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11-3 EXPLORING MENDELIAN GENETICS

Mr. Alejandro Cruz

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What is allele segregation? Do alleles segregate independently? What is a two-factor cross? What is the principle of independent assortment? What inheritance patterns exist aside from simple dominance?

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Mendel crossed True breeding plants Round = R Wrinkled = r Yellow = Y Green = y Round Yellow peas = RRYY Wrinkle Green peas = rryy

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RRYY

rryy

Heterozygous dominant for round yellow

Round yellow peas RrYy

F1

How is the genotype of the offspring different from that of the dominant parents? The offspring are heterozygous
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The two-factor cross
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F1 plants were heterozygous for both seed shape and seed color genes RrYy F2 generation? Gametes? RY Ry

Rr Yy

rY ry

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Alleles for seed shape segregated independentl y of those for seed color

Principle of independent assortment

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Mendel´s Principles
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The inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by individual units called genes In cases in which two or more forms of the gene (alleles) for a single trait exist, some forms of the gene may be dominant and others may be recessive In most sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene (one from each parent). These genes are segragated from each other when gametes are formed The alleles for different genes segregate independently from one another
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Incomplete Dominance
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One allele is not completely dominant over another The heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the two Four O´clock homozygous phenotypes
(Mirabilis)

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INCOMPLET E DOMINANCE

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(1) What would be the offspring if you crossed a white Mirabilis with a pink Mirabilis? (2) What would be the offspring if you crossed a red and a pink Mirabilis? (3) What would be the offspring if you crossed two pink Mirabilis (F1)?
ANSWER TO 1 ANSWER TO 2 ANSWER TO 3
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Codominance

Both alleles contribute to the phenotype

In humans

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Multiple Alleles
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Genes that have more than two alleles = more than two possible alleles exist Example: coat color in rabbits 1 gene: four different alleles

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Polygenic Traits
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Traits controlled by two or more genes They show a wide range of phenotypes Example: color of the eye in fruit flies, uses three genes for making the reddish-brown pigment
SKIN COLOR IN HUMANS

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model organism to study genetics  Fruit fly  Why is it an ideal organism for genetics?  They are small  Easy to keep in the laboratory  Produce large numbers of offspring in a short time Mendel´s principles apply to plants and also
animals including humans
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Applying Mendel´s principles  Thomas Hunt Morgan looked for a

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Section 11- 3 THE END Mr. Cruz

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UANL
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This presentation prepared by . M.E.C. Alejandro Cruz Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Educación Bilingüe Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

THE END

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The principle of independent assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes

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White-Pink
WW RW

Mr. Cruz

R W W R W RW

W W W W W

CLICK THE ARROW TO GO BACK
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Red-Pink
RR RW

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R RR RW

R RR RW

R W
CLICK THE ARROW TO GO BACK

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Pink-Pink
RW RW

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R R W RR RW

W RW W W

CLICK THE ARROW TO GO BACK
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