Generally,except for adverbial phrases of location and time, an adverb comes right
before the verb that it modifies. The particles and <3). are not used in this way. There are two general type:
of adverbs: intensifiers and "manner" adverbs.
i. Degree adverbs: This type of adverb indicates the degree of intensity or lack of intensity
of a verb, adverb, or adjective. Many, of the Sanskrit prefixes are this type of adverb.
C"o. "
MINT86:1

The guru was very pleased.


n.
guru
SUBJECT
"
"43i.?

adv. (LOP)
very
ADVERB
iv.
is pleased.
VERB
ii.Manner adverbs: This type of adverb tells "how" or "in what manner" an action is done
..,. " ..,.. ..,." ..,.
"0" 0 cI> 0("), rx,01lJ' X, 31 t,J. 31" 0 <::
The Buddha Shakyamuni turned the wheel of dharma in three stages .
..,. C"o. ..,....,. C"o.
t t,J ("),r:J;;IlJ' X, 31
D. Dame (A) D. (R) D. D. Dum. (LOP)
buddha Shakymuni by dharma of wheel stage three in
AGENT DIRECT OBJECT ADVERB
KZ 18B:4

tv.
turned..
VERB
iii. Sentence adverbs: Generally,these type of adverbs will come at the beginning of the
Lesson 7 ... C 78
sentence. This kind of adverb does not modify a particular word in the sentence, but modifies the whole
sentence. For example, in thefollowing example, it is not that one understands "in a general manner,tt but
rather that one understands that it is a general truth that all phenomena are dependent arising.
-r (\.-r '" '" -r
MINT127:1 ..2

Generally, one understands that allphenomena of samsaraand are dependent arising.


-r (\.

n. (LOP) n. n. (R)
general-Iv samsara nirvana of
ADVERB DIRECTOBJECT
-r

n.adj. -
dharma all

n. (LOP) tv.
dep. arisingas understand
ADVERB VERB
1
}
l
Time adverbs are also common sentence adverbs and alsogenerallycome at the beginningof asentence.
However, as pointed on in 7.4. above they usually occur without any particle.
g) Reference: "as for, concerning, with respect to" The LOP particle"? -.can often be used almost
as a topicparticleto indicate the general subject matter or referent.
""
c;- - OJ. -UJOjl. JOLLM 124A:3-4
As for that [topicjust mentioned before], the hardness of the body is the [element of] earth..


iv. -I
is.
VERB
n. -
earth
P.N.


n.(D-
hardness
"' (\.

dp. (LOP) n. (R)
that as for -...bod ......... y.....;;o....... f =..--.-..-.=
TOPIC SUBJECT
j
1
-r (\."' '" -r

- .....
"' "' "' "'
KZIOA:1-3
...
You [should] think of yourself as a sick person... [You should] think of the dharma as medicine.
J [YO:ShO"Uld] think of"the spiritual as a . _(--,1'
__ vi ..... rq c, -7J1 e:;Jc:.. c:.. 0: .. - c:.. . ...q c:...
-- d'...... 1'<- I I I / I '-' -" J -I I "d.- Ircc,..t .,
I ""'" g 4 J"'4. ppr. (A) n. (LOP) n. (R) n, tv. .. J,J...c.1
J you by selfconcerning sick oerson of idea give rise to. Co(. f=1
.. .. AGENT TOPIC DIRECTOBJEcr VERB
tv.
give rise to.
VERB

.
n. (R)
doctor learnedof
DIRECTOBJECf
"'

n. (R) n. -
medicine of idea
DIRECTOBJECT

n. (LOP)
dharmaconcerning
TOPIC
1- '1"-", e- .....11,
+f..a.
J
4.$ ---c J,., tIWf
-==-
"' '" "'
...
J
bC.c.S('il-. fr..
J
ladj. (R) n.(LOP)
vUtuous fidendconcenUng
,. TOPIC
.=- ---------------....-----------------------
J
J
-r -r
KZl2A:l
......
abandon mistaken views with respect to the guru and dharma

n. (CO)
guru and
TOPIC
Lesson 7
.".. ."..

D. (LOP). D.-
dhannaconcerning mistakenview
DIRECTOBJ.

tv.
abandon
VERB
79
h) Separation/Conjunction: The LOP particle - can be used with verbs that more commonly
use the coordinating particle C; -, and with these verbs can mean "from" or "with. II See Lesson 5.3.c.
'"
JOLLM16A:4
to be free of attachment. ..
'"
n.(LOP)
attachmentfrom
REFERENT
iv.
befree, separate
VERB
.".. '" .
2) Purpose l -ffil-: In this case, it is traditionally said that the object must actually benefit by t]
action of the verb. Note that this meaning is very close to the indirect object usage above. There is no hard ar
fast line here. Many sentences could fit in either category.
a) Purpose, benefit: All the particles except for 0) - can indicate the purpose or benefit of an
action. This meaning can be translated by "for, for the sake of, for the purpose of." Oftentimes, the particles
are conjoined with a word that means "benefit" or "purpose." For example:

'"
cDl-l-

for the benefit, purpose of


for the benefit, purpose of

for the benefit, purpose of


for the benefit, purpose of
"'.".. '" .".. ."..
l -cD - - 0) -lOi -l - 1 MINT 78:12

dedicate the collection of virtue for the benefit of sentient beings


n. -
virtuecollection
DIRECTOBJECT

tv. -/
dedicate
VERB
'" '"
0) -L4 Oi -l- - all scr

arouse [bodhi]chitta for the benefit ofothers



'=
n. n. (LOP)-----
otherbenefit for
INDIRECTOBI.
D. -
mind (chitta)
DIRECTOBJECT
'"

tv. -/

VERB
'"
3) Locative 0) - 0} -: In the traditional Tibetan grammars, the examples for this locative case or
use the intranstive verb - and the verb of existence lGl-. It is not 'used with verbs of motion or
'=
Lesson 7-- 6' 80
transitiveverbs, whichareclassifedas requiringtheobjectivecase.
a) Location in space with static verbs: We have already covered this usage with the
existential verb 11i C:;" t.J ". It alsooccurs withverbs of dwelling, living, etc.
-r -r
SCP
The Lord Shakya lived in the landof Magadha.


0.0. (LOP)
landcenter in
LOCATION

D.name -
lord Shakya
SUBJECT

iv, -/
dwell.
VERB
"'
b) Temporal as- <J .:. The LOP particlescan formadverbs or adverbial phrases of time. The
senseoftime couldbe instantaneous, continuous, or of some duration.
'"
i) . '5 -<J 10) - .7I\ - 1 sCP

alwaysspeaktruthfully

adj. (LOP)
permanent-ly
A])VERB
'"
D. (LOP)
truth
ADVERB

tv. -/

VERB
'" C'\.
OJ - -- KGT78B:4
in, aftera littlewhile
-r
..O} ... KGT57A:4
in thefuture
, '"
1 <J -<J 1O}. KGT 58B:6 (verse)

[I]. attended[him] for sixteenyears [andlseven months.
1
1

In. num, -
year 16
TI?v1E
,ii.<J . '-Jl 0)-,-

n. num. (LOP)
month sevenfor
'"
<J
tv. -I
attended.
VERB
c) Prepositional phrases: All of the particles can be conjoined with many words, mostly of
location, whichcan be precededby therelationalparticle. Theparticles n.J. and eli - are usedmuchless
frequently in this usage.
I
}
"
rt; - f:l. -0) t; -l- insidethe house

"
X. f':\-f':\q"}-J::-
. I below, under the water
"C'\. '"

"' ? I on top of themountain

'" C'\. '"


1f:l. afterthat
<J.:I\-l-

C'\. "
11::

between, upto, until
in front of the tree
before, above
at that time
Lesson 7 81
at that time, inthat context
" "-
4) Identity c; -,C; -: Here the particle serves to join two words to formone unit. Seemingly, many0:
these words are translations for one wordin Sanskrit.
a) Compound Verbs: Oftentimes, a verb canjoinwitha noun via the LOP particle to forma
newcompoundverb. As usual, the verb can alsodrop the connecting LOPparticle.
-e:

sCP
-r


n. (LOP) iv./
refuzefor
"

sCP
"

1
n. (LOP) tv./
melody as take
"
SCP
go for refuge
sing a song
practice
"
--->
"

n. (LOP) tv.!
experienceas take
b) Tibetan Equivalents for Sanskrit Prefixes: This use will be covered later in Lesson
5) As a second particle: This applies primarily to the LOP particle 0) -, which occurs fairly
frequently after theagentive andreasonparticle (see9.3.). It does not seemto addany meaningtothese
particles, but seemsat timestoindicatean abbreviation of aphrasethat usedbothparticles.
therefore(lit. "becauseof that") therefore(lit. "because of that")
7. The Four Negation Words C; - -
"- "-" "-
There are four c; - -or "negationwords": - - 0) - and c;-. The negatives O.J. and O.J -areplacer
"
beforethe wordthat theynegate, whereas Oi - and c;- are placedafter the word they negate. In some

contexts, is usedfor the past tense and - is usedfor the present andfuture tense&.
" -r
.- -0) - - - - <f] - 1JOLLM 12

...even all the buddhashave not seen, do not see, andwill not see the mind.
-r

Cl tv.
11J' I

,.. tz;' ,..' p. io"


-- tt Z;:(C U
-+c..
o. _.-t c,."I ... .,. ""'k.sp
.
Lesson 7--7
mind as for buddha all by even
DIR.OBJ. AGENT
not see
VERB
not see
VERB
see
VERB
82
not will.
J
J
J
t
I
J
1
J
I
J
8. Exercises
a. Tibetan to English: Using the glossary, translate the following sentences into English.
-r '"
1.
" -"
-r "
KP3A:6 (verse)
" .,.,....
'" -r . "-r-r . '"
2. -- - -<DO) - -f\J - -Ci] l -C:Ci] -<f) -c; - E:c;- -r - _.- - MINT88:11-2
3. c. l' f\l' 3-l S<: E Sl'" MINT 94:19
'" " -r
4. KGT62A:5(verse)
'" -r -r
6. UJ -J 0) -9 "l -Q,C;- ---- KZ12B:3
7. -c; -q-l KGLP 11A:3
C'\. '"
9 If:\ <D -q f:\ 0) -01-1 0) -5 - C-1
"
-r C'\. '"
If:\ a5 -qf:\ - 0) -01-1 0) -,- ,?c-1
'-.;) "
'" C'\. ",'
1
c, - UJ c..- f:\ ffi - q f:\ . - -f:\ q"l
I -, J (verse)
-r '"
10. c- c SM 2A:2
'-.;)
C'\. -r
1
q . f:\ . - -ai.. - f:\. n.Jl
11.:;J I '"' MINT 81:17 (verse)
"
'" C'\. -r -r '" -r -r '"
12. -5 - - -q 1 NTNG 14A:5
. . .
'" -r -r
13. q 04 5"1- - c..-a-
q
- a C "l -'\3- f:\ Ci]c;lMsA inMM 9A:1-2
-r -r -r-r
15. :I\n.J- 5- - - c;-lCi] -n.J.? - 0) - - -_. JOLLM 86A:3-4

'" '" C'\."
16.
'" -e: -r ..r "
l-UJ c;: f:\ -q --- NTNG 11A:3-4
-r'" -e: -r
17. q - - - 0)- C l<'l-SC. - -1 c.-l- c.<3} - - - f:\ L4 c
"
KZ18A:4-5

C'\. -r
19. _. - '\3- f\J- C -- - SSN 3B:6
'-i
'" -r C'\. -r
20. - c;- - -UJ <'ll UT (verse)
Lesson 7
"
1
-.c;c -q q"l 1
I -, I '" JOLLM 40B:2-3 (verse)
83
-r -r
23. -_. KZ 133A:2-3
. '-:) '-:)
-r -r-r
24. . .. 0) -l- c q: 31 OJ.t\J MlNT 80:19-20
'-:)
-r
25. Q, ... KGT48B:2
I '-:)
"" -r
26. 50) t\J. 31 r OJ 1 ? 0\. ..o l -o.t.? "l c -ql c:
" " -r
ql "l o.t l 1 MM 37B:6-38A:1
'" " -r -r "
27. ... TSND5A:4-5
b. English to Tibetan: Using the glossary, translate the following sentences into Tibetan.
1. [He] meditated on the father jetsun on the top of the head.
2. Unperverted experiences and realizations were born in his being.
3. The absolute is empty of the relative.
4. The blessings of the lord guru have entered [my] mind.
5. [They] saw the guru as the actual buddha.
6. The holy dharma is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end.
7. The ego produces the kleshas. The kleshas produce karma. Karma produces suffering.
8. The guru took my hand with [his] hand.
9. Perfect realization will arise in [his] being.
10. All the phenomenal world is enjoyed as the feast of great bliss.
11. Momentary thoughts dissolved into space.
c. Vocabulary for memorization:
-r
"

tomeditate, cultivate

to know
"

to change, transform

to know (h)
-r

to cut

to dwell

to look at

to dwell (h)
'-:)
-r -r

to attain, obtain

to come
-r -r

to examine

to go
"
'"

to do

to go, come (h)

to do, make (h)

to become
'-:)
C"-


to hold, grasp

to be afraid

to speak (h)

to enter
'-:)
I
1
1
1
}
J
Lesson 7
d. Verse for memorization
...,-" ..,.."
"i - - l- -cDl
...,- " ...,- ..,.."
aq - t.J - - l- c; -cD -.:J\ 3i- t.J - if> 1
" ""
'" 3) -t.J - - c; .c; -.n.c:; <3}- .:J\3i- -cD 1
'\.:a
" ..,....,.. ..,..
- 1-11<3) -<f) - - 1-t.J - 1
The unsurpassable teacher is the precious buddha.
The unsurpassable protector is the precious holy dharma.
The unsurpassable guide is the precious sangha,
To the unsurpassable threejewels, 1make this offering.
to see
84
" ...,- ...,-
- -
adj. n. num, (LOP)
unsurpassable jewel 3 to
INDIRECT OBJECT
!
)
j
J
J
J
J
I
I
J
...,- "'

n. adj. -
teacherunsurpassable
SUBJECT
...,- "

n.adj. -
protectorunsurpassable
SUBJECT
'"' "

n. adj. -
guideunsurpassable
SUBJECT
...,-"
c; - - .J:\ d) -t.J -as 1
n. adj. -/
buddhaprecious.
PREDICATE NOUN
..,.. ..,..",

adj. D. adj. -/
holydhanna precious.
PREDICATE NOUN
" or"
1"l -n.l 0) - t.J - cD1
'\.:a
n. adj.<-/
sanghaprecious.
PREDICATE NOUN
3la;C) "t,J"
D. - tv. -/
offering offer.
DIRECT OBJ. VERB
1. Gerunds and Participles
Lesson 8
When added to a verb, the ubiquitous particle - or - can turn that verb into a noun into a gemnQ.Q[
,,paniciple. A gerund is a word that functions as a nounin a sentence, but that can still have averbal meaning
and like a verb still have agent, direct object, indirect object, adverb, etc. A participleis a word that functions
as an adjective.in a sentence, but that also have a verbal meaning.
]
I
l
1
)
J
1
j
-r-




hearing
the completeperfectionorcompletelyperfecting
meditationormeditating
anofferingor offering
a. Topic
" -r- -r
-1t: -a 1- -Oi 1 NTNG19B:6
As for attaining the state of liberation and omniscienceinthis way:
-r-
Q1. - -.A - - c; 1 <;1- -.c; - <;1-q - q - -- ... ...
-I I .. -II roUM5002

When [wejdidn't.know how to walk, [our mother] taught [us] to walk; when [we] didn't know
how to speak, [she] taught [us] to speak.
TOPIC
-r-

tv. (T)/
attain asfor
GERill;!I)

tv./
taught.
VERB

tv./
taught.
VERB
iv.
going
DIR. OBI.
iv,
talking
DIR.OBJ.

n. (LOP)
time at
PREP. PHR
"

iv. neg. avo (R)
talk not know of
VERB AUX. VERB
TIME ADV. PHRASE
ADV. PHRASE
-r-

iv. neg. avo (R)
gQ not koow of
VERB AUX. VERB
"
1- - - -1c - - 1- Oi - f:\ - - r; l4r; -
dp. prep.> n. (CO) n. (R) n.
this like liberation all-knowlege of level
ADVERB DIRECTQBJECf
-r-
--- - - - -c3-4 1 1 KZ 12A:3

Do not explain the dharma to those without respect.


b. Direct Object
c. Indirect Object:
}
1
J
J
1
j
J
I
J
J

neg. tvn. (LOP)


not respect to
INDIRECT OBI.
Lesson 8
n.
dharma
DIR. OBI.


neg. tv./
not explain.
VERB
86
d. Personalized Verbal Nouns: A verbal noun can be further transformed into the person or persons
who do the action of the verb by the addition of such pluralizers as l - and determiners as J<3). ,
. -.oc; . . ' )
I See 8.2.c.2). below.( p. 0
2. Relative or Adjective Clauses
These are verbal clauses that, like an adjective, modify a noun or pronoun in the main sentence. They are
called "relative" clauses, because they are connected to the word they modify by the relative pronouns "who, tI
"whom," "which," "that"; the relative adjective "whose"; and the relative adverbs "where" and "when."
. However, unlike English, Tibetan does not use these relative pronouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Instead, just as
with an adjective, there are two general patterns:
a. Preceding relative clauses: They precede the word that they modify and are connected to it by the
relational particle. The verb, as usual,' is the last word of this clause and therefore is the word connected by the
relational particle to the word modified. The relationship of the verb to the word modified can be different,
depending on whether the word modified is the agent, subject, direct object, indirect object, location, etc. of the
verb.
1) Agent of a transitive verb: Note that there is no agentive particle used to indicate this function
of the modified word with respect to the relative clause. The relative pronouns-who, which, and that-s-can
be used in this context.
-r -r "'
c; c;. (J C --. .
I I I CB 503.6
the bodhisattva who desires the dharma
-r -r

n. tv. (R)
dharma desires who
DIR. OBI. VERB
RELATIVE CLAUSE
n.
bodhisattva
AGENT
-r -r "'
Here co - ll- - is the relative clause that is modifying SC - - CN -l t':\ -. Since
"' -r-r
SC . t::J - -l t':\ - is the agent of the verb, t':\ ll- -, and cI> - is the direct object, the translation would be
"the bodhisattva who desires the dharma. "
"' -r
- -0c3) -a --ol- c3)
buddha activity that liberates all sentient beings
"'

n. adj.
sentient being all
DI. OBI.
RELATIVE CLAUSE
-r

tv. (R)
liberate that
VERB
o.
buddha activity
AGENT

. - . f:\ . Oi l- . CB 503:2
-
the surra that was requested by the king [or] the surra that the king requested
2) Direct object of a transitive verb: Oftentimes the word modified is the direct object of the
verb and the agent is either understood (fromthe main sentence or the larger context) or is given, followed by
anagentive particle, in the relative clause itself. In this case, the structure lends itself to being translated in
either the active or passive voice.
]
I
1
1
Lesson 8-2. 87

D. (A) tv. (R)


king by requested that
AGENT VERB
RELATIVECLAUSE
D.
stitnl
PIRECT OBJECT

UJ 3) -<Je; Sell Oi
the offering that was given by the patron [or] the offering that the patron gave
"
e; - <J -.. IT IB:2
" ,
the victorious ones who exist [in] the three times

'\1 l- f:\ - -_. CB 510:3
the person who travels the stages of the path
D.
offering
DIRECT OBJECT
D.
victoriousone
SUBJECT
D.
person
SUBJECT


tv. (R)
given'that
VERB
..,..

n. D. (LOP) iv, (R)
path stage on travels who
LOATION VERB
RELATIVECLAUSE
"

,
n. num, IV. (R)
time 3 [in] go, come who
LOCATION VERB
RELATIVECLAUSE

UJ 3) - l .
n. (A) .
patron by
AGENT
RELATIVECLAUSE
Since the relational particle just shows that the verb and modified word are related, but does not indicate
how they are related, sometimes it is tricky to determine whether the modified word is either the agentor the
direct object. However, one thing that can help is to see whetherthere is an agentive particle used in the
relative clause itself, which could bethe subject. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, as the agentive
particle could just be indicating the instrument ofthe action and notits agent. Thus, the meaning of some
clauses can only be decided by the context.
3) Subject of an intransitive verb: The word modified is' the subject of the verb connected to it,
]
I
}
1
}
1
1
)
1
I
1
}
Lesson 8 88
4) Locationinspace or time: This kind of relative clause could occur with either a transitive or
intransitive verb. The relative pronoun would be "where" or "when."
or
CN - SOJ - - .. - KZ 13B:4
... a universe in which a buddha has not appearaed
n.
buddha
SUBJECT
or

neg. iv. (R)
not arrived in which
VERB
n.
field
LOCATION
or" or "" or
a - - -0} -- - KZ 28A:l

. Starting from the evening when [one] is first born, [one] draws closer and closer to death.
or
"
or
"

" " " "
or
lC.- t.J-


num.
vn. (R) n. (S) tv. (Cl') n. (LOP) adj. adj. (LOP) iv.
first born when evening from beginning: death to close-rclose-r &Q..
RELATIVE CLAUSE LOCATION ADVERB VERB
SOURCE
5) "whose"
or-r-r -r " or
r;: c: t.J -l c. - - -UJ 0) -50) -UJ OJ. c. -t.J... IT 3B:l
essential nature whose essence is empty and whose nature is primordially endowed with qualities
or or or -r
"
-r
c:: -
-q UJdl-5Oj-

n. adj. (CO) o.
o.
adv. tv. (R) n.
essence empty and nature quality primordial[ly] have that esse nature
SllBI
PRED, ADJ,
SlmJ
DIR. QBI,
RELATIVE CLAUSE
b.Following relative clauses: These relative clauses come after the word they modify and have no
particular connecting particle, just as an adjective can immediately follow the word that it modifies. The verb at
the end of the clause has a final / <: , the sign of a verbal noun or participle (see #1 above). Oftentimes,
there will be a demonstrative pronoun or plural panicle after this final participle that will alert one to the fact
that this clause is being used as a relative clause.. For example:
or " or

The king killed this man who commits evil deeds.
or ""

n. (A) n. n. tv. da.
king by man evil deed do this
AGENT(I) AGENT(2) DIR. OBJ. {2} VERB (2)
APP. RELATIVE CLAUSE
DIRECT OBJEcr 1

tv. (CP)/
killed.
VERB (I)
" "
In this sentence, the relative clause "(who) commits evil deeds" is in apposition to
Lesson 8 - 2. 89

"man." The fact that "(who) commits evil deeds" is following by the demonstrative adjective - "this"
helps one to identify that this verb is coming at the end of a noun phrase and so is modifying the main noun,

namely -. Other examples are:


-r
c. - -UJ <3)- ?<3)- a."l\ <3)- -
the buddha who has perfected the virtues
1
J
n.
buddha
D. ' tv.
quality perfected
DIRECf QBJECf VERB
APP. RELATIVE CLAUSE
-r -r
NTNG26B:6
[In her] left [hand], she holds a skullcup [whichislfilled with blood.
n.
left [in]
LOC. (1)

n. n.(A) tv.
skullcup blood with befilled
SUBJ. (2) INSTR, VERB(2)
APP.RELATIVE CLAUSE

tv.
hold
VERB(1)
DIRECTOBJECf .1
-e: or
0) - c. - CB 507:3 = 31 0) - -5c.- l":\-c; c
abhisheka that ripens and frees
" "
508:2 =
person who extracts the tenna
c. Abbreviated relative clauses: Sometimes the clause is quite condensed and lacks the relational
particle and/orotherparticles.
1) No relational particle:
-r
--- -t.Jf - --- NTNG 17B:4

The paJ)Qitasandsiddhas ofIndia and Tibet, who dwell on the level of a vidyadhara...
-r . . "
- c;- - f - - ."l\ - -1":\ E: <3)- l":\- - - - -

n. n. (R) n. n. n. (R) n. (LOP) iv, pI.
India Tibet of pandita siddha vidyadhara of level on dwell [those] who
SUBJECT LOCATION VERB
APPOSITIONAL RELATIVE CLAUSE
n.
abhisheka
SUBJECT
or
31 0)-t.J-C; c.-
iv. (CO) iv. (R)
ripen rand] befreed [that]
VERB VERB
RELATIVE CLAUSE
J
J
)
J
1
j
J
j
I
1
Lesson 8
,

n. - tv. (R)
treasure, terma extract [who]
DIRECT OBJECf VERB
RELATIVE CLAUSE
D.
person
AGENT
90
2) No relational particle and no modified noun: A peculiar kind of abbreviated relative clause
is one which does not give the word modified, but nevertheless forms a relative clause. In the place of a noun
to be modified, there is often a demonstrative pronoun or plural particle or both.
,
c; g- c. ... KZ 148A:2-3

Even those who we consider as friends now...


,

adv, - D. (LOP) tvn. da. pI. (CC)


now friend as consider these even
ADVERB ADV.:EQUIV. VERB
RELATIVE CLAUSE
DIRECT OBJECf
3. The Nominal Use of the Source Particles Sc,: r

The source particles, literally "source of arising," can indicate beginning from an initial
reference point.a source, or origin (which can have a causal sense). It can also indicate movement away from
or beyond an initial reference point. Finally, it can be used to indicate comparison between two or more things
and is usually translated in this case as "than."
The particle 3} . has practically the same usage as ., except that <J) can not be used for the
comparative or exclusive sense.
a. Source, origin, initial reference point: "from, beginning from"

.9 - C; . . . . C.1 JOL 39B:3



Everything arises from karmic causes.



s-.
D.
n. (R) n. (S) iv./
everything karma of cause from arises.
SUBJECT SOURCE VERB

OJ. SMSS quoted in JOLLM 47A:6
By means of virtue, one attains happiness. From nonvirtue.suffering will arise.
,

, ..,..

"


n. (A) (T)
n.
tv. -I In. (S)
n. -
iv]
virtue by as for happiness attain. nonvirtue from suffering will arise.
INSTRillvtENT DIR. OBJ. VERB SOURCE SUBJECT VERB
Lesson 8-3 91
-r -e: "-r " "
... <J. .. JOLLM 61B:3
'-:)
...from ordinary people up to the level of a buddha...
"
The source particle <31 or sometimes <31 c 5-, both meaning "starting with," are commonly paired
up with q.:I\ c;or just <J ...J\., meaning "up to." They are used for the beginning and end of a list, or for the two

end points of a spectrum.


b. Movement away. from, beyond, over
I
l
1
)
)
-r' -r " -r

n. (S)
ordinary person from
STARTINGPOINT
" " ..
n. (R) n. (R)
buddha of level of
ENDPOINT
<J:J\-l

n.(LOP)
up to
" -r
TRA123A:l
[The Buddha]is liberated from craving.
c. Comparative: This meaning is translated into English by "than." The panicle <31 <'4- cannot be used
with this meaning. However, in addition to . , the particle <J is also used for the comparative. However,
this panicle q has the comparative usage and not the other usages of and <3) (For the particle
-, seeLesson 11.2.) Some adjectives have a comparative form, butmostly one has to determine this
meaning from the context. For the comparative forms of adjectives, see Lesson (?).
tv]
not exist.
VERB
o. ipr. -
kindness any
SUBJECT
"
adj. (R)
better which [is]

iv!
is liberated.
VERB
<J 1
iv.-'
crossed.
VERB
RELATIVECLAUSE
" -r"

n. (R) D. - vuda, (S)
liberation of path showingthat than
DIRECT OBJ. VERB-NOUN
SOURCE: COMPARISON
n. (S)
riverover
SOURCE
"
n. (S)
cravingfrom
SOURCE
" -r" ""''' '"
... KZIOB:3
there is no kindness greater than showing the path of liberation.
q. -<J <J 1 TRA 123A:2
[The Buddha] has crossed over the river.
1
j
}
J
J
1
J
j ,
J
I
I
I
Lesson 8 92
d. Exclusive: This usage invariably requires a negative verb. The particle can be translated as "other
than," or "except for." Sometimes, the particle will be immediately followed by the negative verb O-l- <TJ <TJ {\j - ,
"not including," which reinforces the exclusive meaning of the particle -. The particle 0) - is not used for
this meaning. If the sentence is recastin a positive sense, the particle could be translated as "only."
" -e: -r "
34 - - 34- 31-3Ill MM4B:5-6
There is not the slightest phenomenon that is other than the mind.
"
-r -r
"


n. (S) neg. tv. n. adj. - n. adj. - iv. -/
mind other than not including dharma other atom just not exist.
SOURCE: EXCLUSION SUBJECT VERB
"
34 . . . . l - 1 NTNG20A:4

There is nothing to contemplate other than the guru.


.

tv. inf.
contemplate to
SUBJECT

n. (S)
guru other than
SOURCE: EXCLUS.
"

iv, -/
notexist
VERB
e. Inclusive: "from among," "amongst," "within" This usage can sometimes be identified by its
occurence after a list.
"
. SM IB:1-2
? ?
These days are the darkest of the dark age.
adv,
these days
SUBJECT


n. (S) (CC)
dark age from among
SOURCE
"

adj. n. (LOP)
greatest dark age
PREDICATE
.

iv.
is.
VERB
-e: -e: -e: "
... Ca\ C <n <n-UJ - .
-I 1 -I 1 1 -I KZ 14A.6-14B.l

Among the three lower realms, the best is the animal [realm].
-r -r -r


UJ 0).

n. num. (S)
n. -
n. iv.
lower realm 3 from among best animal is.
SOURCE SUBJECT PREDICATE VERB
The source particle 0) - is often combined with nouns to form standard phrases. See also e. below.

-I -I from among, within

-I within, within the state of
Lesson 8-3
<'\. <'\.""
- -- UJ -l - -(;j '?) c3i -ij(;j. - as l [,J - c.c.. c3i KGT57B:l
within strict retreat of the recitation and accomplishment ofthe yidamdeity
93
<'\. <'\. "" <'\.

n. n. (R) n. n. (R)
vidamdeity of recitation accomplishment of
"" <'\. ""
- l- -e:J c; -c:J -O)e. -0) -1.J\1KGT 67A:3
Undefiled bliss arose within.
....- <'\.

n. adj.(R) n. (S)
retreat strict of state from
"" <'\. ""

adj.(R) n. -
undefiled of bliss
SUBJECT
0) e.
n. (S)
inside from
LOCATION
1.J\1
iv, -/
arise.
VERB
f. -Instrument/Means: "by," "with," "by means of'

""

because of, by means of
in dependence upon
cD -0)
&<f] -0)
because of, by means of
because of, by means of
....- ....-"" . <'\. . ....-<'\. <'\.. .....-
---E..- q - -t) - - - - - - if)3}-<3} -e:J -- -KZ133A:6-B:l
..
a student called to the Noble Lord [Ansha], theonlydeva, by his name...
....- ....- "" <'\.
- q -<f] -s
n. n. n. num. (LOP)
noble lord deva 1 to
DIRECT OBJEcr
....- <'\. <'\.

n. ia. (A)
student a by
AGENT

n. (S)
nam.eby
MEANS
tv.
called.
VERB
<'\. <'\.
-t<lQ'l- --- ...
. -.c,. I-I KGT74B.2
-
Marpa took Mila[repa] by [his] hand.
<'\.
MINT77:3
.-...-..
the guru said:
g. Succession: "after," II since"
-<3} KGT 83B:l
after a few days
J
J
)
1
]
I

name (A)
Marpaby
AGENT
<'\.

n.(R)
guruof
<'\. <'\.

- name(R)
Mila.of
MEANS

n. (S)
mouth from

n. (S)
handby
tv.
took.
VERB
Lesson 8 _

n. adj. (5)
day some after
h. Adverb: "-ly" Some of these are very close in meaning to the "source" usage.
-r '"

primordiallystainless
94

n. (5)
beginning from
ADVERB
'"

adj.
stain-less
ADJECI1VE

C "l -_. KZ lOlB:5


to confess from the depths of one's heart

C . . -
n. (5)
heart depth from
ADVERB
4. The General Pronouns
tv.
confess
VERB

Traditionally, there are four Q,. , "general or universal words." These are:
C . what, which, who, where, why

. what, which

. what, which
who
A fifth, which needs to be added to this group, is:
when

-s . is used for things; - is used for persons; C - is used for both things and persons (and has some

idiomatic usage); and - is very similar to -, but is more restricted in its usage. 0) of course is simply a
time word. These general pronouns can be used in the following ways:
a. Interrogative pronouns: There are several ways to form a question in Tibetan. Two of the most
common ways will be given in this lesson. (For the second way, see section 5. below.) The first way is to
use an interrogative pronoun in the sentence. This type of question is asking for general information. There
are four basic interrogative pronouns, namely:
Lesson 8 - If'
C- what, where, which, who?
95
l
1
J
t"\
--0 - what, which?
who?
when?
t"\
- is primarily used as a relative pronoun, but this restriction is not always followed and you will find it used
as aninterrogative pronoun as well.
These interrogative pronouns can becombined with various words to form different question words and to
give these words different roles in the sentence.


where? (lit. to what [place]?),
from where? (lit. from what [place]?)
why? (lit. because of what?)
how? (lit. like what [way]?) [less common than the next one]
how? (lit. like what [way]?)
to whom?
who? (as agent of a transitive verb)
Sometimes the indefinite panicle can be added to the interrogative pronoun without substantially changing
the meaning. Forexample:
t"\ t"\

t"\ t"\

how?
what? how?
how much, many?
However, sometimes this addition of the indefinite particle can make the pronoun indefinite (see below, c.l )).
The placement of these interrogative pronouns in a sentence is quite flexible (as long as they precede the
verb,of course). Sentences with interrogative pronouns do not need a completion particle.
C; - C - 3i c C ..- KGLP IDA: I

From where are you coming? [And] where are [you]going?


-.r- -.r-
..,..
.


"
ppr. ipr. (S)
iv,
ipr. (LOP) iv.
you what from come? what to &Q1
SUBJ. SOURCE VERB DESTINAnON VERB
Note the lack of a verbal particle between these two sentences.
-.r- ..,..
--0 3-J. c 1 SN in MM IlA:3
"
oBhagavat, what are the causes of shamatha and vipashyana?
Lesson 8 ,(-
..r- -e:


Cf} c:

n.
n, (CO) n. (R)
n. int. pre iv./
Bhagavat shamatha and vipashyana of cause what? is.
VOCATIVE PREDICATE NOUN SUBJ. VERB
96
b. Relative pronouns: The same pronouns can beused as relative pronouns, i.e., without the sense of
being a question word. The plural is formed by adding l "l. As we will see in Lesson 13.2, the relative
pronouns are commonly used in translationsof Sanskrit texts, and the structureof their use is based on a
Sanskritmodel.
c. Indefinite Pronouns: There are several ways in which these general pronouns combine with other
words to form the indefinite pronouns.

1) Combined with Cf} - or - -: If there is a grammatical particle added, it comes after the
indefinite pronoun, rather than being inserted in the middle, of the pronoun, as with UJ (see 2) below)
someone, something; that whichis, one who is, whoever, whatever
whoever, whatever

- Cf} . something, that whichis

- Cf} - someone, one who



by someone
2) Combined with UJ c; -: The general pronoun is followed by the concessive particle UJ c, - , but note
that a grammaticalparticlecan be insertedin betweenthe pronoun' and the UJ c. .
anyone, anything, whatever
anything,whatever
anyone, whoever
wherever, in (at, on, etc.) whatever; to whomever
" ..,... ..r-
1 -.:I\q - -5 -f:\l- Oi - -Cf} - - 1 ASPPinMM 60A:2

The meditationonprajfiaparamita is not meditatingon anything.


n. (R) n.
prajna of paramita
DIRECTOBJECf (2)
SUBJECT 1
tv.-n. da, (f)
meditating this
VERB (2}
..r- ..r-

n. ipr. neg. tv.-n.
<!hanna any not meditating
DIR. OBI. {3} VERB. (3)
PREDICATE NOUN

iv. (CP)I
!..
VERB (1)
" ""
--l - c,: Cf)- UJc.- --- KZ 13A:5

Lesson 8"Cf- 97
without the concept of any virtue or vice
"

n. D. .ipr. (R)
virtue evil deed any of
SUBJECT
"

D.
concept
iv.
not exist
VERB
4) Combined with verbs: Often there is no special particle added to show that thepronoun is
indefinite. The pronoun simply precedes the verb.
\
J

CUJ <3}

whatever is, anything or anyone that is
whatever exists, is; anything or anyone that exists, is
what is said, whatever is said
--- -f\J .<J. <3} - c KZ 18A:5
to whomever [he] teaches
-r
KZ4A:l
however much dharma you listen to

tv. (CC)
teach -ever
VERB

tv. (CC)
listen to .. -ever
VERB
-r
"
-r
l-"J<3}-


ffi

adv:
.
n. ipr. (LOP) tv. (CC) D. tv. (LOP) iv,
this time karmawhatever meet dharma receiveto

ADVERB DIR. OBJ. VERB DIR. OBI. VERB VERB
ipr. (LOP)
whom- to
INDIRECT OBJ.
n, ipr.
dharmahow- much
DIRECT OBJECT
-r"-r
l- f\J <3}. f\J -f\J. - C _.. KGT55A:2

Now whatever the consequences may be, I am going to receive the dharma.
-r -r .. . -r
MSMR9B:2
In the same way, however a thought has manifested, recognize [it].
I
5) Combined with verbs and with UJc: In this case the pronoun will precede the verb and the
concessive panicle UJ c will follow the verb.
I
J
1
J
J
]
j
j
]
/dp. prep.
that like
ADVERB
Lesson 8 "
n. ipr.
thought .how-
SUBJEcr ADV.
DIRECT OBJEcr
iv, (CC)
manifest-ever
VERB
tv.
recognize.
VERB
98
"
5. The Eleven And/Or Particles Sc;- , -
"
This particle is called SC; -, "separating/joining." We have translated this term as "and/or," since
"and" joins two words together whereas "or" separates or distinguishes two words. These are also the words
one would use to translate this particle into English (except for its use as a question particle).
a. Spelling: As with the completion particle, the spelling of the and/or particle reduplicates the final letter
of the preceding syllable (the exception of course being syllables that used to end in the l- -).

after a syllable that ends in


after a syllable that ends in
c-

after a syllable that ends in
,-
.
after a syllable that ends in
eJ}-

after a syllable that ends in
(J-

after a syllable that ends in
31-
f:\
after a syllable that ends in - or a vowel

after a syllable that ends in
.:t\-
f\J
after a syllable that ends in
f\J-

after a syllable that ends in


after a syllable that used to end in the 1- .
1-
The particle "" - can be written either with or without a preceding dot or d5 "1- , though it is more common
to see it written without a preceding d5"1-. In either case, the particle is pronounced as a separate syllable. Fa
example:
- - or 31- Both are pronounced "pa-am."
Like the coordinating particle 1C- , the particle 31- can be immediately followed by the 1, the 11-.
b. And/or: The more common meaning is "or."
existing or not existing
three or four
Sometimes, the particle is used to mean"or" and indicate a question, when. the question is giving a choice
between two options. In this case, the particleis only used once, between the two choices.
c. Question particle: The second way to form a question is to use the question particle afterthe
verb at the end of the sentence.
99
"-

neg. iv. (AO)
not is?
VERB
tv.
examine.
VERB(I)
'"

adj. (LOP)
well-Iv
ADVERB (1)
n.
freedomfromcomplexity
'" '"

n.(CO)
lack of true.[existence] and
PREDICATENOUNS
-r "- "-
'"
"-


UJc31-
ppr.-
n.
iv. (AO)
n. -
iv,
you human demon i?
SUBJ. PRED. N. VERB PRED. N. VERB
n. da.
absolutethat
SUBJECT
Lesson 8 ....S-, c;
DIRECTOBJECT 1
"- "-

dp. pI. iv. (AO) neg. iv,
these be complete or not complete
SUBJECT(2) VERB(2)
"- "- '"
--- c;- c; "l roc - mc <f] <f] KZ22A:2
Examine thoroughly whether these are complete or not...
-r "- "- '" "-
-- l- UJ c31- 01 - -UJ Oi- -- KZ29B:6
Are you human or are you a demon?
-r '" '" '" -r
---c;.<3l - -l- l Oi C n.J. UJ -- SSN4B:2-3
Isn't the absolute the lack of true existence and freedomfromcomplexity?
6. The Gap in Tibetan: Omissions and Context
Now that you have learned most of the nominal uses of particles within a sentence, it is time to warn you '
of the infamous gaps in Tibetan. Frankly, it is somewhat rareto have a nice straightforward sentence with all
the workingparts of the sentence, e.g. agent-indirectobject-direct object-transitive verb. Rather, it is more
commonly the case that a main element of the sentence will be omitted and understood from the context of the
previous sentences-. For example, it is very common for the agent not to be repeated after the first sentence, if
the following sentences have this same agent. In English, we use pronouns to refer back to the previous agent.
Sometimes, Tibetan will use the less helpful "that," but usually not even this. Other times, Tibetan will not
indicate any agent when the sentences are referring to any and all persons. For example, they would not have
any corresponding word for "one" in the sentence, "One should always contemplate impermanence."
It is sometimes infuriatingto a new student when she continually asks, "Howdo you know that so-and-so
is the agent?" and the answer is "fromthe context" Nevertheless, like it or not, one has to recognize the basic
importanceof context in any language and especiallyin Tibetan. Moreover, in parsing sentences one has to
recognize the gaps in the sentence. This is extremely important: Just as the lack of a panicle is just as
important as the presence of one, so the omission of certain factors ofa sentence are Just as
important to identify as the identification of what is actually present.
I
I
1
I
)
]
)

J
}
}
I
]

j
)
I
I
I
Lesson 8 100
7. Exercises
a. Tibetan to English: Using the glossary, translate the following into English. Note that not all of
these are complete sentences. Some are just nouns with modifying relative clauses and the like.
-r "
1. KGT76A:5
2. ci;- - -r\J - -<J --- KGT 76A:l
" -r "- -e: " "-
4. 1.J\- -1 --- KZ43B:3

-r "
5. .J\C- "l "l l- f\J - --- KZ 84A:6
-r "- -r " -r "-" "--r
7. r r; c-l- e : -,<J -0) OJ 1 l-.J\C-f\J T' C-l- --.0 - UJ II KGT 65A:3

" "- -r -r
8. --- -<D - -UJ 0) -?3i - - - -1 KGT 66A:3-4
"- -r-r"-
9. KGT66A:4

"-r -r
10. MINT 51:13
-r "--r

-en - a c-q - UJ
G 1 -I quote in KZ 25A:1-2 (verse)
" -r -r
1 -K- -t.J -UJ OJ 1

" " -r "-


c- t.J-.J\- eli 1
-r -e: -r" "-
1 3i - l-l- c- - - 1-UJ OJ 1KGT41B:3, 4, 5, 42A:l (verse)

,,"- "-
15. 1 -OJ- -t.J .J\ - UJ c - - 1
-r -r "- "-
16. l - S.J\ -<J -q 1-1c - Ol- t.J - - -_. KZ 20A:4
-r "- " "
17. NTNG l1A:l

"- -r
18. --- SBDII 460:4-5
-r
19. - MINT 81:7
)
I
j
1
]
]
)
j
j
J
1
I
]
j
J
)
J
)
J
Lesson 8 101
-r
20. - -t.J- -c; c;: - 1--- KGT73A:5
.
21. TI2B:1-2
-r -r "-r
22. --- - c; - -fJ - - l-1- -1 - -ro OJ - --- SM4A:5

-r -r "
23. --- 34 - T" <3i <3i ssnrn 323:11
" " "
24. ---34 -l "l - a- SBOill 323:22

"
25. -c; - "i 01-- MINT 84:9-10
-
-r -r "'-
26. --- r - - - c..ClJ OJ -1c3i -l'TJ f":\ -f":\ c; -"J - -- MINT 79:1-2
"
-r
27. c; - l- 0).0) - -q "l.SC: MINT 83:15
"
28.

lq ll- - rol'- UJ,Oj - -1 1 MINT 82:13-4 (verse)

-r
29.. _.
"
-r -r -r "
30. - - -Q, C;-1- "J. f":\ OJ - i\J - f":\ 1 1 MINT 99:11-2

" -r -r
31. 1c -1 C
-r"
32. - a

"
1UJ - c; -t.J - c.- E:: Oi 1
-r
-

-r -r
1?0) -l -
-
-r "
1
C - <fit; .. c. - t.J -c, . - i\J1
I -11 KGT 80A:5-6 (verse)

b. English to Tibetan: Using the glossary, translate the following sentences into Tibetan.
1. the noble one who dwells on the bhnmis
2. You have completely drunk the beer that I gave [you].
3. to tum the mind away from the happiness of samsaric existence
4.... the guru who is inseparable from Vajradhara
5. These two were originally taught in thegreatsutras and shiistras...
6. Everyone was liberated from the bondage ofthe kleshas.
7. Son, what confidence has arisenin the oral instructions?
8. The sick person who is afflicted with a very severe sickness [should] attend a learned doctor.
9. Did [you] depart to the mountain solitudes, or did you stay in the presence of the guru?
10. Whatever is done with loving kindness and compassion, [one should] dedicate everything for the benefit
of others.
Lesson 8
c. Vocabulary for memorization.
-r -r

treatise,commentary

C"-.
'"
ignorance.avidya

'"
'"
aggression

-r

passion
-q-

C"-.

delusion
eli -

confusion


-r '"

torecognize

-r -r

mentalcomplexity.prapafica

C"-.

to wander

'"

loving kindness, maim


joy
q.J\-ffic;
-r

equanimity
-
c:;qc:
power, empowerment, abhisheka
d. Verse for memorization
'" C"-. -r C"-. C"-.
ll- c.- - -UJ 0} - 1
-r -r C"-.-r
1cD - . UJ c; - UJ eli -0} 1 MMK24:19
There is not any phenomenon
That does not dependently arise.
Therefore, there is not any phenomenon
That is not emptiness.
102
to arrive, depart
to produce, arouse, generate
to arise; birth
to arise, occur
to be in harmony, accord with
to request, ask; to say (nh)
to offer
to place; posit, present
to be afraid, to fear
to attend, rely on
obstacle
power
C"-.
'" '"
C"-. -r -r C"-.

-
/rlpr,
n.
neg. iv. (R)I In. adj. ivn.
neg. iv./
which dep. arising not is that dharma some existing not is.
PRED, NOM. VERB SUBJEcr PRED. ADJ. VERB
RELATIVE CLAUSE
'"
C"-. -r C"-. C"-. -r -r C"-. -r
-
/dp, (RS)
adj.
neg. iv. (R)I In. adj. ivn.
neg. iv./
that by

not is that dharma some existing not is.
PRED. ADJ. VERB SUBJEcr PRED. ADJ. VERB
RELATIVE CLAUSE
1
I
]
]
1
J
I
1
]
I
1
1
J
J
]
]
1
Lesson 9
1. Verbal Particles and Compound-Complex Sentences
So far we have covered the use of panicles with nouns. Now we will look at the use of these same
particles with verbs as well as several other particles that are primarily used with verbs. Essentially, the same
logic applies, but with different results. These particles come after the verb they modify and tell us the:
relationship of that preceding verb with the next verb. At this point we have a compound sentence, meaning a
sentence with more that one main verb or clause. Typically, Tibetans will haveseveral independent and.
dependent clauses with connecting verbal particles between the clauses before using the completion particle
r:;: '. From the point of view of compound-complex sentences, the completion particle becomes more of a final
paragraph panicle. Although the other verbal particles are not supposed to indicate a full stop, nevertheless,
when translating Tibetan to English, the translator must usually break the clauses into independent sentences.
Otherwise, the English sounds like a long run-on sentence. For example, a literal translation of a Tibetan
compound sentence with its connecting verbal particles (which are underlined) is as follows:
C1"
l
1~
~ v ~
I." ... ~ . , ~ ' He borrowed an ox from a landlord, and having used the ox all day, led the ox and went to the house,
~ . s ~ and in the house the landlord was eating his dinner, and Yukpachen sent the ox into the house, and the
tt(.&,t' ~ ox went though the other door and got lost.
~ f I . . tc.. J'"
t .....:; /l,,,,,Me. As you can see, from the standpoint of English, this is not really one sentence but a series of sentences or a
".,*if paragraph. Yet, in the Tibetan, the only completion particle comes at the end, after "lost."
In this lesson and for the next few lessons, we will cover the different verbal particles and their meanings.
'"
2. The Verbal Use of the Agentive Particle ~ 1- -
This panicle indicates that the action of the verb preceding the particle causes, gives rise to, or supports the
action of the following verb. The relationship between the two verbs can be understood as "because of or Qy
the action of the firstverb, the action of the next verb happens, It or "the action of the first verb happens;
therefore, the action of the next verb takes place. It Sometimes, the relationship is not strictly causative, but the
action of the first verb just sets up the situation in which the action of the next verb takes place.
This verbal particle has the exact same spellings as the agentive particle used with nouns (see Lesson 7.5).
It is added immediately after the verb, which is either with or without the final ~ -/ ~ -. If the verb ends with a
final ~ -/q -, then of course one adds the ending -~ -. Less commonly the root of the verb is used and then is
followed by the appropriately spelled particle.
a) CauseIReason:
'" -r C"". '" C"". '" '" C"". C"". '" C"". -r
11- '5 .:I\ - f:\ r .:I\ - ~ f:\ - ?~ -1 iN~ ~ -1-1<i] -1~ - ~ 1 ~ 1- f:\ - ~ 1-~ -n.J ~ - ~ - ~ ~ - ~ - UJ <3)- <3)1 JOLlM 40A: 1
Because one thus knows these faults of samsara, one turns the mind away from the happiness of
[samsaric] existence.
, .
commonly used. It can also be followed by the continuative particle l- , the LOP particle 3i -, or the LOP

3. The Reason/Purpose Particle .


104
, ' ..r ..r

n. neg. tv. '(A)
practice not stop because
DIR. OBJ. VERB


PN,
Mila
AGENT
,

tv. (A)/
know because
VERB
..r

iv.(A)
camebecause
VERB
"..r ..r
- "l - -UJ 0) -0) 1
n. tv. avo (CP)/
mind turn away.
DIR. OBJ. VERB
tv.
did
VERB
n.
short temper
DIR.OBJ.
Lesson 9 -2 J 3
..r ,

n. (R) n. da, pl.>
samsara of fault those
DIRECT OBJECf
,

n. (S)
happinessfrom
n. n. n. nurn.
aunt leader servant two
SUBJECT
n.
aunt
AGENT
SOURCE


n. (R)
existence of
,

/dp. prep.
. that like
ADVERB
,'..r ..r ..r..r ,
- c3) -l UJ - -1 -q -3i -cc- KGT
The aunt came with a servant; [but] Mila did not stop practicing, and so the aunt became angry...

than the possible second meaning "in order to." In the same way, the LOP particle J- after will show that
the meaning is "in order to" (see b. below) and not "because."
,
particle l-.The continuative particle l- indicates usually that a reason will now be given for the reason just
'-:)

given. The eli, - particle does not add any meaning, but it does limit the meaning of -,to "because,It rather
Following a verb, this particle is usually (but not necessarily) connected to the preceding verb (with its
final particle -jq -) by the relational particle. It has two main meanings: "because" and "in order to."
Generally, "in order to" phrases occur in a sentence somewhere before the main verb, whereas "because"
clauses come after the main statement that it is supporting. There are of course exceptions to this rule, but it is
a good rule of thumb to help sort out which of these two meanings is intended.
'"
a. Reason or Instrumental: In answering questions or giving explanations" the particle - is very
c. With, the LOP particle 3i -: The LOP particle 3i - can often be seen following the agentive and
reason particle. It does not seems to add any meaning and can simply be ignored.
b.Support and/or Change of Speaker or Referent: At times, the agentive particle does not have a
strictly causative meaning, but rather just indicates that the preceding verb supports or setsup the situation for
the following verb. In specific instances, it seems. to be used just to indicate achange of referent or speaker.
I
I
1
]
J
I
J
1
I
j
j
I
J
J
J
J
J
J
j
Lesson 9
'" . -r -r '"
-co -?c;- -? - t.J '-\ - - <3) -t.J -UJ <3) -<3) 1
"
Because it realizes the mind asdharmata, it is wisdom.
<, -r -e:
'"
-r
-c;-
UJ<3)-<3) 1
"
n.- n. (LOP) tv. (R) (RS)
n. -
iv, (CP)I
mind dharmataas realizebecause wisdom is.
DIR.OBJ. ADV.:E UIVAL. VERB PRED. NOUN VERB
105
-r
Sometimes a statement will end with - with a final sentence particle - following. This may seem like a

dead end, since the panicle - has no following verb with which to connect its preceding verb. In this case,

one can make a complete sentence by assuming a UJ<3)- after the with the meaning "[it is so] because....."
In any c8:se, this statement is most likely giving a reason for what precedes it.
-r -r t'\ '" t'\ -r '"
c; <3) - -UJ -t.J -'-\ E: <3) - -c; c -1 c;-t.J.:I\ -'-\ E: <3) -co -a <3) - <3) - UJ <3) -51
-r
i) - - - JJ.:I\- - JOL 140A:6

Both clinging to the object as existent and clinging [to it] as nonexistent are faulty,
because [one] fall/into the extremes of eternalism and nihilism.

-r

n. (LOP)
object to
SUBJECT
-r t'\ '" t'\
UJ c;-t.J - '-\ E: <3) -t.J -c;c; -1 -t.J .:I\ - '-\ E: <3) - .. .. -"
iv. (LOP) tv. (CO)I iv. (LOP) tv. num. -
existing as grasping and not existing grasping both
-r '"
UJ<3)-51
adj. - iv. (CT)I
fault-y
PRED. ADJ. VERB


n. n. num. (R)
etemalism nihilism two of
LOCATION
REASON
JJ.:I\-
n. (LOP)
extreme in
-r

"\..)
iv. (R) (RS) (CP)I
fall of because.
VERB
b. Purpose: This particle is also used in the same format as above, but with the meaning of "for the sake
of, for the purpose of, in order to." It can be followed by LOP panicle J- as well, but not by 0) - or the
'"
< continuative particle l-. Also, theverb that precedes this particle will often be in the future tense, since
generally purposes or goals are future oriented.
t'\ -r -r -r
1 l -2-'-\ E: <3) -t.J -<J "l - '-\ - 1 1 c - -r 34 - Cf) - <3) - -UJ <3) 1 scv 25ab
The skaii'dhas, dhatus, and so forth are taught
For the sake of overcoming the clinging [to the self] as an ego.
t'\

"
In. (LOP) tv.-n, -
ego as clinging
D.O. (2) VB. {2)
DIRECT OBJECf 1
-r

tv. (R) (RS)I
overcome in order to
In. n. etc. -
skandha ayatana etc.
DIRECT OBJ.: LIST
tv. av, -I
taught.
VERB
c. With Nouns and Pronouns: It also can be used after nouns, though this use is less common.
Lesson 9..... .3" 106

iv.
tv.
experience
VERB
-r

neg. iv./
not have time.
VERB
(lit., "because of what?")
n.
difficulty
DIR. OBI.

tv. (CP)I
contemplate.
34 -<TJ
neg. tv. <bOP)
why?
therefore (lit., "because of that")
ffi -sr; -l-

n. tv. (LOP)
dharma do to
DIR. OBI. VERB
-e:

n. (RS)
dharmafor
PURPOSE

?
tv. (LOP)
think-ing
-r '" -r
---cD - r; -r; -34 -r 1 KZ 12B:3

has no time to practice the dharma


-r
- -- <: -Q, --- RNT4B:2
undergohardships for the sake of the dharma
.
1 . -I . I KZ 18A.6

[he] sat without teaching the dharma...


b)Simultaneity: Inthis case, the first verb is best understood as a participle.Le, tI--ing," usually
indicating that the actions of the verbs are simultaneous or overlapping.

Contemplate, thinking, "...."
This particle is used to connect two main verbs, to connect a main verb with its following auxiliary verb,
and itcan be used at the end of a verbal clause. Because the verbal usage of the LOP particle Ol- has a
completely different usage than the otherLOP particles, we are treating it separately in section 5 below. ",...,..,)
a. Connecting two independent verbs next to each other:
1) With the same agent or subject:
a) Infinitive: In this case, the first verb with tile locative/objective/purposeparticle following it
is to be understood as an infinitive (i.e., "to __tt) or sometimes in a more purposiveway (i.e., "in orderto,
for"). The subject or agent of both verbs is the same (which is not the case in #2) below).
4. The Verbal Use of the Seven. Locative/Objectlve/Purpose Particles l\J. Cj OJ. q l OJ.
'\,)
j
j
I
J
]
1
I
I
j
]
J
]
J
1
J
J
j
I
I dharma
. DIR.OBJ.
not teaching
VERB
Lesson 9
remain.
VERB
107
2) With different agents or subjects: Here the verb that takes the LOP particle is the
independent verb of another clause. One must take into account that the agent and direct object (if it's a
transitive verb) are different for this verb, even if they're not made explicit. If they are made explicit, they will
follow the same format as ina regular sentence.
a) Purpose or Infinitive: In many cases, the meaning of the particle can still be translated by
"to; in order to, for, so that."
-.r -.r
-15 lq -.- - NTNG 19A:5-6

[We] supplicate [the buddhas] not to pass into nirvanauntil samsarais emptied.

n. neg. iv, prep. (LOP) n. (S)


samsara emptied. until anguish from
VERB
PURPOSE
-.r " -.r" -.r

[I] request you to teach this treatIse (shastra),


" -.r",

neg. iv. (LOP) n. actv,
not pass beyond so that supplicate
VERB
VERB
-.r
"
-.r
"
-.r


CJ15<3)-l-

ppr. (A) n. da.> tv. (LOP) tv./


-you by
treastise this teach to supplicate.
AGENT DIRECT QBJ. VERB VERB
PURPOSE/INFINlTE
b) Direct object: In some cases, the verbal clause is treated as if it were all the direct object of
the following verb. This clausal direct object can also occur without a LOP particle (see 10.5).
-.r " -.r", "'
r.:I\-q - t:\ -l -'\J - c: - l- -1 .. - KZ 19B:l
... [one] knows that all of samsarais without substance...
-.r
"
-.r
"' "'
t:\ r.:I\ . q - t:\ -l . -;',


?
n. adj. (LOP)
o.
iv. (LOP) tv.
samsara all for essence not exist that know
SUBJECT: POSSESSION PRED. NOM. VERB
DIRECT OBJEcr 1 VERB 1
-.r
15 -?l-q c.-q.:I\ - 1 JOL 78A:6
[The Buddha] taught that by meditating on emptiness, evil deeds are purified.
-.r
"
-.r
"
-.r

sc.q.:I\-

n.
tv. (LOP)
n.
tv. (LOP) tv. (CP)/
emptiness meditated because evil deed be purified that taught.
DIRECT OBJ. VERB DIR.OBJ. VERB
DIRECTOBJEcr 1 VERB 1
Lesson 9'" 4 108
b. At the end of a negative verbal clause before a positive statement: Here .the LOP particle
can be translated in several ways. It can give the preceding verb the sense of a participle, i.e., tI_.__ing." Or
one could understand the sense as "as such and such occurs, then the action ofthe following verb takes place."
Finally, sometimes it is helpful to think that the LOP particle turns the preceding clause into an adverbial clause
modifying the following verb.
'. - t
c. - - . '"l OJ -[,Jr:l, r:l, 14'"l -C.J - UJ OJ -C.J .:x:. - C.J r:l, - .:x:. -t;J OJ .. .
Asthe Buddha was not just a noble one who dwells on the bhumis.he manifested asa
nirmanakaya, or The Buddha not being just a noble one...., he manifested....
n.adj. -
noble one'iust
SUBJECT(2)


n. - n. (LOP) iv, (R)
buddha bhiimi on dwell who
SUBJ. (1) LOC. VERB(2}
RELATIVECLAUSE

r:l, 14 '"l .C.J - - -UJ OJ- C.J .:x:. - -C.J r:l, - .
neg. IVa (LOP) n.{R) n.(LOP) tv.
not is as emanation of body as manifest
VERB(1) ADVERB: EQUlV.. VERB (1:
,
. t..J.:I\W .A. .
I ') -I 1 ,-I .' - 1 '. I' SHm MM8A:1
As there is no meditation, there is also no prajfia.
,

, ,
WC OJ.

n. -
iv. (LOP) (CC){T) n.- iVa -/
meditation not exist as also as for prajna not exist.
SUBJECT VERB ADVERB SUBJECT VERB
.
c. Coordinating: nand" f\J. is often used between two imperative verbs (see Lesson 14. ).
-r-r-r
1C C f\J.:I\C nJ1 KGT39B:l
Itsessence is empty and its nature is luminous.
-r -r

In. -
essence
SUBJECT

adj. (LOP)
ffiill!Y and
PRED. ADJ.
n. -
nature
SUBJECT

adj. -I
luminous.
PRED. ADJ.

Theverb
w
3j is understood to be present after each predicate adjective.
1 f\J. KGT 39A:6

It has never been confused and it has never been liberated.


-r

liv. neg. avo (LOP)


be confusednot experiencedand
VERB
d. Contradictory: "however"

iv, neg. avo -/
be liberatednot experienced.
VERB
C" .C" -e: C" -r C" C" C"
cD . E:: 3j . .C;3j . . E:: 3j . 1 C;3j . E:: 3j .f\J . cD . . E::3j . KZ 9A:6
[He] understands the words, but does not understand the meaning.
[He] understands the meaning, but does not understand the words.
LeSSOD 9
<" <" ...,- <"
E:3i
l3i-
n.
tv. (LOP)
n.
neg. tv./
(Sap. t6't)
word understand but meaning not understand.
DIR.OBJ. VERB DIR.OBJ. VERB
...,- <" <" "- C"
c; 3i-
n.
tv. (LOP)
n.
neg. tv./
meaning understand but word not understand.
DIR.OBJ. VERB DIR.OBJ. VERB
109
e. With Time Words: All of these words can be connected to the preceding verb bythe relational
particle and can be followed by the LOP particle. However, neither of these panicles are indispensable and
can be omitted. For a fuller treatment of time words, see 14.2.
when, at the time [of]
when, at the time [of], in the context [of]
...,-...,-
"l - c - c; -(:J - 3il NTNG IB:2

First, when the time comes for the arising of dawn...


until
...,-

n. (LOP)
first-Iv
ADVERB
n.
dawn
SUBJ. (2)
LOCATION

iv. (R) n. (LOP)


ariseof time at
VERB (2)

iv, (LOP)/
occurwhen
VERB (1)
q .J;. c;. is unusual in that it requires the modified verb to have a preceding negation particle, even though
'-.,:)
from the point of view of English there is no negation whatsoever and the negative must be ignored.

q ... KGT 81B:3-4
'-.,:) '-.,:)
Until attaining siddhi, I will not performworldly activities...
...,-
"'






D. ia.> neg. tv. prep. (LOP) ppr. (A) n. (R)
n.
neg. tv.
siddhi a not attain until me by world of aCUvlty not perform
DIR.OBJ. VERB AGENT DIRECT OBJECf VERB
5. The Verbal Use of the Locative Particle 3i -
Though there is a little overlap in the nominal use of 3i. with the other LOP particles, there is no overlap in
its verbal uses. As a verbal particle, 3i -has two basic uses. It can indicate a temporal relation, "when," or a
conditional relation, "if," between the preceding and following verb.
a. Temporal: If the verb has its "infinitive" form with the particle the meaning should be "when."
However, oftentimes the particle could be translated as "if," and make just as much sense.
Lesson 9-S- Il0
-r t'-., t'-. -r
If:\r-"1\-qf:\ -0) 1
'l
-r t'-.,"" ,
1a-q f:\ <3) -, -"1\q -, - al JOL43A:4-5 (verse)

When you.see the faults of samsara,


Amind of renunciation will truly arise.
-r
,
-r -r
,

" If:\r-"1\-qf:\-
-"1\q-,.

"
In. (R) n.> tv. (LOP)I In. (R) n. - '(1) adj. (LOP) iv./
samsara of fault see when renunc. of mind as for total-Iy arise.
DIRECT OBJECT VERB SUBJECT ADVERB VERB
b. Conditional: In this case, a hypothetical situation is being described. Sometimes the hypothesis is
entirelyreasonable, and therefore, couldjust as easily have a temporal meaning, since at somepoint in time we
couldsee such a situation. For example:
-r -r
- -UJe;- 0) -f:\SC-
"
If there is fire, smoke will arise.
-r -r
KGT (verse)
If (or when) youlook at my actions, they are Iikeamadman's.
, -r -r
-, -c; -UJ <3)- 0)- -QJ - - -S -f:\ -"1\ --"1\1

-r
0) -0) - -f:\ <: -"1\1 JOL 141B:6

If nirvana were a thing, thenit would be conditioned.
Ifit were conditioned, thenfinally it would be destroyed.
n. - iv, -I
madman be like.
PRED. 'N. VERB
l-<:;j-
"
n.> iv. (CP)I
SIDoke will' arise.
SUBJECT
-r
UJ'i-O)-
iv. (LOP)
exist if
VERB
-r
- 'i . - . q 15 -<3) -
ppr. (R) n. (LOP) tv.. (LOP)
m.e of action at look if
DIRECT OBJECT VERB
n, ia. _.
frrea
SUBJ.
Again" the first sentence could alsoread, "Whenthere is fire, smoke will arise." We could even translateit
using the subjunctive mood, "If there werefire, smoke would arise." '
,
If the meaning is specificallyconditional,then the addition of 5-,or less commonly l- , to the
beginningof the conditional clause will make it clearthat the meaning is "if.tt Moreover, there are two kinds
of conditional sentences: reasonable and contraryto fact. In hypotheses thatare contrary to fact, it is usually
helpful to translate themwiththe subjunctivemood to showthere speculative nature. Notice that the verb
before the 0) "particleln the "condition"clause (except of course for one rooted verbs and the linking or
existential verbs) is in the past tense andthat the verb in the secondclause, the "consequence"clause, will
generallybe in the future tense.
'i
1
1
I
I
j
I
J
J
I
j
j
Lesson 9 ,.; .,
'"
..:r- or

UJ3)-3)
'-.;)
conj.
n.
iv, (LOP)
n.
adj. (LOP)
if
thing
nirvana conditioned
CONJ. PRED. N. VERB SUBJECT DESTINATION
III
or

'-.;)
iv. (CP)I
will be.
VERB

'-:
n.
conditioned [thing]
PRED. NOUN

UJ3)- 3)-
iv. (LOP)

VERB

n. (LOP)
final-Iy
ADVERB


iv. (LOP)
be destroyed
VERB

'-.;)
avo (CP)/
will be.
'"
c. Abbreviation for the Hypothetical Quote Particle -3) .: For this use, see Lesson 12.3.
d. As a second particle: As has. been noted, the LOP panicle 0) - can be used as a second panicle after
the agentive and reason particle. It does not add any meaning. ('i r. 91 )

6. Auxiliary Verbs cD "l -


a. Change of tense: As mentioned before in Lesson 7.3, there are several verbs that are one-rooted,
which means that they do not have different spellings for a past or future tense. Therefore, when it is
necessary to specify the past or future tense (or emphasize that it is the present tense), an auxiliary verb can be
placed after this main verb. However, it is important to note that the use of auxiliary verbs is by no means
limited to one-rooted verbs. Any verb can take one.
The main verb can be connected to the following auxiliary verb by one of the LOP particles or by the lack
of a particle. If it uses the LOP particle, the main verb will be in the infinitive form (the root plus /t::J.), and
so the connecting LOP particle will be - -, which is added directly to the or t::J -. Two of the most common
'"
auxiliary verbs are -t::J - - "to become, be" and l- - "to do, make."
'-.;)
1) The auxiliary verb . t::J .: This verb has two forms:
'-.;)
present & future

'-.;)
perfective & imperative

'-.;)
a) Change of tense: Therefore, when the present or future form is used as the auxiliary verb, it
can signify a general present tense, but much more often will indicate the future tense. In some cases, the
future tense could also be translated as the subjunctive mood. This can be determined if the verb distinguishes
a present and future form. The perfective or imperative uses are easily distinguished, since the imperative use
will be followed by the imperative particle.
ri ifjclj" <:;J C." <:;J"1
'" or
1 1;. - . . . t::J - .:l\ . .:l\ 1 JOLLM 55A:3-4(verse)
'-.;)
The one who has gone for refuge in the three jewels
Will attain fearlessness.
1C; ifj0\ " " "I\J " <:;J "
In. nurn. (LOP) n.
jewel 3 in refuge
or '"

ivn. 1 In.
gone fear-less [nessl

'-:
tv. (LOP) av.1
attain will
..,... "
"l - <3) - KP 3B:l (verse)

sentient beings of the six realms, who have been [my] mother...
..,... ..,...
-.- - -s - -<3).- - 1 SBD II 449:16-7

The principal root that is the cause of samsara is ignorance.
b) Though the literal meaning of I':l, .J;, - <:;J - is "to become, change," it can often
have the meaning of a linking verb, "to be. "Thus, the past tense form .:I\ - - can often be connected by the
LOP particle to a preceding noun to form a nominal phrase, "the one who/which is tt
-c:; -"l t3i<3) -<3) -

Mafijushrt, the youthful prince
Lesson 9 .... 112
..,...

n. (CP)I
ignorance.
PRED.NOUN

ivn. (T)
wasas for

ivn.
was
"
--s 3}-
n. pI. 0
sentient being-s


n. (R) n, (LOP)
chief one of root

n. (LOP)
youth

n, num.
being6
APPOSITION


n. (R)
cause of

PN
ManjushrI
APPOSITION

n. ivn.
mother been
APPOSITION
-e:

n. (R)
samsara of
SUBECT
VERB(1) DIRECT OBJECT VERB
SUBJECT 2
I
I
I
1
I
I
J
I
I
I
I
]
J
]
"
2) The auxiliary verb c:;- -: This auxiliary verb has two important uses-change of tense and
the causative-and four different forms:
present past future imperative
"
..,...
Sc:;-
s-:

a) Change of tense: The future form more commonly has the meaning ofl'should" or "ought
to.It This isa very important form to remember, sincethe dharma iscontantlyreminding us of what should
and should not be done.
should know
know! (The imperative will be covered in Lesson 14.)
sees
Lesson 9 113
,,' y' \r;,
, ...,\\. "e'4'
"
b) Causative: It is also used to give a causative sense to the verb. For example, c;- - added
to the verb "to be peaceful" means "to make or cause to be peaceful" or "to pacify." In essence, this often has
the effect ofturning an intransitive verb into a transitive verb.

- - to be peaceful
cS :I\ - - to be liberated, free
to make peaceful, to pacify
to make free, to liberate
or
-?- KZ44B:5
also both the sun and moon that illuminate the four continents with light. ..
or
"


n. num.
n. (A) iv, (LOP) av, (R) n. (CO) n. num. (CC)
island 4 light with be light to make which sun and moon 2 also
DIR. OBI. INSTRU. VERB AGENT
RELATIVE CLAUSE
This auxiliary can also be used with transitive verbs, without seemingly adding any new meaning.
............ .. ...,_....,.hl'.- ...... "........ . ,-,- -- ,", -,.- ...,
c) Forming Nouns: For this use, see 9.7. below.
b. Other Auxiliary Verbs: These auxiliary verbs can also use a connecting LOP particle, or simply
come immediately after the root of the main verb.
to be able to be able
to be able can indicate future tense
to have to, should can indicate past tense
to bear, undergo
or
:I\ - OJ - :I\ - - - - OJ --- IT 4A:4
" " "
seed which is able to transform into a sprout

" " "
n. (LOP) iv,
sprout into transform
DESTINAT. VERB
RELATIVE CLAUSE


av, (R)
be able which
n.
seed
SUBJECT
or or or
-c; -q KGT39B:4
The dharmadhatu.which can not undergo analysis by conceptual mind,...
or

n. (R) ne . 1
dharma of realm, space
DIRECT OBJECT
neg. avo
not bear
RELATIVE CLAUSE
1 - l l- :I\ -
In. (A) ,tv. (LOP)
mind by __
AGENT. VERB
Lesson 9 - (; ,., 114
Sometimes, two auxiliaries might be used, either for emphasis or for extending the meaning of the verb.
7. The Use of S- to Form Nouns
'"
(The full form of this combination and the others is actually 1 - -S-q -.)
..- " ..- ..-
---c. - 3j- .:I\ -S-I:) - 1 so 572:2
... should recognize..

.zv: avo (CP)?
should must.
what is to be known, can be known, the knowable, object of knowledge
one who is to be, should be tamed; a student or disciple
anything that can be touched, the touchable, objects oftouch
that which is to be meditated upon, the object of meditation
VERB
..- "

tv. (LOP)
recognize

'-.;)
'"
.:I\<TJ -
..-

'" '" '"
1 - - "l -qc -q l<3)- 1 Ljc. <3)-1:\ c.-q l 0) 1
'-.;)
-r: ..- "'" '" ,,"'..-
-8 q - -1:\ - f:\ -q I:) <3)- 1 q 15 <3) - f\J - - q l <3)- 1 SBDII 446:23-447:1
There is the truth of suffering, what is to be understood; the truth of the origin [ofsuffering], what
is to be abandoned; the truth of the cessation [of suffering], what is to be attained; and the truth of
the path, what is to be taken up.
'"
- , the future passive or gerundive form of the verb S1:)- -, is combined with verbs to form new words.
It has the sense of "thatwhich is to be, can be, or should be ..tt Hence, it usually indicatesthe object of
the verb it is combined with.
t
i
I
I
1
I
I
l'
I
\
I
I
I
n. -
understand to be
APPOSITION
'"
. q - q l <31- 1 Ljc.. S-
n. n. -I n. -
sufferingtruth; abandontobe
APPQSITION
'"
1 <3)-1:\ -q l<31- 1
'-.;)
n. n. -I
origin truth:
LIST/pREDICATE NOUNS
LIST/PREDICATENOUNS
n. -
attain to be
APPOSITION
..- " '"

n.(R) n. -I
cessation of truth;
n.-
abandon to be
APPOSITION
"
n. (R)
path of
'" ..-

n. (CP)I
truth.
'"
Note the absence of a relational particle in the first two members of the list between 0). - -
and the preceding noun.
'"
Thedirect.object uses S- ,andthesubjectlagent and the action can use other forms of
n.J

"

Lesson 9
the one who is to be tamed (full form = '\J -q.:I\ - -q-)

"
the taming (full form =

" -r
the one who tames (full form = l'\J- -

(For the possessor particle po., see 4.2.b.)


115
8. Exercises
a. Tibetan to English: Using the glossary, translate the following sentences into English.
" -r." -r t'o.
1. Q, - - - cD - - -? - UJ .J\ - - '\J - l -2- - E: 3i 1
-r- -r- -r-..".. -e:
-3i -'\J - -i) - -
"
l -3i 3i - -I) -UJ l-'\J- S1

-r -r " t'o.
q - q I)c.-
l
c;: -Ql- -I) - c.-c. E: 0) - - - 1

-r
0) ?l- -? l- - 1

-r -r-
S .:I\ -0) -0) .J\ - - ? - t4 - - 0} .J\ - l 0} - 0) 1
!
"-r ""
- c - -? 3i - c '\J - '\J 1
"
en - 0) c 0) - -I) "l - -5 Oi - - C.-1

t'o. -r-r
-<J r:l, - ro"1- 3.l-5 -<J E.l-lc.-r -5 3i -tl.J - <J 9, tl.J 1
-r -r:
l -l - c -I) - - - 0} -'\J - gO) 1

" -r -r-
J-1 c.- -? - -I) - q -'\J - 1
-r -r -r
- c; c.- en - - - en - -en - - c; - - '\J - '\J --- ..
/ 1 ') 1 ') 1 I / 1 1 KZ 39B.5-40A.3
" -r"
2. -'\J - - l- '\J -'\J -I) - - l- 1 MINT80:7
-r-
3. --- - -'\J - - ."I\-'\J 0} --- MINT 46:9-10
-r -r
4. r .J\ - - - 15 c - .J\ -l- <3) 1
_.._ ..
1
c; C-J'\J - -lJ - - - en 1
1 ., -I 'l.J . -I I "" I MINT 78: 11-2 (verse)

5. 0) - -O) MINT 82:6



-r -r -r
6. -- - -cO) - - l - - - t4C- -Sl- - -l- <3) -'\J c- -UJ 3} --- SBD IT 461:17-8
..."''''......._,---''..... I'
"' -r" . "' ""' -r-
7. "1 tl.J -5-.:l\ c. - .:l\ - a-<J -UJ 3i -3i 3.l- tl.J - cD "1 -[,J -a-tl.J 1 -tl.J - - c. -a-<J .:l\ -r:l, .:l\ - .:l\1JOLLM 35A:5
-r -r", -r
8. ."I\C- - c- 15 <3) -l C-1 -15 c- -l c-1 CN 0} -15 c- CN -l c-
- I) -l .J\-S- -- SBD ill 348:15-7
Lesson 9 116
10. ---q l 3) - lO) -l- - - - - - - KZ 18A:6


11. Bacot

12.
. . -
1 r 'l - -<D . - -a5 1KGT 40A:5


- 1 - -q q - q 0) - -c; r;: '2\ 0) - 1 KZ 144B:3


14. 0) - -

1 - f:\ - - 0) 1


L.. ""\j --I-I -..J 1 KGT40B:l (verse)

15. r _.. KZ42B:l
,
16. 1 -? - -Lj C -C;- II

, -r "-r ,
Ql 'Aa:; -t...J - - q q - h - c; 1
1/-1 1 1 1 KGT41B:l (verse)

-r . -r -r
17. - -q <D-l "l -UJ - - JOL 77B:5

-r -r . .. -r . . -r , -r
18. q-0 OJ. C' OJ"[,J q OJ aC" q5." a c;"c; KP 3A:4
19. OJ [,J [,J" "[,J" OJ "l "l a: C." .. "
-
MM 5A:1-2
-r
.. --- '. ' ...
20. 1')-1 -"1-1 'I 1 -I BCA m MM 7B.6-8A.. I
- 'IIIIlIlIIWIiI'
. , .' '" '" '" -r
22. <J -l- - - - -C; 0) -l-
. --
'" -r
c. - -UJ 0) -3) 1 JOL61B:2-3
b. English to Tibetan: Using the glossary, translate the following sentences.into Tibetan.
1....thispure human body that is difficult to obtain...
2. If you act with delusion, you will be born as an animal.
3....not understanding the nature of subject and object, one circles in stupidty.
4. BrahmaandIndra supplicated [the Buddha] to turn the wheel of dharma.
5. At all times and places, one should rely on a spiritual friend and on virtuous friends.
c. Vocabulary for memorization
I
1
j
j
I
I
J


refuge
to prostrate
to lead, instruct
time


path
to be mindful; mindfulness
to tame
toreceive, take up, accept


c;q,C:-

Lesson 9
side, direction
noble one, S: arhat
power, S: abhiseka
to hear
means, method, upaya
appearance; to appear
q




to abandon, give up
command, word (h)
lineage
blessing, adhishthana
to arrive, depart
empty; to be empty
117
d. Verse for memorization
-r-r -r -e:
1 -cD - -f:\ -q .:1\- SO} - 1
-c: -r -r
1 -f\1 eN -1- f:\ -q.:l\- 0) - q 1
'\,)
'" -r
1f\1 -f:\ - f\1- q.:l\ 0) - - 1
'\,)
'" '" -r

.
l"l -, '\,) -, , SM 16B.2-4
'\,)
Grant your blessings so that my mind may be one with the dharma.
Grant your blessings so that dharma may progress along the path.
Grant your blessings so that the path may clarify confusion.
Grant your blessings so that confusion may dawn as wisdom.
-r -r -e: -r



'\,)
n.
n. (LOP) iv, (LOP) imp. v./
mind dharma to &Qso that grant (your) blessings.
SUBJ. LQCATIQN(?1 VERB
PURPOSE VERB
or or or


'\,)
n.
n. (LOP) iv, (LOP) imp. v./
dharma path to &Qso that grant (your) blessings.
SUBJ. LOCATION(?) VERB
PURPOSE VERB
'"
or
1f\1


'\,)
n. n.
tv. (LOP) imp. v./
path confusion dispel so that grant (your) blessings.
SUBJ, DIR.OBJ. VERB
PURPOSE VERB
'"
'"
-r

f:\d).:I\-q.:I\-

n.
n, (LOP) iv. (LOP) imp. v./
confusion ' wisdom as arise so that grant (your) blessings.
SUBJ. ADV. CL. VERB
PURPOSE VERB
\
j
I
}
]
1
1
1
I
1
)
~
1
J
J
1
Lesson 10
1. The Verbal Use of the Source Particle C - r C -

The verbal source particle - is generally added after the verbal stem, i.e. with - -, whereas the verbal
source particle 0) - is added after the verbal root, i.e. without -jt::J -. One of the distinguishing factors of these
particles is that they mostly form dependent clauses that tend to have the same agent or subject as the
independent clause. Hence, since the dependent clause comes first, it will tend to have the subject or agent,
and this will be omitted but understood in the following independent clause. Moreover, oftentimes the final
verb can have an auxiliary verb and/or verbal particle that must be used with the verb of the preceding
dependent clause as well.
a. Simultaneity: This particle can indicate that the action of the verb that follows it takes place during the
action of the verb preceding the particle. It is here translated as "while, during, as (something was being
done)."
"' "' "'
KGT67B:5
Maitrlpa traveled through the sky riding on a lion.
name-
Maitripa
AGENT
"'"'

n. (LOP) tv. (5)
lion on ride-ing
-DIR. OBJ. VERB

n. (LOP)
spacethrough
LOCATION
iv,
gQ
VERB
--- - - 0) -0) - C - c:; -t::J 1 1 KGT 68A: 1

recalling the guru, [he] wept greatly.

n, - tv. (5)
guru remember-ing
DIR. OBJ. VERB

adj. (LOP)
many-Iy
ADVERB

iv. -/
!Y.
VERB
It can also occur right between two adjoining verbs. The relationship is oftentimes adverbial in this case, with
the first verb modifying the second. However, this could be translated into English in a variety of ways.
"' "'
-S-c:; - -UJ Oi-? Oi- c:; r; - Oi- - -t::J Oi- Oi -t::J c;- Oi- -- KZ143B:2-3
If one continually relies on a holy person replete with virtue...
"'

n. adj. -
person holy
DIRECT OBJECf

UJOi-?O)-lc
n. (CO)
virtue with

iv. (LOP)
stay if
VERB
KGT80B:4
meditateddiligently
Lesson 10 119

iv. (5)
exert-ing
tv.
meditate
'" -r
... .:I\.<3) - KGT80B:5
camecarrying
iv.
came
b. Succession: Here the meaning is that the action of the preceding verb is finished before the action of
the following verb takes place. It can usually be translated as "after doing or having done the action of the
preceding verb,' the action of the following verb takes place. u: The particle 0} -is more commonly used for
this meaningthan ..

. 3.t..
After dreaming, he woke up.
KGT
1
I
n. tv.
sleep awoke = awoke
VERB 2
c.Origin or cause: Here the particle signifiesthat the action of the preceding verbis completed first)
and that this completed action gives rise to or makes possible the action of the following verb. It can be
translated as "from," tt on account of," or "through" doing the action ofthe preceding verb, the action of the
following verb occurs. "<Theparticle n.J - is more commonly used for this meaning.
'"
A c: . . . . . a;;. . n.lJ c.._. .
. I , / I -, KP in MM

Fire arises from the rubbing of two sticks.
(j,j "<fJOi 5
(j,jC:Oi"J"n. KGT42B:2
From applying the key points of the view and meditation on the path,
[One] will actualize the fruition of the stainless three kayas,

n. (LOP)
key point
<J n.J 1.
tv. (S)I
apply from
VERB
'" - f:\

D. iv,
fife will arise.
SUBJECT VERB

tv. (S) (T)


rub from
VERB
n, num.
stick two
DIR. OBl.
-r

10. D. o.
path view meditatioD
LOC. DIRECT OBJECf
J
J
J
)
I
]
)


In. - adj. -
fruition stain-less
DIRECT OBJECT
Lesson 10
n. num. -
kaya3

" "
ts,]
will actualize.
VERB
120
d. Exclusion: "other than," "except for," "but" .... '" Q..lc.
l
' k-
J
It _I t<f.,'v
e
)
'" -r -r -r
-1C:-C;-Uj c - -if]..o if] -15 - c;- OJ - c;- - 1 C; - 3) <: 9c;- "l - c; - - II KZ 23B:2

If the yoke stayed in one place, [the tortoise] might meet with it, but it never rests even for an instant.
'"
-1c: "i UjC:-
n. da. - (CC)
yoke that as for
SUBJECT

"
adv. (LOP)
time continual-Iy
ADVERB
-r

"
D. num. (LOP)
direction one in
LOCATION


n. (CC)
instant even
ADVERB

iv, (LOP)
stay if
VERB
-r

neg. iv. -I
not remain.
VERB


tv. avo (S) I
meet might other than
VERB
2. The Continuative Verbal Particle -q -s -
This particle -q -s -, "with remainder," generally indicates that the action of the preceding verb
continues to take place or to be in effect when the action of the following verb begins. It has the overall
connotation that whatever is happening (be it an action or a logical train of thought) is not completed with the
preceding verb, and so one must continue to read on to the next verb. Unlike the source particles 0) - and
-, the continuative particle tends to come after an independent clause. Hence, it is more of a stop than the
source particles, but indicates that the story or logic of the preceding clause continues. At times, it functions
somewhat like a semi-colon or colon.
a. Spelling: It has three different spellings according to the final letter of the preceding verb. They are:
<,
5-
after final letter

'"
15-
after final letter

and vowels
'"
l-
after final letter
l-
'"
Note that this last spelling could be confused with the demonstrative pronoun l-. When in doubt, check
'"
to see ifthe last letter of the preceding word is l- .If it isn't, then the Y has to be the demonstrative adjectiv
or pronoun. If it is, then one has to tell from the context.
b. Uses:
1) Temporal Relation 3-l aJ 3-l {<.,j .:r.. 0q -6{<.,j 0: The first usage of this particle shows that the two
verbs are connected in a temporal relationship, which is either simultaneous or successive,
Lesson 10 -- 2.- 121
)

a) Simultaneity --s --s -l- -: This particle can indicate that while the action of the
--
first verb is taking place, the action of the second verb is happening. This is essentially the same meaning as
the simultaneous usageof the sourceparticles 3i - and f\l -. s..."Jc&.b ...... ..ft.......+]
or" or or or
- fXJ - q -? r; - -) -
While Mila was meditating, his sister cooked nettles.
or
"
or or or

j-
name(A) tv. (Cf) n. (A)
n.
tv. (CP)I
Mila by meditate-ing sister by nettle cooked.
AGENT VERB AGENT D.O. VERB
Also, just as with the source particle 0) -,the continuative particlecanoccurbetween two closely related
verbs, or between a main verb andan auxiliary verb.
or
KZ145B:l
They bothwent, accompanying each other.
n.
both
SUBJECT
or "

iv. (Cf)
accompany-ing
VERB
iv.
went
VERB
" "
lUJ C- UJ C - KGT 62B:l

Again and again, [I] asked [him] to accept.


"
---r:l. SC - 5-q - . -- KGT 83A:2 practiced with exertion
or or" or "
q c; - f\J - cD .:I\ - lJ a:;. -.h - q '\J - -14 - .a c -c; - l4q - - -- .
1 -I 'J I KGT61A.2

[He] departed toward Tibet, and went to Phamthing in Nepal.



b) Succession l - - - -: This panicle can indicate that after the action of the

first verb, the action ofthe second verb takes place. (::, ;)
1
t
)
1
I
J
lUJC-UJC-
ladv. adv,
againagain
ADVERB
"
iv, (CT)
exert-ing
VERB
-,

iv.(Cf)
repeat-ing
VERB
"
tv. (LOP)
accept to
VERB

tv.
practiced
VERB

tv.
request.
VERB
Lesson 10
-r- . -r-
"'
-r-
"' d5" .:I\-

name (LOP) adv. iv. (Cf) name- name (LOP)


Tibet to hither departed: Nepal Phamthing to
&2.
DESTIN. ADV. VERB DEST. VERB
-r- ",-r-
--- -3.1- - -a<J - - C---- KZ 428:3

the guru attained siddhi and then left. ..


.;-
"'
.;-

n. n.
tv. (Cf) iv.
guru accomplishment attain and went
SUBJ. DIR.OBJ. VERB VERB
122
2) Clarification c; -<J f:\ - - -: This usage introduces a list, explanation, reason, or
supporting quote in clarification of the preceding statement, phrase, or word. Sometimes, the particle can be
understood to mean "which is to say" or a similar phrase or as a colon.
"' "'
a) Giving a list or specifics c; S- -f:\ Ol- -: This panicle can occur at the beginning or end
of a list. If itcloses a list, it is usually followed by a summarizing statement concerning either the nature or the
number of the members of the list.
-r-", "'
UT

the buddha, dharma, and sangha, which is to say, the three objects of refuge...
n.
buddha
LIST
n.
dharma
n. num.
refuge place 3
SUMMARY
-r-

'\.:)
-r-
- c; 1 TDCM1245
The four noble truths [are]: the truth of suffering, its origin, its cessation, and of the path.
"'

adj. (R) n. num. (CT)/
noble of truth four:
SUBJECT
f\l-<J-c;c-l

n. (CO)/ n. /
suffering and ongln
PREDICATE NOMINATIVES

n. (CO)/
cessation and


n. (R)
path of
"' -r-

n. (P)/
truth.
t'- "'
b) Giving a reason or proof -d5" - Ol- -: This is a very common use of this
particle, particularly in the more philosophical texts, where argumentation and proofs abound.
Lesson 10 ... 2.. 123
or or or '" '" '" '"
O)e. - - 0) 1 UJ e.- <1- - 1 <S f\J - -
PGDM 128:11-13 .
Outer and inner things, the subject, are ultimately unborn, because they do not arise from the' four
extremes.
"
d) Giving an extensive explanation -q'4l - 0) - -:
" "-or-r-r
51 . - S"J - - 1 TDCM 1245
Buddha [is]: to clear away sleep of ignorance and open the mind to the objects of knowledge.
'" '" '"

n. - iv, (Cf)1
birth not exist:
PRED. ADJ.

D. (LOP) n. - tv. (CP)/
knowable to intellect expand.

adj. (LOP)
ultimate-Iy
ADVERB


D. - tv. (CO)I
sleep clear away and
"
- n.- .1\1
neg. .iv, (R) (R5)1
not bornof because
VERB
REASON

f:\ . "J
n. num. (5)
extreme4 from
SOURC'E
'"

n. (Cn/ D. (R)
buddha:
SUBJECT PREDICATE

n. n. (R) n. pI. n. -I
outer inner of thing-s subject
SUBJECT
'" f' '"
c) Giving a gloss' of a term e. if) "l O}. :
J
}
)
\
1
J
1
or " or or -r
"J - c;. - 1 -'5 <3i - - "l - --ra -.:0 l UJeJi -Oi 1 TDCM 1245

The activity of the sons of the Victorious One is all the six or ten paramitas,
-r:
UJO)-3jl
iv. (CP)I
is.
VERB
-r

num.adj. -
10 all
or " or
'. -.. 1 . ..

n.(R) D.- (Cnl n. num. (AO)
Viet. One son of action: ....-pe __ rfi-.;",ec..o...;t1 ...... 0_D...... 6...... o_r _
SUBJECT PREDICATENOMINATIVE
J
1
}
e) Giving a quote: This usage is similar to the above two, in that a quote is given in explanation
of a word, phrase, or sentence.
or " "or
-. - q -c; - -t.J. - 1 1 RNTJ 9B:4
-
[The Buddha] is saidto be "in accord with all merit," [as it is said] in asutra, ".... "
J
1
]
or

n. pI. (R)
merit -s of
DIRECT OBJECT
" '"

n. - (Q) tv. (CT)/


appropriate cause ft said:
VERB
-r

n. (S) I
sUtrafrom
SOURCE
Lesson 10 124
"
3) Giving the Other Side - 3i - -: In this case, the continuative particle indicates
that what follows simply completes the picture by giving the other side.
-r -r '" -r
1.:I\ - - - - a5"- 1 l- -3i - -.:I\ -co 3i -0} 1 TCDM 2412

In the East is the ocean; likewise, in the West, a large mountain.


-r
-r "
"
-r
"
-r


n. (R) n. (LOP)
D. [iv.] (CT)/
dp. prep.>
n. -
n. adj. - [iv.] (CP)/
east of direction in ocean [is] and that like west direction mountain great [is].
LOCATION SUBJECT ADV. LOCATION SUBJECT
The existential verb L(j l- t..l- is understood to be present. Note that in the second sentence, the
relational and LOP particles are omitted in the location phrase. Since the second sentence has the same basic
structure of the first, these particles are understood to be present due to the context of the first sentence.

TCDM2412
That is a person, and this is a dog.
"
l-o)-
dp.> (T)
that as for
SUBJECT
"

n. [iv.] (CT)I
human [is] and
PRED. NOM.

f":\l-3i -
dp. (T)
this as for
SUBJECT


n. [iv.] ./
dog [is]. ,
PRED. NOM.

Again, the linking verb UJ 0) -C.J - is understood to be present.



4) Contradiction -a5" - - -f":\ -C.J -: It can indicate that although the action of first verb

takes place, the action of the second verb occurs. In many ways, this usage is very similar to 3) "Giving the
Other Side" above.
'" "'-r
a<\l - <\l - L4 - - f":\ - - 1 KGT66A:6
[I] was born in an inferior place, but the place I visited is supreme.
<,
"
-r


1
n. -
iv, (Cf)
n. -
iv, -I
birth-place be defeatedbut visit-place be victorious
SUBJECT VERB SUBJECT VERB
"
-AI- c-.:r - 'J - AI-C1,:::a
c
-l
-I') KGT67B:1-2
In general, 'even though [I] am unworthy, my guru is good.

" C-.:I\C-
CO} -5-
adv.
n. -
ppr. - adj. (1)
n.
adj./
generally man I bad but guru good.
ADVERB SUBJECT PRED. ADJ. SUBJ. PRED. ADJ.
Lesson 10 - 1., 31 q.
"
The linking verb UJ <3). is omitted here in both clauses.
125
J
1
J
J
I
5) Giving the conclusion: In this case, this particle can come after the cause or reason and thus
precedes or introduces the consequence or conclusion. This structure is somewhat the reverse of b) above.
-r " -e: -r", or, ..,......ft...... ct."..tgl,. "" I. -e t4'KJ"
YPC
[I] dian't he] died. .. '!eq":3 ..
... __ .. ,..,,._,,,__ ,,...,,. ...;,,,,,,:.. :,,, .. . ,..,,..
-r -r -r' "' -e""


D. (LOP) n.> ivn. - neg. tv. (Cf) iv. (CP)/
below at man exist not see: died.
LOC. SUB]. (1) VERB (1) VERB(2) VERB (3)
DIRECT OBJECf2
3. The Verbal Use' of the Coordinating Particle C;
This panicle is generally used afterthe infinitive form (i.e., the root plus ./e::J.). Itsimply indicates that the
action of the following verb is somehow connected with the action ofthe preceding verb. Often the sense can
be that the action of the preceding verb sets up the situation or conditions that make the action of the following
verb possible. It can usually betranslated as "the action of the first verb is done and then the action of the
following verb is done" or perhaps more literally as "with the doing of the first verb, the action of the second
verb takes place." For example:
"-
II .. C 31 0) -.. KGT68A:l
Then he awoke and remembered the guru...
"-
ll-:I\-
/dp. (LOP) iv. (CO) n. - tv.
that at awoke and guru remember
LaC. VERB DIR.OBJ. VERB

4. The Verbal Coordinating Particle C . .


a. Spelling: This particle has three forms depending on the last letter of the preceding word.

. after c, <3)., f":\., -, . and all vowels

1
c
- after .
b. Meaning: This is generally a coordinating particle, similar to ,C;c. It follows the root of the verb
(i.e., without the panicle ./e::J -) and is used in the following specific ways.

1) Simultaneity: Often indicates a complete overlap between the verb thatprecedes it and the
Lesson 10 126
onethat follows. In other words the actions of both verbs are happening or existing simultaneously, or at least
are closely connected together. .Itcan also be translated bya participle, e.g. "doing the action of the first verb,
the action of the second verb takes place. "

1 q - - - -1 1 .. f:\ 11 Bacot (verse)
Appearance does not obscure emptiness,
And emptiness does not stop appearance.
..,..

..,..




lri. (A)
n.
neg. tv. (CO)I In. (A)
n. -
neg. tv. -II
appearanceby

not obscureand empty by appearance not stop.
AGENT DIR.OBJ. VERB AGENT DIR. OBI. VERB
.
- -- q .. KZ 124A:6
...went thinking...


tv. (CO)
think and
VERB
iv.
went
VERB

2) Succession: At times, the sense of -0c. - can be that the action of the preceding verb takes place,
"and then" the action of the following verb takes place.

NTNG 25B:l

stream of amrita flowsdown, melts and boils.

"


O}.


n. (R)
n.
iv, (C1) iv. (CO) iv, 1
amrita of stream flow down: melt and boil.
SUBJECT VERB VERB VERB
3) Contradiction: Here again, two closely related verbs are connected; however, they present
contradictoryoralternativeideas.
, , ,
1-iJi c;-c;. en. - - - -1\3 iJi -C; - --- KZ43A:6

After dying, one does not become nonexistent, but rather one must take another birth.

,

, , ..,..


iv, (5) iv. (LOP) neg. iv, (CO)


o.
tv. av.
die after not exist to oot go but birth take must.
VERB VERB VERB DIR. OBI. VERB
4) With Adjectives/Adverbs: Just as with verbs, this particle can also link together closely related
adjectives or adverbs.

NTNG9A:2

On the ground of a beautifuland delightful world...


"- '" "-

n. adj. (CO)
universe beautiful and
LOCATION
Lesson 10 ...... AI- , S-
"- -r "-

adj. (R)
delightful of
"-

n. (LOP)/
ground on
127
"- "-

__.(CO)
after and
ADVERBS

n. (LOP)
purposefor
tv.
seek
VERB
5. The Lack of a Particle After a Verb
a. After the verbal root or infinitive
1) End of the sentence: The lack of a particle after a final verb at the end of a sentence is common
in conversation and verse, and is less so in expository prose. Generally, the final verbis at least followed by a
final 1l-, but not always. Sometimes, you will find one sentence immediately following another with no
particle or punctuation separating them.
..r "- '"' "- '"' "- "- "-
l- O}. l- 0} -l- <3} - "l - 011 MSA6A:6 (verse)
[Suchness] is not existent, is not nonexistent, is not thus, is not otherwise.
..r
"-
'"'
"-
'"'
"- "- "-



1
/ adj.
IV.
.
adj. iv, adv. IV.
.
n.
.
IV. -/
esistent is not. nonexistent is not. that like is not. other is not.
PRED. VERB PRED. VERB PRED. VERB PRED. VERB
'"' "- '"' '"' .. .
1') -I . I -, . I 1 SH in MM SA:!
As there is no meditation, there is also no prajfia.
-<TI C - - c.. <TI.c -t; --
1 -, 11 -..j KGLPIOA:l

From where are you coming? [And] where are [you] going?
I
(
J
I
'"'
- ?0) . -
iv.OlOP)
meditation not exist as
SUBJECT VERB
"-
UJc-31-
(CC) (1)
also as for
ADVERB
n.
praHl!
SUBJECf
IV./
not .exist.
VERB
ppr.
you
SUBJ.

ipr. (5)
what from
SOURCE
..r
t':\C
IV.
come?
VERB

ipr.(LOP)
what to
DESTINATION
IV.
gQ1
VERB
Lesson 10
C"- C"- ...- '" C"- -...- C"- C"- '" C"-
cD -f:\ E: <3) -1\3 - c; <3) - . f:\ E: 0) 1 l d) - <3) -1\3 -t":\ E: <3) . 1 KZ9A:6
[He] understands the words, but does not understand the meaning.
[He] understands the meaning, butdoes not understand the words.
C"- C"- ...-
'"
C"-
(: r. ,ott , )
f:\ E: d) . l\J.
c; d) -
n.
tv. (LOP)
n.
neg. tv./
word understand but meaning not understand.
DIR.OBJ. VERB DIR.OBJ. VERB
...- "- "-
'"
C"-
c; d).

n.
tv. (LOP)
n.
neg. tv./
meaning understand but word not understand.
DIR.OBJ. VERB DIR.OBJ. VERB
128
2) Clause within a sentence: The infinitive form occuring within a sentence has already been
covered in 8.1, whereby it can be a verb with respect to its own clause, and be a noun with respect to the main
verb of the whole sentence. The verbal root occuring within a sentence can fulfill this same double function,
although one must keep in mind that the verbal root may be the final verb of a separate sentence, as just
explained in 1) above.
a) Direct object: Just as a noun that is a direct object of a transitive verb can either take no
particle or the LOP particle l\J. , so a clause that is a direct object can do the same. For clausal direct objects
with the LOP particle l\J., see 9.4.a.2)b).
'''' '"
c..:1\. <iI ... KGT 67B:6
[I] dreamed there arose an experience that had never arisen before.
, '"
c..:1\-
adj. (LOP) neg. iv. (R)
previous-Iy not arisen that
ADV
t
VERB (11
RELATIVE CLAUSE
'"
<iI
n. ivn.
tv.
experience arising dreamed
SUBJ. (2) VERB (2) VERB (3)
DIRECT OBJEcr
b) Modification:
, ...-
MGB 624:10
'-:)
There is the danger that obstacles will arise.
n. iv.
obstacle will arise
SUBJ. (1) VERB (1)
MODIFICATION
D. iv./
danger exist.
SUBJ. (2) VERB (2)
b. Between a main verb and its auxiliary verb: See 9.6.b.
----....,: -",,' -..,,-"..- -,,..,,---,,,'

VJ

8\) 0H
D
.J)
J1J
LJ ....Jl

2 --.9-t '-YJ
. 2
LJ J1
....Jl/ --9-1 ((..:jJ
. .
LJ B
tn
;) cJi
7:i
CVLe
(V.J/ J1
1)
1)
PJ
.J)
ctCtl
}i
J1
1) J1
o

QO

V.)


Jl
.
E.J


--

o
IiWo
N
\0

fI1
C'n
o
CI
P' tr1

.....
c:r n
CD .....
.... {I)
b
q

..-

(1)
;.
(1)
cr
..-
..-
o

....
=
(JQ
Er
8
t'I1

(Jq
..-
......

rr
c:
....
::s
(JQ

(1)
(JQ
..-
o

p...
= o
o
!fJ
.2/

..2
"O-t
--9i
2
1)
ot:/
LJ.

Jl
.

?'
LJ
J1

'-YJ
J1
.J) f'1'
1) 0
.J) t%1
t:s
OQ
t:::
UJ
:=r
J1
--9-1
2
.2
j)
JI
.2
s:

LJ
c
ji
;J

J1
O-tJ
11

..9l
--9i

--9i

UJI
JI
c
.il
JT\'

.
--.9-tJ
21

.

01
--.9-t

-2
2
Vl
/;D/


. .
8il'
-9i
rI

;J)
2

CJ1
;J
C)l1

c
i!.

1)
-9fl

J1

-91J
LJ
cm
fl

?'
L:J
.Jl/
LJ
Jl
fl
j)
L&
_Jl
j)
....Jl'
....Jl
((:jJ
UJ

2
s:
CJl2

LJ
112
.2
Jl
fl
u:
.2
j)

J1
((:jJ

fl
JTH/
8\
J1

.Jl
c
LJ
-9lJ
2
i!LJ,
((ll2
11
.2
E.
"'Jl2/

CD
o
t::d....Jl
fl
.2!J
j)
u:
B
LJ
ji
CUJ
fl
--.9-t
J1
ji/
J1 --

j)

2
s:
j)J
J1

j)
1)
to

2
O-t
....Jl
CJ1
ji
n

J1
.2
J1
.2
.J)

ji


.;.,,9i
CJl
1)
ill?Jl
J1
2
01/
j) .
1)
....Jl
....Jl

2
01
-9i
j)
J1J
J1

Eli.
fl

8\
11
1)
0H
-!J
2

L1
00 "'l
L:J

Jl
}iJ

s:

f1

l'-.)
2 l'-.)
.
01/
v,)

w
<'

i!LJ

s:
.J)J

n
-9-t
j)
....Jl
>0
c
0:
&1
1)
.2
]
5
i ;2
tx

2
O-t
....Jl

0H

0H
'Jl2/
1)
otJ

..2
c
txs

.2
O-t
....Jl

0H

j)
u:
.2
'Vl2/ VL2/
j) j)
R
2 J1

.J) (G12/
C....Jl
.2 c

.
to 2
.
..2 O-t
Jl
O-t
J1
0H

0H

to

..2
O-t
....Jl

'Jl2/'Vl2/

J1

E.J
.tJl

..2

2/

2
j)
8\,

.
P)
j
}t
f1
LJ
-9l?

.
Jl

.2
f1
.2

....Jl
0H J1
.
-9fl

CJl2

Ll
112 J1
B
J)
1) .2
j)J .

....Jl
J1 v,)
-91J v,)
1) .
-91J -91J
-9i J1 l'-.)
E.J C....Jl
-9i 2
. .
. .
j)J
f:i
.-
JI t
J1 >

LLl/ E:.?
2 --.9-t
. .
.2 .
Jl .J)?

J1 .
2
. . .
ji Jl
....Jl J1
j) .
R'
--9-1 C....Jl
Cji Jl
. J1
Ji .2 j)
J1
ji
. J
ctCtl c-=i
JI J-! --.9-t
c cvi
ji j)J
.
j) J1
R' ji .2
--9-1 -
.
c
.2 .2
'-YJ
.2
.2 1)
.
ji C.2
;:; ss
--91 L::./ ji
.--.9-t
O-t
-9i c JI/
j)J Ji
EJ -.:],
-9-t
'Ji/ -=t2
J) C2'

Eli

E-
J1

8\

....Jl
.
J1
f1
o
8\)
0
j)
....JlJ
.J)J

-91

B
ji/

-2




-91?
f1
til
>

u.

en
8
Lesson 10
r-.. r-.. '"
\ 14. 1 "0) -cD 3) - 1
r-.. r-.. "''' r-..
-3)- c, - UJ"1 -UJ 0} 1
'" -e:

- - -r:; - 1
-I '-I J "I MM 83A:5-6 (verse)
130
b. English to Tibetan:
1. Having understood that all conditioned [things] are impermanent, [one] overcomes attachment to this life.
2. Almost eight years had passed since [his] mother died.
3. If one distinguishes killing, there are three [kinds]: killing due to passion, killing due to aggression, and
killing due to delusion.
4. The family of both the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas are inferior, because they are.a completely pure
family due to just clearing away the obscurations of the kleshas. The family of the Mahayana is supreme,
because it is a completely pure family due to clearing away both the obscurations.
5. Through knowledge, one does not dwell in existence, and through compassion one does not dwell in peace.
c. Vocabulary for Memorization:

foot, leg
'"
..r

friend,relative
..r

enemy

to say, speak
..r

to send
-r:

to be crazy, mad
r-..

nature
-r: ..r

essence

manifestation,aspect
r-..
cD 0} -?l-
characteristic.definition
'"
distinction,classification
d. Verse for memorization:
r-.. -e:

'-i "
r-.. r-.. r-.. r-.. '"
lqJl" -
r-..
1 '\J- 3). CfJ- - 1
"

q.:I\-l-

r-..

r-..


"
bardo, inbetween state
like, as
like, as
samsaric existence; to be possible
to enter
delusion
realization
ornament
holy, sacred, excellent
glorious
Lesson 10 131
1.KZ actually has '\1- 'instead of f\J. '\1. in the first line. We have emendedthe. text based on the Sanskrit text of the

Lslitsvistsrs, which has viraja, "stainless," here.



1 - -0) "l - c; q -'?c:; Ol S1 KZ 18A:5-6 (LV, p. 594)1 (verse)
'=
I have discovered a teaching like ambrosia-
Profound, full of peace, stainless,luminous, and unconditioned.
Even if I taught itto someone, they would not understand.
Therefore, I shall remain silent in the forest.

/adj. n. - adj. adj.>
profound peace stain-less luminous
APPOSITIVES TO DIRECT OBJECT
Sl
avo -/
should.

'=
adj. -/
unconditioned
"
C:;l
tv,]
[md.
VERB
VERB

iv, (LOP)
stay
.
tv. (LOP)
understand
VERB


ppr.(A)
me by
AGENT

tv. (CC)
taught even though
VERB


'=
n. (LOP)
forest in
LOCATION


/neg. tv.
not speaking
VERB
-r

'=
In. pp. (R) n. ia. -
amrita like that dharma a
DIRECT OBJECT

/idpr, (LOP)
anyone to
IN.OBl.
J
)
)
1
},
J
!
1
J
J
I
}
1
I
I
)

Lesson 11
"'
1. The Verbal Use of the Relational Particle f:\ - -
tv.
depend.
VERB


iv, (CC)
In. rpr. (LOP)
liberation self on
SUBJECT LOC.

"
n.


tv. (Ce)l
taught but
VERB
..r

tv. (A)
n.


ppr. (A) (T) ppr. (LOP) n. (R) n.
me by as for you to liberation of means
AGENT OBJ. DIRECf OBJECT
'" '"

n, (T)
..,...
1 -Oi. - S- flJ - :I\ -t:J - e:J - .. Oi . 1
1 - -:I\C flJ -:I\<f] -flJ ---KZ6B:4-5
I have taught you the means of liberation,
But liberation depends on [you] yourself.
b. Confirmation: There are a few occasions when this particle is better translated as "certainly," "of
course," "moreover," "therefore," or "thus." Rather than contradicting the first statement, the second
statement serves to embellish or further confmn the truth of the first statement.
'" '" t '"
q l d). S- d) -SO) -l -UJ d) "l - - r -flJ 0). - q --- SSN 4A;1
The lackof true existence is to beestablished bythe examination for the absolute;
moreover, it is not correct to proclaim that it is to berefuted.
a. Contradictory: Usedafter the verbal root (i.e. without the [mal particle t:J -je:J -), this particle can
indicate that "in spite of' of the action ofthe verb preceding the particle, the action of the following verb
takes place. It can be translated as "although; but, however. "For the diagram of which spelling of the
particle comes after which final letters, see Lesson 5.2.
1
J
j
]
]
!
J
}
}
2. The Verbal Use of the Concessive Particle ci or OJ'
In this example.the second sentence negates the alternative possibility tothe first sentence, which in a
sentence is a further confirmation ofthe truth of the first sentence. The direct object of the second verb "to
proclaim" is understood to be "the lack of true existence" from the first sentence.
i. moreover
VERB (1)
to be established
PRED. NOM.
neg. av.
not able. proper
VERB
tv.
proclaim

n. (LOP)
to be refuted as
ADV.EQUIV.
lack of true ex. as for absolute examine by
SUBJECTffOPIC (1) D.O. (2) VERB (2)

This particle has a similar usageto the verbal relational particle - above and also comes after the root of
the verb. For the spellings of this particle, see Lesson 6.10.
J
]
1
J
1
1
J
Lesson 11 133
a. Contradictory: It generally indicates that "although" or "even though" or sometimes "even if" the
action of the precedingverb takes place, still the action of the following verb occurs.

-5 "l - i)"l - 011 KZ43A:l
"
Although impermanence is obvious, [I] regard [things] as permanent.


E::<3) 1

In.
adj. (LOP) iv. (CC) adj. (LOP) tv. 1
impermance manifest but permanent as hold.
SUBJECT ADV. VERB ADV.:E urv, VERB
b. As a Second Particle: In this location, the panicle can either add the sense of "even" or it could not
add any meaning at all.
"' a\ f\J - - a\ - 7fl C - q'l c- % - - - - - .
-I ,-, I '1 , KGT50B.5
Even after [I] awoke, [I] did not forget what [he] had said...
In.
sleep
SOURCE
iv. (S) (CC)
awake after even
VERB
n. pl.". neg. tv.
speech-es not forget
DIRECT OBI. VERB
3. The Concessive Particle C - J-
This panicle functions much the same way as the two above concessive particles, but is used less
frequently.

q - - q'l - - f\J - -.:!\c - -.:!\c - C - - c. - t: f\J - c, - UJ C.- - - -.0 - n.J .. - .
Il.J 1 1 1 '"" 1 I '-> KGT54B.4
'->
Though the guru's kindness is beyond near and far, I promised I would come see him again.
"'

n. (R) n. (LOP)
guru of kindness for
REF./POSSESSOR
"'
,-.:!\C-
adj. adj.
near far
SUBJECT
"'
iv. (CC)
not exist but
VERB
ppr. (A)
me by
AGENT
l-lC
"
adv. tv. (LOP)
still meet to
ADV. VERB
RELATIVE CLAUSE


iv, (R)
come that
VERB
n.
promise
DIR. OBI.
tv.
offered.
VERB
4. The Emphatic Particle 3lc;" "
This particle shows up from time to time to emphasize the force of the preceding statement. It is often

found before the concessive particle -.


Lesson 11 134
" " or
--- - <J"] 1<J"] q 1 ..0} - - -q C UJC- <J"]. UJOl- 1 TI2B:3-4
Generally, the authentic speech ofthe Tathagata is indeed trustworthy, valid scripture, but. ...
adv. - n. (R)
generally tathagata of
ADV. SUBJECf
n. adj. (T) -
speechauthentic
or
- - q - -UJ r; - - UJ "i . - 1
'\.,)
adj. (R) n. adj. - iv.{E) (CC)I
not deceiving scripturevalid !indeed but
PREDICATENOUN. VERB
5. The Comparative Particle -/q -
This particle can be used like "(see Lesson 8.3.c) asa comparative particle after nouns, adverbs, and
verbs. The two forms of the particle are used after the following final letters.
a. After a noun or pronoun:
\,

q - after finale: -.3\ - and vowels


" or
l -3}- -q- 0} -iN r - - -q <J"] - -q - 1KZ lOOA:6
'\.:)
Therefore, the view is higher even than the sky.
Karmic cause and effect is more subtly fine even than flour.
"

Ida. (A) (LOP)
that by
CONJ.
n.>
view
SUBJ.

n. (CM) (CC) adj. -I
spacethaneven high.
ADV. PRED. ADJ.

'-:J
In. n. n. -
karmacauseeffect
SUBJECT
"
n. (CM) (CC)
flour thaneven
ADV. CO:MP.


adj. -/
subtle.
PRED. ADJ.
b. After an adverb:

The linking verb UJ 01- has been omitted in each sentence.


or ""
c- -q - - . eli .<D -5... JOL139B:5
Later, the fault was greater than before.
f
1
j
)


adv. (CM) adv. -
early than later
ADV. CO:MP. ADV.
n. -
fault
SUBJ.
" "
adj. (CT)
greater:
PRED..ADJ.

The linking verb UJ 0} - has been omitted.


Lesson 11
-c. After a verb (the infinitive form, i.e., with - e):
135
..- ,..-
l- 0) 3.l - 1 MOin MM8A:5-6
There is more merit if one meditates for one day on the truth of dharmata than if one learned
and contemplatedfor many aeons.

n. adj. (LOP) tv. (CO)
aeon many for learning and
ADV. VERB
<"-

tv. (eM) (1)
contemplating than as for
VERB
<"- <"- ..- <"- <"- ..- ..- ..-
, ..-
lO)-
1
n. num. D. (R)
n.
tv. (LOP)
n.
adj. (CP)/
dayone dharmata of truth meditate if merit greater.
ADV. DIRECT OBJECT VERB SUBJECT PRED. ADJ.
6. Exercises:
a. Tibetan to English:
..- <"- <"- ..- <"- C"\ <"- , ,
1. cD - - 0} - - c - - - - 0} - -l c -1 l 0) - - 0) - -m - - - 0} - -l c; -1 UJ -1 - -
<"- ,<"- ,<"- ..- <,,-f <"- <"-..- <"- ,
"l 0} - -1 - - - -l 0) - - -lO) - - - 0) -F51 SBD III: 19-21
<"- C"\..- ,..-..- <"-
2. 1?r; - E: 0) - - -a-cD -"l -0l- - 1

, ..- <"- <"-


ll- -i) -0) 1

, <"- C"\..- ..- <"- <"-


ll- -? - E: 0) - - - -UJ 0) - 1
<"- ,
r 0)0) -?O) MM8B:5-6
, <"-..- , C"'\, ..-..-, C"'\, <"- C"'\, ..-
3. -_. - - "l cD- 1 KZ43A:5

C"'\" <"- ;..- ..- ,


4. -- E.. -? 0} -l-?- -1<: l 0) - O)l- - l- --- KZ 19A:4
!
<"- ..- ..- <"-!'..- <"- <"- ..- or <"-
5. <: '?Ol - - --0 C 0) - - -10) UJ 0) - - q - -q
/
<"- <"- ..-
K- q - 0) - 1SBDTI449:15-17

, <"- <"-
6. -0)

C"'\, <"- <"-


-0) - - 0) -
'-i
C"'\, <"-
1'?- C -UJC II
'\.)
t"\ <"- <"- <"-


"1 CN -I -..J 1 JOLLM 48A:5(verse)
<"- ..-
7.
C"'\, <"- C"'\, ,
Ol Ol - - -0 - II KGT 43B:3 (verse)
Lesson 11 136'
,
8. II
"
C"\.
II - - 3i -3i -C;- - -3i - 511 Saraha in JOL 139B:6
,
b. English to Tibetan
1. Although [one] goes to the shore of the oceanif [one] does not oneself drink, '[one's] thirst will not be
dispelled.
c.Vocabulary for Memorization

way, manner
d. Verse for Memorization

II
, C"\., C"\.
1<] -(J,-o c;- (J (J -"l <: -c;l

"' .", ,', j C"\.


"l - C-UJ- C.J1:?1
"- ! ,,-' C"\. ,x.
1 c.. q . S.u-l/'J . . c3) 1 DNLS3A:2
Like gold that is melted, cut, and polished,
So should monks and scholars
Fully examine my them,
But they should not do so out of respect.
"-

avo (CC)
should but
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
ltv. tv. tv. (R)
burned cut polished that
RELATIVE CLAUSE

ltv. (LOP)
accept
VERB
n. pI. (A)I
learned one-s by
"' "-"' "- "''' "'

"
n. prep. (LOP)I /adj, (LOP) tv. (LOP)
gold like complete...ly examine and
ADVERB VERB AGENT
"-
C:-UJ-
ppr. (R) ti.]
me of words
DIRECf OBJECT
" "-

n. (RS) iv, -/
respect becauseof is' not
REASON VERB
In. (AO)
monk or
)
j
J
J
j
I
J
I
Lesson 12
1. The Structure of a Tibetan Text
a. The Title co OJ": The title of a Tibetan text is almost always on front side of the first folio by itself.
The title can be quite long and usually consists of two parts: the main title and the subtitle. The subtitle comes
first in the Tibetan and the main title last. The subtitle is often a description of the kind of text itis or perhaps
a poetic praise of the text itself. The main" title is usually a kind of poetic name, which sometimes reflects the
actual nature of the text. There is also a third title for the text, which is often justan abbreviation of the main
title and which is used for the general name of the text. Sometimes, this abbreviated title is printed on the
back side of all the pages.
Itcan be quite difficult to detect where the boundary is between subtitle and main title.Tor example:
It is unclearto me what role the verb q --6 is playing in this title.

'\,.:)
iv, (CP)1
dwell.
VERB (2)
n.
treatise
SUBJECT(2)

'\,.:)
iv, (CP)/I
dwell.
VERB
-..r- , C'...

n. (Q) tv. (R)
gate It calledwhich
INSTR. QUOTE
tv.
including
VERB
n.
liturgy
-c: -..r- C\..,
C
n. (R)
preliminary
tv.
illumine
VERB
e-,

'\,.:)
iv. (R)
enter for
VERB
RELATIVE CLAUSE
MAINTITLE
<,

n. n. adj.
omniSCience path good
DIRECT OBJECT
-r: <, '"

IPN n. (R)
Longchen inner essence of
MAINTITLE
RELATIVECLAUSE
SUBTITLE
e-,
1 -
In. (R) n. (LOP)
learnedness of way in
DESTINATION
,. -. - -
'D-91 1<3-l r:l. - t 1\1-1\1- - -s- -q OJ- q -6 "'r q - 1 11
Main Title: The Treatise Entitled "The Gate for Entering the Way of Learnedness"
Subtitle: --
Abbreviated Title: Entering Learnedness
'\,.:)
-e: , c-, c-, -c: .... e-, -..r-' <, -r-
1 1 -as 0) - -51-1 cO) - f.:\- C.1 -f.:\ l 0)" 0)" CN - q c. -1 1 - 11
Main Title: Illuminating the Excellent Path of Omniscience
Subtitle: The Liturgy of Preliminary Practices of the Longchen Nyingthik
J
}
I
J
I
j
J
J
J
J
I
j
Lesson 12
"" "" "" . "" . ....- '"' v- v- ""
11 -'"'J -4 -"l-l C- UJ - 4 -q C:,- <.: qF5 0) -q.o - cD -'l0) - - - 'l- - "l-
"-'
-: c-, "" v-
COl -"1'q - 0) - q -q 11
.
Main Title: The Ornament of the Intention of Rangjung [Dorje]
Subtitle: The Clear Commentary on the Meaning of The Treatise on Distinguishing Consciousness
and Wisdom
<, <, <,
Abbreviated Title: <3i - UJ - q l- q
138
"" -'"'J -"l-l c.:
In. (CO) ,
consciousness and
DIRECT OBJECT
RELATIVE CLAUSE
DIRECf OBJECT (2)
SUBTITLE/SUBJECT
-:

PN n. (R)
Rangjung intention of
MAINTITLE/SUBJECT
<,

n. (Q) tv.
ornament" called

n. (R) n. n. adj. (LOP)


treatiseof wordmeaning clear-Iv
AGENT(1)
ADVERB
v-

iv. (CP)//
dwell.
VERB
tvn.
explaining'
VERB (2)
-e: c-, -e: -e: "" e-, C'\.-r""'"
1 1 co <J] - -l C - q - <3i t; 0) -l - l -"l q - .:I\ - o-l -q '1 q -q l -,q - - - -l - q - o-l <J] -l C -
. I
"" "" "" -: "" "" "" v- --rC'\. C'\. -r: "" -c:
UJ' - qq - - - 0) - q -q l- coO) - - -l 0) - -O-l c6 q - c - q -q 11

Main Title: The Essence of the Ocean of True Meaning
Subtitle: The Quick Path to Realization of Supreme Siddhi, the Vajra Songs of the Kagyii Gurus,
Bringing Down the Rain of Wisdom, The Spontaneous Self-Liberation, The Blazing Great
Bliss
Abbreviated Title: The Ocean of the Songs of the Kagyiis q'1 0.. - q l- 3-1 '<l.:I:, -31 ffi-
'"j
-v- v- v- "" C'\.
o-lCo)-l-

adj. (R) n. aQI. (LOP) tv. (R)
aupreme of siddhi actual-Iy makewhich
pIRECT .........,__,__,......... V""""",,E,...........
RELATIVE CLAUSE
SUBTITLE/SUBJECT

adj. n.
quick path
INSTRUMENT (1)
C\.
q1 q -q l- -

PN n. pI. (R)
Kajii guru-s of
SUBTITLE/SUBJECT
-e: "" C\.

n. (R)
vajra of
n.
song
n. n.
wisdom rain
DIR.OBJ.
SUBTITLE/SUBJECT
tv.
bring down
VERB
-e:

'\,:)
n. adj.
self-liberation spontaneous
"" ""
q l- as 0)- C - q q -
n. adj. rpr. ivn. (= adj.)
bliss great self-blazing
Lesson 12
'"" -e: :>" C'\. C'\. -..r- '""
- en -
n. n. (R) N. (Q) tv.
true meaning ocean of essence " called
MAIN TITLE/SUBJECT ENDOF UOTE
-..r-

iv. (CP)//
dwell.
VERB
139
J
J
J
j
J
]
J
)
1
J
j
At times the title page will have three lines. The bottom line is the actual Tibetan text name. Above it in the
middle is the Tibetan title translated into Sanskrit, but transcribed in Tibetan letters. Finally, at the top is the
Sanskrit translation of the title written in Lentsascript, which is an ornamental script based on Sanskrit.
On the fITst pages of the text will often be pictures of buddhas, bodhisattvas, lineage holders, and the like;
in particular those that have some connection withthe material of the text. For example, in the Rumtek
edition of The Ornament of Precious Liberation, on the back of the first page, there are pictures of
Shakyarnuni Buddha in the center, Gampopa on the left, and the seventh Karmapa, Chotrak Jatso, on the left.
On the front side of the second page, there are pictures of the sixth Shamar, Chokyi Wangchuk, on the left
and the eighth Situ .TenpeNyinche, on the right. Thus, the Buddha, the author, and major lineage holders of
the Karma Kagyti are represented.
Tibetan folios are usually numbered only on the front side of the pages. For a discussion of the
numbering of pages, see Lesson .. On the back side is usually some kind of abbreviated name for the text,
whichmightindicate:
-e: -c:
1. the type or topic of the text, e.g., "The Preliminary Practices," C0) -
-r: C'\.
2. the source of text, e.g., "The Collected Teachings of Takpo[pa]," J -C-J <: q 1
3. or an abbreviation of the title, e.g., "The Ocean of Songs of the Kagyu," q '1 t:l, - q 'i -3l'i}.J:;: 3-l ffi -
'\,,;) '\.:)
b. The Offering Verse O-l ffi l ., q[l -: Generally, the first line of the. text is a supplication to an
enlightened being-one's teacher, the Buddha, a bodhisattva, or whatever.
Lesson 12 140
c. The Promise to Compose -q .0 - q -: Next, there is often .a verse stating the author's intention
in composing the work.
d. The Table of Contents -q -s l-: A Tibetan text does not have an all inclusive table of contents at
its beginning. Instead it will usually give the major headingsof the whole book (which comprise the -, the
"body" of the text) to begin with, and then give the subheadingsfor each section (which comprises the
UJ - the "limbs" of the body) as they occur in the text. For example, at the beginning of TheOrnament
ofPrecious Liberation by Gampopa, there are six main headings given for the whole book. None of the
subsections of these six main headings are given here, but are given when each section begins. Thus, under
the fourth heading, - "method," which begins on page 21a of the Tibetan text, fOUf subsections are
given at that point:
meditationonimpermanence
the faults of samsara
meditation on loving kindness and compassion
the arousing ofbodhicitta
This first section, "meditation on impermanence," then has three further sections, which are listed:
<,
1.1.

classification
-..r
1.2.

method ofmeditation
....- C'-. ....-
1.3.

the benefits ofmeditation
Yet again the first section, "classification," has two further sections, which are listed:
impermanence of the world, the outer vessel
impermanence of sentient beings, the inner contents
Finally, the first of these last sections, "impermanence of the world, the outer vessel," has two subsections,
which are listed:
gross impermanence
subtleimpermanence
Notice that Gampopa has listed the subsections for the first section of each list and continues to do so until
he reaches a list whose first member does not have any further subsections. In other words, the subsections
of the first section at each level will be listed until there are no further divisions, and then the author will begin
to explain the first section of the last list. Thus, after the listing of headings, Gampopa introduces his
exposition of the last section, 1.1.1.1 "gross impermanence," with:
"- -: C'-. -c: C'-.....- C'-. C'-. C'-. C'-.
- lc--e..J" - "l 0) 1
As for the way of meditating on those: first, the gross impermanence of the outer vessel.
Lesson 12 141
<, <r: C'\. -r: C'\. .....- C'\. C', C\. C'\.


lC--"J-



/dp. pI.
tvn. (R) n. (LOP)/
num.
n. (R) adj. (R) n. (T) ./
those meditating .of meansas for first outter vessel of groosof impermanenc
This is actually a rather lengthy and full introduction to the section 1.1.1.1. When he has finished the
exposition of this first section (1.1.1.1), he introduces the next section (1.1.1 with:
C'\. C'... C'... C'...
-"J -q 04-? -3) 1
As for the second[section]: subtle impermanence
J
J
Inurn.
second
C'...

adj. (R)
subtleof
C'... C'...
3il
n. (T)/
impermanence asfor
I
j
J
J
J
J
J
J
j
)
I
I
I
-Thenhe proceeds to list the subsections for this section (which werenotgiven previously). Oncehe has
finished with this section (1.1.1.2), he will begin with section 1.1.2. and its subsections, and so on.
Oftentimes, only the respective number of the section (i.e., first, second, third, etc.) and an abbreviated
version of the section title will be given, and sometimes only the number of the section itself is given (in which
case you have to remember what the title is from the context or look back to where it was listed). As you can
see, the organization of a Tibetan comrnentarial textcanbea complicated affair and not always easy to follow.
e. The Conclusion or Colophon "]: The concluding section of the text is the closing colophon
'=>
in which the author's name, the date of composition, who requested the text, etc. are included. However,
oftentimes the colophon is actually not the very last part, as usually there also verses and closing comments
concerning the printing of the text, the patrons who gave money for the printing, and the like. For example,
in TheOrnament ofPrecious Liberation, the text really ends on page 16IB:4-5, with a short colophon that
mentions that the text was composed by the doctor Sonam Rinchen at the urging of the monk Tarma Chap.
After this, there are five more lines of verses of aspiration added for this particular printing of the text.
Sometimes, these verses and prose afterthe colophon can be rather extensive and make finding the actual end
of the text a little bit of a chore.
<,
2. The Quote Particle - -
Grammatically speaking, a quote is the direct object ofthe verb. It is what is said.. Therefore, the quote
will generally have the agent preceding it and the verb following it. Moreover, one way Tibetan indicates a
"-
quote is by placing the quote particle - at the end of the quote. Like the particle .., this particle has
three spellings:
<,
- after final letter -l- ':J-
<,
- after final letter c. -"1. - -1':\ - .:I\ - - and vowels
<,
"4 - after final letter -
This particle has several important uses:
a. Quotations of scripture: Quotes of words of the Buddha and other learned and awakened teachers
"-
are very common, especially in cornmentarial and didactic works. As usual, marks the end of the quote..
The quoternay be introduced by giving the author as the speaker, by giving the text name in which the quote is
Lesson 12 142
found, or by giving no introduction at all.
1) Introducing the quote: Usually the quote will be introduced with the title of the text from which
it is drawn, and generally this title will be followed by the source particle - or less frequently by the LOP
particle. Most likely, the title will be in an abbreviated form. Sometimes just the author's name (followed by
the agentive particle) will introduce thequote.
"" e-, "" "" "" "".....-
q4 0) - 1 q ."l ? 0) -04'i - -UJ C.0) -4 q- 'il 1-6 . 1 MM 8:1
In the Suiuillckbu. it is said, "If there is no meditation, there is also no prajfia."
<, <, <, <, <, -e:
UJc-<31-


n. (S)I
n.
iv. (LOP) adv, (T)
n.
iv. 1 I(Q) (CP)I
Suhrillekha from: meditation not exist as also praji'Ui not exist end of quote.
ADV.PHRASE SUBJ. VERB ADV. SUBJ. VERB
UOTE
-e: "" e-, c-, -e: ""
q B - q -0) - -q 1 -'ic-l MM 204B: 1-2
In the it is taught, "The nature of mind is luminous clarity."
-e:

num. (LOP)I
8,000 in:
ADV. PHRASE
""

n. (R)
mind of
SUBJECT
UOTE


n. (T)
natureas for
-r: -r:

n. (CP)I
lwninous [is].
PRED. NOM.
<,

I(Q) (CO)I
end of quote and
e-, -r: e-, "".....-
< q - -cO) - 1 c - 0) 1 -'ic-l MM 279B
.
Nagarjuna has taught: There is not the slightest difference/ Between samsara and nirvana.
e-, -e:


"" -r:

name(A)I n. n. (LOP)I
Nagiunaby samsara nirvana as for
AGENT ADVERB PRHASE
VOTE
In. adj.
differencea little
SUBJECT
iv. neg. iv.l I(Q) etc. (CO)I
exist is not. lend quote etc. and
VERB
"".....- "" .....-
2) Closing the quote: At the end of the quote will invariably be a . 1 or - - 1or
the like. Since scriptural quotations are taken from texts by the Buddha or other equally esteemed teachers, the
verb used for these quotes is invariably the honorific verb -. If more than one quote is being given
<,
from the same or a related text, the first quote can end with -l c.-1 and the next quote will immediately
follow this.
3) Incomplete quotes: If the author is giving only part of a scriptural passage, he can indicate that
.....- "".....-
the text continues by placing the "etc." particle -after the quote, e.g., _. -or
"" .....-
the more abbreviated -() - -, which means" thus itis said, and so on." In any case, it is rare that an
author needs to avail himself of this phrase.
Lesson 12 143
-.r C\... C\..., C\...., C\... , C\... C\... -.r ,
-'i - q -0] -'i- -CT] -q 1 TT
[One] should know the "dharmadhatu" as tathagatagarbha.
<,
1 ------ --- -_. -- - _. MINT 145:3-5
'...:>
Rechungpa said, " "
c. Quotations of conversational speech, or song: The subject who" is doing the speaking as well
as the indirect object (the person being spoken to, which is usually not given, but is understood fromthe
context) are placed before the quotation itself. Sometimes, there isno 4'i- separating the agent from the
quote.
4) Verse quotes: One way to often recognize when a quote is being given is to note if the lines are
suddenly in meter, whereas before they were prose. This is a simple chore of counting the number of
syllables in a line, and if they all have the same number, it is in meter and there is a strong chance that either
the writer has burst into song in the midst of his exposition or that he is quoting a text. Acommon format is
"for a verse to have four lines. (We will cover the different kinds and styles of meter later.)
b. Names, Topics or Quotes singled out for commentary or ""explanation: In commentaries
,,",, <,
or philosophical treatises, -, . ," or . -q - will often be usedto select out a word, phrase, or
sentence for discussion or explanation. In a commentary, this selection can indicate a quote from a root text
, "
that is being commented upon. When a name or term is given, often it is followed by the phrase -q-
'"" e-, <, C', e-, -.r '"

n.(R) n. (LOP) tv. (LOP) avo ./
tatbagata of know should.
ADVERB VERB
, '"

(Q) tvn. (T)
_"what is called
-.r C\... C\...

n. (R) n. -
dhannaof reabn
DIRECT OBJECT
)
I
J
I
I
}
c-,
- 04 Q, - 1 --------- -- -f),J _. -- MINT 77: 3-6
The guru said, " "
In a more informal style of conversation, the quote particle is often omitted, and there is just a verb for ttto
say" after the quote.
'" ,"', '""
UJC- -CT] 0] - 1 84-N- -'i-'i- 5 1MINT 8:7-8

Moreover, one [person] said, "Where does Milarepa live now'?"


C'\. <,
'"
<, <,
UJ c CT] -6CT] -
-

adv.
num.
-
tv. -/ name da.> adv.- ipr, (LOP) iv. tv.../
also one said: Milarepa that now what? at live said.
ADV. AGENT(1) VERB (1) SUBJECT (2) ADV. ADV. VERB (2) VERB (1)
d. Quotations of thought: Quotations of thought often appear without the closing quote, particle, but
rather with just the "thinking" verb.
Lesson 12
[Milarepa] thought, "Because it is the guru's command, I must go."
144
c-, v- v-
q1Q.-
n. (R) n. iv. (A) iv. avo
guru of command isbecause go must
VERB {2}
UOTE

tv. (S)
thinkafter
VERB(3)
Sometimes the thought will be introduced by a noun phrase signifying the thinker or where the thoughts
are taking place (since Tibetan is more passive in it.s notion of thoughts just occuring in the mind).

.. Q.. UJ 'l. - -". MGB 585:7-13
Rechungpa thought, " "
name(R)
Rechungpa of
c-,

n. (LOP)
mind in
[quote]
[guote]

tv. (A)
thinkbecause
ADV. PRHASE SUBJ. (?) VERB
v- e-,
-"'J --- -- - 00 - -- - - - -- KGT 85B:3-4
The sister thought, " "
c-, v- c-,
Q.-
n. (R)
sister of
ADV. PRHASE

n. (LOP)
mind in
[quote]
[quote]
SUBJ. (?)

tv. (S)
thought after
VERB
e. Introducing. a Song:
, v-
0] - 1

The Jetsiin sang this [following] song:


<,
1" ----0 - "- - - - - " - - - c, - - - 0 KGT 86A:4-86B:5
v- <,


ru
r--
0

1
n. (A) n. da. tv. (C)I I I [quote] end quote tv. (A)
Jetsun by song this sang. [song] thus sang because
AGENT(1) DIR. OBJ. (1) VERB(1 DIR. OBJ. (1) VERB(1)
e-,
The demonstrative adjective Q.'l. indicates that the song is to follow. The punctuation mark 1is called a
- 4'l- , "snake stroke." It is often used to introduce songs.

f. A Note on Verbs of Speech: The most common and important verbs for "to say" are:
to say
to say
<,
said (pf. of 'l- -; this idiomatic usage is less common.)
Lesson 12 145
requested, said (nh) (pf. of q -)
'v
to request, say (nh)
to say (h) (pf. c q-)
to proclaim (very h.)
<,
3. The Hypothetical 'Quote Particle- -01 1
<,
b. The AbbreviatedForm: More often than not, the -6.0) - isabbreviatedeven further to just 0).... So
-e: C'\. "" C'\. '"'
1 .3j - UJ OJ- OJ CN - - OJ- CN -UJ 01 -51 MSAC 48A: 1
If [one] asks, "Well then, are [they] different?" [No, they] are not, [because....]
The important thing that distinguishes these verbs is whetherthey are explicitly honorific, nonhonorific, or
neither. For example, the verbs -C-J - is almost always used only when an honorific personis speaking,
and the verb q 1 - fl,J - q - is very honorific and is often reserved justfor when the Buddha is speaking. On
C'\. "'"
CN -UJ 01 -? 1
neg. iv. (CT)I
not .lli:
VERB
and vowels
<,

(Q)
if say
C'\.
UJ01-OjCN-
iv. (AO)

VERB
adj.
other
PRe ADJ.
1
ladv.
well then
ADV.?
<,
- after the final letters c, - 01- CN - -fl,J -
'\
<,
4-01- after the final letter . -

-6, - 01 - after the final letters -l- q -

the other hand, the verbs -C-J- and fl,J, - C-J - are specifically nonhonorific and are used when a spiritually
'v
"lower'lperson is talking toa spiritually "advanced" person. This can be a great help in figuring out who is
talking when the speaker is not explicitly given.
When a large gap in spiritual realization or social status between the two people talking either doesnot
<,
exist or is not being emphasized, verbs such as -q -; -q -, and :l -can be used for both parties.
"'" ""
-6- 01 - is the abbreviation for -6 - - -3j - "if one says ' tl'
a. The Full Form.: The preceding question itself will have an interrogative pronoun or word or will end
with the questionparticle q - . Moreover,oftentimes,a short answer willbe given immediately after this
clause, followed by the reason explaining this answer.
A common format that the author of a commentary or treatise uses is to pose questions to himself, so that
he can point out possible objections or-misunderstandings and develop his subject further in answering these
"'" "'" ""
r- questions. The Tibetan phrase -01 -01- /4-01- is placed at the end of the question or objection. These all
have the same meaning and are simply used after the following final letters.
l
1
I
1
1
J
]
)
j
j
J
J
I
I
I
Lesson,12
often the key to recognizing these can be aninterrogative pronoun (see 8.4. b)or the question particle -
(see 8.S.c) in sentence that ends with 0)-. Thus the questions can look like this:
,

'..J 1 1 I 1 I I 'oJ JOLLM 125A:2-3
How does [one] know that [it] is like this?
[One] should know [this] through scripture, reasoning, and example.
<, e-, c-, <.

UJ5i-C-J.:I\-

Idp. prep.
iv. (LOP) ipr. (A) tv. (LOP)I
that like

what by? knowif [oneasks]
PREP. VERB
DIRECT OBJECT INSTR. VERB
146
e-,
c; -'lc: 1 .:I\ -C-J -l c, -1
n. (CO)I n. (CO)I
scripture and reasoning and
INSTRUMENT
,

n. (C) num. (A)
examplethreeby
<,

tv. (LOP)
know
VERB
....-

avo (CP)I
should.
<,
A closely related form to -6-5i - is % -0) - ("if one thinks") which is used in this same format.
-e: e-, v-
c, - C-J -?l- 0) -ffi l- C-J -% -0) 1
If [one] thinks that emptiness is nihilism...
-r: c-,
15C:-C-J-?l-3j-
n. (T)
emptiness
SUBJECT
VOTE
-r:

n. (CP)
nihilism [is].
PRED. NOM.

tv. (QLOP)I
think if
VERB
4. Excercises
a. Tibetan to English: Using the glossary and notes, translate the following into English.
, c-, -e: -e: , e-, , " -c:
I. 3j - -1c, - - 0) 1 - -l -C-J -f\J - - - l-C-J - l- C-J -15 - - - UJ c, - - f\J - 51- 3j 1
AS in MM 17A:6
-e: "
2. l- f\J - - c - - -q c - C - - 511 c; - - - 51- Cf] -q Cf\J 1 0) -C-J -0] - Cf] - c 1

, v-' -e:
Ql.:I\- -5: - - -q la5: - 5: 1 .
-I 1 . -II'\,,) . -I -\ -\ KJ 27B.2-3
'\,,)
'v- " ,
3. l- UJ c - 'l- - -q - - q Cf\J - 0) - - -0) - II 0) -C-J -3j - 'l-UJ c - -C-J -5i -
-.r' v-
- q CnJ- 1 1 - 1 KJ 27B:6-28A:l

v- c-, c-, ,
4. --- -6 - 3} - l - 1 'l- 'l- - - c -3j - -q -'lc Cf] 3j - -l c, - C-J" OJ -UJ c
'\,,) '-.:)
-e: v- -r: e-, v-,
Cf] . q Cf\J "'l- O-l - c, OJ - l- 1 OJ - r; - . c - - .:I\ - .:I\ -C-J 1 1 - c: -C-J - .:I\ 1KJ 28A:5-6
'\,,) '-.:) '\,,) '\,,)
Lesson 12 147
oral instruction
buddhaactivity
[iv.]
[isl.
[VERB]
<,
51
[iv.] (CT)/
[is].
[VERB]
C'", C'",""\. -r
O-l- ..:I\0l- ffi Ol-O-l <D 1
n. adj. adj.
humanbody precioussupreme
PRED.NOM.
o.
sugata-garbha
PRED. NOM.
C'",
1 - 01-
'\.:)
In. (T)
causeasfor
SUBJECT
""\. C'",
1?0) -01-
In. (T)
basis asfor
SUBJECT
b. English to Tibetan:
C'",""\.""\. C'", -r""\.
1 -Ol-q -51
""\. C'", C'", C'",""\. -:
1I) Ol- 0) - - - Ol- ffi t3) -O-l ffi1
<, C'", <, C'", <, <, C'",
1 Ol-.11- q -q4 -1?Ol- UJ 011
C'", ""\. C'", ""\.
-Ol-l-UJ c.1-51
-.r . C'",

" -v-""\. -r -r:
1 Ol- rxJ -1)1- 1- -1 Ol- ( 11
The cause is sugatagarbha.
The basis is the excellent precious human body.
The supporting condition isthe spiritual friend.
The methods are his oral instructions.
The fruition is the kayaof the perfect buddha.
The activity is working for the benefit of beings, free from concept.
d. Verse for Memorization
c. Vocabulary for memorization
C'", -: ""\. C'", . -r: C'",. C'", <, -.r '"\,
5. MM
4B:3
""\. C'", C'", C'", C'", C'", ""\. - C'", -c: C'",
6. 11-10)- - - 011 - Ol-r- nJ
.
" c-, -: '""""\. e-, C'", C'",C'", -c:
-51 1-1Ol- UJ 1 -"J - -O-l- a ?1 "l q C c.: q -

JOLLM54B:6-55A: 1
]
j
J
J
I
j
]
]
I
J
j
J
j
""\. C'",

In. (T)
condition as for
SUBJECT
<, C'", <, ""

adj. (R) n.
virtuous friend
PRED.NOM.
iv,!
is.
VERB
C'\..

In. - (T)
methodas for
SUBJECT

In. -
result as for
SUBJECT
Lesson 12
" C'\..
l -Ul . l . .
dp, (R) n. -
that of instruction
PRED. NOM.
....- C'\..
E:" . . .
adj. n. (R) n. -
perfect buddha of body
PRED. NOM.
<,
51
[iv.] (CT)I
lli1
[VERB]
1
[iv.J I
lli1
[VERB]
148
In. -
basis as for
SUBJECT
-e: <, -e: ....-

adj.- n. n. -
tvn.> [iv.] I
concept-less being benefit action
lli1
ADVERB PRED. NOM. [VERB]
Lesson 13
1. Tibetan Translations of Sanskrit
We will be covering grammatical points that are especially relevant for readingthe Ti betantranslations of
Sanskrit. However, these points are important for all our other readings as well, for even though this is a kind
of artificial language designed to translate the vocabulary and syntax of Sanskrit, it does influence the words
and style of many (if not most) indigenous Tibetan writings. .
Tibetan translations of Sanskrit can often be so precise that they even mirror the different parts that go
togetherto form a Sanskrit word. Specifically, this involves the separation of prefixes from the root noun or
verb to which they are added, and then giving a Tibetan translation for both the Sanskrit prefix and root word.
For example, the Sanskrit word "vikalpa" (discursive thought) can be broken down into the prefix "vi"
(analytic; wide ranging) plus the noun "kalpa" (thought, imagination). The Tibetan translation for this term
rnirrors this structure and has:
c. Idiomatic change: The root meaning is changed to a new meaning that is unrelated to the meaning of
the added prefix.
anu- (after) +jfia(to know) = anujfia (permission)
This manifold use of prefixes can make it difficult at times to know how or even whether to translate a
particular prefix... For example, <: -(vimoksha) can safely be translated literally as "complete
liberation," but - -q (vi-avasthita) is probably best as just "dwells." One final thing towatchoui
for is that each prefix can have more than one meaning (sometimes very different ones) and that a verb or noun
can have more than one prefix (usually two, but sometimes three). Sometimes all the prefixes are translated
literally into Tibetan, but oftentimes justone of them may be translated.
-e:
(full, complete) for "vi" (thought) for "kalpa."
One thing to note here is that the Tibetan prefix almost always precedes theword (verb or noun) it
modifies and is usually joined to this word bya LOP particle. (Some well-known exceptions to this rule are
,
- - for prajfia and - CO) - for abhidharma, where in the Tibetan translation the prefix comes last
instead of first.)
The trickiest"aspect of translating these prefixes in Tibetan is knowing how this prefix affected the
Sanskrit root word in its meaning. In Sanskrit, when one adds a prefix to a verb or noun, it can have one of
threeeffects:
a.-Nochange: There is no change in the root meaning,. and the meaning of the prefix is to be ignored.
upa (toward) =labdha (attainment)=upalabdha (attainment)
b. Logical change: The root meaning is changed logically to anew meaning by the added meaning of
the prefix.
abhi- (superior) +dharma (teaching) = abhidharma (superior teaching)
abhi-sam-buddha (actual.complete buddha)
samyak-sam-bodhi(perfect,completeenlightenment)
sam-anu-pashyati (he sees)
....
c.8) -C-l - t::" - c.J - c; - -
UJ - 6, - -
1
1
1
j
1
1
I
1
I
I
I
j
j
j
j
Lesson 13 150
- - vi-ava-Iokayati (hesees)
[note that the prefix ava- is not translated in the Tibetan,
whilethe prefix vi- is.]
Having covered some'of the complications of prefixes, the following is a SilTI plifiedguide to some of
the more standard equivalents and meanings of some common prefixes.
<e":

abhi- to, toward; fully; over, superior
<,

anu- after, following
<,

upa- toward; close, secondary

vi- separation.distribution.complete
-.r

sam- complete.perfect

samyak- complete, perfect; proper, right
-c:

pari- complete, general, universal
"'v

pra- excellent, well, proper
"'v
c-,
401 -5
ati-, su- excellent; extreme, beyond, surpassing
"'v
-.r -.r

prati- individually,separately

adhi-, vi- superior, excellent; more
2. Relative and Correlative Clauses
Correlative clauses are independent clauses that "complete" relative or subordinate clauses to form a
complex sentence. For example, in the sentence, "The person who is teaching is a monk," "who is teaching" is
the relative clause. The distinguishing feature about a relative clause is that it can not stand alone as a complete
sentence. Hence, it appears with the correlative clause "The person... is a monk," which is a complete sentence
by itself.
The important thing to note here is that in English we have a pronoun for only the relative clause, namely
"who" (in this sentence). On the other hand, Sanskrit (and consequently Tibetan) has a pronoun for both the
relative and the correlative clause. This would be equivalent to saying in English, "The person who is teaching
he is a monk."
"- "-
In Tibetan (as in Sanskrit) the relative pronouns C - and -IE.. - are used as the relative pronouns, and the
<,
demonstrative pronoun 1- is used as the correlative pronoun. The relative clause will almost always come firs
in the sentence, usually headed by the relative pronoun, and the correlative clause will follow headed by its
correlative pronoun.
"""- """- e-, "' C',", ...- -'," -r '"'4-
. . c -1 -1 -q 31- 41 . C-l 0 .: ffi - - - c
j
- F5 - c; - q -C
1
- C
1
. . c.-I - . ,04 C -,q
UTe 59:13-4
Sentient beings who see the dharrnakaya of the Tathagata in this way see truly.
<,

n. rpr. pI.
- , "- -, "- -.r "-
- q 51 - -4 -C-J In . -
n. (R) n. (R)
n.
<,
- . :r: - ac, - 0'
L-
l
f7' I '-"'t "-J
dp. nrep.> tv.>
Lesson 13 151
sentient being-s which tathagata of
,SUBJECT DIRECT OBJECT
dhanna of kava that like
ADV.
see
VERB
<, C'\. C'\. ""'" ""'"
l'l-0) -01 - r,-\- q -'l- '-\ 'l-lluTfromMM 205A:1-2

The luminous nature of mind is unchanging like space.
-c:

prec.l
may.
VERB'
tv. (LOP)
clear a\vay
""'" ""'"

adj... (CT)/
unchanging [is]:
PRED. ADJ. [VERB]
g -"J - c'-1
tv. rlpr. 1
accumulatewhatever
VERB
-e"" ......

tv. (CP)I
see.
VERB
C'\.

'-::>
n. pp. (LOP)
space like
PREP. PHRASE
C'\. -r: c-,
:l\C,- q -'-\l- -1c, - UJ 0) 1
n. adj. rpr. iv. 1
nature luminous what is

adj. (LOP)
perfect-Iv
ADVERB
""'" C'\.
CN - --0 0) -<8 CN - --0 l. -:Q1 1 -q 2 -.-8 --3 c
1
-

n. adj. (R)I In. adj.


sentient being all of suffering al.l
DIRECT OBJECT
SUBJECT
""'" C'\.
1'l-0)-
Idp. {T)
that as for
SUBJECT
""'" C'\.

In. (R)
mind of.
<, C'\..

Idp. (T)
that by
AGENT
""'" C'\.

In. ppr. (A)
virtue me by
pIR. OB1. AGENT
INSTRUMENT
""'" C'\.

dp. pl. (T)
those as for
SUBJECT
<, C'\. <, C'\.
-0) - -B 1
-q 2 -q JOL 81B:5-6

Whatever virtue has been accumulated by me,


May itdispel all the suffering'
Of all sentient beings.
1
]
l
I
1
J
I
1
I
I
J
1
In a related but slightly different context, these relative and correlative pronouns can be paired up with
words to make them function as relative and correlative adverbs. They are used inthe same way to introduce
the relative and correlative clauses. Common pairs of relative and correlative adverbs are:
as much, many as ...just so much, many
C'-. C'-.. C'-.


C'-. C'-.


Lesson 13
"'" " C'-..
l .5 -/1- (
1
0) -
<,
1-
"'" C'-.

'"" ""
1-
m
-
152
just as, like ... just so, thus
as much as ... just so much
as long as ... just so long
when ... then
C'-.. C'-. -r: ......, C'-. C'-. -: .... -
-15 -..'\1 - - -n.J - q 1" .I, '='j - q q C
1
"l "l n.] 01- (l lOll JOL
Just as the Buddha trod thepath, so I will tread the path.
C'-.. C'-. -e:



rpr. prep. n. (A)
n-.
iv. prep.
what like buddha by path tread like
conj. AGENT D.O. VERB
<, C'-.. C'-. -r: ....-

r.q 3-l -

dpr. prep. ppr. (A)
n.
iv. (CP)I
that like lne by path tread.
adv. AGENT D.O. VERB
C'-. C'-. C'-.
Note that the relative clause begins with and ends with 5<: or - as well. The or - is
common, but not absolutely necessary.
"'" "" <, C'-. c-,
11- 1- - 1AT inMM 6A:6
As many world realms as there are,
They are all created by mind.
C'-."" C'-. C'-. ""
l-"Jl
In. n. (T) rlpr. 1
worldrealmhowever many
DIRECT OBJECT
Icpr. adj.
that manyall
DIRECT OBJECT
n. (A)
mind by
AGENT
tv. 1
written.
VERB
"" -c: v- C'-. "'"
r; - ro- c
1
-
c.
1
' err "1':" 1 RN in 101. LNR:4
'.,:.
When[oneJdocs not find a thing,
Then no"\' could there be a nonthing?
I
11 c - - c; "Er. -::J . 3J - - (,,}1
,I I I I
]
I
I
1
I
I
I
j
1
I
I
Lesson 13 153
/rpr. n.
neg. tv. I
when thing not found
ADY. DIR.OBJ. VERB
<, <,
-..r-
....,
lC
j
" c6-

Icpr. n.
ipr. (LOP) iv./
then nonthJ.ng ho\Y] be.
ADY. SUBJECT ADY. VERB
3. -Exercises
a. Tibetan to English: Using the glossary and notes, translate the following into English.
C'\.
1.
C'\. C'\. C'\.
-UJ - q -c6- <i 1
C'\. -..r- C'\.
11- - O-l - -0 1
C'\. -r: C'\. -r:
-5C:-C--J -?l-I- ell BV v. 57 (verse)
,,,;)
'" -r: -..r-"""
2.
<r": c-, C'\.
1 - - Cf) -OJ -O-l- "l 0) C--J 1

'"
11 -cD - - - -CN 1- 1
C'\.""" C'\.
1
c., q'l C--J- O-l c, - - oral
I I -I BCAinJOL142A:4(verse)

C'\. '"' C'\.C'\. ' C'" C'\. "" C'\.


3. ---1c; - f.\ 1 - -UJ Cf) - -1- CN -1)1" ro 0] -?1--00)-9 r; -1 1c: -CN -?1"C--J -1- - qc: -q -

C'\. -..r- C'\. C'\. -..r-""" "" C\.
CN cD Cf) -?1--03) -I C:-1 1c, - - qc -q-I -5c, - C--J -CN cD 3)- ?I -. ,51 -9 c-1 1 c-BC - -1 -CJ
1
1- - C\ -

C'\. -c:
O-l ro 3) -?l- -0 Cf) -3) 1 SBD 11462:2-5
C'\. C'\. C'\. '"' <,
4. 14 r; - - 1-C--J - -0) -CN - r; - 51
'--=>
"" C'\. "" C'\. ""
c; - q - -5 1

""" C'\.
19- CJ -1 - -1 <c, - C--J - -0) - C:-1
<, "" C'\. <, C'\. <, <,
1 - -1- -1- -q 1-"l 11 KP in MM66A:2-3 (verse)
5. 1 - - -I c.-?01- - c, - - - O-l c, -1
'"' -.r C'\. -c:
11-10)- 4
JN
- - C<J 0) c. -1 SCG in MM 34B:3-4 (verse')

-..r- C', C'\. '"'
6. r; -11-5C:. ?1-
C'\. C'\.
1
-c, -n-.g -"l . CN - 1
I I I 1)-1 -\ BVv.72 (verse)
Lesson 13
b. English to Tibetan:
c.Vocabulary for memorization

d. Definitions ro 51 -?1 for memorization:


154
-.r- '"'-,

principal mind
<,

'-:>
mentalevent
skandha,heap

feeling
perception
<,

'-:>
formations
<,

consciousness
"- "-

dependent arising
-.r- ..........- C'\. .... ,
10) - c:-q-
that which is aware of the fact of an object
..... "-

that which is aware of the specific qualities of an object
1- -I.:l., c
1
- -
'-:> '-:>
many things gathered together

1,-:> I '-:> ''-'
that which is able to be a form
-e: c-, e-, e-, "-
q -q -?1- -651 - c
'-:>
a mental event that has the nature of experiencing
C'. c-, "-
51 - -
'-:>
a mental event that grasps to characteristics
..... e-, c-, c-, "-
-q - -?1-
''\.:)
a mental event that has the nature of movement
c-,

that which is aware of an object
"- -e:
- 3j - -f5 -3j - q - -
'-:> '-:>
that which exists in dependence upon causes and conditions
CO\.
Most imperative forms are easily recognizable. However, the imperative form of the verb e, "to
'"
-e: -r -r

ppr. - dp (LOP) iv.(LOP)


n. n. -
tv. -/
son that to goand being benefit do.
VOC. LOC. VERB DIR.OBJ. VERB
iv:]
stay.
VERB
tv. -/
rest.
VERB
'"

dpr.prep. -
that.like
ADV.
ppr. (R) n. (LOP)
my placeat
LOCATION
-e: '"

ppr. - ppr, (R) -n.(LOP)
son you of mind
VOC. DIRECTOBJECf
ppr. - time -
YQY fewyears
AGENTNOC. ADV.
-r '" '" -e:
KGT 58A:3-4
Son, rest your mind in this way.
-r -r CO\. -r
...
I "' ." MINT89.17,
Stay at my place for a few years.
'" -r -r-r-r
KGT58A:2
.Son, go there and benefit beings.
Lesson 14
CO\.
do" is -. This is not to be confused with the agentive particle . -.
b. The imperative particle: This particle has the same three spellings as the indefinite article (see 4.7).
1. The Imperative Mood 1\1-
The imperative mood expresses a command. The recipient of the command is generally undersood to be
"you," as in "(You) look at that!" It is most commonly formed in three ways:
a. The imperative form of the verb alone: It is especially common. in songs and verse to have the
imperative form alone without the imperative particle. Sometimes even a verb that doesn't have an imperative
form will not have an imperative particle and will have to be understood from the context as an imperative.
If there is more than one imperative verb, most commonly they willbe coordinated by the LOP particle
--
To make the imperative negative, one simply adds .31-before the verb. '
I
I
I
1
]
]
]
j
I
I
I
I
I
J
J
CO\.
<T) - after final letter <T) -l - -

<T) - after final letter c.-<3) - -t':\ -.:I\ -().J- and vowels

"1 - after final letter -


Lesson 14 156
It immediately follows either the imperative form of the verb or the present form of the verb (if there is no
imperativeform).
-r-r -r -r -r-r -r -r
.. MlNT 89:2, 5, 7,10
Benefit beings. Train in ejection of consciousness. Cross the bardo. Practice the view and meditation.
n. n.
being benefit
DIR. OBI.


tv. (IP)/
do!
VERB
n.
ejection
DIR.OBJ.
-r

tv. (IP)/
train!
VERB
-r -or
q.J;.c;.
n. tv. (IP)!
intenned. state cut!
DIR. OBI. VERB

MlNT76:13
Rejoice!
-or -r

D. D. tv. (IP)/
view meditatioD practice!
DIR. OBI. VERB

iv, (LOP)
rejoice
VERB


aVe (IP)/
do!
-r-r -or
... MINT 77:16
Relax your mind and speak!
-r -r -r




n.
tv. av, (LOP) tv. (IP)
mind relzx do and speak!
D.O. VERB VERB
c. The imperative
particle l c.
This particle is not used very often in classical texts, and only occurs in contexts that reflect the spoken
language. It is a polite way of asking someone to do something.
" C'\. "
... d5' Q1. Q1 Q1.I\1. 1\1. (lkq'). Q1 C. c.. .
1 1 I --I 1 1 1 KGT91A.4-5
He said, "Please say [it] condensed into one word."
"
C'\.
"-
"l -6"l 1\1-


n. num. (LOP)
tvn. ia.
tv. (IP) tv.
word one in condensed a mplease
m
ADV. VERB
DIRECT OBJECf VERB
VOTE VERB
Lesson 14 157
This form expresses a wish or desire that something may come about. It is between a command or
imperative and a request. It is usually translated as "May [such and such] occur." It used in two ways:
d. The of supplication "l .':;) . -':;) .
These verbs literally mean "to request, supplicate." They are often used as auxiliaries to add the meaning
of "I request you to... " or "Please ..... It
"
C; KGT l03A:l
'=-
Please give that to me.

'=-
av,
, request

tv. (IP)
regest!
VERB

'=-
tv. (IP)
regest!
VERB
..,.. ..,....,..
-1
Lazy son, please offer some devotion.
VERB

tv..(LOP)
give to
n. ia.
blessing some
DIRECTOBI.
-r

n. ia.
, devotion some
DIRECTOBI.

ppr. (LOP)
me to
1.0.
n;
lord'
VOC.

n. adj e .
sonlazy
VOC.
"
lC;-
Idp.
that
D.O.
-r -r

'=-
Lord, please bless [me]...
2. The Precative Mood
1
I
j
1
I
I
I
I
I

a. With the use of at the end of the sentence: Note that the main verb (in
'.. .'
which case the meaning is "May [such and such] be or come about.") or more commonly it is the auxiliary
verb to an immediately preceding main verb, which is usually connectedto the auxiliary by the LOP particle.
Since the main verb is in the the LOP particle is invariably _.:1\ -.
" ""
- - - 1-<1,- <1 <11- <1 -
.,=-
, .
1 <1 -1 c;: -<1.:1\ - --s
"
... C.
" "..,.. .'
l? - - -1c: f\1- -<J? - - -C.J.:I\- ..:I\ - PL 5A:3-6
Mayall sentient beings enjoy happiness and the cause of happiness.
May they befree from suffering and the cause of suffering.
May they not be separated from excellent happiness devoid of suffering.
May they dwell in great equanimity, free from passion, aggression, and prejudice.
<,

In. adj.
sentient being all
AGENT
Lesson 14
"' '" t\,

n. (CO) n. (R) n. (CO)
happiness and happiness of
o
cause with
DIRECT OBI.

tv. (LOP)
possess
VERB
158
t\,

'-:)
(IP)
may!
1 . f\1 -'1 c:
n. (CO)
suffering and
DIRECT OBI.
t\,

n. (R)
suffering of

n. (CO)
cause of

tv. (LOP)
be free
VERB
t\,

(IP)
may!
"' t\,

In. iv. (R)
suffering not exist that
SUBJEcr (1) VERB!l)
RELATIVE CLAUSE
"' .

n.adj. (CO)
happiness best from
DIRECT OBJEcr (2)
t\,

neg. tv. (LOP)
be separate
VERB (2)
t\,

'-:)
(IP)
may!
'" t\,
l?- c:
In. n. n. (CO)
prejud. passion aggress. from
DIRt OBI. (1)
RELATIVE CLAUSE
t\,

tv. (R)
beseparate that
VERB (1)
-r "'-r
iDot-
n. adj. (CO)
equanimity great in
LOCATION(2)

neg. tv. (LOP)
dwell
VERB (2)
t\,

(IP)
may!
b. With the use of 1"ClJ at the end of the sentence: 1"ClJ is the imperative of t{ r; . <r - "to come."
As the marker for the precative, it can also be connected to by a LOP particle. If there is
no main verb, the sense is "May [such and such] be or come about. "
t\, t\,-r
1 t":\ - l- - f:\ - -1 -1 MINT 99:2

May the auspiciousness of the Kaju gurus be present!


t\,

'-:)
n. n. (R)
Kajii guru of
SUBJEcr ?
t\, t\, -r -r -r -r
'1- - cl5 - f:\ . - - -1 Decication of Merit
May [I] free beings from the ocean of existence.
t\, t\, -r -e: -r

n. (R) n. (S) n, tv. (LOP)
existence of oceanfrom being(s) liberate
EXCLUSION DIR. OBI. VERB

(IP)I
may [I]!
Of course, as always, these forms can be abbreviated, especially in poetry. For example:
-r "' "' -r -r -r
1 . t":\ iDC: iD 3)0- <f] -t":\ 1.4 c;: <:

May [1] quickly attain the state ofVajradhara.


Lesson 14 159
-r '"' '"' -r

/PN adj. - n. -
Vajradhara great level
DIRECT OBJEcr
.

adj. -
quick
ADV.

tv. (IP)/
attainmay!
VERB
Much less commonly, this particle can be used after nouns. '
a.' The Temporal Particle -0} :This particle occurs right after the root of the verb (withou.t r..J" -).
In addition to the particle <3i- (which has no literal meaning), there are several words which can literally
mean "time," and which are used like verbalparticles to mean "when," "at the time of."
(TI)-
time
After the verbal root
$-
atthattime

-
iv. (R)
live of
VERB


n. (LOP)
house in
LOC.
After the verbal infinitive
"

"
-r
"
'" "
-r
""-
..:I\-


neg. adj. (R) n. del- iv.{TI) n.adj. det. - iv.
.
not virtuous thought each arose when pebbleblackeach placed.
SUBJECT VERB DIRECT. OBJ. VERB
'"'
-r
'" " '"'
-r
"
?CfJ - -.:1\-
/adj. (R)
n. del
iv, (TI)
n. adj. det.
iv.
virtuous thought each arose when pebble whiteeach placed.
SUBJECT VERB DIRECT. OBJ. VERB
ppr.
YQ!!
SUBJ.
-r "
a5-.. KZ8B:6
When you were.living in a house....
"''' '" -r"
-. - -C; - fl. - ? . ..:1\ - a - ... Ol- c; -Ol - ..:1\
" -r . " . " .-r"
11 -'l f:\ -? "l - -l1:1\- _. KZ99A:6
When each unvirtuous thought arose, he placed a black pebble.
When each virtuous thought arose, he placed a white pebble.
"
b. The Temporal Word a5-
The verb can be connectedto thetemporal word by the relational particle, but the temporal is notfollowed
by any particle.
'3. Temporal Particles and Words
j
j
]
1
I
I
j
I
j
J
J
1
J
1
J
I
Lesson 14
'"'
KZl24A:2
When several days had passed...

'"'


cDl
n. adj.
iv, (R) (TI)/
daysome gone of time
SUBJECT VERB
160
After the verbal root

'-.)
c. The Temporal Words and
"
Both these words have the basic meaningof "time." The verb can be connected to the temporal word
by the relational particle, and the temporal word followedby the LOP panicle - or '\J -. Or either one of these
particles (the relational and the LOP) may be used without the other one. Thus, there are four possible
combinations, all withthesame meaning:
After theverbal infinitive


"
-e:
-?Ol - -J ..:1\-1 -J -'\J -?Ol - -c:; 1

-c:; - -Sr; - - - - - - S. .c; 1
'-.)

q J - 0} . .:I\ - c: - - -c; 1

- -J - - UJ -15 "l - - - - -S. "l .c:; 1

- -c; -,- 31- <'i-'\J - -c:; KZ6A:5-6B:l
'-.)
When listening to/thedharma, one should be like a wild animal listening to a sound.
When contemplating, one should be like a northerner shearing a sheep.
When meditating, one should be like anidiot savoringa taste.
When practicing, one should be like a hungry yak eating grass.
When attaining the fruition, one shouldbe likethe sunfree of clouds.
-c:
-
J-'\J-


"
n.
tvn, (R) n.,(LOP)
n.
n. (LOP) tvn, prep. ia. iv./
dharma listening of time at wild animal sound to listening like a should be.
DIR.OBJ. VERB AGENT D.O. VERB
TIME PHRASE PREDICATECLAUSE VERB



"l - - "l

'-.) '-.)
tvn, (R) n. (LOP) n. (A)
n.
tvn, prep. ia. iv./
contemplatingof time at northernerby sheep shearing like a should be.
VERB AGENT D.O. VERB
PHRASE PREDICATECLAUSE VERB
..,..

..,.. ..,..


.:1\-


" "
tvn, (R) n. (LOP) n. (A)
n.
tvn, prep. ia. iv./
meditatingof time at idiot by taste tasting like a should be.
-r -r
... .. - KZ 15A:4
"
when previously the Buddha came into the world...
_PREDICATE CLAUSE
VERB
161
VERB
VERB
c; cfi{\J 1
IVa -/
should be.
iv,!
should be.
VERB
-
q. S
rvn.prep. ia. -
eating like a
VERB

iv. ([I)-
came when
VERB
AQENT D. Q.
-r

o.(J\) 0.-
yak hungry by grass
AGENT O.
-r
,31-
0 .. (A) n, - tvn, prep. ia. -
sun cloud from liberated like a
0,0, S: EXCLUS, VERB
PREDICATE CLAUSE
PREDICATE CLAUSE


"
n. (LOP)
world into
DIRECTION
Lesson 14
n. -
buddha
SUBJECT
adv, -
before'
ADV.
VERB
TIME PHRASE


n. (R)
fruition of
NOUN


'-i
tvn, (R)
practicingof
VERB
TIME PHRASE
TIME PHRASE
1
I
I
1
I
]
I
r
-r
KZ llA:6
at this time when you have met with theholydhanna...
can also literally mean "occasion," "context," "situation." Hence, it is commonly used with the LOP
particle to mean "in the context of."

... MSAC49B:2
...in the context of the mind only proponents...
)
]
j

adj. (R) n. (CO)
holy dharma with
DIRECT OBJECf
. .

n. adj.(PP) (R)
mind only' proponent of
DIRECT OBJECf

-
tv. (R)
meetingof
VERB

o.(LOP)
context in
VERB


n. da. (LOP)
time this at
d.The Temporal Word -l-: This word ,which literally means "interval, in between," can be
"
used with both phrases and clauses and can have twomeanings: "during" or "until," "up to."
After the verbal infinitive


"
After the verbal root

"
Lesson 14
1) "During":
" "
"J - - -C;- -- KZ9A:3

during countless aeons...


162
" "
'=J 1"J-
n. adj. (R)
aeon count-less of
PREP. PHRASE

n. (LOP)
interval in
..,.. "
---'=J l "l - "l <: - c.-(:J -(:J.l\ -"l ell -c;- 1 MOB 578:14-5

During the time I went to India, where did [you ]stay?
..,..
"




'-:) '-:)
ppr.
n. (LOP) iv, (R)
n.
n. ipr. (LOP) iv./
I
India to went interval place what at stay.
SUBJ. LOC. VERB LOCATION VERB
2) "Until," "up to": This use of (:J.:I\ -C;- with verbs is rather strange, in that it requires that the

preceding verb have a negation particle, even though no negative meaning is added.
..,....,.. "..,.."
r -'=J - c. - -l- -c.<3l- "J - - C; - - "J-'=J - C; '=J _. - NTNO 19A:5-6

[We] supplicate[the buddhas] not to pass into nirvana until samsara is emptied.

'-:)
n. neg. iv, prep. (LOP) n. (S)
samsara emptied until anguish from
SUBJECT VERB SOURCE
PURPOSE
"

neg. iv. (LOP) n. actv.
not pass beyond so that supplicate
VERB
VERB
e. The Temporal Word 31- -: This word indicates that the action of the preceding verb has just
happened, and that the action of hte following verb takes place immediately.
" " "..,.. ..,..
(:J C;31 0). 31- -.l\ -SO)- -- MINT 76:17-8
Immediately after receiving the oral instructions, the Jetsun went into retreat.
" "

n. (A)
Jetsiin by
AGENT
n. *
oral instructions
DIRECT OBJ.

tv. ??
listen to as soon as
VERB
C"\. ..,..

n. (LOP)
retreat into
LOCATION
iv.
went.
VERB
" ..,..
r::; -<1c.-3-I- .
I I MRMS 9B.1-2
'-:)
Recognize [the thought] as soon as it arises.
Lesson 14 163
'"

dp.
that
SUBJ.

'-.)
. ??
IV
arose as soonas
VERB
tV.
recognize
VERB
4. Exercises
a. Tibetan to English: Not all of these are complete sentences.

1. -- - -KZ 18A:3-4
'-.)
'" '" ..r
2. . .. t:;] OJ. c..[,J. C). ,C)" OJ. J 1 KGT lOOA:6
or ..r '" -e: . "'''
3. --s 1- c; - '1-1-? Oi 1 <3) . <3)- - - -1 .. ...
'-.) . . .
JOLLM52A:4-5
or '" '"
4. <3) - - Sc <3) -:ac 1 -

'"
q 8) -lJ - [j QJ - MINT92:16-7
<"'- .<"'- or ..r ...
6. r; - - -QJ - - <J -lJ -'.:l\- - -- - KZ 132A:4
'" '" or..r or or '"
7. q l- q - 1 QJ - C;.- - -3-t.
c
8) -lJ <: -lJ - - a -Z- --GCZL 3B:5
b. English to Tibetan:
c. Vocabulary for memorization
d. Verse for Memorization: Memorize the four line verse of aspiration given in 14.2.a. above.
Lesson 15
I. The Use of Honorifics
In Tibetan, the proper use of honorific and nonhonorific forms is very important. When refering to a
person of exalted status or even in being polite or formal to another person, one always uses honorific words
for refering to that person and even for refering to the material possessions and mental disposition of that
person. For oneself or for others who are family, intimate acquaintances, or children, one uses nonhonorific
language. Thus, many words have a different word for the honorific and nonhonorific form,
a. Nouns
nonhonorific

t'\. '"
UJC:; -
..,..

1fi c:..


honorific meaning

body
Q, ot
eye
c;S
head

mouth

tongue

mind

clothing

foot, leg

hand
..,..

mind, intention
b. Verbs


to eat
to give
to do, act
to say, speak
Many of these same honorific words are used as honorific markers for words that do not have their own
honorificfonn. They are thus not to be translated literally.
a. Things associated with the body: is used as an honorific marker.
physical body
physicalhealth
Lesson 15 165
kindness (this seems to be an exception)
b.States related with mind: - is used as an honorific marker.



mind,intention
sadness
l
,
1
I
I
1



c -SO} - -

- - SO}- - 1- -- KGT52B:2, 3, 4 (verse)
His body blessed my body...
His speech blessed my speech...
His mind blessed my mind...


3) - 1- --
lin. (LOP) n. (A) tv. ,,-I
body (nh) body (hon.) by -blessed.
DIR. OBI. AGENT VERB


lin. (LOP) n. (A) . tv. -I
speech (nh) speech (hon.) by blessed.
DIR. OBI. AGENT VERB


lin. (LOP) D. (A) tv. -/
mind (nh) mind (hon.) by blessed.
DIR. OBI. AGENT VERB
2. The Reflexive Pronoun .:I\ C
This pronoun literally means "self." It is used in a variety of ways.
a. With personal pronouns: Generally, the does not add a reflexive meaning to the personal
pronoun, butthe meaning with or without the .:I\C-, is the same. However, if there is a secondSf-after the
personal pronoun, then the meaningis reflexive.
b. With nouns and verbs
1).With an agentive particle: The agentive particle is usually omitted.
r
J
I
you
'" cC; -.:%\c -
r-.1\C-
we
he, she, it
self-cleansed,cleansedbyitself
Lesson IS
self-liberated, liberatedby itself
self-arising, self-existing, existing by itself
self-enlightened, enlightenedby oneself, S: pratyekabuddha
self-insight, self-[existing] awareness
166
2) With a relational particle: Of course, this particle can often be omitted as well.
one's own body
, its own mark, characteristic
its own essence, self-essence
3) Following a noun: In this context, the can mean "only," "alone," "just," or "itself."
"
31- Sc; KGT91B:6
"-.)
If I am not to die yet, I will practice only the dharma.
..r
"



Sc;
"-.)
ladv.
neg. iv, (LOP)
n. rpr.
tv.
W
not die if dharma only do.
ADV. VERB DIR.OBJ. VERB

... . -0l- .? - . l r . c, . UJ 0) ... KGT92A:2
All is impermanent just like this.
n.
everything
SUBJECT


adj.
impennanent
PRED. ADJ.


dp. rpr.
this just only
PRED. ADJ.
iv.

VERB
This particle can modify a verb, in which case it appears after the verb (generally in its infinitive form)
and before the following verbal particle or auxiliary verb.
"
MRMS9A:5
One should simply not wander.
" S
neg. iv. adv. avo
not wanter just should.
VERB
" ..r
..-l . . d) . q . r .0) . .. TSND
...by just prostrating to that one...
I
}
"
dpr. (LOP)
that to
INDIR.OBJ.
Lesson IS
"l -f:\ -r-- 0}
tvn.adj. (A)
prostrating only by
VERB
167

4. The Abstract Particle , l-


This particle is used after nouns to make them an abstract noun or a reflexive noun. It can generally be
understood as meaning "<ness," "_hood," or "itself." It is equivalent to the Sankrit suffix "-m" or "<tva.. "For
example:




emptiness, sfinyata
dhannaness, dharmata
mind itself, cittata
'"

"'.,..
l- r -eli -?l-
thusness, tathata
thatness, tattva
buddhahood
At times, this particle can be used to mark out the topic or subject of the sentence, much as the topic
particledoes.
5. The Diminuative Particle
When added to certain nouns this particle denotes the smaller or younger version of that noun. This
particle has several variant forms, namely S- as well as J-' and The particle S- (which
means "son, boy; child") seems to be the main form from whichthe others derived.
Q,J - king
-nc.:
'lJ - ox
- - prince
- calf
1
J

(
1
Whereas this form S-can be added after any final letter or vowel, the other forms generally come after
specificfinal letters.
a. - - is added directly to words that end in a vowel. If the word's main vowel is an "aft or an Ito, U it
is generally changed to an "e'Tbut the "a" can also change into an "i
ff
) .
'"
15-
- an ax -asmall ax


-aman
31 f:\-
- a dwarf, midget

-a bird

- a small bird
.,..

- husband, man

- a male infant
b. Usually, the other fonnsare used to reduplicate the final letter of the preceding word..
young
- a nail
f3i0l-0l-

'"
- a young person
- a small nail
Lesson 15 168
However, most of these forms (especially -) can be used after words that end in vowels or in

similar type sounds (e.g., - can occur after a word ending in c. -). Finally, note that these panicles can be
>
used as simple noun particles withoutdenoting the smaller or younger version of that noun.
- bell
- wolf
-paper
- a living being, person
6. Numerals
The Tibetan numerals are modeled on the Sanskrit numerals upon which our own so-called "Arabic"
numerals are based (the Arabs having borrowed themfrom the Indians). Thus some of the numerals are
easily recognizable (such as the first three).


?
.s


'2.l

C;-

C/

c- Lf <-s ?o

7. The Comparative Form of Adjectives


Oftentimes, there is no comparative form of the adjective, and the comparative meaning is indicated solely
by the source particle f\J - or the comparative particle q -. However, there are a number of important
adjectives that have a comparative form.
"'
-r-
"'

great

greater
-r-

many

more
-r-

good

better
8. Milarepa's Three Vows: Using the glossary and notes, translate the following.
-r", '"
?


q l "l -"l - Ol- -Sq lqC; "l "l f\J -c.<3} - q "i "l -

-r- -e: -e:
Q, l- -f\J -lC.- - - 1C) -C; C.-ll-

'"
C/ - - f\J - q- - lqc; "l "l -f\J <3} - - -roC;-
'-! '-.)
-r -e:
Lf "l -
'" -r-", C"\,.
.s -q 15 <3} -q- Ol- - - -q Cf\J - T' .:I\-t-J-

1
J
I
1
Lesson 15
'" '" or
-v - -6"l 1-6 -"l 1 <3) ffi<J- -6 <J - -<J UJ

'" or '" or or or or '"
-"l 1<T) f\J -? <J <J cDC; -6"l <3) -5-
.
or or or
eG 5>0) - -Lj C - l- <T) - 1 KGT

b. Notes
Line 1: .:I\C refers to Milarepa, and beginning with Milarepais talki-ng to himself.
169
'"
="within this life"
- -<J :l\ - C;. - See 14.
.
-
Line 9: - is a question particle. With -, "to.understand," it fonnsa kind of colloquial rhetorical
question, "Do you understand?"or "Do you get it?"
On the verb see 17.5.a.l).

1 c. Vocabulary for memorization


{
J
l
);
I
)
170
Lesson 16
1. Verbs: -
The verb in Tibetan is called a , literally"action word." There are two main kinds of verbs, called
<, C'\.. <, C'\.. C'\.. C'.
- 1- -11- "J - . -, "a verb for which the agent and action are separate" and l- - -ll-"J - -$
"a verb for which the agent and action are not separate." For now, we will refer to these two kinds of verbs as
C'\..
$3 -11- "J. ,"separative," and $3 - -11- "J-, "nonseparative."
a. Separative Verbs: or separative verbs are defined as verbs for which "a separate agent
actually or directly performs an action uponsomething." This definitioncorresponds nicely with what is called
a "transitive" verb in English. Atransitiveverb is one that directly transmits its action to an object; hence a
transitive verb is said to take a direct object. For example:
C'\.. "-.r -.r -.r
- - .;:j r; - 04 -as -q i5 0) -51
The Buddha taught thedhanna to the monks.
C'\.. '"'" -c:

n. (A) n. pI. (LOP)
buddha by Inonk-s to
AGENT INDIRECT OBJ.
n.
dhanna
DIR.OBJ.
-.r
qf53i-51
tv. (CP)/
taught.
VERB
In this sentence, "taught" is a transitive verb that has "the dharma" as its direct object. The "dharma" is what is
"taught" and so directly receives the action of "taught." The buddha is the doer or agent of the action, and the
monks are the indirect object, as it is to themor for themthat the action is done.
Thus, it appears that all separative verbs are transitive. However, the Tibetans cut up the pie of verbs such
that notalltransitiye.. verbs areseparative, nor are all intentional verbs separative. These points will become
clearer in the presentation of the nonseparative verbs. For now, we could summarize separative verbs as
follows:
1) Transitive verbs
... t. entionajverbs of ac.. t... iO. n:. to read, teach, study, hit, etc.
b.Qntentionapverbs of to look at, listen to, etc.
C'\..
b. Nonseparative Verbs: Now we come to the more difficult part. A a- -ll- "3 - or nonseparative
verb is defined as a verb for which "as there is no actual separate agent, an action is accomplished withrespect
to something by its own nature or power." There are two key points here:
1. The agent and action are not separated, i.e, they do not act on somethingoutside of themselves.
2. The action takes place by its own nature or power, i.e. there is no external or extra effort requirec
to accomplish the action.
1) No Separation between Agent and Action: The first criteria fits in with the definition of
"intransitive" verbs, i.e., verbs that do not transmit their action to someexternal object. The action is
inseparable fromthe subject. For example:
Lesson 16 171

r - - - - OJ - --s j -Q. f\] -f\] 1JOL
"
All sentient beings of the three realms are confused.

r . O-l . - . -s OJ - . -s 1-
n. num. (R) n. adj.
realm 3 of ' sentient being all
SUBJECT
-e:
o. i\l . f\] 1
"
iv. (CP)/
areconfused.
VERB
intentionally togo to sleep
unintentionally to fall asleep


iv.l
turns, is, turned.
VERB
n.
wheel
SUBJECT
(-r-t,'1 ___
.
are all classified - -lj-e.J. or nonseparative:
In this sentence, the verb "to be confused" is intransitive, since it only relates to the sentient beings themselves.
Another classic example is:

The wheel (or: The wheel is tumed.)
Here, the wheel and its turning are inseparable. Moreover, as the sentence reads, there is no mention of
someone, some agent, turning the wheel. Thewheeljust turns by itself, so to speak. This brings us to consider
the second aspect of nonseparative verbs.
2) Unintentional or Natural Action: The second criteria emphasizes the or
"natural" quality of the action. Hence, there are several transitive verbs thatareincluded as nonseparative
verbs, primarily because of their fitting the criteriaofbeing "unintentionally" or "naturally" accomplished.
a) Intentionalvs. Unintentional: "Intentional" emphasizes the subjective side, 'the decision 'to
actin a certain way. Unintentional has no particular object in mind.but this is notto say that nothing happens.
Things can just take place by themselves, which does not meanthat there are no causes, but ratherthat the
, central role of any scheming subject is de-emphasized, ifnot altogether dismissed. Many intentional and
,
unintentional intransitive verbs are both classified as -11-e.J. For example, the following intransitive verbs
f
J
II
/
1
}
1
I
1
!
1
J
intentionally tojump
unintentionally tofall
b) Naturally Accomplished: For many verbs there are two closely related forms that have the
same basicmeaning, but one expresses the active or causative function of the verb and the other expresses the
passive or fruitional sense. For example, an active form would be "he accomplishes [something], "whereas
the passive form would be "[something] is accomplished. "Theactive/causative form can signify either that
one is in the process of doing something (the active sense) or that, one is causing ormaking something happen
(the causative sense)/On the other hand, the passive/fruitional meaning signifies either that something has
Lesson 16 172
been. completed or finished (the fruitional sense) or that something just happens (unintentionally) or is made to
happen (the passive sense).
to establish, accomplish [something] ell -)
CO\.
[something] is established, accomplished O-l"
to tum [something] 'l-"J ")
CO\.
[something] turns, is turned ( "O-l -ll- "J ")
to establish [something] by reasoning e
ll
-
C'\.
[something which] has been established by reasoning O-l- 'll-"'l-)
'J, . 10 d t' e
.....,). CO\.
Passive/Fruitional (B -O-l ell" -)
.:.r
In this last example, whereas the first verb has the sense of requiring effort and being in process, the second
verb has the sense of being beyond effort and of fruition. Of course, this fruition state might be in any of three
times, "has been established," "is established," "will be established." However, the grammatical structure of
these two clauses is basically the same./In both cases, the instrument is "reasoning," the direct object is
"[something]," and the verb is "establish," which is a transitive verb./This is how the English and Sanskrit
grammarians would analyze the grammatical structure. '
A few examples of these related pairs of verbs are:
'::1rr<)," ,,2 1'-b (i
-....,..)
Active/Causal ( ell - -)
--r -r:

to cause to tum

to turn
-c: -r:

to place, arrange

to be placed, arranged

to cause to change, transform

to change, become
'\..:)
CO\. CO\.

to obscure

to be obscured

to accomplish

to be accomplished
'"j '\..:)
-: -c:
:jf\J-q-
toliberate

to be liberated
<r": --r

to cut

to be cut
-r: -e:
Lj-q"
to cause to change place, transfer

to change place, migrate
<,
1.:\ q q - - to cause to descend

to descend

to cause to blaze, ignite

to blaze
<, <,

to cause to increase

to increase
l1 - -q 0) -'l10) -C-,J - CJ 1 KGT 80B:3-4 (verse)
'"j ',:I
If one practices with hardship, what is rarefiv:.ill be accomplished.
'(i-S
2J \
) Lesson 16 17:3
\
f
l1 .q '. q j q - Oi .

n. (A) tv. (LOP)


difficulty with practiced if
ADVERB VERB
n. -
what is rare
DIR.OBl.

-, ::J
tv. -/
is accomplished.
VERB
-e: -r: C'\,-..r-
.. -c- - 'i - c- - - 'i -C-J- -- TSND6A:2
Thoughtransmission is given, [they] do not get it...
neg. tv.
not receive transmission
VERB

tv. (CC)
give transmission although
VERB
\
J

l :
:eareo. ther.. n.onseparative.ve.rbS thoat are notpart of a separative/nonseparative pair, but which still have
. .' senseto them. For example:
!
tofind, obtain
toattain

-; '..
c. UninteIitlonal Transitive Verbs: There are.certain transitive verbs whose classification even the
modemTibetangrammarians do not ..--
... . .'. .' .s ..J
:tc.
First of all, boththesekinds of verbs are ftt4eAaJ, and so fitthe criteria of the actiontakingplace by its
own nature or power. However, they are also fears, andcraves .

surprisingthat oneTibetangrammanan classifiesthese verbs as"separative," whereasanotherclassifiesthem
as "nonseparative.' .\" Onethingto note about the. "'.

)
I
I
d. Summary Chart:
A. Separative Verbs
1. Transitive verbs
aC.'il ... verbsof action: to.read, teach, stu.d
y,
Strikee, etc.
b(intentionalJverbs of perception: to look at, listento, etc.
J
-..r- <". v-- -........ -..r- . -.r- -..r-
For example, the .q 'i - - cD 'i -(f) <31- - dictionary see," - lito hear," etc.
@ . . -e: _ C',_ . _ -.r _ C'\, .C'\._ C'\, _
as nonseparative verbs, whereas Kelsang Gyurme in his modern grammar, q l q 'i "l 'i
-........ -..r- C'\, C'\,
.x)q - .. - c, -, classifies them as separative [cf. p. 369],and.the'i - - q j .dictionary
<, <, t-;
classifies "verbs that are connected with an agent," which they define in the
same way as separative verbs [cf. pp. 536-7]. These respective differences of classification also apply to
the category of verbs of -
174
I
Lesson 16
t
onseparative Ver s
1. Intransitive verbs:
of motion: to jump, run, get up, lay down, enter, arrive
toendure, dependon, dwell, etc.
. ..n.. '.'.:,)VerbS to be hungry, thirsty, hot, bored, angry, etc.
to fall, toappear, toarise, die, etc. ,
2. Transitive verbs:
a. passive/fruitional forms of transitive verbs: to be obscured, liberated, etc.
, b.nte.ntiGR.a}lverbs of perception: to see, hear, smell, know, understand, etc.
c. verbs of emotion: to desire, fear, ho e, doubt, crave, as ire for, etc.
C'\.
Most nonseparative or a c34 -ll-"J - verbs do not have an imperativeform, since you cannot command
someone intentionallyto do or naturally)
In terms of understandingthe structure"'oFTibetan sentences, the most important distinctionis whether the
verb is (these terms will be explained below). The reason is that the structure of the
sentence andthe used will be different for these two kinds of verbs. Therefore, this should
always be the first question you ask in unraveling a Tibetan sentence.
............ _)
:= ts )
2. Verbs that Use - for the Direct Object
IJ
There are a number jhat use the LOP particle for the direct object. I suppose that this
X structure could be likened to what are called "phrasal" verbs in English. A phrasal verb is a verb that must
occur with a certain preposition. Examples from English are: to look at, to look into, to meet with, to set up,
throw up, laugh at, be afraid of, etc. Besides these types of verbs, Tibetan seems to also use this LOP particle
for direct objects of verbs.Qf verbs Thus, I have alphabeticallyorderedthe
following verbs in three categories. These should be taken with a large grain of salt.
x
I. Verbs of Emotion (=: d..d. Vedf.s)
--- 1- qC'\1- c34 - '\1- 1- -- KZ 19A:5
'-.;)
to be afraid of just suffering
:=.
-c: " -..r -r: -r:
KZ35B:6
I feel like laughing at, the phenomena of samsara,
-r:

to Jikg"'a friend f
C'\. -.r
--- 1-"J -'\1- l- -- KZ 123B:3
to feel remorse for evil deeds
. -- - --- KZ 6B:l
to be attached to a sound
.. ..... ;'1.l,....F'.;."(r..,''''',.,'

--- c- . - - q F5 0) -C-J - - a'"l . 'll --- KZ 14A:5


not have faith in the teachings of the Buddha

1,l----.....-
,1

Lesson 16 17.5
1
j

to hate an enemy
"" -r:
l - - - --. JOLLM 15.1
delight in virtue
<,
---
to love a friend
C'.. "' ...... C\; -e: "" C\;"' C\;
U.J l- ---l10) - - -ffi - - U.J l- -_. KZ'23A:2
the faith of confidence in the' three precious jewels
b. Benefit/Harm ( U b,'-..l )
-e: -r: C'.. ""
--- - - -O-l- _. - KZ 13B:l
aspiration for the dharma will not arise
... ...
- - ---a:1 0) -0) 0). --- KZ lOA:6
to besefita sick person with medicine
J
t
}
1
"' C\; ...-
KZ9B:l
dees-nctbenefit 'the'nl'ln<.f
I.>
"' C\;
--- CN - - -C(J 0) - -- KZ 6A:5
to not benefit the mind
""""""._.-,i(:.ti9...
t
J
c. Phrasal
MSAC49B:2
'\..:> ,...__ .._.__.__.._ _ ,._,... .v ... " ..... " ..
to refute a school of thought
.... .' C\;
1 "l -10) - i-l.a) - - lKZ I1B:5
One should;...oo)lt . livingbeings.
(.",lr;,
Verbs
}
1
I
)

skilled in means
-e: C\; C\;
as. - a CN . --6 c,-:'11- c6 -,.. c, - - 34 --
'J I '. - I ? I I. KZ 19B:5
learned in the definitions of all dharmas
-e:


Lesson 16
-e: '" -e:
15 c -?l- - -_. KZ 99B:3-4
become familiar emptiness
JOLLM 14A
to be habituated to evil actions
176
<, " -v-" "
JOllM 14.2
( i tv.) to ascertain the dharma
)
c-, C'.. -e: -e: " C\." " "
'-\. C, "J '-\ - c; -l:.-J. t'\J CN -:rn - c, - "J. -"J _.. .
-..J I I I ASlnMM17A:6
the mind does not !2rge!.. things that it is familiar with
KZ6A:6
to listen to a sound
-=
" c-, -v-
l '-\ -C Cf] - -?CJ) 1 KGT 103B:2
Listen to their words.
'" -v- C\."
%c; - - - -- -%c- - --- KZ 101A:4
persevere the dharma (' .,)
<, "",,,
q?")-C-J- KZIOB:3
in dependence upon compassion
KZ9B:l
to examine these profound meanings
C\."
l-t'\J - -_. KZ 7A:6
'\.,;) '\.,;)
to closely examine one's mind
f5 -q . - - - - CN - t'\J - -q - - - MGB586:4
to look at the guru
- - -31 OJ -c. 31 - q OJ ."l - - - KZ 19B:3
not attending to the oral instructions
r-, <,
.. -a5 - -CN - 15 0). C-J. -- KZ9B:2
not attending to the words
C\."
- - - c, 3J rj, -C1 '-\ - q'l c, 5::
1
- (n - q'l - r-, - - -
I I I '.l I KZ 27B:4
touching the bottom of hell
-.r "'-.r
KZ 148B:2
bite a small vein
1
I
1
)
1
}
1
1
j
q%O)'.
'\,,;)
Lesson 16
-.r
KZ12B:3
"-:)
experiencesuffering
<,
11 "J- -1 -0) - JOL passim
if one divides up faith....
<,
--8 - -Q.q 11 MRMS IOA:I
exert oneself in the means of dispelling...
-e: '"
- -1 -q -/1,J - Q. ql- "J - -- KZ 19B:6-20A: 1
exert the three gates in virtue
'" -e: CO\. CO\.
__ KZ6B:3
the mind chases after discursive thoughts
-.r <r":
JOLLMILIO
joined to the best
'" c-, c-, c-, '"
3-1 <3) - -13-1 -"J Q. - c; - E, --- JOLLM 7.9 .
compassion that takes sentient beings as its object
e-, CO\. CO\.
- 3-1 Q. -q '1 Q. - -QJ -3-1- q%- q --,- KZ 11B:3
not taking account of the guru's kindness
-QJ -q.%<3) - - --- KZ 20B:6
'\,,;)
to exert oneself in the dharma
- - - 'Ql UJ,.:I\ - - Ql- t:: - 3-1- (3\'1 " , , .
I WIIiI/Po\ I I 'J -,KZ39B.5
........ '\,,;)
don't hold to borrow"ea things as one's own.
-.r '"
MGB 597:15
to be distracted bythe show
<, CO\. <, <,
- - -1 -q - -q -/1,J - UJ /1,J -q -3-1
1
-"J -- - MGB 623: 15
not distracted with respect to virtuous activities
1'77
<,
---.g - 1-
1
.(,1- - -- q 1 - CJ

know everytiiffig as egoless


-C-,J - MM37B:6-38A:l
J
J
C\. CO\. -.r -.r ......- '"
---c - c -9.:I\ - q - - -- MGB 619:13
studied the mantric teachings ofthe Nyingma
Lesson 16
.. JOLLfv112AorB
trainin the path
"'..... C"\..
--- -r - -n-J - -C-,J 1 MSAC 47A:6
conternplatingsuchness...
178
3. Compound Verbs
a. Noun and Verb:

-c:

-e: <,

<,

C"\..

b. Activizing verb:
-e: <,

to waste
0) -t1,J. q -C-,J-
toestablish,determine
C"\.. <,
to rest

tobelieve
tosupplicate

toprostrate
<,
topractice

toundertake
"-:)
C"\.. C"\..
toperfect

to bless
tohann
c. Negation of compound verbs:
not to waste
not topractice
, Jr
l
4 .".
J
J
Lesson 17
Warning
Rather than a lesson per se" this section is a tentative venture into the complexities of Tibetan verbs and
their auxiliaries. I make no pretense to being able to explain many ofthese forms, since oftentimes I do not
understand them fully myself. Rather, I would like to share some rudimentary observations ofcertain
patterns. My sense of this area is that there is aninteresting assortment of colloquial forms mixed in with
purely written forms and that there may be certain patternsthat reflect the speech of a certain historical
period and/or a certain region of Tibet.
1. Past Auxiliaries
There are numerous auxiliary verbs that can indicate a simple past tense. Since most stories deal with
something that occurred in the hoary past, this tense is a very commonly used one.
CO\.
a. The Past Auxiliary <i UJ 1 is added directlyto the root. This can be a confusing auxiliary. On
CO\.
the one hand, it might be mistaken for the linking verb UJOj- -. Indeed, there are times when it is difficult to
CO\.
say whether UJ 5)- is the main verb or part of the auxiliary. For example, in the English sentence, "he is
waiting," is "waiting" the main verb with "is" as the auxiliary, or is "is" the main verb with.twaiting' as a
CO\.
participle? On the other hand, even if we are sure that -UJ 5) - is the auxiliary verb, there is still the question
of whether it indicates the past or the future tense, since it is commonly used for both. You may wonder
what good it is, as I have, since ultimately you have to look at the form of the main verb and the context to
determine the tense. Be sure to checkthe spelling-ofthe main verb to see if itiseitherpast or future. If it is
a one-rooted verb or the past and future formsare identical, then you have to rely on the context.
CO\. CO\.
MGB 588:17
I didn't go to India.
1
y
I
}
-12\ -11.J-
PN (LOP)
India to
DESTINATION
'CO\. CO\.

neg. iv. av./
not went.
VERB
1
Ii
}
CO\.
This example is a case in point. The main verb <3l- is the past tense of the verb -q -, "to go." So
. CO\.
this is just as much help in figuring out the tense as the auxiliary e.J - UJ OJ -. Note the position of the negation
particle before the main verb.
-e:
b. The Past Auxiliary Ithas
several uses, one of which is simply to indicate past tense Gust as in the colloquial language). It generally
occurs right after the root of the verb.\
t
I
CO\.
- - - I1.J - 1- c:], I1.J - c, - q - - - MGB 598:5
[he] crossed a mountain pass
'0- aill/aJ'.q'
-..J _____
n. num.
pass one
DIR.OBJ.
Lesson 17
.....-

tv. avo
crossed.
VERB
180
"-
c. The Past Auxiliaries 9- and 01-: Unlike the other auxiliaries, these two emphasize the fact
that the action has already been completed and done with.
C'.. <, <, -r:
- q -q 4'l- 51 JOLLM 113A:5
'\..:)
[This] completes the explanation of being physically isolated from busyness.

'\..:)
n. (S)
busyness from
<, <, -e:
'lq01-"J-
ivn. tv. av. (CT)/
being isolated explain finished.
SUBJ. (I) EXCLUSION
DIRECT OBJECT (2)
VERB (I) VERB (2)
-e:
d. The Past Auxiliaries UJ 9- and l ': These two auxiliaries occur generally after the root of
'\..:)
verb. The auxiliary 9 - also has another important use as an auxiliary, for which see below. These two
'\..:)
uses seem to overlap at times.
-: e-, -e:
_.- MGB 415:12
"'-i '\..:)
[He] was practicing in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar.
-c: "-

n. PN. (R)
lake Mapham of
LOCATION
-c:

n. (LOP)
direction in
n. tv. avo
practice did.
DIR. OBJ. VERB
"'" "- "'"
-- MGB 598:6
'\..:)
I have been distracted for quite a while.
"'" "-
<,
c

'\..:)
ppr. dp. adj. ia. iv. avo ./
!
that just a was distracted.
SUBJECT ADVERB VERB
"-, "- ...- c-,
--- 9- -q 01- -q -UJ 9" .. UJ 01- .- MOB 586:8
This is what the Jetsun carried...
e-, , "- -:
"-
UJ 01-
dp.
n. (A)
tv. avo
iv.
this Jetsun by carried
lli
SUBJ. (1) AGENT (2) VERB (2) VERB (1)
PREDICATE NOUN (1)
J
l
j
Lesson 17
2. Future Auxiliaries
C'.
a. The Future Auxiliary "J - UJ <3) -: As noted above, this auxiliary can be confused with the linking
verb as well as a past tense auxiliary. Note in the last two examples below that the future tense is also
indicated by the use of a second auxiliary verb, i.e. -q - and -<r , indicating.the future tense!
'.,;)
-.r C'.
- -"4 c -q -UJ 0) - --- MGB 588:3
Will [I] fit. ..?
-.r C'.
4c -q -UJ 0) -3j
iv. avo (AO)
to fit will ?
VERB
C'. -e:
- - -q 4'1- "J -q -UJ 0) -0) 1MSAC 47 A:5
[I] will explain...
181

tv. (LOP)
explain
VERB
C'. -.r

avo avo (CP)/
will/should.
!
J
C'.
--- 5t; -q q -UJ <3) -.e..J --- KZ 25B:5
'\..;) '.,;)
[oneTwill fall, ..
\
j
J5C-
"'\j
iv. (LOP)
fall
VERB
C'.

'.,;)
avo avo
will
C'. -e:
b. The Future Auxiliary -UJ 0) - and UJ '1: Like the future auxiliary - (see 9.6 and 9.7)" the
'\..;) '.,;)
particleji after a verb will make that verb future tense, which in Tibetan usually has a passive tense..
, '.,;)
Therefore, a literal way of translating these auxiliaries could be "is to be done" and "exists to be done." At
times, thinking of these in this literal way can help in figuring out the grammatical structure of the sentence.
"" -.r
l q C -l C - l C - l -"J. - q -UJ C - - - UJ 'll MINT 89: 17-8
'\.:)
1will bestow most excellent abhishekas and oral instructions.
t
I
l q C -'1C - l -C - 'l-"J -q- UJ c
n. (CO) aad]. (CC)
abbisheka and instruction special also
DIRECf OBJECT
""

'\..;)
tv. avo
give to be
VERB
iv./
exist.
1
1
i
Using the future passive form, one could read thisliterally as, "Most excellent abhishekas and
oral instructions exist to be given [by me]."
Lesson 17
C'... -e: '"'
KZ 42A:1-2
"'v
It will not be difficult to abandon evil deeds.

5c::q-fl.Jo
n. tvn, (LOP)
evil deed abandoning as for
D.O. {I) VERB !l}
REFERENT (2)
iv. avo
be difficult to be
VERB (2)
iv./
not exist.
The particle - can also be used to form a kind of passive infinitive or a noun,like the auxiliary --

v- '"'
--- - .L:j - Oi - 'l-.- TSND lOA:6
"'v
There is not even a hair on which to meditate.
v-

"'v
n.linfinitive?
to be meditated upon
SUBJECT

"'v
n. adj.
hair just
<,

neg. iv.
not exist.
VERB
v-
c. The Future Auxiliaries -UJ 'l - and - 'l :

- fl.J -l c::i 0) - q "l " c.-l - 0) -"l - UJ l1 MGB578:15-6


"'v
Where do we, master and disciples, go now?
v- v- -c: v- v- v-
'l-

ppr. n. n. adv. ipr. (LOP) iv. avo ./


we master disciple now what to? go will.
SUBJECT ADV. DESTIN. VERB
d. The Future Auxiliary and These verbs literally mean "to go" and "to
come" respectively. As auxiliaries, they can indicate what is "going to come."
C'... -e: C'... -r:
---q 1 KZ23A:l

They will not enter the gate of the teachings.


C'... -e: C'... -e:

"'v
n. (R) n. (LOP) iv. (LOP) neg. avo ./
teaching of gate into enter not will.
DESTINATION VERB
'"' v- '"' v-
-3j - rol-q - -- MOB 624:11-12
If you do that, obstacles will be dispelled.
Lesson 17
183
<, -e: <, -e:
-J5.:1\-


Q,C:
dp. prep.
tv. (LOP)
n.
tv. (en avo
that like did if obstacle turn back will.
ADVERB VERB (1) DIR.OBJ.
<,
On the use of the continuative particle between the main and auxiliary verb, see lO.2.b.l )a).
C'\.
Iii e. The Future Auxiliary .: This enigmatic form seems to occur in contexts where one is
) volunteering or promising to do something. This is probablyareflection of some colloquial form.
-.r C'\.
q - C. - t1J - C. Q1 - - c:. . q -Q"l, - - - os sss
" '/ I I I -1,/ -I MGB 599.4
Son, if you like entertainment, I will show [you some].
AGENT 2) VERB (2)
-e:
q-

"
n.
n. (LOP) tv. (LOP)
son show like if
VOC. D.O. (1) VERB 1
ppr.(A)
me by
tv. avo
show will.
-e: -.r C'\.
--. CD . .:1\- q t . -- MGB 622: 13
[Ilwill enter [you] in the gate ofdhanna.
-e: -e:

n.'n. (LOP)
dhanna gate into
DESTINATION
tv. avo
enter will.
VERB
3. Present and/or Durational Auxiliaries
C'\. C'\. C'\. C'\.
a. The auxiliary of duration - 3J - 0(: The use of this particle is to designate
action that is simultaneous with or continuous during the action of the main verb. While it is often thought
of as indicating present tense, it seems that it can be used in a past context. It has a different spelling based
on the lastletter of the preceding syllable.
C'\.

after

C'\.

after

C'\.

after

C'\.

after - or a vowel
,
t, Note that it often connects up to a second verb. In the next two examples, it is followed by the existential
I verb, which also gives the main verb a sense of duration.
-.r C'\. -e:
---Gl - 0) -UJ 'l- -t1J - -- KGT 84A:5
while he was meditating...
-r C"\.

tv. (D)
meditat-ing
VERB
Lesson 17

iv. (S)
exist while
VERB
..

-r C'\ -v-
. UJ c, - 0) -UJ 'l- -- MINT 77:8
the son is coming...
-r: C"\. -r:
q-
UJ'1-

n.
iv. (0) iv.
son com-ing exist.
SUBJ. VERB VERB
-e: -r C"\. C"\.
n..] - -"]- - -q -- TSND 9B:3 (verse)
The yogin who destroys his meditation is excellent.
-e: -r C"\. C"\.



n. n.
tv. (D)
adj.
yogin meditation destroy-jng good.
AGENT DIR.OBJ. VERB PRED. ADJ.
C"\.
The linking verb UJO) -C-,J - has been omitted at the end of the sentence.
C"\. C"\.
b. The present and durational particle q 0) -: This particle can occur in many ways-s-f 0) -,
C"\. C"\. C"\.
'l-, or q -C-,J-. It can also occur in conjunction with the linking or existential verb-
q


C"\. C"\.

C"\. -e:
- - - - q - -C-,J --- MGB 584:2-3
'\.:I
he came, saying...
C"\.

'\.:I
tv. (D)
say-ing
VERB
iv.
came
VERB
C"\. C\.-r
- - - - 0) --- MGB 597:6-7
Rechungpa went, his mind unhappy.
C\. C\. -c:




'\.:I
PN
n.
neg. iv. (0) iv.
Rechungpa mind not happy-ing went.
SUBJECT SUBJ. VERB(1) VERB(2)
The noun . - actually goes with the verb -, indicating a "mental" state of unhappiness. I
suppose it acts as a kind of secondary subject.
Lesson 17
185
v- C'\. ,
---t: - - 0} . -C C . l ..-- KGT 94A:4
" " "
[they] were manifesting miracles...

""" """
n.
miracle
DIR.OBJ.
-e: C'\.

tv. (CO)
manifest-ing
VERB
iv.
were
4. Intransitive Auxiliaries l -and '1 -
'\..:)
a.The auxiliary verb This important auxiliary can indicate personal knowledge, discovery,
"
certainty (just as in the colloquial language).
C'\. C'\.
- - - C - - q -co I --c - C - - --- MGB 579: 1
" "
...the obstacle of pride has certainly arisen...
C'\. C'\.
q '1 - --(; I- - C - r - - 0) --
" " "
The source of all goodness is certainly the guru.
C'\. C'\.

n.(R) n. ia.
pride of obstacle an
SUBJECT
avo
certainly.
VERB (2)
C'\.
d)
iv. (LOP)
is
MINT 79:5
n.
guru
PRED. NOM.

" "
iv. avo
arosecertainly
VERB

" "
source
n.
<, <, C'\.

n. adj. (R)
goodness all of
SUBJECT
I
J
<, -e: <,
MGB 598:12
"
Mypractice would certainly become distracted.
n.
practice
SUBJECT
<,

iv. (LOP)
be distracted
VERB
avo
certainly.
b. The auxiliary verb I -: This verb seems tohave the same use as. - above.
'\.:)
C'\. -c: '" v-
- .:t:. - - 3i - -'1 0} - I -I - - 1 MGB 598:20-599: 1
- '\.:)
[My] going to India has indeed become futile.
C'\.

PN (LOP) ivn. -
India to going
SUBJECT
Lesson 17
-r: <,
\O)-eNl-l-
"-.;)
n. (LOP)
meaning-less to
DESTINATION
'<] l Q, 1
iv. avo -/
gone indeed.
VERB

186!,1
\l
'" . . "
l- q OJ - -u,] c,: -'<] l Q, 1 MGB 625:1
Jetsun, you have now become old.
adv, - n. -
now JetsOn
SUBJECT
1- UJ C- -
n.> (CC)
body as for
SUBJECT
iv. avo -/
be old indeed.
VERB
5. Other Verbs and Auxiliaries of Interest
a. The auxiliary verb c -q -: This verb can be used either as a main verb signifying "to occur,
'-.:I
happen, arise" and is often used with the occurrence of feelings, perceptions, experiences, states of mind,
and the like. It can also be used as an auxiliary verb to indicate tense.
1) Feelings, states of mind, etc.
v- C'\.
-"1 - - c; - q -
"-.;)
C'\. "
UJ I -eN -en -"1.:I\ - c, -
'-.:I
-e: C'\.
"l q - - c, - <i
a desire arose
disbelief arose
nausea arose
whatever arises in the mind
<,
a) Other related verbs: The verbs -q - , 4.:I\ -q -, and c q - (all meaning essentially "to
-e:
arise") plus the verb 4.:I\ -q -, meaning" to escape," are also, like c; -q - used with the OCCUITence of
'-.:I
feelings of states of mind, etc.
C'\. "

C'\.

C'\.


despair arose
depression arose
an experience arose
a cry escaped
2) Auxiliary verb for past tense: This auxiliary can occur after the root or infinitive form of
the verb, or can be connected to.the main verb by a LOP particle, the particle Sl- , the coordinating particle
'-.:I
C'\.
and probably even others. It seems often to occur with unintentional verbs.
"" -e: C'\.
---d4 - -"J - C1 zr -l'"aC- - q c- ---
UJ -I '-1 KZ27A:4
'-.:I
a large fire was burning...
Lesson 17
<.
'"
-r: e-,


'\,.:)
n. adj.
iv. (CO) iv.
frrelarge burn-ing was
SUBJECT VERB
--- t1.J-l- -q --- MGB 427:9
'\,.:) '\,.:)
[he] met. ..
187

'\,.:)
tv. (LOP)
meet
VERB

'\,.:)
avo
(past)
I
1
1
l
"'- .
KGT 83B:l
'\,.:) '\,.:)
death did not come
c-,
- -
'\,.:) '\,.:)
iv. infinitive? neg. iv.
die to not happened
VERB
KGT 95B:4
'\,.:) '\,.:)
[they] could not eat [him].
- -
'\,.:) '\,.:)
iv. infinitive? neg. iv.
eat to not happened
VERB
v-
b. The Auxiliary -q ': This verb literally means "to experience." However, when it is used as an
auxiliary verb, it gives the meaning of "ever" or "at some time in the past" to the main verb. For example, if
you ask, "Have you ever been to Tibet?" and someone replies, "No, I have never been," the sense of "ever"
and "never" are indicated by the use of the auxiliary <ij c. .<::J .
-e: v- v-
- - UJ l- - q -- - SG 572:1
[it] has never been stained...
n.
stain
SUBJECT

iv. neg. avo
exist not ever
VERB
-e:
c.The Verb r; -q -: This verb literally means "went." It is used commonly to indicate changes or
transformations. In English, we use the verb "become" in this way, as in "He became enlightened. "
Lesson 17
"'"
.
'u I 'u --I-II KGT 84B.6
'u
His body became like a skeleton.
n.
body
SUBJECT
"'"

n. prep. (LOP)
skeleton like to
DESTINATION
-e:

tvI
went.
VERB
d. The auxiliary verb -"J -: There are two meanings of the verb ."J . One is intransitive,

"to enter," and has a past tense of The other is transitive, "to enter" as in "to cause to enter," and

has a past tense of <J -. The latter verb is sometimes used as an auxiliary to mean "tocause" the action
"".
of the main verbto happen (similar to the causative use of l- "J-).
- - - q O-l-l" q -"J .. - MGB 427:2

[he] had [him] meditate... (lit. "entered[him] into meditation")


6. Exercises
c-, -e: "'"
1. c. - - . -"J - l CN -c. - c. - c. - 3j . i! .CN II KZ 42A:6

-r: e-,
2. 1 -"J - c. 3j -l"CN - C." c -1
'\,;) '\,;)
-e: -or
l? - -<J c; -'l- C.- q 1 KGT 39A:6 (verse)
'\,;)
-or -or
3.
<,
1
aJ - c:a;; - c. -q CJ - CN C.l
-I I I KGT 64B:2 (verse)

I
J
Lesson 18
1. Poetry
a. Meter: In Tibetan, poetry is indicated by the same number of syllables per line. In ancient Tibetan
poetry (e.g., the Tunhuang manuscripts), lines offive and six syllables predominated. Later, due to the
influence of Indian poetry, longer meters of seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, and even seventeen syllables
occur. However.themost common meters used are of seven and nine" syllables.
. In terms of rhythm and often meaning, the syllables of each line (of the more common seven- and nine-
syllabled lines) are grouped into pairs except for a final triplet, and the firstsyllable of each group receives
theaccent.
In translations of Sanskrit, four line stanzas (so-called "shloka" formjare the standard format. In
indigenous Tibetan poetry, both two and fourlinestanzas are common, but often there is not a consistent
stanza format.
b. Punctuation: Lines of verse will generally have a 4l- both at the beginning of the line and atthe
end of the line.
c. Abbreviation: This is one of the most important and initially frustrating aspects of Tibetan to learn,
as Tibetan simply abounds with abbreviated compounds .andphrases. This is especially true in poetry
where, as we have seen in Lesson5.?, words are often reduced to two and three syllable groupings.
1. Omission of the relational particle: This is definitely the most common grammatical
particle that is omitted. Not only is it often omitted between between two syllables, but it is also commonly
omitted between two groups of two syllables. In fact, when you have a problem figuring out the .
relationship between two syllables or two groups ofsyllables, the first grammatical relationship to try is the
relational. Remember that an omitted relational particle could have several roles-. It could indicate
possession, connect a preceding adjective to the noun it modifies, or connecta preceding relative clause.
2. The coordinating particlef r; -: Next to the relational particle, it seems the next most
commonly omittedparticle is the coordinating particle l r; -.
3. The LOP particle: This particle can be omitted between an adverb and verb, a prefix .and word"
between verbs, and so forth.
4. Omission of parts of the words: Even a final syllable that is essential in determining the
meaning of the word can be left out. Usually, this omitted syllable must be determined from the context.
Forexample, ~ ~ -~ e-- is the name of a Kagyu school. In a list of other Kagyii schools, it can be abbreviated
to just . ~ ~ - which byitselfmeans "tiger." However, from the context, one can readily understand that tigers
are not being talked about here, and so ~ " ~ -is most likely an abbreviation for another word, namely
~ ~ - ~ e - - .
5. Omission of the verb: Sometimes, you will be faced with a verse that seems just like a
C\.
seamless stream of nouns. In this context, it is important to remember that the linking verb UJOi - ~ . is
C\.
commonly omitted, and that in sentences with UJ 0) - -as the verb, word order is extremely important. For
example:
Lesson 18
" c\" C\"" -e: .-r
?l" 0). - 1
C\"" -e: c\"-r'
c : CJ - - - -
-r C\,,"' -e: C\"
1 04 -? - 0) --s - - .ffi -1f.:\ - CJ 1
"" c"\,,, -c: C'... -:
11 CJ) - <T] - - -1f.:\ -1 OJ 1 MM 212A:3-4
Coemergent mind is the actual dharmakaya,
Coemergentappearance is the light of dharmakaya,
Coemergent thought is the waves of dharmakaya,
Coemergent inseparability is the truth of dharmakaya.
190
"C\" c"\,,,

In. adj.
mind coemergent
SUBJECT
C\" "

In. adj.
appearance coemergent
. SUBJECT
-r C\""

In. adj.
thought coemergent
SUBJECT
"" c"\,,,
11 - 1- <3) - - . -
In. adj.
inseparability coemergent
SUBJECT

n. adj. I
dharmakayaactual.
PREDICATE NOUN
-: C\" -c:

n. (R) n. I
dharmakaya of light.
PREDICATE NOUN
-: e-,

n. (R) n. I
dharmakaya of wave.
PREDICATE NOUN
-r C\" -e:
1"11
n. (R) n. I
dharmakaya of truth.
PREDICATE NOUN
Note the repetitive vocabulary and structure of these lines. This is not uncommon.
dl Filling out the meter: It is not always easy to come up with exactly the number of syllables
required by the meter. This is particularly true in the Tibetan translations of Sanskrit texts, and less so in
C\"
indigenous Tibetan compositions. In particular, the topic particle 01- is often used in Tibetan translations to
help with gaps in the meter. Thus it adds no meaning to the translation and can be ignored. The concessive
particle c, - can also serve this function, and the separate syllable spellings of the relational and agentive
C\" C\"
particle, i.e. UJ - and UJ -, are commonly used to add another needed syllable to the line.
e a. -Translations from Sanskrit vs. Tibetan compositions: It is helpful to keep in mind whether
the poetry you are reading is a translation from a Sanskrit original or is an indigenous Tibetan creation. The
translations tend to be much more formal and heavily influenced by the peculiarities of Sanskrit grammar,
whereas the latter can be much more loose and influenced by Tibetan spoken forms, This is just a general
guideline, but a comparison of the Tibetan translation of the verse of Shantideva's Bodhicneryeveur and
the verse of Milarepa can be quite revealing.
Lesson 18 191
r
1
\.
;'
f ~ . Suggestions for reading poetry:
1. Count: Count the number of syllables to make sure that you are indeed reading poetry, and not
just prose broken up into seemingly equal lines. See also if there are four line stanzas or not.
2. Look for the larger patterns: Take the 4l- boundaries with a grain of salt, as they might
not coincide with the grammatical breaks. Look for the larger patterns of the verse that extend beyond the
confines of one "line." Also look for any recuning patterns, as this can be quite common in verse.
3. Sound out the rhythm: Read the lines out loud to develop a feel for the meter. Whereas the
visible line breaks according to the 4l ~ may not tell you much in terms ofhow the verse works together, the
grouping of the syllables according to the meter can usually be very helpful in determining both the
vocabulary and the structure. Wordand grammatical boundaries generally follow the rhythm of the meter.
4.. Appreciate .the invisible: Try to determine what particles havebeen omitted, and how the
sentence would look if it were written in prose. The general rule is that what has been omitted is just as
important as what is present.
5. Don't just guess: Find a Tibetan who can help you. At some point, you will not get it just
from an analytical approach. You need to getthe oral transmission from a leamednative speaker. Do not be
alarmed if you get different answers from different Tibetan teachers. Tibetan verse can be understood in
more than one way, as any good poetry can, no matter what the language is.
2. Reading: The Takpo Kajii Lineage Supplication
a. Using the glossary, notes, and expanded text, translate the following.
Lesson 18, 192
Expanded Text: The following section fills out the above poetry with all the possible particles and words
that could have been omitted. The inserted syllables are underlined.
\
}
i
Lesson 18 193
Lesson, 18
b. Notes
Lines 1-3: The supplication begins with a list of the lineage that concludes at the end of line 3.
-c: "'"
Line 1: 5 - - The double r;: S indicates the Sanskrit vowel "ai." See Appendix 6.1.c.
194
Line 3:
<, <, <,
"101- is a play on the name of the first Karmapa
.' . .
The funny looking 4
c
l - \ is used after a lone syllable that has been stranded on the
beginning of the next line. It is called a .21 4'l".

"'" "'" .....-


ro' can mean "greater," or it can simply be a shatter way of saying ro31" -- "great."
.....- "'" .....-.....-
Lines 7-8: The precative "4 goes with all the verbs of this stanza, i.e. f:\ " 'l", ()"J c, 'l" , and Bq ".
"' "'
pf. of



"' '"



bondage
bone
born
buddha
both
Brahma
buddhaactivity
buddhafamily
charnel ground
circles
cause
clear away
close son
compassion
completely
completelypure
conditioned(phenomena) l -

:"
confidence r; -

pf. of


actual
act
absolute
aeon
abhisheka
about
afflicted
aggression
English Tibetan Glossary
bad
all 1 c3} - -"6l-
,
animal

"'
anse
"' "'
ansen pf.of
-r "'
attachment -
"' "'
attend of
"' "'
auspicious coincidence 53i - -
"' "'
ayatana a- ffil-
]
)
1
J
J
basis
beer
- beginning
being
benefit
bhiimi
blessing
bliss
bodhisattva
body
l-


crown ornament
(jaka
Qakini
dedicate
degradingaction
delusion
depart
dharma
died
difficult




"'

'\,)


SOl-

1-

English Tibetan Glossary
196
-r- -r- -r-
discriminating awareness .
discursive thought a} ell"
"-
dissolve . .
form
fortune
friend



distinguish
divine
doctor
drunk
due to
dwell
ego
eight
element
emptiness
empty
end





'-:)
-r- "


fruition
gave
gold
good
gradual [path]
great
great pandita
guru
hand
happiness
holy
human
"'


nh. hone
father

tf-

"

"' "'

"'



'-:)
impermanent
killing
king
klesha
inferior
Indra
inseparable
jetsun
jewel
Kajii
kanna
. pf. of . .
'-:)
"- -r

essence
excellent
existence
_Tt;
everyone, everything <.I "U I
evil deed
experience
family
enjoy
entered
external
feast
first
knowledge
learned
Bnglish Tibetan Glossary
..,...
liberated

ornament

0}
'"
life
m-
other

.
"
..,...
lineage outside

"
..,...
lord

overcome

..,...
lots

pair

"
"
loving kindness

pandita
"
..,... ..,...
mandala

passed

]
..,...
material

passion

t
medicine

path'
-
..,... ..,...
"
meditate

pf.
peace

..,...
merit

perfect

middle

person'
C
"
..,...
"
mind


phenomenal world

,
..,...
momentary

place

mother

poison

"
"
..,...
"'
mountainsolitude

practice

"'
myself


.
prajna
..r
Naropa

pratyekabuddha

"
nature

presence

"
..r ..r
nirval)a

principal

"
noble (one)

produce

..,...
"
..,...
nonthing

profound

object

prophecy

"
obscuration

pure, purified

..,...
-r
obtain

quality
UJiJi -5 0)-
- cr-
-r
ocean realization
-
oralinstruction

realm

..r ..r
origin, beginning relative

"
197
English Tibetan Glossary 198
rely
root
sarp.sara
samsaric existence
sangha
saw
scripture
secret mantra
see
sentient being
servant
shamatha
shastra
should
shravaka
sick person
sickness
siddha
siddhi
silk
son
son disciple
space
spiritual friend
stainless
stay
student
stupidity
"


'"

'"






O)l-

" '" "



'"

subject
sudden [path]
suffering
supplicated
supreme
surra
tantra
taught
teaching
thing
thought
Tibet
time
took
top of the head
treasure
truth
turn
turn away
unconditioned
understand
unperverted
Vajradhara
vajrayana
vehicle
very severe
view




l-
t::;J OJ. pf. of OJ . .



C'
c: pf. of E: 0) . t..J - to
take, grasp
c"\, or

'"

-r


'" or

or

I
J
vipashyana
virtue, virtuous
we
wheel
white
year
yoga
yogin
English Tibetan Glossary
"


-r' -r'
f:\r.:I\-i\J-


i\J . S.:I\- -
199
Tibetan- English Glossary


kindness (h)
to kill, destroy
q 1 f':\ - l KagyU (lit. "command lineage")

1<1)- all


13) . <J ? - completely imputed (same as J-I ') )

1<1) -<J? imagined nature, S: parikalpita


-r
1 <1) -<1) -<J c. -pf. of 13) -0) . C . - to be motivated, impelled
,
1<1) -f':\ C - <J - origin, arising, S: samudaya (second noble truth)

1<1)- f q - the relative, conventional, s.samvriti

1<1) - - basis of everything, s. ilaya

10) -fj" c. - motivation, intention

'"
1C - - skeleton
if]C - . foot, leg
happiness, joy, delight
nausea (lit "the taste of vomit")
vomit
to be thirsty
to encourage, exhort, urge
about
refuge
to take refuge; to practice dharma (hon.)
auspicious, auspiciousness
". .
pf. of '\J -<J to comment on
to honor, esteem; to carry

1'\J-<J-

9
31
t,Jo



<J . '\J . object of refuge

a - . ffi - to go for refuge


"
- . to be hungry



"
0) . causal condition, S: pratyaya
1l- voice, language; (at the end of a quote) "it is said"
-
1l "l - instant, moment
1<J - time; context
1'\J - - fortune, lot, fate
1 -<J C - good fortune
1- body, S: kaya (hon.)

1- l- ransom offering (hon.)



"
- ffi - - greatness, magnamity
- -physical form (h)
" -
- - to deny, denigrate
treasury
word, command (h)
S: mandala, lit "center fringe"
pf. of f":), .fj'"1- t,J- to refute, stop
'" -
pf. of <J - to cover, spread over
white
asceticism, enduring hardships
S: rarna.jewel
difficult, hard
barbarian
S: Nagarjuna (PN)
following a noun: see Lesson *
following a verb: seeLesson *
verbal particle: see Lesson *
Karmapa (lit. "one of the Karma [Kagyt1lineage])
-r



-r


<J1<J-
<J1f':\ .







Tibetan-English Glossary
201
I

"
'" '"

'"

'"
'" or

'"

to throw down, away
sense field, S: iyatana
place or means of birth
to arise, be born; birth, life
person, being
to produce, arouse, cause to arise
(pf. &fut q I:\J ; imp. I:\J ') to carry; send; use,
employ; to last
or
(pf. & fut, q -; imp. -) to conduct,
accompany
'"
pf. of a-q - to arise, be born
person, man
'"


r"

pf. of - - to throw down, away
"
'" ,
pf. & fut, of l- -to produce, arouse, cause
to arise
generation stage, S: utpattikrama
pf. to move
mouth, opening
chanting, prayer
'" or
a -s.. c. " .. four types of realized beings on the Hinayina path r -l - color
01 " stream enterer
" "
or

once returner

.. .. c.. " nonreturner
1 "<J i - arhat
'"


'"
pf. of r- f:\ S1" to open
yesterday
sincere, not hypocritical
some
or

to protect, guard
r - - the threereabns: C:;" - -desire
or


or





"
<J
-r
(pf. <Ja1")to move
fault, defect
'"
imp. q - (see above)
fear
pf, of 5c. . q . to stretch out, extend
an eon
fut. -q - to exhort, urge
'-:
'"
pf. &fut. of f\J -q - (see above)



r1"
r<J-

'"

'-:
several weeks ago, a while back
house
near, nearly
realm, domain, court (S:.grha)
sphere, realm; element (S: dhatu)
formless
'"
pf. of r - <3)." to proclaim, accept, take a
position, promise
to proclaim, accept, take a position, promise
to get, fmd; pullin
hole, pit
burden, load
Tibetan-English Glossary 202
- - to pervade, encompass
word)
space
c. - which, what, who
'"
how?
"'
- .:1\ - where?, what?
how?, what?
"-
- -..c - how?, what?
how?
"-
l - - to lead, guide, instruct
- - conflict, fight, disturbance; to be disturbed, upset

c. - - pf. of c. - - to be born, arise

3.1 - - to wander aimlessly


3.1 - pf. of - - to wander aimlessly
r . - cyclic existence, S: sarnsara;to circle; to repay
- - to be confused, bewildered; confusion,

bewilderment

r.:1\ - circle, retinue; abbrev. for I
r.:1\ - c:; - samsara and nirvana
r.:l\- - to bear, carry a load

Q.l r f':l, f':l, (Q.l") (lit "sky-goer")


Q.l rf':l, " l" celestialrealm
r - - learned,skill
Q.l "i"L.J to know (hon.); knowledge, widsom; knower
to berefuted
angry, wrathful
one who does, is skillful in (action of preceding
awell
anger, wrath
modesty, shame
"
pf. of c:; - - to lead; instruction
blood
you
husband, man
'"
pf. of .:1\ - - to carry
infant boy
'"
pf. of I . I
only, alone
'"




"
. house, home
" -
- l householder
Q.l - Q.l "'l - neighbor
l" 31 Q.l" L.J" you (PI)
"
dog
l - - difference, dinstinction
l - .:1\ - difference; special, extraordinary
l - .:1\ - ..c 0) - special, excellent
l- -l- especially, inparticular

sovereign
rc. - he, she
rqC.- c:; -en l - - to realize, understand
I
l - difference
Tibetan-English Glossary

all, everything

'=a
"
to fill, increase

"-

who, what, whoever, whatever


person, S: pudgala

203
pf. of .J\ to become, to be

"'
pf. of to fall down. degenerate
to be famed, renowned
number
r; ":;j UJ . <:.;j l . . eight levels of realization on the Hinayana {\J , eli "l,J "Enumerator." S: Samkhya
is. rna.de b.
y
ing each of the 4 stages (see ,(J'l .:ll Q1 _T n, .
,., -..J v, 1"'0''''' sat on =f:\ 3.1-: shore, bank; side)
_ r; ) into entering and abidingphases.
"' "-"' "
.(J . t:J '4 . ?eli virtuous or spiritual friend, S:
kalyir.lamitra

"'


-r-
c1) armor
-r-





-r-


"-



C"\.

whatever; anything
whatever, anything
glacier snow
if (starts the clause which ends in 0).)
. pf. of f:\ 31 . . to die

respect, devotion
obstacle, obstruction
place, room
opportunity
level.state
pf of . r.l. i4.<:.;j' to transform, change into
"' -r-
to understand; see also .
above, before
superior one, forefather; higher
step, pace
to be accustomed, used to
clothing
verbal particle (see Lesson ) *
tricky, shifty
"may such and 'such be" (see Lesson *)



..r




C"\.

-

"'
1 f:\lO)

"'
"' -e:

"' ..,...

(<3"] -s = to spread, layout)
school, tenet
to 'have or be.accomplished, attained, practiced;
to exist, be established
friend, assistant, aide, help
village
city
village and countryside; village
to be liberated; completed, finished
advice,' counsel
somethingoffered as ransom
to refute
basis of what is refuted
to enjoy, takedelight in; joy, delight
sublime, lofty
winter
Buddhist community, S: sangha
spiritual practice(in general)
monk, S: bhiksu
Tibetan-English Glossary 204
-r- -r-
c; -C;. a::-
I I ! - I intended. meaning
unceasing, uninterrupted
Gampopa (PN) ("the one from Gampo")
by means of
door, gate
tonm
Uttaratantra (PN)
continuity, continuous
continuum, continuity, ; mind, mind stream;
tantric text; S: tantra, samtana
to expand, blossom
infinitive particle (see Lesson ) *
cause, reason
cause, S: hetu
to be victorious; victorious one, S: jina =the Budc
regent

0) .



-r

-rC'\.
- f:\ -r .Rajagrha (PN)
< :

-
1
'-:>
2
'-:>
"'

commentary
-r

to go; beings; realm,S: gati
-r

to accompany

to age, become old
-r

old, an elder
-r

wild; wildness, agitation
-r

mare

India
- ({.
ocean
"'
to be distant, far away
ornament, adornment
-r

king, S: raja
to agree, besuitable, right
to establish, place, arrange
to cease, stop, S: nirodha, 3rd noble truth
to wander about, rove around
regret, remorse
to fall, tumble down
to become; to be; to change; change; aux. verb
to cover, spread over
to die
to be contradictory, opposite
to lick, take into the mouth
some, a few
to stop, cease, be obstructed
pf. of f:\ c1j - - (see above)
protector, refuge
head
to travel, traverse
head
song
clothes
strictresult,retribution
f:\
'-:>
"'




c1j3).

-r-





'-:>
"'


"' "
.:1\ - types of obstructing spirits




'-:>

t I thought, intention, consideration, mind; to think,
consider (h)
I:) c1j1:) -[,J- to establish.place

I I to be necessary; to need to, must
Tibetan-English Glossary 205
. - provisions
- feather
'5 '<] "'I"L,J" . impute. exaggerate, superimpose
..r "
<3} . . lamp, torch
. 100
'J '<] "'I " "'I . see 'J '<] "'I "L,J .
to cry, weep
naturally, easily
to be tired, weary
pride, arrogance
nature, character, disposition, stale
evil, bad; a bad person
evil, negative existence
lower realm
short tempered
state,situation
speech (nh)
I


c.<f) .
c:
c.cJ}
c.<3}.
c.Oj. c
tomeditate, cultivate
to establish, practice, attain
three gates = body, speech. mind
voice, sound; word, language
illusory body
illusion
meditator
inparticular, especially
pf. of .. to cause to adhere, stick, dwell
obscuration



'\,)

..r "







to be certain; certain, true, definite
we
true meaning, etymology
revulsion, renunciation
to point out, introduce, give transmission
certainty, .. true knowledge, confidence
essential nature, veryessence
essence, nature; entity
- to recognize, receive transmission
" "


pf. of 0) . to adorn, ornament
lineage; lineage holder; to wander, go through
eight
edit ted . ")"
object of meditation (lit.jwhatis] to be mta on c.. "'I" c.. "

pf. of 3.l "L,J" to meditate


pf. of "'J" to stain, sully. taint
fut. &fut. of to transform, make change

pf. of 1 . to concentrate, focus


fut. of ij . . to accomplish, practice
pf. of ij '. to establish. prove, practice, attain


"
'J " c.. . L,J . The 8000 line Prajii.aparamiti-siilra





"
c, - mastery, power
or "'



'\.)




or

to recognize'
real,actual
accomplishment, S: siddhi
really, actually
a thing
thin eal proponent of some g r
clinging[to something] asreal
foundation, base, main part
Tibetm-English Glossary



-0-
blue, greyishgreen
previous, previously
to dedicate
plural marker

abbrev. for
206
ever, in anyway, at all
04 c. -'"] fl,J to empower, appoint
womb
E<3i - - .t.J actually established, exist
'\.) '\.)
c: <3i - - E: -t..J - to realize, actualize
'\.)
04 "E 0} . t.J - to manifest, be visible, apparent
04 c:0} . t.J .:1\ - manifestly, clearly, openly, S: abhi-
EO) t.J .:I\ . - realization
04 "EO} .t.J.:r;.. t.J - complete attachment
04 "E 0} . 04 - directly, actually
possessing, having
what,what?
how, how?
- . whatkind?, how?
- 04 - ffi '"] why shouldn't [that] be fine?
how much?
. .?) 04 - '"]- how many, much?; what?
?
-.0 - - what?, how.
- '"]. '5 .:r;. how?, however
five
-t:J - group of five
C. previously
C- . previous, earlier, former
C - S: mantra
C.:I\ - previous, past
-c;j - to become green
-c;j -t) 04 - t.J - greenish, green-tinged
- - -c;j . greyish green
'\.)



'\.)
whatever, anything
. particle; indefiniteparticle imperative ,
sudden, immediate, all at once
everywhere, anything
alittlebit
thus, so (canindicate theendof a quote)
fut. of l- . to cut
one
Q1 Q1 -l c.-l .04 -, one and many
abbrev. for I . I '" .
"-



<1]-
the same; one
alone, single, solitary
dear, precious, valued
to break (transitive)
"-
to cut; (with t4J . ffi -) to decide
pf. of tlJ "l -l,J - to break
Tibetan-English Glossary
ffi c:
ffiC. -ic.-
ffiC. -ic.-
chang, liquor
liquor store
female liquor seller
drinking place, wedding reception
punishment; nihilism
(after a number) all together
207
together with (often used with a preceding
ten
rain
water, river
pf. of E"tlJ "l,J - to enter; causativeauxiliaryverb . .


'" I essence, juice, contents
river
small
..r-

I eighteen
. pf. of E:3.I -l,J - to conquer. subdue
q 3.1 - Oi - l - blessed one. S: bhagavat
to make, fabricate
small
wife
to waste,squander
'" -r
greater (comparative of cD Oi -LJ -)

"-

..r- "-

made, produced, fabricated, artificial
whip
tongue (00.)
table
"-
iD'1-c;-

"- ..r-
eD <3}
..r-
iD -f:\ -
'\,:)

-
magnamity
authority, power
large quantity
for the purpose, sake, benefit of
great
magical display
can, may, are allowed to
imp.of tlJ.gtlJ -l,J- to break
.r " "
iD - -'1Sc: - sphere of reality, S: dharmadhitu
cD
,

aspect, part
equal parts, proportions
pf. cD .. to be broken
to desire, beattached to; desire,attachment
attachment
-r

ffi
l
-
ffi '1-
to besatisfied, content
to be cut off
S: dharma
to cut
body of dharma, S:dharmakaya
Tibetan-English Glossary 208
what?, how? .
what?, how?
how, how?
"
i;.- lord
"e;J OJ - noble, exalted (jetsun)
l"l..J- to forget
.c; i\J. MaiijuSrl
" "
<f] -i)eli world,S: loka
"" .
"l -i)eli - a worldly person
r.l, "l..J " to be destroyed
" .
fear
r.l, 31"l..J " clay, mud
. . to enter into

r.l, ( "l..J " to place, put; to rest


r.l, ( 31"l..J " to conquer, subdue, destroy
l\J- - to meet, encounter
" " d .... . to become more an more
"34 " 31"l..J - to be unconcerned, unperturbed
31" how much?, how many?
-r -r
lord
e: - .r -:1\ <f] - (PN) Jomo Kharak
to explain, expound
death; to die
to escape;slip away, flowout (orin)
to arise, appear
to be broken
to offer; offering
the moment of death
to hold, wield
themost excellent: abbrev. for supreme, ,
fangs .
tears
"
pf. of co .(;J to exist; come, go; to say
to exist, be (somewhere); to come, go; to say
dharma protector

[ ell] dharrnas: praise& blame,loss & gain,
the 8 wor y .. " "
fame & disgrace, pleasure & pain E. " - "
true nature of phenomena, S: dharmata " .:r:,"
to jump, leap
f f 31 c."e;J " to jump, leap
. p. 0
-r "

" cD (;J.
after(S: prefixanu-)
"

"e;J " to look at
- e;J" to rejoice

to speak, say
"
what,what?
E;-

tongue (hon.)
asis said

to exchange, trade
"" -
all themany kinds

-r
pf. of [l"l..J" to speak, say


asitis
Tibetan-English Glossary 209
" "
...J\. t'\Jo:..
/ _ -, to grasp, cling to
" " -r
? t'\J O}. .. skandhas that are grasped to [as an ego]




?01 -


-r



sole, only
listener, hearer, S: shravaka
to listen
(abb.) shravaka and pratyekabuddha
to stretch out the hand & take hold of
experience, (meditation) experience
experience and realization
to be corrupted, degenerate, decay
experience
.,,- .,,-
?O} .


friends and relatives
partiality.bias
fault, defect, problem
to beatfault; fault
fault, shortcoming
conflicting emotion; S:k1esha
-r
imp. & pf. of ,- q - to buy
sleep
two
both
'"
, . q .:I\ - OJ - - fully establish
"
- - 0) - - to practice, take to heart
pleasant speech
to find; gain, possessions
to please
pleasant
together with
fame, renown
equal; equality
same,equal

.:I\ -)<T) .) meditation, equipoise, meditative. state


"




"
,c3) . friend, relative
"
,OJ ."l danger
"
I / -I 1-I relative

" -r
antidote
both
relative
every day
small,few
close, near
day
self, same, very, S:-ti
bed, sleeping place
to sleep, lay down
'" -r -r
?-q . ?OJ - C secondary kleshas, S: upaklesha
'"
,.q.


.,,-
,c - - tobe reborn (pf. of


,C-q-
'-:)
'"
,.

?1-

- ,OJ.


.Glossary 210
to think
'"'
0} - - <J- - pf. of ?0} - <J <J to ascertain, establ
'"'
?0} - -l <J <J - - fut, of ?0} - - <J <J - ascertain, establ
treasure
inner "heat", S: C8l)Qali
depth, bottom
delusion, S: moha
pleasant conversation; news
conversation, talk; advice, counsel; news
-

f"\

to make level, equal; to equalize
depression, anxiety
perseverance
essence, heart, pith, S: garbha, hrdaya
compassion, S: k8l1D)a

'"'
. .:I\ . - entered into meditative absorption, S: .:I\.

to send, let go, allow to go; give; give up,


abandon, renounce; also an activizing verb
pf. of r:l, Cj '"1 .l..J' to bind, fasten; impute. desig
pf. of 5 <J (see above)
equanimity, S: upeksha
'"'
pf. of l <J to strike, throw, offer,
give, activizing verb
fut. of . t; - <J. to drink; something to drink
to include, contain
to find, acquire

pf. & fuL of . t:;J to lay someone down to bedt:;J ?c. .


"
pf. of %O}. toapporach, acquire
to borrow
pf. of <J <J to borrow
pf. of ll to bow, pay homage

compendium, summary
S: tad-yatha =like that, as follows
completely, deeply
deeply
horse
permanence, permanent
support, basis
'"' f"\ '"'
c3} . t; - - :l\. t; - . dependent arising,
"
S: prantyasamutpada
f'-
3:. co<n
1'J -I I reason, S: hetu
to examine, consider, think about;
discursive thought
to keep, hold, adhere to, rely on
dependent origination,
S: pratityasamutapida, coincidence
" '"'
same as i) c3} . dependent arising,
S: prantyasamutpada
alittlebit
permanent, eternal
verbal particle, see Lesson *
LOP particle, see Lesson *
Tilopa(PN)
Tibetan-English Glossary 211
hI'"
tiger; abbrev, for i5 I '" PNof Kagyusc 00 c;j. i5 0\ "t,J 0
seat


'f5-S-



'\:)




50) -
'"
5-
'"
5c.-
'"

'"



..,- '"

..,- '"


lfl"t,J
lfO) -lJ-



to realize, understand; realization
to look at, see; the view
like
sights, scene, spectacle
like.as
to fall down
to be hungry
imp. of - - to look at, see
to depend, rely on, use as reference
verbal particle, see Lesson 11
top, surface; (with J-=on top of, in addition to)
to attend
small ax
to be a problem, fault, to matter
empty (S: sUnya)
emptiness (S: srmyatA)
basis that is empty
to be empty; to make empty
to praise
to teach, show, manifest; teacher
power, strength S: bala
tobe.get lost; to stray
fut. of t,J 0 to examine, investigate






'"



stable, fum
fully developed
'"
pf., fut., imp. of ?'3} -lJ -to keep, hold, adhere. rely (
'" , -
in - ?0) -c3i , = in dependence upon, by mean
of, due to
fut, of - - to look at, see
pi. of - - to look at, see
treatise, S: shastra
pf. of 0\ "t,J . to teach; teachings

pf. of 15 3.t -lJ - to mix, dissolve together


'"
pf. & fut. of 15 0) -lJ - to attend
pf. of t,J 0 to praise
weaver
convention, conventional
different, separate
hard, firm
end, the last
close to, near
rope
fabric
a plain
'"
?"l -c; 'i Sc;-lJ- to examine, analyze
toward; in the presence of


pf. of "t,J , to think about, examine
'to be steady, stable, firm; stability, confidence
means, method, S: upaya; opponunity,possibility
-0 -5 - (with l c - preceding) together with

.e.:f\. .
all
liberation, to be freed
Tibetan-English Gioisary
end, limit, extreme

.e - .Z. always, defmitely


0.:f\-
Q I ultimate,final
212

Q consequence; to entail
1 .e (),J ';:J to pass by; to be over, done, finished


Q -e-, perfect, ultimate; to perfect., complete
dust, dirt
S . UJ . limitlessendless

<,





-e:
aO}.



to dissolve
to meet with, encounter; hit, strike
against; to reach, arrive
endless
mind, heart (h)
heart center
kindness, compassion
short
short
common, ordinary; withl C = common with, to
to be able
ragged blanket
doubt., hesitation
vehicle, S: yana
on, upon
beginning
to bear aloft, hold up
imp. of 5"r; - (:;j - to send, let go, give,
give up, renounce; a plow
-r-
pf. of 0} - - to come forth, depart; to occur
to attain, obtain; attainment
to hear; learning
"Delightful to Hear, " Milarepa's name given at birth




l-o}C
l-L4O}- cD l
power, sorcery, black magic
PN: Great Magician =Milarepa
to be in harmony, agreement
high
height, level (lit. "high-low)
to see
high
to weave
to be delightful, pleasing, acceptable, proper
to drink
pf. of to drink
"-
to come forth, depart; to occur; with cD =to live
now
a little while ago or just a second ago
now, the present
this morning
until now
Tibetan-English Glossary 213
'" '"
c; - "l '4 thus gone, s. tathagata
'" C)
c; <f] .





now
plural particle
pure, purity
Takpo, name of region Gampopa is from
and
take to heart, undertake, accept
first
to be clear, pure, sincere
faith, trust
samaya .bound, oath bound
'"

'"
'"
C;
'" f\.

'" f\.

time
that
the very same, just there
suchness, reality
therefore
therefore
the same, thus
suchness, S: taUhata
likewise, inthe same way
J- how much, many?

. L.J - to stammer
togo
truth, meaning; goal, purpose; benefit; object; topic
therefore
today
fear
absolute (truth), S: pararnartha
equal.match
for the sake of
as for that; .furthermore, moreover
to remember, recollect, think about, be mindful of;
solid, compact, =the earth
pf. & fut, of f':l,CJ .:J;, .:;;] - to abandon. throwaway
'"
pf. of <3} .. .. to bring, invite
useful, right, better
pf. of
sage, S: rishi
forceful, strong, fierce
'"

..

..




..


..
..,.. '"
C; c3) .. C; - .. <J .. to seek, strive for
'-:)
..,.. '"
-
1-I I meaningless.useless
amoment, instant, little while
promise
vow, promise
[8] freedoms & [10] resources
excellent, true, holy, sacred; strict
silk
samaya vow

smoke


many


poison

..r

animal


a littlebit, some


section, part

..r

charnel ground


charnel ground


tamed, gentle




Tibetan-English Glossary 2.14
six

C. the front, area near (something)


l .c. . oral instruction
] -l..,J " pf, of I":l, "l..,J" to designate
C'\.
l . . basis of designation
l c. . oral instructions, S: upadesa
l c. . q - longing, yearning, anguish

positive, happy existence


front

31 sutra
end
-r "
l . sntra
31cl- - OJ - MahiiyanasiitraJarpkara (name of text)
31 " '\J - - name of text (not identified)
- color
. 0} . in short
t':\l . . to pass beyond, transcend
t':\ l - . pf. of l . to pass beyond, transcend;

=nirvaIJa
abbrev, 0 -I
G . G- happiness, bliss, S: sukha
" " .
" " . Gt:. )
c; . 1 sugata (abbrev. of 1 . .
G . 1 "i c." sugatagarbha =tathagatagarbha, buddha na
G OJ - G- truly existent, established

"
l 0} . . truth; to be true
G -l..,J " wealth,possessions
3Ilc:. . last night
arrow
S: gandharva, a celestial musician
kindness
pf, of I":l, - G" to ask
impurity, defilement
question
mindfulness
smell, odor
"l l . - student, disciple

'"
l c. - confidence
] - 31 - beginning, primordial
- " rope, line, ties
l "l L ego, S: itman
G] - .:I;, -S"q - accepted. undertaken as one's own
C'\.

C'\.
..
C'\.

owner
'"
l "l l- egolessness,S:nairitmiya
<J ll S: mara, demon

c:Jl 0) - seven

l 0) . "l . a week


C'\.

we
itself, nature; oneself
C'\. "

C'\.

"

"

this
C'\. C'\."
= t':\ l .f5 .S.UJ 0} .?. as follows, which is to sa:
thus, like this
to be assembled, come together; to consist of,
be included in
karmic formations, S: samskara (4th skandha); to ,
commotion, busyness, entertainment
perception, notion, S: s8Jl1jiia(3rd skandha)
Tibetan-English Glossary 215

"

"
f":\C:; 0}
'i.,)
f:\C:;nJS
"

"

"
'"
or


or



or


to exist (somewhere); to sit, dwell
to bow, pay homage to
to desire, wish for; desire, wish
one to be tamed,a disciple, student
pf. of 1. . to be assembled; to consist
"
of, be included in; embodiment
conditioned (phenomena)
to throw, strike; to offer, give; activizing verb
to tie, bind, fasten, attach
to go
desirerealm
to desire, want, like; to accept (a position, statement);
desire
opinion, view, way of proposing aview
to cause to come out, bring out
give up, abandon, cast away
like, such
to belike, similar
to ask, inquire
to befamiliar, acquainted with
to conduct, bring, invite
to be mixed together
atom, particle, speck
stone
adamantine, diarnondlike, S: vajra
vajra holder, S: Vajradhara
S: Vajrasana =Bodhgaya
stone




"

"

"

"
'"








-,
" O}.

.

to arise
to possess, be endowed with (often preceded by l c:
garden
to hate, be aggressive toward; hale, aggression
evil deed
suffering, S: duhkha
be afflicted, feel pain; affliction. pain; beautiful" beau
tojoin together, assemble; to consistof. include
class, section, community
small trunk, stalk
to stay, dwell, reside
summary
to bind, fasten, restrain; restraint, vow
stock (for soup)
pf. of 5.t,J to stay, dwell. reside
pf. of 3.1 t,J to bind, fasten.restrain
fut, of c:; . to join together, consistof, gather
pf. of l to join together. consist of, gather
"
last year
illness; to be sick
clothing (hon.)
even if, even though
to speak
Tibetan-English Glossary 216


3)C-


3)3)-,3)-



.





Naropa
inside
from among, within
"insider," a Buddhist
like,similar
division,classification
the former, previous
eamest, serious
when, when?
sky,space
barley
ablative particle, see Lesson *
as for; topic marker; verse filler
evening, night
1st of 5 stages of the embryo in the uterus
to be able, capable; power
to press, suppress; to force
wealth. riches; abbrev. of - =jewel
to make a mistake, be in error
jewel
weal th, property, possessions
cattle.livestock
to give; to do, work, act (h)

I -I """ 1 natural state, true nature
'"I C; -C.J to injure. damage; to refute

1-I -I to press, suppress; to force; activizing verb
ear
%3.1 -t":\ q'1<.:l\ .
I appearance, transformation
'=

I enumeration, exposition

I completely victorious
%3.I-fQl-
I ') I discursive thought, S: vikalpa
%3.1-
"1 <;J life example, biography, (lit. complete liberation)
%3.1- t..J.
'1 aspect, type, part, kind; way, manner, manifestatioi

"1 completely, S: prefix vi-
c313.j -C.J <: '"\- C.J - discursive thought, S: vikalpa
- .:l\ . c::J - to look at
- .:l\ -l -t..J - completely pure
3.1- t..J.:l\ - - - to dwell
'\,)
"
3.1- -1 -t..J - consciousness, S: vijfiana (5th skandha)
%3.I-c::JfaQ1-
'1 .-I I arrangement, make up; presentation
-(3.1 -) natural, true
-r -r
0) - - sharp
0) l- main, essential point, pith
0) 3.1 - archway of an entrance

I - I -, I stage, situation; temporary

I-I to dwell, live; aplace
nose
various, many kinds of
to appear, manifest, shine; appearance,
phenomena, experience, illumination
vessel, container
Tibetan-English Glossary
217
the crown, top of the head
to abandon, renounce
pf. of 5- - to alter. change places
general summary oftopics
wolf,jackal
pf. of Q1-L,J -to use, practice; experience.
enjoy; carry out, act; activity, practice
eye (hon.)
general, universal
generally
general
tobeg
to emanate, magically create
beggar, lowly one
'"
monkeys =larger; - = smaller, humanlike)
to use, practice; experience, enjoy;
carry out, act; activity, practice
sphere of activity, experience. object
female beggar
beggar's flour (the worst kind)
to be delighted, joyful; to expand, disperse (the mine
emanation body, S: nirmiI)akaya
cloud

0} . .<TJ =a .. Avalokitesvara (pN ofabodhisattva)


.,..

" -e:

<:


Q1-L,J-
.,..



"'


"'




"


worthy vessel (good student)
to measure
text
knee
name of Mila's sister
hero, S: Qua
glory, spender; abbrev, for l QJ c3) .
skin, hide
glorious, S: sri
example, analogy; (colloq.) very much
meadow
to examine, analyze
what is to be abandoned
.,..

fut.of to abandon, give up
for example
pf. of 1 1-L,J - to examine, analyze
Tibetantext
open meadow, clearing




"'




1 OJ -('"1 L(j "I -) master. chief (and servants)
..,...
pf. oft::j c to abandon, renounce;
renunciation
height, summit
complexity
to elaborate, complicate; discursive complexity,
mental fabrication
to alter, change places
. ..,... ..,...
..
-I place name ="Lofty Green M01D1tain"
Tibetan-English Glossary 218


father
(U, - tryto make something happen, but
nothing does; flop, failure)
outside, behind
father and mother, parents (nh.)
later, latter; future [life]
back; again, once more
because; for the sake of, in order to
to set out, proceed, go; to arrive at, reach
reversed, perverted, wrong, mistaken
henceforth, from now on; up to, until
short for .cD -
the other side, others
14 . .:('\l . ?.@OJ . ["J perfection, S: piramiti (lit. gone to theother shore) @OJ. ["J

.:1\-
pf. & fut. of - t..J . to meet, encounter
"
pf. of L4 3i -t..J - to throw, fling
t"I".
imp. of S3i .t..J - to pull out, extract
noble, exalted; noble one; S: irya
meeting place
side, direction
"
pf. of Sl -t..J - to distinguish,
discriminate, separate; to open
garland, rosary
pf. of . ["J to steal, run awaywith
action (hon.); buddha. activity
flour
very subtle, small
subtle, very small
shoulder
haunted, miserable
in between
t"I".
pf. of 0). - to pull out, extract
envy, jealousy
because





-r "



seal, S: Mudra
palace
pf. of . ["J to strike, touch
to dare to
male, particle signifying a male
pf. of - - to offer
the upper part of a valley
neap,pile;peak;S:skandha
pf. of - t..J - to pierce, penetrate
cave
mostly
thither, away, over there
most
to benefit; benefit
benefits, advantages
mutual, on each other
-r'




" -r
- - cD 3i -t..J great seal, S: mahimudra


'" -I '" 1 perfect, abundant
0).t..J.


-e:

- 1 1 I to benefit
Tibetan-English Glossary
219
to throw, fling
to increase
son
daughter
to change, transfer vase


to strike, touch
to be poor
pf. of L4 - . to change, transfer



Tibet
Bon, prebuddhist religion of Tibet
pf. of n, .:s-c; .L,J to call to
to meet, encounter
action (hon.); buddha activity .
to radiate, 'spread; to continue
to steal, run away with

S <fil-
.
bird
vulture
"'
fut, orgerundive of Sl- t..J. ; activity,
deed; to be called, named; (what: is) to bedone
north
enlightenment, .S: bodhi
"'
Sc; . - .) - mind of enlightenment, S: bodhicitta
power, splendor
to cleanse, purify
friendliness.Iove, S: maitri
"'
abbrev. forSC . - - - bodhichitta
abbrev. PN. of text: Bodhisattvabhiimi
"'
pf. of Sl- -todo,make;to saycall;
activizing verb: causative verb
c:'\;
pf. & imp. of 0) - . togive
blessing, S: adhisthana
pf. of S c. -q - to arise, occur
'\,)
to do, make; to say, call;activizing verb; causative ve
"" ..,..
abbrev. for Sl- t..J - -doer, creator
specific,special


"'


sc-q-
'\,)
'"

"'

"' ..,..
Sl-t..J-
carefree
body hair
that which is hidden, invisible
habitual pattern, S: vasana
ox
pf. of . t..J - to fall, descend
section, division
space, interval; withl-=inbetween;
'\,)
up to, until (withverbs, used with the
preceding verb in the negative, but not
with a negative sense)
pf. of .:1\ - . to blaze
obstacle, interruption
calf
q.:l\- -ffit;.-
I uninterrupted
Tibetan-English Glossary 220
..,-

Cf].


'"
imp. of Sl . (see above)
rocks,cliff
echo
pf. of . to grab, seize, wield
1S. head (hon.)

1 middle way, S: madhyamaka
1 . . c3). Madhyamakilatikara by Shantarakshita
1 . . . . Madhyamakivatara by Chandrakirti

to offer, give
to cause to descend, bring down
to strive after, exert oneself for
to fall, descend, come down
to concentrate, apply oneself diligently
to pierce, penetrate
to blaze, bum
only, solely, alone
effort
inseparable, undifferentiable
subject (of a king)
to separate, differentiate, classify; classification,
distinction
stick
shape
realm, space, element; = buddha nature; S: dhatu
song, melody
solitude, isolation
center
poor; poverty
hair on the head (hon.) (lit. head leaves)
proponent of Madhyamaka



"
'"



1S breath

I"" poor

pf. of 1 . . to decrease
pf. of i\J to be free of, separate from

pf. of 2 . . to write, draw


pf. of f:l, [,J to flee, run away, escape
brahmin, S: brahmana
'"
c . . fut. of i\Jc3} . to receive, accept
l r; . power; abbrev. for c; c, . ;r, .:l\


I 1 lord, S: iivira


1 -I offering to receive abhisheka

1 -II empowerment, S: abhiseka; give abhiseka


1 J to. become dominated, ruled by
'"
c . pf. of i\J c3} . . to receive, take a hold of, grasp

I sense faculty, organ, S: indriya
..,-

I').,J") to renounce, abandon, let go of
..
I . 1 - 1 with respect to, concerning

'" lJ
I').,J -I stupid
..,-
. mind, intellect
..,-
. 50) . mental reference points
..,-
. 0) . wise,intelligent
high, superior, better
'"
I').,J -I 1 unsurpassable
. conversation

I').,J S: guru, (lit. superior one)
'" '"
. l abbrev, for 3} . l = unsurpassable
Tibetan-English Glossary 221


to call to
to throw; to leave, forsake

n."i ' t,J , to pull out, extract; cause to come out, produce
Sc.- 0} - source, origin
'\,)
3.1- negative particle
t'\.
3.1 - .:%\.. ignorance, S: avidya
34 - l - not only
3j' "i'l'"1. '"1' affirming, relative negation
c.- - to arise; auxiliary verb
'\,)
t'\.
Sc.. - 4 elements: earth, water, fire, wind
"
'"
Sl- . to distinguish, discriminate, separate
C. '.:j - to fulfill, complete


to be rich 3.1 c.- -
to be free of, separate from (often has preceding l c. ' "i' c. '"1"
many
oral instructions
brother
[human] nature, charcter
to not be
human .body
extreme, parameter
t'\. -r
ellc.
name; abbrev, for. brother
immovable, S: Aksobhya
eye (nh.)
Milarepa(PN)
lamp
man, hwnan being; negative particle
Marpa (PN)
butter
t'\.
3.1 - l4 - Mipham (PN)
"Sl"l '"1" Sl " acting recklessly,randomly
'\,)
to flee, run away, escape
to train, purify
to join, unite; apply oneself to; prepare, get ready;
provide
snake
to give; generosity. S: dana; to say (hon.)
to ignite, cause to blaze
fut. of c." to train, purify
pf. & fut. of . to join, unite
to decrease
.
to write, compose, draw
to be connected; connection
secret, hidden
t'\.
abbrev. of - c.- PNof a Kagyulineage
result, fruit, fruition
dragon; name of a Kayyti lineage
t'\.



t'\.
2

"
'"








heretic, s:tirthika
dark, gloomy, mysterious
Tibetan- BnglishGlolsary 222
..r t\,
- . - - PN: Maudgalyayana-putra
'"
l- .:I\ -) 1 . - nonaffirming, absolute negation
pf. of - - to say
lamentation, (used with 0) - -) to lament, wail
to say
to be crazy; madman, crazy one
to speak, talk
madman
to aspire
'"
aspiration. S: pranidhana; used with verb l -
to criticize, disparage
to ripen, mature
..,..

..,..



'"


t\,





to aspire to; have longing, devotion for
practice aspiration
suffering, anguish
devotion
to not be, exist, be without
emphatic: indeed, really
0) -r r;:
dungeon

darkness
'"
fife
'"

flint and steel
'"
..r

flower
- t; 0) - . l - - nirvana, lit passed beyond misery
when
to imagine, conceive, think, observe, be in reference tQ;J OJ -
conception. idea, reference point
-r



sprout
quick
to experience
low, inferior
lowly place, humble seat



OJ -cr-
just, only, so much, as much as
(PN) WesternTibet
pure, clean
principal,main one, S: pradhana
powerful
princess
blind; blind person

heli

to dream

dream

..,..
sluggish, gloomyt languid

bewildered, deluded

medicine

to bear, give birth to (a child)
pf. of t":\ . (;j . to seek, look for
pf. of (J - - to give birth to
reverend, revered
. pf. oft":\ . t,J" to cook
root
with neg.: never, not at all
Tibetan-Bngliah Glossary 223
weeds
roasted barley flour
skill, dexterity; exercise
way. manner, style
discipline, morality, S: shila
life; time (sometimes =long life); (aftera verb) when

I "l -, venerable, lit. endowed with [long] life
to live, survive
to die
life, lifeforce whatever we greatly value or treasure
wall; to build, pile up
astrologer
juice, moisture; essence
\
1-
point, summit
one-pointedness
to argue, fight, debate
-r



the 2 accumulations ofmerit and wisdom
collection. gathering, coming together
path of accumulation (l st of the 5paths)
"\.
q .p-q-
'C love, compassion
-.r-

"'6" to bestow, confer, grant
vegetables, greens
accumulate merit; an offering; provisions
to feel, experience, hear or know about; feeling,
sensation, S: vedana (the secondskandha)
imp. of f":l, ie;- [,J -. tocook
'measure, proportion


-, / , characteristic, mark. S: laksana

ai.cD - r;: -
-, /, I "l -, authentic, genuine
-r -.r-

ie;-


to begin, start; compose, write
pf. of i eN - [,J- to begin. start

pf..of - -to build, pile up



-I exertion, energy, S: virya

"'6" pf. of "'6" to bestow, confer, grant
retreat
beautiful
equal, like
salt
complete
t; - - <J-

to become .enlightened
to be equal with, in accord with
"\.


(after verb) whatever, all that; measure
immeasurablelirnitless
name ofa KagyUlineage


to desire, beg, ask; as aux.should, must.often as
humble aux.
to beburned
life; to live; sustenance
word
hither, toward here

<J.
to cook
to seek., look for
Tibetan-English 'Glossary 224
feet (h)
face, mouth (hon.)
to proclaim.
accept, take a position, promise
'"
ffi . judgement, decision
"'
to do. make (hon. of S C;" [,J ); aux.vb.; . ffi '<j C;" [,J' to judge. make a decision
imp. of 3.j I( C; . [,J (see above) . '<j 3i . tranquility,S: shamatha(lit. dwellinginpeace)
attachment
revulsion (lit to reverse attachment)
aggression, anger, S: dvesha
if one asks (see Lesson *)
very much
to request; aux. vb. = please, I request you; to say
pf. of - . to enter

pf. of . to request; say (nh)

d
lici . ( ith C.- =deliciously)
e CIOUS WI I -I
universe, buddhafield
a, an
to calm, pacify; calm, peaceful; peace
"
abbrev. for 0) & '? I
shamatha & vipashyana
"

"'
"'

'"
"'

"' ..,..
t\J
fortress
to perfect, complete; perfect, complete;
S: prefix sam-
Great Perfection, S: Mahasamdhi, Ati
lie, falsehood
pond
substance
to meet (1); U: "doesn't mean very much"
to gather, come together
pf. of E: . .to gather, come together
to hold, cling to, fixate on; holder; subject
to be exhausted, finished

..,.. '"









see Lessons*

a fox
"'


.


end of quote marker
so called, named
imp. of I":),E: '<j "[,J " to put, place
to ride
to be destroyed by itself
day
other, another; different
0) -c; c.. dependent nature, S: paratantra
Tibetan-English Glossary 225
moreover
food
to eat
to speak, say; end of quote
moon, month
what orwho is called

pf. and imp. of
two, apair
unity, S: yuganaddha
to hold to, complete; to be held by supported by;
to belong to; (after verb) already [done]
ti1". - - -t..J - S: Chandrakirti
'<1 '<1 "t,J to see (hon.)
- form, the quality ofmateriality S: rtipa(flTstskandha:
-<J 0) - reflection
to arise, raise (hon.)
to stay, dwell, remain; live (hon.)
opinion, view, doctrine
(after verb) while
(after verb) makes verba participle: "-ing'
'"
pf. ofc::J - <J- to arise, raise (hon.)
four
like, as, according to; (after verb) while
fut. of t':\ E, - - to cause to enter

ground, foundation, basis

-
'=>



'=>
'"



'=>
'<1 ra; OJ" OJ" youthful, youthful prince, S: kumara r; "t:l, E.. '<1"
'=> '=>
. '<1 ra; OJ" OJ.:I\ " .:I\ "t,J" one who was a youthful prince, S: kumarabhnta r; . c; .t:l, E.. '<1" t,J " unity

'"

]
I
fut. of t:l, :Oj" t,J. to be grasped; object
'"

tinypieces,' slivers
good
c; .t,J" . endure. patientlyaccept; patience,
.. c; " [mantra]recitation
'"


nettles
to eat
shiver
defiled
material things
to eat; food
pf. of t:l, : OJ" t,J" to hold, cling to, fixate 01'1
with - preceding = beginningwith
trade, handicraft
<J Ql-t..3-
to be exhausted, used up, spent; (afterverb) definitely I
to be. desperate, have no choice
to reverse, turn back, away
-acn -t..J-
pf. & fut, of I
or; questionparticle

food
deep, profound
deep, profound
deep, profound
t..J-


Tibetan-English Glossary 226
we upward
(see below)
" ""
UJI:'..
fut. of I I
" "" UJI:'..
pf. of 1 I
" ""
abbrev. of L\J - . letter, syllable
mind, S: manas
to trust, believe in, have confidence in; trust, confid
second thoughts, dualistic mind
to rejoice
sadness, depression; gloomy
yidam, tutelary deity
to decrease, diminish, vanish. disappear
hungry ghost, S: preta
seasoning
f'\. ..,..

1 1 pleasing, charming, delightful

" "..,..
UJ l . 3j -3j -. - wishfulfillingjewel
to come
nevertheless; well then
lightriays
light
luminosity, clear light, S: prabhasvara
to come; happen, occur; future auxiliary verb
pf. of c..
below, under
well then, now
we
milk
instant, moment

or ""




I I fully, perfectly, S: prefix samyak-, sam-
but, however
to be
state of being
" ..,..

_ -I long time

" -I length of time
" ""

I I to think about, place one's attention on, reflect on
again
also, even, too, again, as for; (after a verb) even
although
good, excellent
infinitive, genmd marker
acrobatics
mother (h)
"
L\J 3j. -<J ? . the 12 kinds of speech by the Buddha

UJ 3j -cDC; -

again and again
adventitious, added on
above, beyond, after
limb, aspect
country, region, land; object
support
countrymen, natives
blame, accusation
wisdom, knowledge, S: jftana
Tibetan-Bnllish Glossary 227
to wander, be distracted; agitation, distraction itself
to come; fut. aux. vb.
aIL complete, entire
pf. of LG" c. - -= -
to come
""

our own schoolts)
independence; with negative =helpless
to exist (somewhere) self-nanne,S:svabhava
LG" G-l" C-J' pf. ofLG"c. - - l- C-J - to completely
experience
naturally, spontaneously
high, supreme; S: prefixpra-
homeland
very,highly, .extremely
we
cotton-cladone .(= yogin)

pf. of .:1\ c.. -I cf. UJ -.:1\ c,- <J'" to rejoice


.:I\c:.- UJfl.J-

" .:1\ c:. -.:1\ -


-

probably, maybe, likely


to be distracted; diversion, distraction
good quality, virtue, S: guna
movement, shaking, wavering
patron, donor
something borrowed
""

'\,:)
LG"eJ}-?0)-





to move, shake, agitate
servant
to cover
or


mountain
retreat, mountain solitude
grazing animals(in general), deer
to cover
rabbit
drawing, painting
knowledge,awareness, insight, S: vidy!;
to be aware of, know, understand
pratyekabuddha, .:J\ r; - t; _. - )
c:. - . - S: Svatantrika
'\,:)
.:I\-

- fl.J-
hom
gross, coarse
self,own
self-liberated, liberatedby itself
self victorious one, S: pratyekajina(syn. for S:
science,body of knowledge
rolling around. flitting about
family, line, S:.gotra; type, kind;
with -=the six realms of beings
. .'

.:1\ , -CDl- - cut-off family


I proper, suitable, right; reasoning
or
.:1\ <n. - a5 q"J -
I I The Collection of Reasonings: collection of (; leXlS1:
Nagarjuna
long
emaciated
Tibetan-EnglishOlossary 228
precious,jewel
precious
stage, level
gradually, step by step, one by one
whole, complete; unitary, solid
time, instance; reply, answer
retribution
reply, answer
path, road, S: Marga (fourth noble truth)
action,S: karma



to be acceptable, workable, suitable, able;
(after verbs) although, but
pf. of -(;J-
bone
each, every, some, a little; (with verb) really
to hope
touch, contact, S: sparsha
touchable, sense of touch object
taste, flavor; corpse
to enjoy, play; manifest
wind, breath, vital air, S: prana
to destroy, smash, break up
to be lost, wasted
source particle, see Lesson *
verbal particle, see Lesson *

I beginner
..,..

karma

sheep

way, manner, style

scripture; reading transmission

prophecy

valley
-r

body
"

good, excellent
" "
- <3) - Sl- S: Bhavaviveka
good, excellent
"..,.." C'\.
- -S -SO)- to say "excellent!"
-r ..,....,.. C'\.
- c:;- t.J - enjoyment body, S: sambhogakaya

'\1-'\1-
some, a certain, (who)soever
-r

etc., and the like
'\1"l e.J.
hand (nh.)

to be

to rise, get up

pf. of
to rise, get up




to receive; take hold of, grasp
year
leaf
perverted, mistaken view
to return, come back
enjoyment, leisure; to enjoy, S: bhoga
to elapse, pass
Tibetan-English Glossary 229


1 . I -I foodoffering for the dead
"-

I - I. I to come, go (hon.)
"- ..,... ..,...
<1] 10} -e, - . Shendormo (PN)
"-
- moisture,wetness
4-







meat, flesh
only
PN: Shakyamuni

another name for Siriputra'1 . Sariputra
nose (hon.)
to arise, dawn
side, part, aspect
explain; .talk about
friend

earth, level, S: bhumi
place, region
who, who?
- - a S: Buddhapalita
C - . a Buddhist; buddhahood
to wake up
to cleanse, remove, clear away
pf. of c . . to cleanse, remove
S: .buddha (lit. cleansed and expanded)
abbrev. of . <i Oi . 'i c.: . seed and sprout

stalk of wildrice, S: shalistambha
seed





mind stream
strength
if one asks
wood, tree
very, greatly
power'
a, an; imp. particle, see Lesson 7
carpenter

pf. and secondary form of ffi - . to die


most, greater part; very strong, powerful

"-
4-<3)-
"-

"-
1

to know; knowledge
knowable, what is to be known, S: jiieya
"-

mind, S: chitta
"- "
. al - to arouse bodhichitta
"-




discriminating awareness, S: prajiia
imp. of r.;:- c.. q . to come;
precativeparticle, see Lesson *
to escape, belost, slip away
pure, authentic, real
" ..
1-I sentient being
"
-?l the mind itself,the true nature of mind
"
intention, motivation; to consider, think about
"
".
I being, S: sattvaIlit.brave mind)
Tibetan-English Glossary 230

c; .. c : to be disheartened, discouraged, humiliated

c.. to encourage
easy
again, once more, back
mental events, S: chaitta once again


proponent of mind only, S: chiuamatrin
Kapila, PN. of founder of Samkhya
to clear away, dispel, remove
to deceive, err
to go, arrive

I).J to beg, ask for
tooth
-e:

I).J to learn, study, train
harvest

I).J 1 -I master, S: acarya
fresh
each, individual


ordinary person
. . . .. discrimination
..
I).J student, disciple

1 L... I secret mantra =vajrayana

1 I - I secret place, private parts
"l to listen
and so on, andthe like; full form = t4J <T] . . .:I\ . .
new

l . . existence & peace = samsara &nirv iJ)a
to be alive
to request; to eat (hon.); to say (nh)
to bring up, nourish, take care of; to heal, restore,
healing, curing
to kill, murder
gold
all three
teaching, excellent words
to say, speak (hon.)
three
to be clear, bright
pf. of <T] c. . . to say, speak
clear

. . l . to supplicate





repair;



to go
to look up; to extend, stretch
sister
hardship, toil; rigorous, hard
son (hon.)
arms of a scale
hardness
pf. of tJ, j.I:;J

. life, life force


"l c; . . tokill

(\J <rl . A c..
-..J I - I life tree

protector


-..J I craving, S:

l - . wordly place, town


-..J I to be possible; samsaric existence




Tibetan-English Glossary
231
tolcill

1'J -I meditation, meditative state, S: dhyana
fut, of <:;J L,J tolearn, study, train; training, discipline



..,..







"'-



pf. of <:;J to bring up, nourish
fut. of . - to gather. accumulate
..,..
pf. of .. to gather, accumulate
to think; thought, mind; what has been intended
pf. or
q
- - to think
to clear up, open up, reveal. make clear
coolness
alms
merit, S: punya
fut. of fj"c. . <:;J. 10 stand, get up; to raise, lift up
-r:
pf. of r; . to beg, ask for
precept, training, discipline
..r-
pf. of ':J . . (see above)
fut. of . . to deceive, err
very much, greatly
white film on liquids, moldy
alone; naked
god, S: deva
anti-god, jealous god, S: asura
higher, superior. S: adhi-
great, extreme


'" lJ'l- <3} -

'" ..,..
lJ'I-<l']-
.
panoramic awareness, S: vipaSyana
to fall
spontaneous
aunt
wondrous, .strange
question particle
I should not; okay?, do you understand?'
PN: UQ4iy8i)a; name ofsacred place
Lesson 1: Answers
Sa. Exercise
First Syllable
Second Syllable Third Syllable
la. ka
ra
2a. ka + shap eu
=
ku sha + shap cu
=
shu
3a." kha + naro = kho na
4a. kha + khikhu
=
khi kha
+ shap eu
=
khu
5a. kha + naro
=
kho
6a. nga
7a. nga + naro
=
ngo
. 8a.
ea + khikhu
=
ci
9a. ea
ea + naro
=
eo
lOa. cha
12a. eha + shap eu
=
ehu
13a. eha + deng bu
=
ehe
14a. eha
15a. eha + khikhu
=
chi
16a. eha + deng bu
=
che eha + deng bu
=
che
17a. cha + . naro
=
cho cha + naro
=
cho
18a. pha + naro
=
pho nya
lb. nya
2b. nya + khikhu
=
nyi rna
3b. ta + dengbu
=
te
4b. ta + khikhu
=
ti pha + shap eu
=
phu
5b. ta + deng bu
=
te la
+ naro
=
10 pa
6b. tha
rna
7b. tha
ea + naro
=
eo
8b. tha
9b. tha + deng bu
=
the
lOb. tha + shap eu
=
thu rna
l2b. tha
+ naro
=
tho pa + naro
=
po
13b. na
ga
14b. na + khikhu
=
ni
I5b. na
tsa + deng bu
=
tse
l6b. pa + naro
=
po ta
la
17b. pha
l c. pha
tsha + deng bu
=
tshe
2e. pha + naro
=
pho rna
3e. pha
4c. pha + shap eu
=
phu
5e. pha + shap eu
=
phu ga
6e. pha
+
shapeu
=
phu rna + naro
=
rna
7e. pha
+ "eng bu
=
phe ra + khikhu
=
ri
8e. rna
+
khikhu
=
mi
ge.
rna
+ "eng bu
=
me
IDe. rna
rna
+
naro =mo
12e. rna
+ "eng bu
=
me ra
+
khikhu
=
ri
13e. tsa
na
l4e. tsa + khikhu
=
tsi tsa
+
khikhu
=
tsi
Answers to the Exercises 233
15c. tsha
16c. tsha
17c. tsha
18c. ra
+ deng bu
+ naro
+ deng bu
= tshe
= tsho
= re ra + dengbu = re
+ khi khu = ri
+ khikhu = yl
+ deng bu. = ye
+ naro = yo
Id.
2d.
3d.
4d.
5d.
6d.
7d.
8d.
9d.
IOd.
12d.
13d.
14d.
15d.
16d.
17d.
tsha
wa
wa
sha
sha
sha
sha
sa
a
a
ya
ya
ya
ya
ra
ra
+ khi khu
+ shap eu
+ deng bu
+ naro
+ naro
+ naro
= shi
= shu
= she
= sho
= a
= a
ya
la
sa
rna
rna
na
nga
kha
ga
ra
+ dengbu = Ie
+ deng bu = khe
+ naro = ro
Ie. Ia
2e. la
3e. la
4e. sha
5e. sha
6e. sha
7e. sha
8e. sa
ge. sa
IDe. sa
I2e. sa
I3e. sa
14e. ha
15e. ha
16e. ha
l7e. ha
+ dengbu
+ na ro
+ khikhu
+ naro
+khi khu
+ shap eu
+ naro
+ shap eu
+ deng bu
+ naro
= Ie
= 10
= shi
= sho
= si
= su
= so
= hu
= he
= ho
la
rna
tsha
ra
ya
Ia
sa
kha
ra
ra
rna
+ na ro = 10
+ deng bu = re
+ khikhu = Ii
+ naro = so
+ naro = kho
+ shapeu = ru
+ shap eu= ru
Ia + khikhu =li
ra + shap eu = ru
ka
If.
2f.
3f.
4f.
a
a
a
a + dengbu = e
kha
na +
rna
rna
+ shapeu - khu
deng bu = ne
ha + na fO =ho
Sb. Exercise
1.
2.
3.
-e:
~ -
i-i-
<,
~ - ~ .
~ -
Answers to the Exercises 234
C'\.
c> 05-
C'\. -r:
4.




'\.:l
-e: -: -c: -..r- -..r-

C'\. -c:
'"' -c:
<,


0) --6-


-e:
(-UJ-

?-
'\.:l
-..r- <, -..r- -: C'\. -e:

az

<, C'\. C', C'\. C'\. <,

as-

'\.:l
-e:
'""
-: -..r- <,

05"

-e: <, <,
-e:


'\.:l '\.:l
'\.:l
Answers to the Exercises 236
7e. la + bata
=
ba + shap cu
=
bu
8e. ra + nya ta
=
nya+ deng bu
=
nye
ge. ra + nga ta
=
nga+ shap eu
=
ngu
If. sa + nga ta
=
nga
2f. la + ja ta
=
ja
3f. la + ta ta
=
ta
4f. sa + da ta
=
da + deng bu
=
de
5f. sa + nga ta
=
nga+ naro
=
ngo
6f. ra + gam
=
ga + shap eu
=
gu
7f. ra + na ta
=
na + naro
=
no
8f. sa + tsa ta
=
tsa + naro
=
tso
9f.
. la
+ ja ta = ja + khikhu = Jl
2e. Exercise
-c: C'\. <, <,
e" ngo
~ -
mi
7j-
ku
~ -
te
~ -
na
~ .
ee
-e:
<, <,
~ -
dza
~ "
na
~ .
hlo
~ -
du 1" ke
~ -
nye
'0
,
C'\. <,
-6"-
tsi
Lj-
pu
~ -
de
~ -
ba
?-
ta
c
nga
'\.:l
-.r -e: C'\. -.r
~ -
go
E1-
bo
~ -
hla
~ -
ei
~ -
rno
~ -
gu
'0
-r: <,
K-
tsa
~ -
Q1-
Ljo
~ -
de
~ -
ku
?
nya ga po
'0
3d. Exercise
la. ka + ya ta = ea + khikhu
=
ei
2a. sa + ra ta = sa
3a. za + lata = da
4a. kha + ra ta
=
tha + naro
=
tho
5a. ka + la ta = la ka + la ta = la + naro = 10
6a. ka + lata
=
la + shap eu = lu
7a. kha + ya ta = eha + khikhu = chi
lb. kha + rata = tha
2b. pha + ya ta = eha
3b. pha + ya ta
=
eha + khikhu
=
chi
4b. pha + ya ta
=
eha + shap ell
=
Chll
5b. kha + la ta
=
la + shap ell
=
III
6b. za + lata
=
da + shap ell
=
du
7b. kha + rata
=
tha
lc. pha
+
lata
=
la + naro
=
10
2e. sa
+
la ta
=
la
+
deng bu
=
Ie
3e. kha
+
lata
=
la
+
naro
=
10
4c. ka
+
ya ta
=
ea
+
shap ell
=
eu
5e. rna + ya ta
=
nya + shap ell
=
nyu ga + shap ell
= gu
6c. kha + yarn = cha + khikhu
=
chi
7e. pha
+
ya ta
=
cha + deng bu
=
che
Answers to the Exercises
If. sa
+
gata
=
ga
+
rata
=
eJa +
naro
=
go
4e. Exercise
-or- -or- <,
1.
~ -
eJu
~ .
nyo
~ .
JU
:J' 00
~ .
me
~ .
ca
~ """u
2.
~ .
la
238
Answers to the Exercises 239
Lesson 3: Answers
Ic, Exercise
la. kha-o + sha + khi khu
=
shi
2a. a-o + pha + naro
=
phD
3a. pha-o + ga + naro
=
go
4a. kha-o + ya + naro
=
yo
5a. ma-o
+
na
+
naro
=
no
6a. pha-o
+
sa + deng bu
=
se
7a. a-o
+
ga + yata
=
gya + shapcu
=
~ y u
8a. pha-o
+
ra
+
jata
=
ja
+
dengbu
=
Je
lb. tha-o
+
ga + shap eu
=
gu
2b. ma-o.
+
cha
+
khikhu
=
chi
3b. pha-o
+
sa
+
shap cu
=
su
4b. ma-o
+
ga
+
naro
=
go
5b. ma-o
+
ga
+
shap eu
=
gu
6b. ma-o
+
dza + deng bu
=
dze
7b. tha-o
+
ba
+
yata
=
ya
+
dengbu
=
ye
8b. pha-o
+
sa
+
ngata
=
nga
+
naro
=
ngo
l c. pha-o
+
da
+
dengbu
=
de
2c. kha-o
+
ta + khikhu
=
ti
3c. kha-o
+ .ta + shap cu
=
tu
4c. tha-o
+
ka
+
shap ell
=
ku
5c. a-o
+
kha
+
naro
=
kho
6e. tha-o
+
pa
+
dengbu
=
pe
7c. a-o
+
ga
+
rata
=
Qa
+
naro
=
90
8e. pha-o
+
ra
+
tsata
=
tsa
+
dengbu
=
tse
,
f' Id. ma-o
+
tsha + naro
=
tsho
2d. kha-o
+
za
+
khikhu
=
zi
1
3d. pha-o
+
ca
+
shap cu
=
cu
4d. a-o
+
tsha
+
naro
=
tsho
5d. tha-o
+
ga
+
deng bu
=
ge
r
6d. a-o
+
dza
+
khikhu
=
dzi
7d. a-o + pha + rata
=
tha + naro
=
tho
8d. pha-o
+
la + tata
=
ta
Ie. tha-o + rna
+
shap cu
=
mu
2e. a-o
+
da + khikhu
=
di
3e. a-o
+
cha
+
khikhu
=
chi
4e. kha-o
+
sa
+
naro
=
so
5e. kha-o
+
ca + khikhu
=
ci
6e. kha-o
+
da
+
shap cu
=
du
7e. pha-o
+
sa
+
tata
=
ta
+
khikhu
=
ti
8e. pha-o
+
sa
+
kata
=
ka
+
shap cu
=
ku
If. pha-o
+
sha + shapcu
=
shu
2f. kha-o
+
tsa + naro
=
tso
3f. pha-o
+
ka
+
shap eu
=
ku
4f. tha-o
+
rna + deng bu
=
me
Answers to the Exercises 240
5f. .tha-o
+
ba
+
shap cu
=
U
6f. pha-o
+
ra
+
data
=
da
7f. pha-o
+
sa
+
data
=
da
+
shap ell
=
du
8f. pha-o
+
sa
+
gata
=
ga
+
naro
=
go
Ig. ma-o
+
da
+
naro
=
do
2g. kha-o
+
sha
+ deng bu
=
she
3g. pha-o
+
sha + naro
=
sho
4g. ma-o
+
ja + deng bu
=
je
5g. ma-o
+
dza + naro
=
dzo
ld. Exercise
e-, e-, -e: -e: e-,
1.

(J4 -

(J -0-
'\,;;)
'\,;;)
<, <, -e: <,
2.

CJ'5- 11-
(J-6"" 04 ffi - -

'\,;;)
<, -e: <, -c: -r: <,
3.

"
'\.:)
ffi-
<,
4.
-



(J1-
'\,;;)
-r: -..r- <,

c-,
5.
. qc" -
3d. Exercise
la. la
+
sa
=
Ie
2a. ya
+
shap cu
=
yu + Ia
=
yiil
3a. ma-o + kha
+
na
=
khen
4a. ra
+
nga
=
rang
lb. la
+
deng bu
=
Ie
+
na
=
len
2b. pha
+
shap cu
=
phu
+
da
=
phil
3b. kha-o
+
sa
+
deng bu
=
se
+
ra
=
ser
4b. sa
+
na ro
=
so
+
ga
+
sa
=
sok
Ie. pha
+
la
=
phel
2e. rna
+
naro
=
rna
+
sa
=
rno
3c. pha-o
+
ra
+
data
=
da + deng bu = de + ga
+
sa = dek
4c. ra + da ta
=
da + shap cu
=
du
+
la
=
dill
Id. sa
+
da
=
se
2d. pha
+
naro
=
pho
+
na
=
phon
3d. ra
+
ga ta
=
ga
+
ya ta
=
ja
+
la
=
jal
4d. kha-o
+
ea
+
naro
=
eo + da
=
co
Ie. la
+
shap cu
=
lu
+
sa
=
Iil
2e. ra
+
naro
=
fa
+
la
=
rol
3e. a-o
+
ba
+
ya ta
=
ja
+
dengbu
=
je
+
da
=
je
4e. pha-o
+
ra
+
gata
=
ga
+
rata
=eJa
+ shap eu + ba + sa
=QUP
If. a-o
+
tha
+
na ro
=
tho
+
na
=
thon
2f. eha + da
=
ehe

Answers to the Exercises 241


3f. sa
+
kata
=
ka + rata
=ta + da
= te
4f. a-o
+
pha
+
deng bu
=
phe
+
Ia = phel
3e. Exercise
..... <, ..... -r:
1.


q l- CNml-


\1
'\.:)
<, -e: e-,
I 2.





'\.:)
<, ..... .....
3.




C'\, C'\, <, <,
4.




q%"
1
4c. Exercise
r
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.
h
'f 1. I zh ch g d ng s b
2. kh g d
P
p g ch r
3. d g n
J
b s d g
5c. Exercise
-e: -e: <,
/.
c


'\.:)
C'\, C'\, C'\, -:
J




<, ..... -e:



5:J f\J "CN .
"""
-r: C'\, -e:



<3)


'\.:)
1,
-r: -e: -e:




'\.:) '\.:)
(
e-,




f\J
'\.:)
r
j'
f
J
\
I
1
Answers to the Exercises
Lesson 4: Answers
lOa. Exercises:
1. supreme precious human body
242
n.
human body
C".. ""
:1\<3) .CD 0) "
adj.
precious
-v-
ffi1-
adj.
supreme
2. two excellent wisdoms
n.
wisdom
C"..

adj. num.
excellent two
3. ten directions
n.
direction
nUffi.
. 10
4. only the completely pure dharma
n.
dhanna
5. only karma
-c:
r-01-

completelypure only
C"..

n. adj.
karma only
6. all those qualities
n.
quality
<,
l-l1-
da. pI.
those
7. those five skandhas
n.
skandha
8. buddhas
num.
fivefold
<,
l-l1"
da. pl.
those
n.
buddha

pI.
-8
Answers to the Exercises
9. these profound dharmas
243
10. these sutras
-c: C',.

n. da. pI.
sutra these
I
f
n.
dhanna
-:

adj.
profound
C',.

da. pl.
these
Il.a long path
n. adj.
path long
12. manyyogins

n.
yogin
indef.
a
adj.
many
13. a good offering
n.
offering
adj.
good
indef.
a
14. great devotion
-v """....--

"-.:l
n. adj.
devotion great
15. one who has wrong views

adj.
wrong
5- -05)-
n. adj.
view possessing
r 16. a learned person
}
C',. C',.

n. adj. indef.
man learned a
17. good aspiration
Answers to the Exercises
n. adj.
aspiration good
18. all devas
244

n. pI.
deva -s
19. five great tantras
'1 OJ-
'\,)
adj.
all
" "" ....-
c
'\,)
n. adj. num.
tantra great fi ve
20. holy guru

n. adj.
guru holy
21. profound coincidence
n.
coincidence
22. six dhannas
-e:
eN-
adj.
profound
n. num.
dharma 6
23. an old man
C'... C'...
eN-
n. adj. indef.
man old a
24. most excellent being
n.
being
-e:

adj.
supreme
25. three eyes (h)
n. num.
eye 3
26. faithful persons

n. adj.
person faith-possessing
27. the precious teachings
Answers to the Exercises

pI.
-s
245
{I
l
C\.. -r: ."""-
<,

'l-
n. adj. da.
teaching precious that
I 28. great sangha
<,

'\.:l
n.
sangha
" -:

adj.
great
29. great compassion
"'
)
!
l
n.
compassion.
"""- -e:

adj.
great
1

r
30. four completely pure monks
"""- -.r
l - c, . CN : - -
n. adj.
monk completely pure
b. English to Tibetan:
-.r C\..

<,
8. -"J -'l 0) - .
num.
four
Answers to the Exercises
-e:

'\,;)
'"'
14.
.... '"' ....
15.
'\,;)
<,
16. "i
e-, -e:
17.
<,
-'l -'l-'l "l -1 <31"
'\.:l
.... .
23.
246
Answers to the Exercises
Lesson 5: Answers
247
}
I
r
\
j
}
1
f'
I
6a. Exercises:
The precious human body is endowed with the eighteen qualities of the freedoms and
resources, which includes the essential [qualities] of the eight freedoms, which are the opposites
of the eight lack of freedoms, and the ten resources, which are the specific qualities of the
I [fust eight]. We have contemplated this by means of its causes, examples, lists, and so forth. but still
this is very difficult to obtain, and even if we have obtained this body which possesses inconceivable benefit,
1 still the world, the external environment, which appears to be hard and solid will ultimately be destroyed
\ by seven fires and one flood, and at that time not even the dust will remain. After all sentient beings,
the inner inhabitants, are born, there is not one whose life will be spared. Therefore, we ourselves as
well will certainly die. Moreover, we have no certainty that we will not die just this very evening. At the
time of death, nothing except only the completely pure dharma will help us. Once we have died, we do
not become nothing, but follow after karma alone. If we are born in the three lower realms due to evil
t .karma, there will be unbearable suffering of suffering. Although we are born in the three higher realms
J due to defiled virtue, we will not pass beyond the suffering of change and the all-pervading suffering
f of karmic formations. Therefore, right now we must liberate ourselves by all means from samsara, this
great ocean of .suffering. In order to do this, -we should attend through the three [ways of] pleasing .an
~ authentic spiritual friend of the Mahayana. Not falling under the influence of immature and evil
1 friends. think that you will practice the pure dharma as much as you can every day, death which is certain to
befall your practice of the topics that are to betaken up or to be abandoned, the truths which have
been taught. ... NTNG4B:6-5B:l
The mind of a great person, which thinks, "1 will go for refuge in the guru and -the three jewels -to
liberate all sentient beings, myself and others, .: from the suffering of this frightful samsara" [should
visualize as follows]: all of the earth, where I am standing, isa beautiful and pleasing ground, the
universe which is made up of various jewels. On this is the wishfulfilling tree, which has five limbs. It is
completely adorned with hanging garlands of jewels, bells,and the like on the perfect leaves,
flowers, and fruits . -In the center of the all-pervading realm of space, on a variegated throne of
Answers to the Exercises 248
jewels supported by lions, on the seat of a piled-up lotus, sun, and moon is the root guru, Uo4iyaoa
Vajradhara, the essential embodiment of all the buddhas, who is blue in color and who holds a vajra
and bell. He is joined in union with [his] consort [Yeshe] Tsogyal who is white and who holds a hooked
knife and skullcup. They are adorned with omaments of silk and bone, and they sit in the vajra
posture. Above the tops of their heads are the. gurus of the Great Perfection lineage one above the
other. Moreover, they are surrounded by an inconceivable array of the holy root and lineage gurus, the
assembly of yidam deities of the mandala associated with the six great tantras, and the heroes and
dlkiOis of the three places. On the limb in front are Buddha Shakyamuni and the others, the
buddhas of the three times who have the form of nirmioakayas, on the right limb are Shlriputra,
Maudgalyayana, and the others, the assembly of the noble sangha of shravakas, and on the limb
in back is the jewel of the dharma in the form of stacked-up texts, which are red in color and which
proclaim the spontaneous sound of the vowels and consonants. The spaces in between .these [limbs
are completely filled by the assembly of the oceans of samaya bound dharmapllas, which all arise from
wisdom and action. They all also have the immeasurable virtues of wisdom, compassion, and
power, and therefore are actually great leaders who guide one with great love. In front of this [tree] is
oneself. To one's right is our father. To the left is our mother. In front is our malefactor. In all
[directions] all around are all sentient beings of the six realms, with their palms of respect joined.
They all together chant aloud the words of taking refuge. Mentally they think, "Until attaining the essence 0
enlightenment, we request the guru as guide, the yidams and buddhas as teacher, the dharma as path,
the sangha of dlkinis and dharrnapllas as companions who practice the path , and thus we all rely on
you, offer to you, there is no other place of refuge and hope than you. Therefore, you know whatever we
do." Thus, imagine that you go for refuge with fierce longing.
Finally, light rays radiate out from the heart center of all the objects of refuge and .enter into the
bodies and minds of myself and all sentient beings. All of the two obscurations together with
their habitual patterns are purified, and our long life, merit, virtues of scripture and realization, anc
so forth increase further and further. NTNG 9A:I-IOA:5
Answers to the Exercises 249
6b. English to Tibetan:
-e: -e: C'\, ""
1. 10) - -'1 c l 0) -'1 q '1 0) -C--J - - -NTNG 19A:4

C'\, "" C'\,


2. -- --K-.q-- - NTNG 19A:4
)
j
"'"' -e:
3. l- -en 0) -C--J - - - - NTNG 9A:6
'=>
C'\, -e:
4. -- 0) - -l - <9 -.0 l- -- NTNG 13B:l
'\oJ
-..r C'\,
5. --.NTNG9A:1
"0
C'\, C'\,-..r
6. TRA 123:4
C'\.. C'\..
12. -c -'l - 0) - Oi - - - MINT 89:4
13.
"" C'\, ""
9. q l -l -.0 0) -<9 -.0 .. - - - NTNG 10A:4
-c: C'\.. -e: ""
1O. f:\r -q - q c - - - as- en 0) NTNG 5A:5
).;)
-e: C'\.. C'\.. "" "'
11.. -.0 0) - - - SBD TIl 141:11-2
\
1
1
1
J
-..r -e: -..r C'\.. "" -e:
15. - -? -C--J Q, - "4 - q - q - Oi - - - MINT 80:14
I
-e: "" -e: C'\.. -..r -e:
17. '1 - 'l-en 0) -C--J - q 'l- -c
l
C--J - q -'lC - r -Q, - - - MINT 75:8-9

-r: C'\, C'\.. -e: -e: C'\..


18. SBD II 449:16-7

"" C'\, "" C'\, "'


- - - - - - cle:- e: - E. --- SBD II 461:7-8
-..r C'\, "'
22. NTNG 178:3-4

"' C'\.. -.r",", -.rC'\.. "'


23. ,- q - - q l- ffiO) -l "l 0)1 NTNG9B:1-2

C'\, C'\..-..r C'\,"'"'


24. - -q - a4 -? -C--J -UJ - -- - SBD III 27:19 .
11&.. Tibetan to English
Answers to the Exercises
Lesson 6: Answers
250
1. Shamatha is one-pointedness.
2. Vipashyana is full discrimination.
3. There is no evil like anger; there is no austerity like patience.
4. The only main point of all the teachings of the sutras and tantras is only this all-pervading sugatagarbha.
5. Birth is suffering; aging is also suffering; sickness is also suffering; death is also suffering.
6. Birth is also the root of everything else.
7. The phenomena of samsara have no essence (are meaningless, futile).
8. Wildness and depression are the obscurations to shamatha. Drowsiness, sleepiness, and doubt are the
obscurations to vipashyana, Interest in desirable things and enmity are the obscurations to both.
9. In the perseverance of Milarepa
Is the life tree of the teachings of the Buddha.
10. The guru [is] the buddha; the guru [is] the dharma.
Likewise, the guru [is] the sangha.
The doer of all is the guru.
The guru [is] glorious Vajradhara.
11. The hardness of the body is the earth.[element]; the moisture is the water [element]; the heat is the fire
[element]; the wind and movement is the air [element].
12. The lower realms are three-the hells, the hungry ghosts, and the animals.
13. The families of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas are inferior. The family of the Mahayana is supreme.
11b. English to Tibetan
"- "" C'\. C'\. -r: -e: C'\.
1. KGT83B:5
-r: C'\.
2.
'='
1 -C:<3) . l -"J - l -04 - 1 MMK25:13cd (verse)
'='
"- C'\. C'\.
3. -5\" --05\- -UJ 5\" -- JOLLM126B:6
C'\. ... C'\. C'\.
4. -l -eN 0) - 0)""- MM32A:3
"- C'\. -e:
5. MM33B:5
-: C'\. e-,


6. '""1 ') I I ? "/ I -I BCin MM76A:4 (verse)
-r: c-, C'\. C'\. "- c-,
7. . -- l- - -1 q - -5c; - eN --0l-l - -UJ <3) -5\1 NTNG 13A:4
'\,j
C'\. C'\. C'\. "- "-
8.
'" '" "- C'\.
MM 132B:5
'-:>
"" C'\. C'\. C'\. C'\.
9. l <T] "15\- - UJ - . - l- UJ 5\1 JOLLM(?)
'-:>

\
)
Answers to the Exercises
Lesson 7: Answers
251
}I
IJ
(

I,
r,
f
Sa. Tibetan to English
1. I respectfully take refuge with my three gates
In the buddha, dharma, and sangha.
2. The guru opened the treasuries of teachings and oral instructions for his great sons.
3. I have given you the transmission that all phenomena are like an illusion.
4. [I] supplicated with one-pointed mind.
5. [He] is ornamented with the symbolic ornaments of silk and bone.
6. The hungry ghosts experience the suffering of hunger and thirst. ..
7. Delighting in flesh and blood...
8.What is of benefit at the time of deathis only the holy dharma.
9. The causes of death are very many.
The causes of life are very few.
These as well will become causes ofdeath.
10. The secret mantra has strayed into Bon.
11. [I] continually offer the offering of practice.
12. In particular, one offers one's body, wealth, and collection of virtue without reservation.
13.By means of meditation, one establishes all beings in the three enlightenments.
14. One, attends an authentic spiritual friend of the Mahayana by means of the three ways of pleasing him.
15. [One should] completelyperfectalways and continually these six paramitas.
16. Finally, myself and all sentient beings dissolve into the objects of refuge. They also dissolve intotheguru in
thecenter. He dissolves into the dharmakaya, simplicity, the primordial [dharmaldhatu.
17. Our teacher realized the state of actual, complete enlightenment under thebodhi tree [in] Vajrasana.
18. Both enemies have acted as friends, and friends 'have acted as enemies...
19. The rope is empty of [being] a snake...
20. [Buddha nature] is not empty of the unsurpassable qualities.
21. The supreme sage has taught karma '
As intention and what has been intended.
22. In particular.the phenomena of samsara are insubstantial.
23. The blessings of the jewel [of the] guru has entered into one's being.
24.... dedication and aspiration for the benefit of others
25. Generally, many excellent experiences and realizations ofthe unsurpassablesecret mantra were bornin his
mind...
26. The one who is learned in dependent arising knows all the twelve aspects of dependent arising as impermanent,
suffering, and egoless.
27. Many hopes and fears concerning the activities of this life do not arise.
8b. English to Tibetan
-.r C"'-, C"'-, -r: C"'-, """
2. ? c, . -C-J - - . Oi . n.J . C-J - CJ) - 'l- n.J - 1KGT 49A:4
""
-e: -e: " -e:
3'. SSN3B:6
""'
" C"'-, C"'-, <,
4. - - n.J - -1 MINT153:5-6
""
5. 94:14
Answers to the Exercises 252
C'... -c: '"
9. OJ C- - ) - "J f:\ - ? -"J - 1-(),J - - - - (?)
'-.,:)
C'... '" '" C'... -: v-
10. SM 14A:3
'=>
-c: C'... -e: e-, "-
II. KGT67A:3
7a. Tibetan to English
Answers to the Exercises
Lesson 8 Answers
253
f
1
t
)
J
!
}
i
Ii
I
I
1. There is nothing more powerful than thedhanna.
2. his life force is harder than rock
3. In short, empty phenomena arise from empty phenomena.
4. We have wandered in this place of samsara from beginningless time.
5. There is nothing more dear than one's own life.
6. There is no essence at all.
7. How long did youstay with him? What teachings did you hear? What confidence of realization do you have?
8. What qualities of his presence did you see?
9. What were the principal oral instructions that you requested?
10-. Great magician, what abhisheka gift do you have?
11. [I] gave an offering that pleases the guru.
12. This seeing of the nature ofthe mind itself
Is not equalled by seeing the buddha.
13. Meditation without the view
Is like a blind man wandering on the plains.
14. The mind recognizing its own nature is one-pointedness.
Realizing that the mind is rootless is simplicity.
Mixing appearance and mind is one taste. .
The exhaustion of conceptual reference points is nonmeditation.
15. The person whose mind is distracted
Dwells between the fangs of the kleshas.
16. the human body that is endowed with the eighteen [conditions of] being free and-well- favored
17. arousing the [bodhi]chitta ofaspiring and entering...
18. the dhatu that does not have any ofthe complexities of the fouraltematives
19. the guru whose kindness is impossible to repay...
20.... a son whose actions are in harmony with the dharma
21. fortunate ones who are held by the oral instructions of the guru
22. the great charnel ground in which lie dead all the complexities of samsara and nirvana
23. ..everythingwhich abides as only empti[ness] ...
24....the impure body, together with its skandhas.dhatus, and ayatanas...
25. The son, who is like the buddhasof the three times..
26... .inthisocean of samsara, the source ofsuffering, which is extremely difficult.to be free of...
27. Was this something you remembered yourself or was it a prophecy?
28.[1] do not know whether itis a prophecy of the dakinis or an obstacle ofthe maras.
29. There is a [person] who has no thought for what is not dharma (who thinks of nothing but the dharma).
30. [I] will make the aspiration that [we] meet in the next [life] in the celestial realmof Uddiyana.
31. I have the oral instructions of consciousness riding prana.
32. The person who is without confusedthoughts
Grasps the plowshare of nondistraction,
Goads with the whip of fierce exertion,
Plows the soil of the five poisonous kleshas,
And clears away the rocksof evil in his being.
7b. English to Tibetan
C"\,
1.
. -en - "J Q." VI "c.J - - -
I I '''t CB 510:3
v- C"\, C"\, C"\, v-
2. l" d) -"J - CDc:. - q 5 -" MINT 75:19-20
'\,j
Answers to the Exercises
C'\.. C'\.. '" -..r- -e:
3. l-C"J - -C"J ---. JOLLM40A:1
<, <, C'\.. <,
7. MINT 77:15
-e: <, C'\.. _ '" C'\.. '"
8. KZ9A:3-4
C'\.. -..r -.r C'\..
9. MINT 76:18
'\.:) '\.:) '\.:)
C'\.. '" C'\.. '" -..r-..r
10. -le,- - l- -l31-l- -q --- MINT 79:15
'\.:)
254
8a. Tibetan to' English-
Answers to the Exercises
Lesson 9: Answers
255
}
(
I
'I' 1. Generally, the collection of body and mind is impermanent; therefore, do not cling to what is borrowed as [your]
ego. If you walk, the path is impermanent; therefore, one's steps should go inthe direction of dharma. If one rests"
dwelling is impermanent; therefore, one should visualize a pure universe. Food, drink, and possessions are
impermanent; therefore, consume samadhi as food. If one lies down, sleeping is impermanent; therefore" purify
1
1' confusion into luminosity. If you accumulate, wealthis impermanent; therefore, acquire the seven riches of the
noble ones. Friends and position are impermanent; therefore, arouse renunciation in solitude. Power and fame are
impermanent; therefore, always take the place of humility. Words and talk are impermanent; therefore, exhort
yourself in recitation and chanting. Faith and renunciation are impermanent; therefore, exert yourself infinn
resolution. Ideas and thoughts are impermanent; therefore, trainin a good character. Experiences and realization
are impermanent.therefore, reach theexhaustion of dharmata.
2. [It] is apparent and devoid of self-nature, luminous and devoid of discursive thought.
t 3. I went to India without regard for my body or life.
l 4. Until samsara is emptied,
[I) 'supplicate the glorious guru'to remain.
5. [He] thought that he wouldgo to meet with Naropa,
6. the means that causes one to attain the state of nirvana is the essence of the path.
7. If one is born as a male, passion will arise toward the mother and aggression will arise toward the father.
8. One should establish that one's mindis appearance/emptiness, [like a] reflection, that [one'sl.speechis
sound/emptiness [like an] echo, and that [one's] mind is thought/emptiness, like an illusion.
9. In order to tame disciples of the snow land of Tibet, [I] empower [you] as my regent.
10. [The Buddha] stayed for seven weeks, not teaching the dharma.
11. [While] not having given up evil deeds, [he] hopes to be liberated from samsara,
12. Fromthe mind itself, which is difficult to describe,
The variety of magical creations of samsaraand nirvana arise.
13. Because he has practiced according to the command of his guru, he possesses the blessings of the lineage.
14. When the blessings of the glorious guru
And one's karmic fortune come together,
One recognizes one's own nature, like an old friend.
15. He went to practice in the mountain solitudes of Jomo Kharak in Tsang'.
16. Confused thoughts are not to be abandoned.
Spiritual practice, the antidote, is not to be practiced.
1-7. Because evil deeds are not purified and there is the fear ofdeath, one should quickly purify [these evil deeds]..
18. If someone with genuine devotion practices [this practice], there is no doubt that he will actually see the face [of
thedeity].
19. As the mind is itself not aware of its true nature, it has appeared from beginningless time as the-dualityof self
and other.
20. If you do not developmeditation, prajfiawill not arise.
If this [prajfia] does not arise, one will not attain enlightenment.
21. In terms of my practicing the path of skillful means, [I] need both exertion and the arousing of [bodhi]chitta.
22. The Bhagavat taught [this] relatively for the sake of entering sentient beings gradually into the vehicles.
8b. English to Tibetan
Answers to the Exercises 256
C'.'C'I... C'I... <, v- v-
3
4' .")
1,-:> --'-I ;:;t;, , I . MM5B...
C'I... v- C'I... v- v- v-
4. a5 - 'l c : q - 0)- - - - -q -q - q 5q - - - KZ 18A:6
"" C'I...""",, "" C'l...v- -: "" v-
5. --- c Q-I-t.;] - <9 - -0l-J,-l -q r:l, - q - -l t; -l -q r:l, - -t.;] <l) -l --- KZ 143B: 1-2
Lesson 10 Answers
6a. Tibetan to English
1. Because of wanting to attain nirvana [for] oneself alone and [because] of not having compassion for sentient
beings, one does not perform the benefit of others.
2. Although the perceiver is established as dependent on the perceived, it is never established as existing separately.
3.... the four means of magnetizing: generosity, pleasant speech, beneficial action, and acting in accord with
convention.
4. Because he has abandoned attachment to this worldly life, his activities are few, and because he has taken to
heart future lives, he earnestly contemplates the dharma. .
5. Having abandoned the path of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, one enters the path of the Mahayana and
takes the completely pure view as the ground; then, after that, one enters into the path of the unsurpassable
Vajrayana.
6. First, one arouses equanimity, a mind free from passion, aggression, and prejudice. [Then] one trains the mind
with the four immeasurables-Ioving kindness, the desire [for others] to meet with happiness; compassion, the
desire [for others] to be free from suffering; and joy, which thinks, "0 how joyous," if it happens that [others] are
not devoid of these [positive states].
7. One should exert oneself and concentrate at all times and places to examine whether or not these qualities of
being free- and well-favored are complete or not.
8. There are many meditations on utpattikrama,
But there is nothing superior to the meditation on the guru.
9. All lives are impermanent--death. All accumulations are impermanent--exhaustion. All coming together is -
impermanent-i-separation. All building up is impennanent-collapse. 'Everything high is impennanent-falling
down.
10. Because his kleshas and discursive thoughts are few, his mind is peaceful and tamed.
11. There is no opportunity to practice the dharma, because hell is of the nature of continuous suffering, the hungry
ghosts are of the nature of an anguished mind, the animals have a preponderance of complete stupidity, and
moreover, these three [realms] are unworkable states of mind, since they have no shame or modesty.
12. Both grasping to an object as existent and grasping [to it] as nonexistent are faulty, because one falls into the
extremes ofbothetemalism and nihilism.
13. [One will] know how to bring negative conditions in this life to the path and lots of hopes and fears
concerning the activities and plans for this life will not arise, and one will go from joy to joy in future lives.
14. This is mahamudra (the great symbol):
"Mu" is the wisdom of emptiness.
"Dra) is liberation from the dharmas of samsara.
"Maha'' is the unity [of these two].
6b. English to Tibetan
C'I... -e: '"' C'I... v-"" -e:
I. J3 -.0 l- -5 - a5- -04 c-<3) - --- JOL 29A:5-6
'-:>
C'I... -e: v-
2. MINT 102:5
Answers to the Exercises 257
1
}
I
f
t
1
\i
j
J
1
-e: -,r " "-.r " -.r -.r
3. -6
1
-"3- -1 -3i - - 1 '-\ 11 -ffi . - -3i " -"l -6
1
-C-J -1c, "1
" e-, -.r -.r -.r "" :..r -.r -e: -e:
- - -"l -6
1
-"3 -lc-1 - -"l -"l -61-C-J '-\ 1 JOL44B:1-2
" "" " " ." -.r -.r " . " C',. .
4.,3i - 34 - - -3i -1 eN 3i -C-J -UJ3i -51 )0) -<N C-J '-\ - <r -t - - -
- C',." -.r" . " -.r" C', "-.r""" "
1 -"3:l\ - '-\ - - 1 B -"3- ffi 0) -C-J l.\ . - 0) - en -UJ Ol- 51 .:J q - "CT] ? .en - c, - q -

C',. "" -.r


- -"3 ..J\-q JOLLM6A:6

" C',. C',. e-,


5.
e-, " e-, e-,
1
<.:t c; - -. -<N -Q1 - C-J -"
'/ . -I I -I KGT42B:4 (verse)
Lesson 11 Answers
6a. Tibetan to English
1. One relies on the dharma, but one does not rely on the person. One relies on the meaning, but one does not rely c
the words. One relies on wisdom, but one does not rely on consciousness. One relies on the definitive meaning.
one does not rely on the provisional meaning. .
2. By developing samadhi, one will cut doubts.
However, if one does not realize this, something else can not [cut.them].
Therefore, developing samadhi is most excellent. .
Moreover, the wise should act energetically in this.
3. Although one obtains the state of being free and well-favored, which is difficult to obtain, one does not have. the
leisure to remain for along time, butis under the powerofimpennanenceand death.
4. Even thoughthe sun shines on the world, it is not of the slightest benefit or harm for the blind.
5. Generally, although all the kleshas are the origin, the cause ofthe origin of suffering, that which is the principal
root of the cause of samsara is ignorance."
6. It's possible that even fire could become cold.
It's possible that even the wind could be caught with a lasso.
It's possible that even the sun and moon could fall to the plains.
[But] it's impossible that the ripening of karma could be mistaken.
7. Although there are hundreds of authentic gurus,
There is only one guru who is kind [to me].
8. The one who grasps [to things] as real is like an ox;
The one who grasps [to things] as unrealis even more stupid than that.
6b. English to Tibetan
Lesson 12: Answers
4a. Tibetan to English
1. What is mindfulness? It is the mind not forgetting something that one is familiar with, i.e. having the activity of
Answers to the Exercises 258
not wandering.
2. If one asks, "According to the sutras, what is the suffering of suffering?" As it is said, "When it
arises, it is painful; when it abides.it is painful; when it changes, it is pleasurable."
3. Moreover, it taught in the sutras, "As for the suffering of change: when it arises, it is pleasurable; when it abides,
it is pleasurable; but when it ceases, it is painful."
4. As the Bhagavat has taught." As for the suffering of karmic formations: even when it arises, dwells, and ceases,
it
does not manifest as pain; nevertheless, it is the cause of suffering.
5. In the Dashabhiimika-siitra, it is said, "0 Sons of the Victorious One, all this threefold world is only mind."
6. Why are all those [people] not able to be a refuge? Because one who is able to be a refuge must be one who
liberates [others] from fear [and] one who is [himself] without suffering, but all these [people] do not liberate
from fear and possess suffering.
4b. English to Tibetan
Lesson 13: Answers
3a. Tibetan to English
1. Just as sweetness [is the nature of] molasses
And hotness is the nature of fire,
Just so the nature of all phenomena
Is maintained to be emptiness.
2. When both thing and nothing
Do not abide before the mind,
Then, since there is no other manifest aspect,
One is completely pacified into nonconception.
3. Whatever is conditioned has the characteristic of being impermanent, Whatever is impermanent has the
characteristic of being suffering. Whatever is suffering has the characteristic of being empty. Whatever is
empty has the characteristic of being egoless.
4. Just as from the rubbing of two sticks arises fire,
And by this arising, the two sticks are consumed,
So the faculty of prajfia arises,
And then by this arising, duality is consumed.
5. All the various pleasures and joys
Of all the buddhas, their sons, the shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, gods, and humans
Have arisen from the supreme prajfiaparamita.
6. Whoever does not understand emptiness
Is not a basis for liberation.
3b. English to Tibetan
Lesson 14: Answers
4a. Tibetan to English
1. When the Buddha resided in meditation...
2. When the Jetsun Rechungpa departed for India...
3. When one realizes all phenomena are emptiness, then compassion arises in particular for sentient beings who
fixate on something being real, ..
Answers to the Exercises 259
l
I
4. If there are fortunate disciples, even though they do not have material offerings, accept themwith abhishekas and
oral instructions and thus spread. the teachings...
5. Bring me fromIndia a special representationfor prostration (that I can prostrate to).
6. I amentrusting my shoes to you, so take care of [them].
7. As soon as the Sugata became actuallyenlightened as a sambhogakaya...
4b. English to Tibetan
Lesson 15: Answers
Milarepamade these many vows to himself, "Until I have attained siddhi in this life,mayI not engage in
worldly activities. Until my bad karma is exhausted, may I notmeet people ofevil deeds. Until lhave attained holy
siddhi,may I not lick the dirt of the food offerings on behalf of the dead, the faith offerings.northe ransom
1 . offerings. Mayall my evildeeds and obscurations which give rise to obstructing spirits, retributions, and obstacles
} be cleansed. May! fulfill the intention of the kind guru. May I accomplish the Buddha's teaching. May I bear the
burdens of the sufferings of all sentient beings. Until I have attainedenlightenment, I shall not go downto the
village. If I godown, may thedharmapalas and protectors punish me." Having-so vowed, he meditated.
One day, Mila wanted to take a walk to a clearing, but then sang this song:
Lesson 17: Answers
6a. Tibetan to English
1.1have no oral instructions superior to this to teach.
2. [Groundmahamudra] is not spoiled by confusion,
Nor exaltedbyrealization.
3. One does not desire to abandon samsara,
Nor is nirvana something to be attained.
)
(.
j
j
Lesson 18: Answers
2. Reading:
Great Vajradhara, Tilo, Naro,
Marpa, Mila, Lord of Dharma Gampopa,
Knower of the Three Times, omniscient Karmapa,
Holders of the four great and eight lesser schools-
Drikhung, Taglung, Tsalpa-these three, glorious Drukpa andsoon,
Masters of the profound path of mahamudra,
Incomparableprotectors of beings, the Takpo Kaju,
I supplicate you, the Kaju gurus.
I hold your lineage; grant your blessings so that I will followyour example.
Revulsionisthe foot of meditation, as is taught.
To this meditator who is not attached tofood and wealth,
Who cuts the ties to this life,
Grant your 'blessings so thatI have no desire for honor andgain.
,'l
Answers to the Exercises
Devotion is the head of meditation, as is taught.
The guru opens the gate to the treasury of profound oral instructions.
To this meditator who continuallysupplicates him,
Grant your blessings so that genuine devotion is born in me.
Awareness is the body of meditation, as is taught.
Whatever arises is fresh, the essence of realization.
To this meditator who rests simply, without altering it,
Grant your blessings so that my meditation is free from conception.
The essence of thoughts is dharmakaya, as is taught.
Nothing whatever but everything arises.
To this meditator who arises in unceasing play,
Grant your blessings so that I realize the inseparability of samsara and nirvana,
Through all my births, may I not be separated from the perfect guru
And so enjoy the splendor of dharma.
Perfecting the stages of the paths and bhumis,
May I speedily attain the state ofVajradhara.
260
Notes for The Ornament of Precious Liberation
Please note that the line numbers given in the text are only for the purpose of the notes and do not necessarily
reflect actual sentence or clause boundaries.
1. Introduction and .the Primary Cause
'\
(/
I
\
J
!
"i
/
1
t
1
1
l'
1
Line 1: This is the title of the text. The - at the end simply has the meaning of "(Here) is (the
textcalled)' ;'" Note thatmany of the grammatical particles are omitted. Titles in
general tend to appear in an abbreviated fashion. For a discussion on titles, see 12.1.a.
<,
12.2.
Line 2: The text begins with the traditional salutation to a realized being. This part of the textis
-e: -..r-
called the ffi'l- (J 'l-, "expression of offering. " See 12.1.b.
can oftenbe connected by the LOP particle to a preceding noun toform a nominal
"'='
phrase, "the one who/which is ."See9.6.a.1)b).
Line 3-6: Following the salutation, there are four lines of verse (each line has eleven syllables) that
pay homage to the lineage and present the reason for composing this work. This part of the
text is called the 'l CN - (J -.0 -, "the promise [to compose the work]." See 12.1.c. On verse, see 18.1.
<,
Line 3: - is short for -(J -.. The following 'l-refers to here and is connected to -.
""- c-,
Line 4: Here c
1
- refers to the three jewels of the preceding line.
see note for line 2.
"'='
e-,
L
ine 5. -(J - 5 2 4)
/ "'='_: see ..c..
"'-
Line 6: - UJ - is the relational particle. It is written as a separate syllable to help fill outthe meter.
cs,
- refers to Milarepa, Gampopa's root guru.
<,
Line 8 'l.l\] - ="as for that," i.e., "as for what wasjust stated."
<,
2
--I , see 1.2.
e-,
Line 12: Verbal particle -.0 c, -, see 10.4.
""- ""-
Line 14: 'i .l\] ': 'l- = "samsara."
Lines 14,16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28,30, 34:
Interrogative pronouns, see 8.4.a.
<,
Verbal particle 0) - (short for -.0 -<3i-), see 12.3.
Line 29: -t -0) - ="when"
Line 30: l CN -, see 8.5.c.
= "purified by itself."
<,
} Line 32: (1' ="therefore."
)
v
Notes forv'The Precious Omament of Liberation"

,I, , see 8.5.b.
<, -:
co" cD - = "large quantity or amount. n .
-e:
.:l\C: - f\J - = "self-liberated," "liberated by itself"
<, ."
Line 33: -.:l\C:-: literally, "time-today." This is an example of a general category word
followed by a specific example of that category.
<,
"starting from."
" ..- " ..-
- <J ':J"f\J - = -.0 --t -<J q -e..J - "to by all means attain"
d5 is the auxiliary verb for q -e..J -, indicating"should, must. "
<,
Line 34: +1" 0) -, see 12.3.
262
Line 36: Starting with there are four lines of verse (of seven syllables each) that summarize the
"'"
table of contents -q -.0 'l") for the entire book.
e-,
0) - is just filling in the meter here.
. '"
Verbalparticle 5-,see IO.2.b.5).
'"
Line 37: ="should know, "see 9.6.a.2).a).
<,
2 2
--I ,see I ..
<,
Verbal particle - indicates that the rest of this reading is briefl y commenting on the topics
of the table of contents. See IO.2.b.2).
<, "'" <, C'. <,
Line 38: 'l- q -e..J : 'l- refers back to - 'l- - C:' -, as do the following 'l"'s through line 40.
""
'" "
see 5.c.4).
e-,
Line 40: The use of after is rare. It could be translated as of having done .........................,."

Vl , see 5.3.a.
<,
4 -is the main verb for the sentence beginning at the start of line 38.
'" ....- ....-
Line 41-4: Beginning with 'l-'i - and going to 01- ('i 1, the text is in verse. Consequently,
<,
many of the connecting grammatical particles have been omitted. -'i refers to the six
"
topics of the summary just listed above. Be on the "lookout" for the omitted verb UJ 01- .
<,
Line 42:. -, see 10.2.
C'\.
Line 44: OJ - is the relational particle. It is written as a separate syllable to help fill out the meter.
'"
-6 -e.J -, see 12.2.

Vl , see 5.3.a.
L
' 45 t\l - . UJ a:; - t\l Ql .
tDe : "'" & -I I (line 46), see 12.1.d.
Notes for "The Precious Ornament of Liberation"
263
j
1
I
I
)
J
""'- -or
Line 47: '1-n.J-'1
c-"J-
- This is introducing the first main section of the book, which happily has no
subsections. The quote is from line 42 above.
-.r"",- -or
Line 49: '1 Cf] -"J -'1- : From f:\ r -':J - in line 48 down to here is best thought of as the topic of the
sentence, = "as for the necessity of..."
The auxiliaryverb -C,J - goes with both verbs: fl.J - in line 48 and g<::J .
Cf] C." '0) -"J"'1 after the etc. phrase: see 5.4.
Verbal particle c, -, see 11.2.
C\.
Line 50: = "atall," see 8.4.c.2).
9
,see .6.a.I).
'\.;)
, see 8.5.c.
%O-l' OJ. - the thought itself begins all the way back with;::;:' OJ' --. on line 48.
Line 51: Verbal particle 0) -, see 9.5.b.
Q,qc; '4
. I _: see 7.5.c. ).
C\. ""'-
Line 52: - - why?
<,
Verbalparticle see 10.2.b.2).
C\.
Verbal particle see 9.3.a.
2. The Basis
Line 1: This line occurs on line 42 in the first sectionabove.
Line 2: For -, see 4.3.
C\. C\.
Line. 3: The indefinitearticle with thelinking verb UJ 01" could perhaps be translated as'jt isthe
case that..."This makes the precedingclause the predicate nominativeof the linking verb
C\.
UJ "i '. This structureseems to be parallelingthestructure of the statement in line 2.

For -I , see 8.5.c.
<,
For the verbalparticle ?-, see! 0.2.b.2).
t Lines 4-6: Tibetanoftenprovides a general andspecificcontext. Oftentimesthegeneral word
) and the specific word will justbe next to each other with no particle betweenthem, as if in apposition.
C\. C\. -or"",-"",-
In this -ffi - q - is the general notion, for which -"
""'- C\.
"i ""J" and --"" f:\ '1- are specifics. Then again, and "are general notions, for which
fl.J' _. - - OJ'C,J' and -C,J ---. OJ -C,J 'arerespectively their specifics.
This is a long sentence with several floaters and no verb. 'In other words, the verb is an
C\.
understoodf 0) -"J -and the subject is composed of several phrases, from -" down to
C'\.
-l C - 0) -"J -with Q, l- modifying the wholesubject.
}
Notes for "The Precious Ornament of Liberationn 264
a. 'The Three Kinds of Faith
C"\. C"\. C"\.
Line 1: = "how?" "what?"
<,
Line 2: Verbal particle 1-, see 10.2.b.2.
-1- "J-: see note for line 2 of Section 1 above.
'\,,)
-: see note for line 4 above.
<,
rol-l": see 7.6.b.2).a).

Line 9:
Line 11:
Line 12:
Line 14:
Line 15:
Line 16:
C"\. ""
Line 4: - is the general topic here, for which -Ie:" - e:- - q 10}"C-J" is the specific example.

C"\. ""
OJ Ol- is not a linking verb here, but is the auxiliary verb here for the main verb -q ". This
ending could indicate either past or future tense.
L
5 7 2
Ines -: _: see 9.4.a. ).b).


_: see 9.4.a.2).b).
Line 17: -: same as above.


I : see 7.6.b.I).g).

3. Condition
'"'
Verbal particle 4e:-: see 10.4.
This quote is from section 1, line 43.
Verbal particle UJ c, - : see 11.2.
Verbal particle 0) -: see 9.5.b.
Line 1:
Line 2:
Line 3:
Line 4:
Line 5:
-e:
see9.4.a.l).
see 6.7.
""
Line 6: : see 9.2.
<,
..:I\-lJ-
? -I : see 9.6.a.2).a).
<,
Line 7: Verbal particle -: see 10.2.b.5).
C"\.
9
Line: 1-I : see 8.2.a.3).
""
Line 13:' Verbal particle 1-"J ": see 9.2.
"" ....-
Line 16: q 8) -"J.:I\" -"J 1: auxiliary verb, see 9.6.b.
I
I
I
)
Notes for"Tbe Precious Ornament of Liberation"
Line 21: Nominal particlev?": see 8.3.e.
Verbal particle 0) -: see 12.3.
Line 23: Verbal particle see 11.5.c.
Line 24: Verbal particle see IO.I.c.
Line 26:
.
. : causative, see 9.6.a.2).b).
Method
Line 1: This quote is from section 1, line 43.
Lines 2, 3, 4: Nominal particle see 6.l0.d.
-:
Line 4: c, - q - is an auxiliary verb here for.=8 -. See 17.2.
Verbal particle -: see 9.4.d.
265
1
Line 5:
Line 6:
<,
-c-="the previous ones" (?)
...-
8.l.a.
"-
The q -UJ 0] - ending after c.- indicates past tense, as does the spelling ofC - , i.e. without
an initial -. See 17.1.

'"'l:see 5.3.a.
"-...- e-, "'- "'" ,
<N - <r <T"J - : relative clause, see8.2.a.The relationship of the modified noun
j
-..r" "- ...-
to the preceding modifying clause q <T"J. -3 <T"J- <T"J - - <N. -C-J -is a
rather unusual one, i.e. that of instrument.
Line 16: see 5.3.b.2).
4. Impermanence
-r:
Line 1: see R l.b.
r
1 "'-
) Line 8: Verbal particle ': see lO.2.b.4).
"-
Verbal ending -UJ 0) - indicates future tense here. See 17.2.
v-
Line 12: Notice that there is no verbal particle, 4l-, or even a gap between the final verb l"and
the following sentence. See 17.5.
-l-: ="thinking." See 9.4.a.1)b).
"-:l
e-, -..r "'-
Line 23: co -: see 5.4.
-e:
is a future auxiliary here. See 17.2.
Notes for "The Precious Omamentof Liberation"
5. The Faults of Satpsara
266
Line 1:
Line 2:
Line 8:
Line 19:
Line 21:
Line 22:
Verbal particle UJ c -: see 11.2.a.
<,
Verbal particle -: see 10.2.b.5)
. 0) -: see 9.2.
e-,
="by itself." S 152 b 1)
I ee ., ...
-v
The plural particle here nominalizes the verb "to manifest," into
"those that manifest" or "what manifest." See 8.I.d.
6. Karma and Its Result
Line 2: see 9.4.a.2).b).
'"' "-
Line 5: .:I\C:- = "those two themselves." See 15.2.
"- '"'
Line 7: see 13.2.
Line 11: = the third topic." We have omitted the first two topics, which are quite
'"' ' "-
lengthy,i.e., "classifications" and "characteristics"
"-
-: S: karma-svakata, literally, "action that is to be regarded as one's own"
"-
Line 13: 31- C-J - = to contain
"-
Verbal particle -: see l Ll .a.
"- .
Line 15: -f":\ f\J - - is an adverb here. See 7.6.b.I)f)ii.
'\..:)
Line 18: Verbal particle see IO.I.c.
-v
Line 20: see 9.4.a.2).b).
"-
Line 22: see 9.4.b.
see 8.5.b.
"- "-
Line 23: ="in whatever way" See 8.4.c.
1r; -: see 5.3.b.
7. Love and Compassion
-r- -c:
Line 4: a i:\ 11-: see 9.4.a.
Notes for "The Precious Ornament of Liberationn . 267
l
J
Line 5: For the use of - with the direct object, see 7.6.b.1 )a) and 16.2.
Line 6: The plural particle l personalizes the noun, i.e. giving the meaning of persons who belong
to or relate to that noun. See 8.I.d.
Line 13: 31 see the note for line six above.
<,
= "really, truly."
8. Taking Refuge
'"'
, Line 1: The l r; -C"J. is referring to the fact that this section - , "classification,"is the first of nine
sections to deal withthe topic of "takingrefuge."
Line 4: 31 CN -: see the notefor section 7, line 6 above.
Line 16: lO} -0) - =literally "in front,"meaning "in our presence," or "before us."
'-:>
l c can occur at the end ofa list, before the number summing up the list. It does notneed to
be translated. See 5.3.
C'..
Line- 22: <fl ."J -: see relative clauses, 8.2.a.3).
9. . Arousing Bodhichitta
C'..
Line 2: and are both adverbs modifying
Line 6: Verbal particle -: see 9.4.c.
10. Training In Bodhicbitta: Aspiring
C'..
Line 1: : These two particles occuring together like this is rather rare. The sourceparticle has
j
Line 6:
Line 7:
'"' .
to be understood as a verbal particle following the verb e.:J l" , with the meaning of "having..." or
C'..
"after." The relational particle - then connects the preceding clause to the noun q "as a kind
of adjective. In English, we would say, "the training after having aroused bodhichitta....
n
see 6.10.g.
The eight qualities refer to four negative andfour positive qualities, to berespectively
abandoned and taken up.
11. Training in .Bodhichitta: Entering. the .. Six Perfections
C'..
Line 2: - - -: Here the modifying for the Sanskrit prefix adhi-, "higher,
superior" has not beentranslated'into Tibetan with aconnecting relational or LOP particle.
See 13.1.
'"' <"-
Line 7: A literally "true word," is similar to an etymology in the Western sense, but also
seems akin to a pun. Sanskrit scholars often explain a word not by explaining its literalroot
meaning, but by using another word similar in sound tothe word being explained. For
example, dana, "generosity,"is explained using the word daridryam, "poverty,"and shtla,
Notes for "The Precious Omamentof Liberation"
"discipline," by using the word shaityam, "coolness."
<,
Causative use of 'i-'"'J _: see 9.6.a.2)b).
31- as a second verbal particle: see 9.5.d.
""-
Line 11: Ul'i- is the direct object of 'i-'"'J - and the agent of 0. (0) -'"'J -.
""
Line 12: o.'l- is referring to the local referent, which is -.:7\(:] -.

Line 13: Again, o.'l- is refening to the local referent, which in this case is t(J- .:I\ -5- 0) - -.
'-.;)
e-,
0. r.:I\ - (:] 0. - t(J - is basically in apposition with 04 -c-Oj - -o.'i - -.
12. Generosity
13. Discipline
e-,
L
- 3 9 2
iDe: -\ _: see .4.a. )b).
Line 4: in this context refers to another person.
e-,
see 9.3.b.
<, -c:
Line 5: 'l -(:] - - : note the absence of any particle between these two words.
14. Patience
268
Line 2: It might seem odd that - does not have an agentive particle after it, since it isthe agent of
-e: ""-
OJ 'l- - 'l- '. This is not common, but must be watched for.
Nominal particle -: see 7.6. b.1)a) and 16.2.
15. Exertion
Line 1: Nominal particle -: see 7.6. b.1)a) and 16.2.
Line 2: -I:.J:I\- 0. (3j"1:.J - is a verb with two elements. Note that the negative is placed in the middle.
16. Meditation
<,
Line 1: - is the subject of the intransitive verb OJ - -
Line 2: q O-l- ?3j - is the direct object of the passive/fruitional verb q -I:.J -
e-, e-, -e:
Usually, one would find the LOP particle - after - .a OJ -'"'J 0. - - in relation to the verb
e-,
Tense marker -UlOj -: see 17.1 and 17.2.
Notes for "The Precious Ornament of Liberation" '
269
Line 5-6:
<,
Note that the auxiliary - - goes with the verb l 0) -"J- in line 5' as well as with
<,
the verb l 0) - in line 6.
t
\
)
l
I
)
C'-.
Line 8: Tense marker "J- UJ 0) -: see 17.1 and 17.2.
Line 10: Note that the auxiliary verb goes with the verb as well as with the ..
C'-.
Line 11-6: The linking verb UJ <3) - is omitted in these lines.
Line 16: Note that functions as a kind of verb, "to be many."
a. .Dependent 'Arising
<,
Line 1: Note that ro -functions as a kind of verb, "to be great, large."
Line 2: For the use of the - under -, see Appendix 6.1.b.
<,
Line 4: Forrelative/correlative sentences 'l-, see 13.2.
Line 9-10: The verbs in these two sentences have been omitted.
Line 11: Nominal particle t1-J-: see 7.6.b.1)a) and 16.2.
The verb ::]q- is a funny one. It can mean "to be established," in the sense of being logically
'=>
established by reason or of being established in existence. For some Indians, these two 'meanings
are one 'and the same. Whatever exists can be logically established, and whatever is properly
established by true reasoning must exist.
""" C'-.
Line 12: l- refers back to - -"J-
C'-. """
-q - -t1-J - is the direct object ofthe verb. l- 'l-.
'=>
<,
l- is the continuative particle, not a demonstrative adjective. See lO.2.b.5).
<,
Line 15: - is the direct object of the verb f -.
Line 20: - is the summation number of the members of the preceding list. It does not modify
<,
For relative/correlative sentences with c - and 'l-, see 13.2.
For the use of the 4l- after the nominal particlef c, -.see 5.3.
C'-. """
Line 21: For the use of the relative/correlative adverbs - and l- ,see 13.2.
Line 24: For the use ofthe nominal particle t1-J- with see 7.6.b.1)h).
For the use of the verbalparticleS", see 9.4.a.1)b).
'=>
C'-.
The particlePr-', see 10.4.b.4).
For the use of the infinitive fonnbeforethe verbal particle 0) -, see 9.5.a. Line 25:
Line 27:
'1
Line 28:
7
Notes for "The Precious Ornament of Liberation" 270

Line 29: The structure of this sentence isa little complicated. 4-q - is the direct object of the verb - -
e-, -.r- '""
Then, 0) c, - - - - 'i c, - q - is the subject of the verb q - -, which takes c:.3) -
'\.:)
and - as its objects.
Line 30: Every now and then, a dependent LOP particle, here? -, is used after what seems to be a direct
, '\.:l
object. Perhaps, it is similar to the phrasal verb "to say in words." See 16.2.
e-,
Line 33: The referent for the demonstrative pronoun is the local referents above-anguish, lamentation,
suffering, unhappiness. (?)
Line 35-7: Again, the numbers summarize the number of items in the preceding list and do not modify the
last member of the list.
17. FrajM: The Two Kinds of Ego
Line 2:
Line 3:
Line 4:
Line 6:
<,
Verbal particle? -: see lO.2.b.2)a).
Note the preceding adjectives.
""- '. e-,
Note the absence of a relational particle between 'i-'i - and - Q, - en 3) - -.
Note the absence of a relational particle between these compound words.
<,
Verbal particle? -: see lO.2.,b.2)a).
'l -is indicating that there are several items in the list, hence a plurality.
<,
For relative/correlative sentences with c, - and 'l-, see 13.2.
e-,
The verb UJ 5) - is omitted at the end of the line before the completion particle.
<,
Line 7: Note that unlike in line 6, there is a relative pronoun but no correlative pronoun 'l-.
Line 8: 'l"l can indicate the dual here. See 4.7.
""-
The verb UJ 5)- is omitted before the verbal particle -. Verbal particle %e.: see 10.2.b.2)d).
'"" '"" c-, -e: c-,
Line 9: ?-q - 5) - Q, - c, - - 'l- is the direct object of the verb ? -e..J -
Note that the sentence ends with the infinitive form of the verb.
<, ",,--.r-
Line 10: Possessor particle "J - in -"J -ffi 5) - -"J -: see 4.2. b.2)c).
- is the summarizing number.. See 5.3.a.

Line 11: Idiomatic use ofagentive particle in see 7.5.c.5).
The structure of this sentence is rather complicated. ao-.l 'i. is the direct object of the verb
<,
4 -"J -. Then, there are four words, seemingly in two groups of two, which are all modified by
the LOP particle 'i- as an equivalence adverbial phrase (see 7.6.b.l)e)). I suppose the 4';- is
'\.:)
e-, e-, -.r- ""-""-
dividing the four words into two - - - with q - "i, which are
""-
virtually synonyms, and - 'i- with %- -, which are also virtual synonyms.
Note that the sentence ends with the infinitive form of the verb.
Notes for "The Precious Ornament of Liberationn
Line 12: Hypothetical quote particle <3)-: see 12.3.b.
271
<,
Line 14: Forrelative/correlative sentences with andf -, see 13.2. Note that here the normal order of the
pronouns is reversed, since a question is being asked.
Hypothetical quote particle <3) . : see
e-,
'Line 15: The referent for seems to since itis the general topic under discussion.
34 t; - is being used as a verb "to be many."
Line 16: Note the use of the "4 'i -to separate out the topic.
Here we have an interesting collection of words to describe the mind. Note the kind of
" "
\ . onamopoetic character of the words, 0-1' l-l J- literally means "not doing anything, doing
)1 everything. "
Line 17: Nominal particle UJ C - : see 6.1O.f.
This quote is actually two lines of verse. Each line has seven syllables in it. On verse, see] 8.1.
The reflexive pronoun see15.2.b.3)
')
I
)
l
I
1
i
<,
Quote particle -: see 12.2.
Line 18:.

Line 19: Verbal.particlev'<: see 10.4.b.l).


Nominal particle ?!': see 7.6.b.1)g).
Line 20: Seemingly, the topic particle is added after the agentive particle to add emphasis, much as in
English we would underline a word.
Line 22: Nominal particle <3) - as a second particle: see
('....
Line 24: There are four lines of verse, each with seven syllables. Hence, the topic particle - is being used
purely to fill the meter.
It seems that the dependent LOP particle is being used forthe direct object.
Line 25: The final verb r.l, c. -q - is understood to also go with this line, Thus, r.l, ( OJ - and c. - are two
'\,j
nouns and are the subjects of the verb.
Line 26: Here 'i -indicates the dual.
<,
Line 27: For relative/correlativesentences with c,: and 'i., see 13.2. Note that here the normal order of the
pronouns is reversed, since a question is being asked.
Hypothetical quote particle 0]. : see 12.3.b.
Nominal particle -: see 7.6.b.l ).g).

The two phrases r; - q . . and' <3) C . ( 0) ."J are an interesting case. '\J "and
" .
34 are the main nouns, which are each modified by two modifiers-s-d and and 0) "and
r.l,( OJ -C-J - respectively, It is interesting to note that -q' is thefuture form of the verb r.l,t OJ' C,J",
The future form of the verb in Tibetan is said to always go with the object; hence, it is like a future
passive, "to be grasped."
Notes fornThe Precious Ornament _of Liberation"
C'\.
Line 28: Nominal particle -: see 9.3.c.
Nominal particle -: see 7.6.b.l)g).
Hypothetical quote particle <3) ': see l2.3.b.
C'\.
Line 29: Verbal particle see 9.3.a.
Line 30: Nominal particle see 7.6.b.l)g).
18. The Paths
272
Line 2: 16.2.
Line 3: Auxiliary verb see 9.6.a.l)a).
""
C'\.
Line 5-6: These two lines are in verse, and the relational particle UJ - in line 6 is to fill the meter. See 18.1.
19. The Bhumis
Line 1: 'l- is not the dependent LOP particle, but is a word unto itself. See the glossary.
""
Line 2-3: There are four lines of verse. See 18.1.
<,
Line 3: Verbal particle? -: see 10.2.b.2).a).
Nominal particle l c::: see 5.3.e.
20. The Fruition: The Three Kayas
Line 1:
Line 2:
Line 6:
Line 7:
Line 8:
Line 12:
Line 13:
This quote is from section 1, line 44.
Auxiliary verb see 9.6.a.l)a).
'\,j
Verbal particle see lO.I.c.
Hypothetical quote particle <3) ': see l2.3.b.
C'\.
?l-l r; - - q - as an appositional relative clause: see 8.2.b.
Nominal particle -: see 7.6.b.l)g).
<,
Verbal particle? -: see 10.2.b.2)e).
Note that there is no relational particle between '-I.t<I "l -C.J - and q l- c. -C.J -
<,
Line 14: V,erbal particle -: see lO.2.b.3).
C'\. C'\. C'\.
Line 16: is the subject of the intransitive verb c-
q
- in line 17.
""-
Line 17: The - sums up the members of the list in line 16 that end with the particle -. See 5.3.a.
CJc-q .:I\-
_: see 9.4.a.2)b).
'\,j
21.. Activity
Notes for "The Precious Ornament of Liberation" 273
Line. 1:
Line 4:
This quote comes from section 1, line 44.
-e:
The verbal noun i.:\'l'l- C-J -. has three direct objects, which are found in lines 2-3. a --6
1
-
-e:
modifies the verbal noun i.:\ 'l'l- C-J -
Verbal particle d; ': see 14.3.b.
Auxiliary verb i.:\ 'l -: see 17.4.a. -

Verbal particle -: see 8.5.c.

Verbal particle see 17.3.

The LOP particle - -goes with both 0) - - and -Oi - ffi c, -C-J -
"-='
'[Title:]
The
The Ornament of
Wish-fulfilling Jewel
Precious Liberation
of the Holy Dharma
[Expression of Offering:]
I prostrate to noble Mafijushri, the youthful [prince].
[Promise to Compose:]
Having paid homage to the Victorious One, his sons, and the holy dharma,
And to the guru who is the root of [all] these,
Relying on the kindness of Lord Mila and for the benefit of myself and others,
I will compose this jewel of the holy dharma, which is like a wishfulfilling jewel.
1. Introduction and the Primary Cause (I)
Generally, all phenomena are included in sarnsara and nirvana. As for "samsara," its nature is
emptiness. Its manifestation is confusion. Its essential characteristic is that it arises as suffering. As
for "nirvana," its nature is emptiness. Its manifestation is the exhaustion and disappearance of
confusion. Its essential characteristic is liberation from all suffering.. As for this confusion in samsara,
who is confused? All sentient beings of the three realms are confused. From what ground does
confusion [arise]? Confusion [arises] from emptiness. Due to what cause are [they] confused?
[They] are confused due to great ignorance. In what manner are [they] confused? [They] are confused
in the manner of the experience of the six realms of beings. Like what example are they confused?
They are confused like sleep and a dream. Since when have [they] been confused? [They] have been
confused since beginningless samsara. What faults does confusion have? [It] experiences only
suffering. When will confusion be transformed into wisdom? [It] will be transformed when [one]
attains unsurpassable enlightenment. [One] might think, HIs confusion purified [by] itself?" [No,]
samsara is renowned for being endless. Therefore, since this samsara is of the nature of suffering, has
vast suffering, lasts for a long time, and is not liberated by itself, then from today on, one should strive
by all means to attain unsurpassable enlightenment. What does one need to strive in this way? The
topics [are] :
Cause, basis, condition,
Methods, fruition, and activity
Are the six general topics [of] unsurpassable enlightenment.
The ones who are wise should know [these].
One should understand the cause of unsurpassable enlightenment, the person that is the basis for
accomplishing this, the supporting condition that encourages one to accomplish this, the methods for
accomplishing this, the fruition of accomplishing this, and the activity after one has accomplished this.
As for teaching these one by one:
The cause is sugatagarbha.
The basis is the excellent precious human body.
The supporting condition is the spiritual friend.
The methods are his oral instructions.
The fruition is thekaya of the perfect buddha.
The activity is performing the benefit of beings, free from concept.
These are just showing the presentation of the main body [of this treatise]. [I] will explain extensively
the limbs of this [main body]. First, it is said that "The cause is sugatagarbha." One might think,
The Precious Ornament of Liberation: English Translation
275
)
/
"One must be liberated from this samsara, whose nature is confusion, and then attain unsurpassable
enlightenment. Well then, will lowly people like ourselves and others at all attain [this], even if we
strive [to do so]?" If [we] practice with exertion, why shouldn't [we] attain enlightenment, since all
sentient beings, ourselves and others, have the cause ofbuddha[hood], tathagatagarbha.
2. Basis
As for "The basis is the excellent precious human body": One might say, "Well then, ifall sentient
beings possess buddha nature, then can the five types of beings, such as hell beings, hungry ghosts,
and the rest, attain enlightenment?" No, [they cannot] . The "precious human body, "which physically
possesse-s the freedoms and resources and which mentally possesses the three kinds of faith is
excellent asthe person who is the basis for accomplishing enlightenment.
a.The Three Kinds of Faith
Well then, what is this "faith"? If one divides up faith, there arethree [kinds]: the faith of trust, the
faith of desire, and the faith of clari ty. The fai thof confidence arises based on [having] karma and its
result, and the truth of suffering and the truth of the origin las its] object. One has confidence that the
happiness of the desire realm arises due to the fruition of virtuous action. One has confidence that the
suffering of the desire realm arises due to the fruition of unvirtuous action. One has confidence that
the happinessof the two higher realms arises due tothefruition of unmoving action. One has
confidence that through experiencingkanna and kleshas, the "truth of the origin," one obtains the five
defiled skandhas, the "truth of suffering. "
As for the faith of desire, one sees that this unsurpassableenlightenment is very excellent, and so
the one full ofdevotion trains on the path in order to attain this [enlightenment].
The faith ofclarity arises in dependenceupon.the three jewels [as its] object. Itis the clear mind
that feels respect and longing forthe jewel of the buddha, the one who shows the path, for the jewel of
the dharma, that which is the path, and for the jewel of the sangha, the ones who are aides to practicing
the path.
3. The Supporting Condition
As for "The.SUPPo11ing condition is the spiritual friend" : although one has the perfect basis as
above, if one is not urged on by the spiritual friend, the supporting condition, it is difficult to enter the
path of awakening due to being accustomed to previous negative actions and to fully developed habits.
Therefore, one should attend a spiritual friend.
There are four types of spiritual friends: a spiritual friend who is an ordinaryperson.a spiritual
friend who is a bodhisattva dwelling on the great bhurnis, a spiritual friend who is a nirmanakaya
buddha, and a spiritual friend who is a sambhogakaya, If we connect these [different kinds ofspiritual
friendslto our own situation: when we are a beginner, we are notable to attend thebuddhasand the
bodhisattvas who dwell on the great.bhumis, Therefore, we attend spiritual friends who are ordinary
beings. When we have purified most of our karmic obscurations.we are able to attend spiritual friends
who are bodhisattvas dwelling on thegreatbhurnis. When we dwell on the great path of accumulation
and beyond, weare able to attend spiritual friends who are nirmanakaya buddhas. When we dwell on
the great bhumis, weare able to attend spiritual friends who are sambhogakayas.
Thus, from among these four, whois the most kindto us? When we are at the start dwelling in the
dungeon of karma and kleshas, there is not even merely seeing the face of the higher [kinds of]
spiritual friends, muchless attending [them]. On the other hand, we do meet with spiritual friends
who are ordinary persons, and the lamp of their speech illuminates the path and so we will meet with
the higher [kinds of] spiritual friends. Therefore, the most kind one is the spiritual friend who is an
ordinary person.
4. Method
The Precious Omsmetn of Liberation: Englisb Translation 276
. As for "The methodis their oralinstructions": Well then, we have buddha nature, the cause; we
have also found the precious human body, basis, after wandering in beginningless samsara; and we
have also met with a spiritual friend, the supporting condition. What faults have arisen such that these
previous [situations] have not attained enlightenment? There is fault that we have come under the
power of the four obstacles, by means of which we and others have not attained enlightenment. Well,
what are these four obstacles by means of which one does not attain enlightenment? [They are:]
attachment to the realm of this life, attachment tothe happiness of samsaric existence, attachment to the
happiness of peace, and not knowing the means to accomplish enlightenment. What will dispel these
four obstacles? They are dispelled by hearing the oral instructions of the spiritual friend and putting
them into practice. What are the oral instructions of the spiritual friend? They are the oral instructions
of meditating on impermanence, the oral instructions of meditating on the shortcoming ofsamsara and
on karma and its result, the oral instructions of meditating on loving kindness and compassion, and the
oral instructions of arousing the mind toward supreme awakening.
4. Impermanence
First, I will explain the meditation on impermanence, which is the antidote to the attachment to the
realm of this life. Generally, all conditioned [phenomena] are impermanent... How are they
impermanent? The end of accumulation is dispersion. The end of raising up is falling down. The end
of meeting is separation. The end of life is death.
As for the impermanence of oneself: I also ampowerless to remain, but must go on. One should
know this in two [ways]: examining oneself and applying this to others. As for the first [way], one
meditates as follows: one meditates on death; one meditates on the characteristics of death; one
meditates on the exhaustion of life; and one meditates on separation.
As for those [topics], concerning the meditation on death: one contemplates, thinking, "I will not
remain in this world for a long time, [but] will henceforth go to future [lives]. As for meditating on the
characteristics of death: one contemplates, thinking, "My life force will be exhausted; breathing will
cease; this body will become a corpse; and this mind will have to wander aimlessly to another place."
As for meditating on the exhaustion of life: one contemplates, thinking, "From last year up to now, one
year has passed, and so my life has moment by moment become shorter by just this much. From a
while ago up to yesterday, one month has passed, and so my life has moment by moment become
shorter by just this much. From yesterday up to today, one day has passed, and so my life has moment
by moment become shorter by just this much. From just a moment ago up to right now, one instant
has passed, and so my life has moment by moment become shorter by just this much.... As for the
meditation on separation: one contemplates, thinking, "All these presently existing things that I hold
dear-my friends and relatives, wealth, body, and the like-will not be with me forever, but soon I
will be separated from them. .
5. The Faults of Sarpslra
One might think, "Even though what is impermanentin this way dies, what is the problem? Either
one will not be born again, or when one is born, one will attain the perfect enjoyments of the gods and
humans. Why wouldn't this be enoughfor me?" This is the attachment to the happiness of samsaric
existence. I should explain the meditation on the shortcomings of samsara as the antidote to this. The
summary is:
The suffering of karmic formations,
Likewise, the suffering of change,
And the suffering of pain:
These three comprise the shortcomings of samsara,
If one explains this threefold suffering by means of its very nature, the suffering of karmic formations
is a neutral feeling, the suffering of change is a pleasurable feeling, and the suffering of pain is a .
painful feeling. If one explains this suffering by means of its characteristics, the suffering ofkannic
The Precious Ornament of Liberation: English Translation
277
\
}
l
)
I
formations is the fact that one has suffering by just taking up these skandhas that are grasped (as an
ego]. Ordinary persons do not perceive this suffering of karmic fonnations... As for the second, the
suffering of change: Sinceultimately all the many kinds of happiness in samsara change, and tum into
pain, they are called the suffering of change. As for the third one, the suffering of pain: Generally, in
addition to the fact that taking up these skandhas that are grasped to [as an egolis by itself suffering, it
also manifests as great pain. One should know this [suffering of pain] as twofold: the suffering of the
lower realms and the suffering ofthe happy realms.
6. Karma and Its Result
From what cause did these sufferings that were explained above arise? One should know that they
arose from defiled action.... What is this action? It is twofold: the action of intention and the action
that is intended. What are these two? The action of intention is the action of the mind. The action that
is intended is whatever is produced by the intention, and one should understand this as the action of the
body and of speech.
One should know that the kinds of action and its result are threefold: the causes and results of
unmeritorious actions, the causes and results of meritorious actions, and the causes and results of
unmoving actions.
As for the third [topic],"actions belongto me": one experiences oneself the result of an action that
one does. [The result] ripens in the skandhas that belongtothe agent, butnot in another.
As for the fourth [topic], "experiencing in accordance with the type ofaction": one experiences
without 'mistake pleasure or pain, which are the result of the virtuous orunvirtuous action done
respectively. Due to accumulating virtuous action, one experiences pleasure as the result, and due to
accumulating evil actions, one experiences suffering as the result.
As for the fifth [topic], "a small action done ripening into a great karmic (?) result": with respect to
evil action, it is taught that one experiences hell for as many aeons as there are instants of [evil]
thought.
As for the sixth [topic],"karma is not wasted": unless the antidote for that action arises, even
though the result does not ripen for endless aeons, itis not lost or wasted. If that which has remained
hidden for a long time meets with supporting conditions in whatever way, the result will emerge.
7. Love and Compassion
Now I will explain the meditation on love and compassion as the antidote for attachment to the
happiness of peace.. As for this "attachment to the happiness of peace": one desires that just oneself
attains nirvana, and because there is no compassion for sentientbeings, one does not work for the
benefit of others. This is one who belongs to the Hinayana. Iflove and compassion arises in one's
being, then because one is attached tosentientbeings, one would not dare to become liberated by
oneself. Therefore., one should meditate on love and compassion.
If one divides up this [love and compassion], there are three [kinds]: compassion that thinks of
sentient beings, compassion that thinks of the dharma, and nonconceptual compassion. As for the
first: compassion arises, because one sees the sufferings and so forth of the sentient beings in the
lower realms. As for the secondone, when one is familiar oneself with the four noble truths, then one
understands both cause and effect and so turns one's mind away from grasping Ito things] as
permanentand solid. Compassion then arises, as one thinks, "Other sentient beings do not understand
cause and effect and grasp [to things] as permanent and solid.. Thus, they are totally confused." As for
the third one, when one rests in meditation and realizes that all phenomena are emptiness, then
compassion arises in particular for those sentient beings who cling [to things] as real.
8. Refuge
As for [the above table of contents], first there are two distinctions of taking refuge: the ordinary
takingofrefuge and the special taking of refuge. There are two kinds of persons who are.the working
basis [for taking refuge]. Among [these two], the person who is an ordinary working basis is afraid
The Precious Ornament of Liberation: English Translation 278
due to the suffering of samsara and regards the three jewels as gods. The person who is a special
working basis is one who belongs to the family of the Mahayana and who has attained the completely
pure body of a god or human. Thereare also two kinds of objects. Among [these two], the
explanation of the ordinary object [is as follows:] The jewel of the buddha is the buddha bhagavat
who has petfect renunciation, perfect wisdom, and perfect magnanimity. There are two kinds of the
jewel of the dharma. Among [these two], the dharma of the teaching is the twelve aspects of excellent
speech. The dharma of realization is the truth of the path and the truth of cessation. There are two
kinds of the jewel of the sangha, Among [these two], the sangha of ordinary persons is a gathering of
four and above completely pure monks. The sangha of the noble ones is the four or eight kinds of
realized beings. The special objects are threefold: the objects that reside in one's presence, the objects
of clear realization, and the objects of suchness. As for [these three], in terms of the objects that reside
in one's presence, the buddha is the physical form of the Tathagata, the dharma is the Mahayana texts,
and the sangha is the sangha of bodhisattvas. As for the objects of clear realization, the buddha is the
one who possesses the nature of the three kayas, thedharma is the most excellent dharma, peace and
nirvana; and the sangha is bodhisattvas that dwell on the great bhumis. With respect to the objects that
are suchness, the object in which one takes refuge is the buddha alone.
9. Arousing Bodhichitta
The very nature of arousing the mind toward enlightenment is to desire perfect, complete
enlightenment for the sake of others.
If one divides up [bodhichitta] by means of its characteristics, there are two [kinds]: absolute
bodhichittaandrelativebodhichitta.
Well, what is this absolute bodhichitta? It is emptiness with a core of compassion, luminous,
unmoving, and beyond the extremes of conceptual complexity.
Well, what is this relative bodhichitta? The same surra says, "Relative bodhichitta is the vowto:
compassionately bring all sentient beings out of samsara. tt
10. Training in Bodhichitta: Aspiring
The training after having aroused the mind toward enlightenment is twofold: the training of
arousing the mind. toward enlightenment, which is aspiration, and the training of arousing the mind
toward enlightenment, which is entering [the path]. As for [these two], in terms of explaining the first,
there is the summary:
Not abandoning sentient beings,
Remembering the advantages of this mind [of bodhichitta],
Gathering thetwo accumulations,
Training again andagain inbodhichitta,
And taking up the positive and abandoning the negative [with respect to] eight qualities:
These five comprise the trainings of aspiring.
11. Training in Bodhichitta: Entering the Six Perfections
The training of arousing the mind toward enlightenment, which is entering, is threefold: the
training of higher discipline, the training of higher awareness, and the training of higher prajfia.
As for [these three], the training of higher discipline is threefold: generosity, discipline, and
patience. The training of higher awareness is meditation. The training of higher prajfia is prajfia.
Exertion is an aide to all three.
As for the true meaning [of the terms]: It is generosity, because it remove poverty. It is discipline,
because it brings coolness. It" is patience, because it patiently accepts anger. It is exertion, because it
joins one to what is the best. It is meditation, because it concentrates the mind within. It is prajfia,
because through it one understands the ultimate. They are all paramitas, because they all cause one to
cross over suffering to the other side of samsara.
The Precious Ornament of Liberation: English Translation
12. Generosity
The nature of generosity is to completely give up possessions with a mind of detachment.
If one divides up generosity, there a r ~ three kinds: material generosity, the generosity of
fearlessness, .and the generosity of the dharma. -
13. Discipline
279
\
)
{
The nature of discipline is to be endowed with four qualities. As it is taught in the
Bodhisettvubhiimi:
One should understand that to be endowed with four qualities is the very nature of discipline.
What are these four? [They are] to completely and perfectly receive [the discipline] from
others, completely pure intention, to restore [the discipline] if itbecomes corrupted, and to
arouse respect so that it is not corrupted and then remain mindful.
If one divides up discipline, there are three [kinds]: the discipline of vow, the discipline of
gathering virtuous dharmas, and the discipline of benefiting sentient beings.
14. Patience
The nature of patience is notto be concerned about anything.
If one divides up patience, there are three [kinds]: the patience that is unconcerned in terms of
being harmed [by].others, the patience that accepts suffering, andthe patience that aspires to perfect
contemplation of the dharma.
15. Exertion
The nature of exertion is to delight in virtue.
_ If one divides up exertion, there arethree [kinds]: the exertion that is armor, the exertion of
application,and the exertion that is never satisfied. As for [these three], the firstis perfectintention.
The second is perfect application. The third is the aspect of perfecting the [above] two.
16. Meditation
The essence of meditation is-isof the nature of shamatha, which is to one-pointedly rest the mind
within on virtue.
Thistype of meditation is attained by abandoning distraction toward what is unsuitable. Therefore,
one should first abandon distraction. As for abandoning distraction, there is isolation. One should
isolate oneself physically from busyness, and isolate oneself mentally from discursiveness. By
isolating both body and mind in this way, distraction will notarise. Because there is no distraction,
one will enter into the meditative state. Then,oneshouldtrain one's mind. One should contemplate the
antidote of examining whatever aspects ofkleshas [exist in] oneself. Asthe antidote to passion.one
meditates on ugliness. As the antidote to aggression, one meditates on loving kindness. As the
antidote to delusion, one meditates on dependent arising. As the antidote to envy, one meditates on the
equality of self and other. As the antidote to pride, one meditates on exchanging self for other. If one
has an equal amount of the kleshas or if one has many discursive thoughts, one meditates on the
breath.
a, Dependent Arising
If one has a lot of delusion, one meditates on dependent arising as the antidote to that [delusion].
The Selustsmbhs-stur says:
The Precious Ornament of Liberation: English Translation
o monks, whoever understands this rice stalk understands dependent arising. Whoever
understands dependent arising understands the dharma. Whoever understands the dharma
understands the buddha.
280
omonks, since this exists, this will occur. Since this arose, this will arise. In the same way,
starting from [the fact thatlkarmic formations arise due to the supporting condition of -
ignorance, there will arise old age and death, anguish, lamentation, suffering, unhappiness, and
anxiety due to the supporting condition of birth. Therefore, only these great skandhas of
suffering will arise.
In terms of realm, this is so for the desire realm. In terms of birthplace, this is so for womb birth. At
the very beginning, there exists "ignorance," which is deluded with respect to objects of knowledge.
Motivated by that [ignorance], one creates defiled karma that is virtuous, unvirtuous, or nonmanifest
(?). Thus, there are "karmic formations," due to the supporting condition of ignorance. The mind that
is perfumed by the seeds of this karma is "consciousness," due to the supporting condition of karmic
formations. By the power of this karma, the mind is distorted, takes rebirth in a womb, and becomes a
fetus and so forth. Thus, there is "name and form," due to the supporting condition of consciousness.
This same name and form develops, and so the faculties of the eye, ear, and the rest are completed.
This- is "the six sense fields," due to the supporting condition of name and form. The faculty of the eye
and the rest, its object, and consciousness come together, and there is complete experience. Thus, there
is "contact," due to the supporting condition of the six sense fields. However the contact take place,
there is the feeling that will experience [it] pleasure, pain, or neutral in that way. This is "feeling," due
to the supporting condition of contact. The delight, attachment, and complete attachment for the feeling
experienced is "thirst," due to the supporting condition of feeling. Not giving up the thought, "May I
not be separate from this attachment," and seeking after it is "grasping," due to the supporting
condition of thirst. When one seeks after it in this way, the setting into motion through one's body,
speech, and mind of actions that produce future existences is "becoming," due to the supporting
condition of grasping. The five skandhas that are born from this karma is "birth," due to the
supporting condition of becoming. The skandhas that exist after birth develop; they mature, which is
old age; and they are destroyed, which is death. Thus, there is "old age and death," due to the
supporting condition of birth. Because one is bewildered with respect to death, the complete inner
torment together with grasping and attachment is anguish. The words uttered due to anguish is
lamentation. The painful feeling, which has the collection of the five consciousnesses, is suffering.
The mental suffering, which possesses discursiveness, is unhappiness. Moreover, whatever
secondary kleshas that are like these and the like are anxiety.
One should know these as three groups. Ignorance, thirst, and grasping are kleshas. Karmic
formations and becoming are karma. The seven--consciousness and the rest-are suffering.
17. PrajnA
The nature of prajfiais to completely discriminate phenomena.
If one divides upprajfia, the commentary to the MahayanasiitriiJaITlkara teaches three kinds-
worldly prajfia, lesser transcendental prajfia, and great transcendental prajfia. If one explains the
defining characteristics of each of these: Worldl y prajfia is the prajfia that arises in dependence upon
the four sciences-the science of healing, the science of logic, the science of grammar, the science of
craft. The two kinds of transcendental prajfia are the prajfia that arises in dependence upon the holy
dharma, which is known as the "inner science." Moreover, the-first one, the lesser transcendental
prajfia, is the prajfiathat arises from the learning, contemplation, and meditation of the shravakas and
pratyekabuddhas. This is the realization that these skandhas that are grasped to [as an ego] are impure,
suffering, impermanent, and egoless. The second one, the great transcendental prajfia, is the prajfia that
arises from the learning, contemplation, and meditation of those of the Mahayana. It is the
understanding that all phenomena are by nature emptiness, unborn, ground, rootless.
The Precious Ornament of Liberation: English Translation
281
f
J
)
J
Well, what are the two kinds of ego or the mind? They are known as the ego of self and the ego of
phenomena. What is the mind or the ego of self? There are many ways of talking about this.
Ultimately, the "self" is this flickering, shifty, helter-skelter (pell-mell) streamof the skandhas that are
grasped, which is endowed with awareness. Thus, the Silbu sutra says, "The mental stream is called a
'self.t It is this very diffused flickering. " One grasps to this self aspennanentand unitary, and so this
clinging and attachment [to the self] as me and an ego is called the ego of self or the mind. This ego
gives rise to the kleshas. The kleshas give rise to karma. Karma gives rise to suffering. Therefore, the
root of all suffering and faults is this ego or mind. Accordingly, the Pramanavarttika teaches:
If the ego exists, one knows there is other.
Due to the pair of self and other, there is grasping and hatred.
By being completely enmeshed with these,
All faults will arise.
What is the ego of phenomena? Phenomena are the external objects that are grasped and the inner
mindthat grasps. Why are these called "phenomena"? Because they possess their own specific
characteristic. Thus, the Silbu sutra says, "Phenomena possess their characteristic." Likewise, the
grasping and attachment to the objectand subject as realities is what is called "the ego of phenomena."
18. The Paths
Thus, one first arouses the mind toward supreme enlightenment and then applies oneself diligently
to the training. Therefore, one will progressively travel the paths andbhumis of the bodhisattva. If
one explains the paths, the summary is as follows:
The path of accumulation, the path of unification,
The path of seeing, the path of meditation,
And the path of complete perfection-
These five comprise the paths.
19. The Bhnmis
How many bhumis do these five paths have? The summary is as follows:
That ofthe beginner, that of aspiration,
The ten bhumis of the bodhisattva,
And the bhumi of a buddha-c. ..
Thus, they are comprised of thirteen bhumis.
20. The Result
As for "The result is the kaya ofthepetfectbuddha": Thus, having completely traveled the paths
and bhumis, one becomes actually and fully enlightened in the state of thethreekayas.
First, the nature of perfect, complete enlightenment is perfect renunciation and perfectwisdom.
If one explains the meaning of the term [buddha]: Why is it called "cleansed and opened (sang-
gye)U? It is called"purified and expanded," since it has cleansed away sleeplike ignorance and has
opened the mind to both objects of knowledge.
Ifone explains the classifications: ifone divides up enlightenment, there are the three kayas-..-the
dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya.
_ If one explainsthe presentation of the threekayas, the dharmakayais actual enlightenment. The
Arya-a$tasaharsrika teaches:
One should not regard the Tathagataas the form kaya, but the Tathagata is thedharmakaya.
The Precious Ornament of Liberation: English Translation 282
. One should understand that the two form kayas have arisen due to the coming together of three
[factors]-the blessings of thedharmakaya, the conceptions of disciples, and the kayas that exist due to
previous aspirations.
21. Activity
As for "The activity is performing the benefit of beings, free from concept.": Well, if all this
arousing the mind toward awakening at the beginning; practicing the path in the middle; and desiring
enlightenment at the end is only for the sake ofclearing away the suffering of sentient beings and
accomplishing their happiness, then when one has become enlightened, since one has no
discursiveness or effort, will there mise any benefit for sentient beings? While enlightenment does not
possess any effort or discursiveness, the benefit of beings will arise spontaneously and unceasingly.
)
)
I
JJf ai' .
ka kha ga nga ca cha" ja nya
'=!UU() ... 91' \! in tbJ :\1 !)C
ta tha da na pa pha ba rna tsa tsha
=9 on q]_Pll
r-'

F5:

'Ai'

Sf
Afj'
dza wa zha za ya ra la sha sa

@
v
3]
III
(JlI
q
RII
Jll
lie
r
-----------
ha a
---------.:-----------19 ...mnc;--------------
The proper-proporuons for Uchen script (above) and
Urne script (below).
Howto draw the U-chan script
51,
I I I I
'Tl
2
lfl F
I I I II
'7 2:73 2 f\ 9 S\
I' I I I
N3 q R3 aJ
-
I 4 I
4
I
4
IE
& 2aq ( Ef!
5
I I I II :3
CO 2(d 20
3
III
3! 4').
I I < I 4
=}: 2% !J
L. I 4

~ , "
~
~ 1
~
~
1J\11
~
1 U e 0
\
\
~
"
~
\ -
~ l l
fAIl
tAIl
U\ll U\l1
I
'-J
ki
,
~
C\
,
If ~
~
~ '
~ '
l\
~ '
khu ge ngo (1 chu ,e nyo tl thu
1
1-
de no P!
\
~ .
~ .
phu be rno tsi tshu dze . wo
C\
~ .
~
~
4'
~
C\
<i'
~
~ .
~ '1'
~ ,
zhi zu 'e yo [1 Iu she so hi u
. The Uchen and Umeconsonants with vowels.


.f:..


"


,
rka rga rnga rja rnya rta rda rna

"l
(l


t.\

1
sd
rba rrna rtsa rdza lka 19a lnga lea lja
Ita Ida lpa lba lha ska sga snga
"


fl'



soya sta sda sna spa sba sma stsa mangalarn



0
tl





,
41
Uchen land Urne with head letters: ragoira-mgo; "ra on
the head t.). Iago <IfJ-mgo). and sago (sa-mgo). The con-
eluding word "mangalarn" means "May this be auspi-
cious. t.
\ kya khya gya pya phya bya mya
) '-!l9ll ~ ( ~ ( . ~ ~ l 2J 1J ~ l
1
kra khra gra tra thra drapra phra bra mea
shea sra hra kla gla bla rla zla sla
klu glublu rlu zlu siu
Uchenand Ume subjoined lertersr 1414 (ya-bugs; 'ya
subjoined").ral4(ra-blags). Wa (l4buzgs). and lata
.ith vowel u".

r'
fit
F"
f' F

ta
tha c;la Qa


Rl

gha dha bha jha dha Iha
f
fI'"
l' fA

l'


1)

kva khva gva eva nyva tva dva tsva tshva zhva
!'J'

"Jl
1
l

f)l
l'
it
11

zva rva Iva shva sva hva
Uchen and Urne letters used in transliterating Sanskrit
(tOP four lines) and consonants with wazur conjunct.
Appendix 2: Summary of Pronunciation
High tone High tone Low tone Low tone Low tone High tone
Un aspirated Aspirated Aspirated Un aspirated Nasal Nasal
Unvoiced Unvoiced Unvoiced Voiced
GUITURAL KA KHA KHA GA NGA NGA
Simpleletter
1- r-

c-
With head letter

C"Cc."
With prefix



With head letter
q,-q9- qc-qC
and prefix
PALATAL CA CHA CHA JA NYA NYA
Simpleletter
ffi-
?-
With head letter



With prefix

-
With head letter

and prefix
TA THA THA DA NA NA
Simple letter
5"
8-
l"
3)-
With head letter

With prefix
B - '-\"

..
l -'-\l'-\"
With head letter
q? -ql5 -q5-
and prefix
One exception:

LABIAL PA PHA PHA BA MA MA
Simpleletter
C<J- q"

With head letter
Cj-[j- 3i-dl-
With prefix



One exception: "WA"

Appendix 2: Summary of Pronunciation 291
High tone High tone Low tone Low tone
Unaspirated Aspirated Aspirated Unaspirated
Unvoiced Unvoiced Unvoiced Voiced
PALATAISIBILANT TSA TSHA TSHA DZA
Simpleletter
.:t- ffi"
(-
With bead letter

With prefix


With head letter

and prefix
Low tone High tone Low tone High tone
SIBILANTS SA SA SHA SHA
Simpleletter


4"
With prefix

14
'-l,,-q4

SEMI-VOWEL YA RA WA YA LA LA
Simpleletter
UJ-
f\J-
With prefix

As subscribed letter

ASPIRATE HA

A
Simpleletter


With head letter: "H:LA"

Appendix 2: Summary of Pronunciation
High tone High tone Low tone Low tone Low tone High tone
Unaspirated Aspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Nasal Nasal
Unvoiced Unvoiced Unvoiced Voiced
GUTTURALS KYA KHYA KHYA GYA
WITHYATA.
Simple combination

Withhead letter

Withprefix


With head letter
q
"':::::-
and prefix
t
PALATALS CA CHA CHA JA NYA NYA
\VI THYATA.
I.
Simple combinations



Withhead letter

With prefix



Exception: "YAII
GUTTURALS)ENTALS. TA TRA THA OA MA MA
PALATALS\VITHRATA.
Simple combination

Withhead letter

Withprefix


-

292
Appendix 3: Summary of Particles and Punctuation
Just the word itself ~ c : ~ CN or c - ~ ~ CN
Form: no particle
Nominal Uses
1. Subject of an intransitive verb,existential verb, or linking verb
2. Predicate noun or adjective of alinking verb
3. Direct object of a transitive verb
4. Vocative
5. Words or phrases in apposition
6. Abbreviation of fuller form with a particle (e.g. in verse)
7. Between words in a compound word
8. Words in a list
9. Adverb
10. General location word next to specific location word
11. General topic word next to a specific example
Verbal Uses:
1. End of a clause or sentence
2. Gerund or participial clause within a larger clause
- Clausal direct object, subject, modification, etc.
3. Between a main verb and its auxiliary verb
<,
Agentive Particle ~ ~ -~ -
~ ~ ~ ~
Forms: ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ ~ . U J ~ ' - ~ .
Nominal Uses
1. Agent or doer of an action
2. Instrument: "by, by means of, with, through"
3. Reason: "because, since, due to"
4. Adverb: "-ly," "with"
5. Absence: (idiomatic usage with a few verbs) empty "of"
6. Inclusion: "within"
Verbal Uses
1. Reason, cause: "because, since"
2. Support: sets up situation for next sentence, but not causative
3. Change of speaker: in dialog
<,
Relational Particle i.:\ ~ ~ - ~ .
e-, e-, e-, e-, e-,
Forms: ~ . ~ . ~ - UJ - i.:\ .
Nominal Uses
1. Ownership, possession: "of"
2. Agent: "of, by"
3. Modification: connects preceding adjectives, modifying nouns or noun phrases
4. Appositives
5. Location: "of, in, at, on"
6. General/Specific
7. Objective
8. Material: "of"
9. Connects modifying verbal or relative clauses
10. Connects prepositional phrases: in front" of', etc.
Appendix 3: Summary of Particles & Punctuation
294
Verbal Uses
1. Contradictory: "although; but, however"
2. Continuation: "moreover," "furthermore"
Locative/ObjectivelPurpose Particle: Seven with the Meaning of ().J
but not OJ"



Nominal Uses 5-
"-'
A. Objective
1. Direct object (only ().J -)
2.Indirect object: "to', for" (only f\J-)
3. Movement toward, into, on: "to, toward, in, into, through, on"
4. Location of action in space or time: "in, on, at"
5. Adverbs: "as," "-ly"(but not?")
6. Reference: "with respect to, concerning"
. 7. Possession, used with Ui l- (but only 1\1- ?)
8. Coordinating: "and" (only f\J-)
-e: """
B. Purpose
1. Benefit: "to, for"
2. Purpose: "in order to"
""" '
c. Locative Temporal
1. Location in space or time: "in, on, at"
2. Used with prepositions of location
""" "-
D.ldentity '1-?l- (only 5- '1-
"-' "-'
1. Connects prefixes or adverbs to modified verb toform one word
Nominal Uses 3j-
1. Location in space or time (usually with static verbs): "in, on, at"
2. Used with prepositions of location

Verbal Uses f\J - 5 '1-
"-' "-'
1. Coordinating: "and"
- especially used between imperatives
2. Simultaneity: "while"
3. Contradictory: "but"
-especially with first verb negative
4. Connecting two independent verbs
a) Infinitive: "to"
b) Another verbal clause
but Dot 0).-
Appendix 3: Summary of Particles & Punctuation 295
1) Purpose: "to; in order to, for, so that"
2) Direct object
5. At the end of a verbal clause _
a) SimultaneIty: "as; -ing"
b) Contradictory: (with neg.) "not_, but" -
6. Second particle: no meaning
I ~
- except l- and 01- after ~ <: can indicate the meaning "in order to" and"because" respectively
'\.:)
Verbal Uses 0)-
1. Temporal: "when" (usually with infinitve ~ -/CJ - form)
<,
2. Conditional: "if" (at times with initial conjunction ~ nJ -5-)
e-,
3. Second particle (after ~ ~ -/CJ ~ - or ~ ~ -): no meaning
Source Particle
Nominal Uses nJ ~ -
1. Source, origin, intitial reference point: "from, beginning froIn"
2. Movement away from or beyond: "away from, beyond, out of'
3. Separation: "from among"
4. Reason: "due to, because of'
5. Comparative: "than"
6. Exclusion: "other than, except for"
7. Inclusion: "within, from within"
Nominal Uses O ) ~ -
1. Source, origin, initial reference point: "from, beginning from"
2. Movement away from or beyond: "away from, beyond, out of'
3. Separation: "from among"
4. Instrumental: "by means of"
5. Succession: "after, since"
6. Adverbial: "-ly"
Verbal Uses
1. Simultaneity: "while __-ing"
2. Succession: "after; having __"
3. Origin or cause: "from, on account of, through"
Possessor Particle CJ l ~ -~ -
Forms: ~
Nominal Uses
1. Forms a no-un or adjective
2. Forms the agent, possessor, one connected with
Verbal Uses of just ~ -/CJ-
Appendix 3: Summary of Particles & Punctuation
1. Forms the "infinitive" form of a verb
2. Forms a verbal noun or participle
3. Used after a verb before certain particles:
<,
a. can be connected by a with:
296
<,
b. can not be connected by a Q, 53 nJ- j - with:
Coordinating Particle 'l c, - -
Nominal Uses
1. Coordinating: "and" (used in lists)
2. Inclusive, accompaniment: "with"
3. Disjunctiverfrom"
Verbal Uses
1. Coordinating: "and"
2. After animperative verb
Concessive Particle "l OJ. or OJ - '1 -
'0
Forms: c;: UJ c : Q, c :
Nominal Uses
1. Limiting: "even, just, onl y"
2. Adding: "also, too, as well"
C'\.
3. Marks the topic (similar to 01-): "as for"
4. Doesn't add any particular meaning
5. Extra word to fill in the meter of a verse
6. Forms indefinite of relative pronouns
7. Distributive: (when repeated) "both .... and ... "
Verbal Uses
1. Contradictory: "although, even though; but, however"
2. Forms indefinite with preceding relative pronoun,
3. As a second particle: 01- UJ c; - "even if, even though"
Continuative Particle -g -
"" "" ""
Forms: 5. - 'l-
Verbal Uses
1.Temporal Relation:
- Simultaneity: "while; and"
-Succession: "after"
2.Clarification:
- Giving a list or specifics (either before or after the list)
- Giving a reason or proof
-Giving a gloss ofa term: "which is to say, i.e."
- Giving an extensive explanation
;r.-
- 'I
Appendix 3: Summary ofParticles & Punctuation
- Giving a quote
3. Giving the Other Side: "and"
4. Contradictory: "although; but, however"
'"
Coordinating Particle c. "J .
'" e-, c-,
Forms: -0 c. - - 4c. -
Verbal Uses
1. Simultaneity: "and"
2. Succession: "and then"
3. Contradictory: "but"
Particle "J -/CJ -
Nominal Use
1. Comparative: "than"
Verbal Use
1. Comparative: "than" (with infinitive "J -/CJ - form of verb)
e-,
Particle -
Verbal Uses:
1. Instrumental, reason: "because"
- can be followed by second particle Ol-
2. Purpose: "so that, in orderto, for the sake of"
- can be followed by second particle 1"
"
e-,
Topic Particle Ol-
Nominal Uses
1. Marks off or emphasizes a topic of a sentence: "as for"
2. Verse filler: no meaning
<,
Separative/Conjunctive or And/Or Particle 1- 1-
'\.:)
Forms:
1. Separative: "or"
2. Conjunctive: "and"
2. Question marker
Completion Particle f "] " "l
Forms: [- 5-
Verbal Uses
1. indicates the completion of a statement or a series of related statements
2. indicates the end of a quote
'"
3. if not preceded by a verb, can indicate the omission of the linking verb UJ <3i -"J-
297
l
1
)
]
J
Appendix 3: Summary of Particles & Punctuation
ImperativelPrecative Particle

Forms:
Verbal Use:
1. Indicates imperativeor precativemoodof verb
Combination of Particles
1. 01- UJ c; - : "evenif, even though"
c-,
2. "because"
e-,
3. -0) -UJ c, - - 0) -UJ c; - : same as agentive "because"
3. sameasjustY"
""-
4. -? -: indicates that a reason for thisreason isabout to be given
c-, -c:
5. - -: indicates thatthis is a reason for a preceding statement (whichusuallyends with a
<,
continuative? -, etc.)
Punctuation
-r:
- 0) - occurs at the beginningof a text

I separates syllablesfromeachother
4'l- occurs after root or infinitive of verb at end of clause or sentence
occurs after 'l c -
occursafter topic
occurs at the beginningand end of a line of verse
(except sometimesit does not occur at the beginningof thefirst line)
c; -.+1.c:... - af .. f 1
L-,J 11 occurs : ter a single syllabe that hasbeeen strandedat the beginning0 a me

298
I1-J - 4'l- occurs at the beginningofa major section
\.,,5
""- .....
I I .. .n.-4l."fcJ i+ ,) I fA- - .sk. J
- ------
adv.
adj.
app.
avo
cpr.
exc.
da.
dp.
ia.
imp.
idpr.

IV.
ivn.
n.
name
neg.
num.
ppr.
pI.
pro
prec.
pp.
rlpr.
rpr.
time
tv.
tvn.
vOC.
Particles

A
AO
CP
CC
CO
CM
CT
D
E
IP
LOP
Q
QLOP
R
RS
S
T
TI
Appendix 4: Abbreviations Qor Parsing
adverb
adjective
appositive
auxiliaryverb
correlativepronoun
exclamation
demonstrativeadjeetive
demonstrativepronoun
indefinitearticle
imperativeverb
indefinitepronoun
interrogativepronoun
intransitiveverb
intransitiveverbal noun
noun
name
negative
number
personal pronoun
pluralmarker
pronoun
. precativeverb
preposition
relativepronoun
reflexivepronoun
time word or phrase
transitiveverb
transitiveverbal noun
vocativeword
noparticle
agentiveparticle
"and/or"particle
completionparticle
concessiveparticle
coordinatingparticles
comparativeparticle
continuativeparticle
durationparticle
emphaticparticle
imperative/precativtparticIe
location!0 bjective/purposeparticles
quoteparticle
hypotheticalquotepartiele
relationalparticle
reasonparticle
sourceparticle
topicparticle
timeparticle
.
\II
j
fS t,'f..E ....""f

J
Appendix 5: Questions for Parsing a Sentence
1. Find the final verb, and ask: Is the verb transitive or intransitive?
a. If verb is transitive" ask:
1) "who or what" is doing the action? =agent
-look for agentiveparticle
- ifnoagentiveparticle:
- agent at times will not have an agentiveparticle
-or often agent is understoodfromcontext and hence omitted
- it twoagentiveparticles:
- one might be agent and one instrument or adverb
2) "what" is receiving the action? = direct object
- look for word with no particle or LOP particle'(except for 01")
- direct object could be a verbal clause
(3) "for whom" is the action being done? ::: indirect object ]
L -look for word with LOP particle (except fQXOj)
b. If verb is intransitive, ask:
1) "who or what" is doing the action? = subject
- look for word with noparticle or just a topic particle .
- there
c. If it is a ,verb, ask:
1) what is what?
- subject/predicatenoun or adj./verb
..
2. For all verbs, ask: (+(..Aj'*t """"{ II ... Ii
__ ."."""".-"-_"'_._."..".,..__"".'". n-,,".. "._.r-v";" ,.,._"".. " __
a. where is ,it done? =location phrase
- LOP particles
b. when is it done? =time phrase
- LOP particles
-or no particle
c. how is it done? =adverb or adverbial clause
- LOP particles (except for 3)")
- source particle 01 -
-agentiveparticle
d. why is it done? = source or reason clause
- agentiveparticle
-reason particle
- source particles
e. with what is it done?
- agentiveparticle
r" "'Qt
,)
......
.s
Appendix 6: The Tibetan Transliteration of Sanskrit,
This section explains how the Tibetans transliterate or write out Sanskrit words. It will be helpful
mainly in deciphering book titles, names, and mantras.
1. Vowels
a. Retroflex: There is a retroflex vowel sound in Sanskrit which is transliterated in English as ri, and
is pronounced as "ri." Tibetan transliterates this vowelwitha subscribed rata and a reversed
C'\.
khikhu -) above the main letter.
'\..:)
amrita dricJho
b. Short and Long: Unlike Tibetan, Sanskrit has the distinction of short and long vowels. So to
indicate a long vowel, the Tibetan adds an 1.:\ - -) at the bottom of the main letter.
C'\. C'\.

dhi

dhI

-:

aloka

mahakala


hum

hum
-j

c. Dipthongs: Sanskrit also has two additional vowels "ai" and "au," which are considered to be
strengthened forms of the vowels "e" and "0," respectively. Therefore, for ai and au, the Tibetan simply
duplicates the vowels e and o.
-.r C'\.""
{j -r u.r h- maitri
"0 -I vairocaniye

go gau
2. Consonants
a. Unique Sanskrit consonants: There are quite a few consonants or sounds in Sanskrit for
which Tibetan has no natural equivalent and for which it must employ varying strategies to transliterate into
Tibetan.
1. Six retroflex or cerebral letters: These sounds are so named because the tongue is curled
backand pointed up at the top of one's head while pronouncing them. To write out these letters, the Tibetan
reverses the letters of closely related Tibetan sounds. These reversed letters are:
fv-
tha

eJa
2. Five aspirated letters: Although Tibetan does have aspirated consonants, it does not have
these voiced aspirated consonants. Note that in Sanskrit, these are not considered to be conjunct
consonants [see b. below], but are one letter and one sound.

gha

jha

Qha
Appendix 6: The Tibetan Transliteration of .Sanskrit

dha

bha
q
buddha

dhanna
""'
-e:

sangha dpQho
302
b. Conjunct consonants: In Sanskrit, when two consonsants come together in a word (or at the
end of one word and the beginning of the next), they are written together, combining the elements of both
letters into one writtenform. This shows the reader that there is no vowel between the consonants and that
they are to be read together as one unit of sound. Tibetan duplicates this process by condensing and piling.
letters on top of one another.
S =buddha (note that the two l-here are condensed and look more like C-)
If buddha were written like q II -, it would be read as bu-da-da-ha,
padma Shakya
o,
The letter - - is written in two.ways, depending on whether it is the first or the last letter of a-conjunct
v-
letter. If it is the first, itis writtenasa ( ). If it isthe last letter.It is writtenas a ( -J).
kanna
:!J krama
c. The letter v: For this letter (which can be pronounced as "wa" in both Sanskrit and Tibetan),
Tibetan uses several equivalents. Sometimes different ones are used even withinthe same word.
1. Sometimes Tibetan uses q .. Therefore, note thara q. could either signify a "b" ora "v."
=:::v- C'.. '""
q OiUJ-

vajra
vairocaniye
sarva
visva
3. Other times the abbreviated -) is used, but only whenthe v is attached to a
precedingconsonant.
1
i
J.
2. Sometimes the letter - isused.
evam
naivedya

C'\..


svabhava
vajravarahl

().. .f':l..
C'\..
q1-
svaha
visva
tvam
bodhisattva
Appendix 6: The Tibetan Transliteration of Sanskrit 303
d. Three palatals: There are three letters for which Tibetan does have natural equivalents, but which
for some reason (perhaps the slightly altered pronunciation of Sanskrit they heard), they use closely related,
but different sounding letters. Thus they use:
-6- tsa for the 'Sanskrit ca (instead of the Tibetan -s -)
ro tsha for the Sanskrit cha (instead of the Tibetan en)
(- dza for the Sanskrit ja (instead of the Tibetan
vajra
(: jah
pafica
prayaccha
- jfiana

3. Anusvara, Visarga, and Avagraha


a. Anusvara: In Sanskrit there is a nasal sound called "anusvara" (literally; "after sound"), which is
transliterated in English as rnand pronounced as "m" at the end of words or as the appropriate nasal before
consonants. It is written in Sanskrit as a dot (called "bindu") over the letter, and so the Tibetan has copied
this form.
yarp ram kharp
For certain syllables, the anusvara is ornamented with a moon disk below and/or a tail (called the
"nada'') on top. This omamentationdoes not change the pronunciation, but has a purely mystical
significance.
hum

orp orp
b. Visarga: The visarga (literally, "flowing out") is transliterated in English as b. It is generally not
pronounced, as it merely signifies a breathing sound or pure aspiration. In Sanskrit it is written as two dots
: after a letter, and again the Tibetan has adopted the Sanskrit form.
bhyol) jal)
c. Avagraha: Finally there is the avagraha (literally "separation") which is used in Sanskrit to
indicate a gap or hiatus between words, created by the omission of the initial vowel "a." In English the
avagraha is transliterated by an apostrophe. In Tibetan it is written as z.
4-
" "
5-
suddho 'ham (originally aham)
bhagavate 'rhate (originallyarhate)
4. Pronunciation
One of the more perplexing aspects of the Tibetan system of transliterating Sanskrit is that once they
have spelled the Sanskrit words into Tibetan letters, they use Tibetan rules of pronunciation in saying these
words. The Tibetans are certainly not unique in this case, when one considers the Western pronunciation
of many Sanskrit words.
Appendix 6: The Tibetan Transliteration of Sanskrit
' - - J ~ -
padma "perna"
q ~ -
vajra "bendzra"
~ ~ -
phat "phe"
'--J ( ~ '
puja "pudza" '\,,:)
~ ~ f \ J -
mandala "mendel"
Other times the Tibetan pronunciation does not follow either the Sanskrit or the Tibetan model.
sattva "sato"
J
I
)
j
raksa "rakya" (or "racha'')
sutosyo "sutokaya"
5.3
12.2
4.8
12.3
6.9,7.6
15.4
3.2
8.4, 13.2
13.2
8.4
nominal use: 6.9!, 7.6
verbal use: 9.4
10,2
nominal use: 5.3
verbal use: 10.3

18.1
see
"'"
see 50
see
f Oi - 3.1
""'
-c 0). 4.3
<,
15"


"'- C'\.
-c - 8.4
31-


"'- "'- "'-
-c - - Indeflnite: 4.7
Precative: 14.2
"'" "'" "'"
5-5-'l"
5"
"'" . "
0)"
.C'\.

C'\. "'"
'l" .
"'" . . .

""'
C'\.
,?c
1
-
17.3
nominal use: 6.10
verbal use: 11
nominal use: 5.2
verbal use: 11.1
Tibetan Index
c-, e-, C'" "'-..._
-<'.:j- -<'.:j - -<'.:j - -<'.:j - -<'.:j nominal use: 7.5
verbal use: 9.2

14.3
e-,

14.1
f-<31-
15.3
')

8.4

see -

<,

9.5
c-, C'\.

see
)
c-, C'\.


<r: -v-
0, -

see -
] C', C'\.

I
see
C'\. r-,
see
i

C'\.
14.2

""'
J
C'.

7.7

9.6
""'
]
-e: <,

7.6
- 'l .
6.10,11.2
j

17.2
""'

see-

J
-r: -r:
see
c--
I

Nominal: 6.5, 7.4
Verbal: 10.5
J
!
Tibetan& English Indices
see 5-
'\,.j
306
9.3. 10.2

'\,.j
<,
1-
<,
I-
""
l"?l-
-e:
I"



14.3
4.6
<,
see 5-
7.6
-e:

17.4
?
4.2
4.6
17.4
5.3
nominal use: 6.9, 7.6
verbal use: 9.5,11.2,12.3
11.2
nominal use: 8.3
verbal use: 10.1
?
6.6
4.8
Nominal: 4.2
Verbal: 8.1, 17.1, 17.3
?
comparative: 11.5
9.2,9.5
4.2
8.4
c-,

'\,.j
e-,

<,

""


<,



'\,.j '\,.j

'\,.j
<,

'\.:)
<,

9.3, 10.2
9.3
9.3
?
9.3, 10.2
see C"J-
14.3
-c:
see C-J -
-..r-
o
see - \
9.7
16.1
16.1
7.1. 16.1
7.5.9.2
9.6
1.4
8.3. 10.1
17.5
8.5
5.2. 11.1
word particle: 4.2
negative: 7.7
14.3
see-
negative: 7.7
Tibetan& English Indices 307
6.5, 7 10.5
4.2
2.1,3.4
3.3
C'...
see
4.2
C'...
see
-e:
see
14.3
14.3

....--


see
'"
2.2
2.3
2.2
7.6

see.
'"
6.4
2.2
14.2
6.9, 7.6, 9.4, 16.2
nominal use: 6.9, 7.6, 16.2
verbal use: 9.4, 16.2
2.3
nominal use: 8.3
verbal use: 10.1
15.2

see
see -
<,
see

see
12.1
C'...
see
4l-
<,
4-01-




2.3
5.1
6.7
o V Kd I.U-e 1.2.1' -fr--. 0 "d
ed
/'
r. rv4'1B
7.6
6.7
6.4
2.3
17.3
15.5
17.1
17.1
14.3
?
C'...
see
"-
see --0 "l
<,
see
8.5





)
J
I
J
)
I
J
J
J
Tibetan& English Indices
~ C N -
see _I.J.. CN - .
~ -
interrogative: 8.4
'-.:>
see ?-
'-.:>
-e: -c:
~ -
see -
I.J..-
-e:
~ ~ ~ -
5.4
~ ~ - q ~ -
6.7
~
~ ~ ' q ~ ~ .
10.2
308
English Index
j
1
)
J
1
J
j
1
Abbreviation:
- for parsing
- for text names
- for compound words
Adjectives
Adverbs:
C\.
~ ~ - etc.
?-etc.
'\,:)
O ) ~
Agentive particle:
Nominal use
Verbaluse
Alphabet
tl And/or" particle
Question marker
Apposition
Appositional relativeclauses
Auxiliary verbs
Causative verbs
Comparative particle:
Nominal use
Verbal use
Completion particle
Compounds words
Concessiveparticle:
Nominal use
Verbal use
Continuative particle
Consonants
Contradiction
Coordinating particle:
'lc--
Correlative clauses
Dictionaryorder
Diminuative particle
Directobject
Dual
Etc. particle
Equivalence
Gerunds
Goal
Hypothetical questionparticle
Honorifics
Identity
Imperative Mood
Indefinite article
Indirect object
Infinitive
Instrument
C\.
~ ~ - etc.
Appendix 4
12.1
5.7
4.4
7.5
7.6
8.3
7.5
9.2
1.2
8.5
8.5
5.8
8.2
9.6, 17.1-5
9.6
8.3
10.1, 11.5
6.7
5.5
6.10
11.2
10.2
1.3
9.4, 10.2, 10.4, 11.2
5.3, 10.3
10.4
9.4
13.2
3.5
15.5
7 . 2 ~ 7.4, 7.6, 8.1,
9.4, 16.1, 16.2
4.8
5.4
7.9
8.1
7.9
12.3
15.1
7.9
14.1
4.7
7.2,7.9
7.3,9.4
7.5
O ) ~ -
Liaison
Lists
Locative/Objective/Purposeparticle:
Nominal use .
Verbaluse
Locativeparticle:
Nominal use
Verbaluse
MainLetter
Meter
Negation words
Noparticle
Nouns
Numbers
Numerals
Parsing
Participles
Particles, use of
Phoneticization
Plural
Poetry
Possessive particle
Possessorparticle
Precative
Prefixletters
Prepositional phraseof location
Pronouns:
Correlative
Demonstrative
Indefinite
Interrogative
Personal
Reflexive
Relative
Pronunciation
"Protectiontl of main letter
Punctuation
Purpose
Questions
Quoteparticle
Reason particle
Relational particle:
Nominal use
Verbaluse
Relativeclauses
Sanskrit:
prefixes
transcription of
Sentence:
compound/complex
structure of
Sevenmeanings' of (),J - :
Nominal use
Verbal use
Simultaneity
Source particle
8.3'
3.1
5.3-4, 10.2
6.9, 7.6, 16.2
9.4, 16.2
6.9,7.6
9.5
2.1, 3.4
18.1
7.7
6.5, 7.4,10.5
4.2
4.9
15.6
6.1
Appendix4
8
5.1,9.1
Appendix 3
1.2
4.8
18.1
4.3
4.2
14.2
3.1
7.6
13.2
4.6
8.4
8.4
4.6
15.2
8.4, 13.2
1,2,3
Appendix 2 .
2.2,3.1
6.4
Appendix3
7.6,9.4
8.4, 8.5
12.2
9.3
5.3
11.1
8.2, 13;.2
5.6
Appendix6
9.1
6.3, 6.8, 7..2
6.9,7.6
9.4
9.4, 10.1, 10.2,
10.3, 10.4
Nominal use
Verbaluse
Spelling
Suffix letters
Second
Subscribedletters
Succession
Superscribedletters
Syllable
Table of contents
Topicpanicle
Transliteration
Verbs:
Active/causati ve
Auxiliary
Compound
Existence
Linking
Nonseparative
Passive/fruitional
Separative
Tense and mood
Transiti ve/intransiti ve
Vocative
Vowels
Words:
formation of
order
structureof
English Index
8.3
10.1
1,2,3
3.2
3.3
2.3
8.3, 10.1, 10.2, 10.4
2.2
2.1
12.1
6.6
1.1-2
9.6
9.6, 17.1-5
7.6, 16.3
6.8
6.3
16.1
16.1
16.1
7.3, 17.1-5
7.2, 16.1
7.4
1.4
4.1
4.10
2.1
310