The Qur’anic Studies Series1

First Signs of Numerical Miracles In the Holy Qur’an

By Bassam Jarrar ‫ﺑﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬ In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Reviewed by Tariq Hamideh Basim Al-Bassumi

Noon Center For Qur’anic Studies & Research, Al-Bireh Telefax: Address: E-mail: Website: 00970 2 240 2088 P.O. Box 3763 Al-Bireh noon@p-ol.com www.noon-cqs.org

First Edition 1419 H (1998) Dar Al-Noor Publishing & Distribution Ramallah Al-Bakri Building, 8th Floor

Table of Contents

Introduction…7

Chapter 1 - Sura 74: Surat Al-Muddathir (‘The Cloaked One’) – An Introduction to the Numerical Miracle…9 Chapter 2 - The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras in the Holy Qur’an…19 Chapter 3 - The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras opening with Fawatih (letters)…26 Chapter 4 - The Jum’mal (Numerical Values of Letters) of the Alphabet and the Numerical Miracle…34 Chapter 5 – The Mathematical Miracle and Astronomy…43 Chapter 6 - The Significance of Number in Sura 72: ‘Al-Jinn’…50 Epilogue…56 Appendix…57

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Introduction:

The Noon Center for Qur’anic Studies and Research specializes in Qur’anic Studies. One of its priorities is the carrying out of research into numerical and mathematical miracles in the Qur’an. This is because the world of mathematics and numbers is the world of provable facts, Math having virtually become the language of physical and social sciences. And why should this not be so when the whole universe is based on numbers? Allah says: “He takes into account every single thing.” (Surat An-Naml, 27:28) Thus far, the numerical miracles of the Qur’an have not been given their due merit. This may have been justified in the past, but in the modern computer age it is surprising to find that we are still only at the beginning of the road, and the research is still scant. At the Noon Center we are aware that attracting the attention of researchers, scholars and lay readers requires massive research and effort to impress new factual findings on minds, although we are also aware that

hesitation and reservation about what is new is a healthy phenomenon. Thus, we feel that our duty is to give evidence for the credibility and significance of numbers in miracle studies in the Qur’an in particular and in Qur’anic Studies in general. In this small book, the Noon Center’s first fruit, the reader will find six chapters which give evidence of the mathematical miracles in the Holy Qur’an. The reader will observe that each chapter is a basis for a mathematical line of thinking. We thereby aim to draw the attention of those interested to the possibilities, on the basis of which we can conduct research on mathematical miracles. What is suggested is a mere sample of examples and logical premises to get the researcher “on the road”. Despite our conviction that there are other lines of approach, we have nonetheless limited ourselves to these six. In themselves they should be more than enough to give an idea of what we mean when we talk of the mathematical miracles of the Qur’an. Some people ask about the usefulness of such studies. It might be sufficient to say that we are dealing with what exists as part of the composition of the Holy Qur’an – that is, we research and describe our findings. Nothing more. In other words, we describe the Holy Qur’an from a numerical perspective. Even this is not without value, and there must be repercussions in Qur’anic Studies in general. We have felt that some of these benefits are: 1- This perspective helps to clarify the issue of the miracle of the Qur’an, making it easier for people engaged in Dawa to present proofs and establish evidence, and for seekers of the truth to reach certainty. 2- It helps to settle many controversial issues pertaining to Qur’anic sciences such as: the use of the Qur’anic script that is known as Ottoman script; the order of the Suras (chapters of the Qur’an); the names of the Suras; the number of ayat (verses) in each Sura, and so on. 3- It greatly helps to refute the doubts of orientalists and skeptics that relate to the compiling and writing down of the first copy of the Holy Qur’an (the Mus’haf). Some of the meanings of the verses become clear, such as: “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).” (‘Al-Hijr’, 15:9) 4- It helps with the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an. The discovery of the numerical structure of the universe has also helped the understanding of many facts about creation and its miracles. 5- There are logical premises that suggest the possibility of understanding the universe in the light of Qur’anic numbers and vice versa. Why should this not be so when the Creator is also the one who revealed the Qur’an? This is only a little of what we hope to achieve with Allah’s help, and Allah is the Guardian of Success. Bassam Jarrar Director of the Noon Center

‫} ﺳﻮرة اﻟﻤ ّﺛﺮ {‬ ‫ﺪ‬

‫ميحرلا نمحرلا ﻩللا مسب‬

‫*ﻳﺎ أﻳﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﺪﺛﺮ * ﻗﻢ ﻓﺄﻧﺬر * ورﺑﻚ ﻓﻜﺒﺮ * وﺛﻴﺎﺑﻚ ﻓﻄﻬﺮ * واﻟﺮﺟﺰ ﻓﺎهﺠﺮ * وﻻ ﺗﻤﻨﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻜﺜﺮ * وﻟﺮﺑﻚ ﻓﺎﺻﺒﺮ * ﻓﺈذا ﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻮر * ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ ﻳﻮم ﻋﺴﻴﺮ * ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻳﺴﻴﺮ * ذرﻧﻲ وﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ وﺣﻴﺪا * وﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎﻻ ﻣﻤﺪودا * وﺑﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﻮدا * وﻣﻬﺪت ﻟﻪ ﺗﻤﻬﻴﺪا * ﺛﻢ ﻳﻄﻤﻊ أن أزﻳﺪ * آﻼ إﻧﻪ آﺎن ﻵﻳﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﻴﺪا * ﺳﺄرهﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮدا * إﻧﻪ ﻓﻜﺮ وﻗﺪر * ﻓﻘﺘﻞ آﻴﻒ ﻗﺪر * ﺛﻢ ﻗﺘﻞ آﻴﻒ ﻗﺪر * ﺛﻢ ﻧﻈﺮ * ﺛﻢ ﻋﺒﺲ‬ ‫وﺑﺴﺮ * ﺛﻢ أدﺑﺮ واﺳﺘﻜﺒﺮ * ﻓﻘﺎل إن هﺬا إﻻ ﺳﺤﺮ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ * إن هﺬا إﻻ ﻗﻮل اﻟﺒﺸﺮ *‬ ‫ﺳﺄﺻﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻘﺮ * وﻣﺎ أدراك ﻣﺎ ﺳﻘﺮ * ﻻ ﺗﺒﻘﻲ وﻻ ﺗﺬر * ﻟﻮاﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮ * ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮ * وﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﻨﺎ أﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨﺎر إﻻ ﻣﻼﺋﻜﺔ * وﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻋﺪﺗﻬﻢ إﻻ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ آﻔﺮوا‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻴﻘﻦ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ أوﺗﻮا اﻟﻜﺘﺎب وﻳﺰداد اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮا إﻳﻤﺎﻧﺎ وﻻ ﻳﺮﺗﺎب اﻟﺬﻳﻦ أوﺗﻮا اﻟﻜﺘﺎب‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﻮن وﻟﻴﻘﻮل اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻠﻮﺑﻬﻢ ﻣﺮض واﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮون ﻣﺎذا أراد اﷲ ﺑﻬﺬا ﻣﺜﻼ آﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻞ اﷲ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎء وﻳﻬﺪي ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎء وﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺟﻨﻮد رﺑﻚ إﻻ هﻮ وﻣﺎ هﻲ إﻻ ذآﺮى‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮ * آﻼ واﻟﻘﻤﺮ * واﻟﻠﻴﻞ إذ أدﺑﺮ * واﻟﺼﺒﺢ إذا أﺳﻔﺮ * إﻧﻬﺎ ﻹﺣﺪى اﻟﻜﺒﺮ * ﻧﺬﻳﺮا‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮ * ﻟﻤﻦ ﺷﺎء ﻣﻨﻜﻢ أن ﻳﺘﻘﺪم أو ﻳﺘﺄﺧﺮ * آﻞ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺑﻤﺎ آﺴﺒﺖ رهﻴﻨﺔ * إﻻ أﺻﺤﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ * ﻓﻲ ﺟﻨﺎت ﻳﺘﺴﺎءﻟﻮن * ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﺠﺮﻣﻴﻦ * ﻣﺎ ﺳﻠﻜﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻘﺮ * ﻗﺎﻟﻮا ﻟﻢ ﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺼﻠﻴﻦ * وﻟﻢ ﻧﻚ ﻧﻄﻌﻢ اﻟﻤﺴﻜﻴﻦ * وآﻨﺎ ﻧﺨﻮض ﻣﻊ اﻟﺨﺎﺋﻀﻴﻦ * وآﻨﺎ ﻧﻜﺬب‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻮم اﻟﺪﻳﻦ * ﺣﺘﻰ أﺗﺎﻧﺎ اﻟﻴﻘﻴﻦ * ﻓﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻌﻬﻢ ﺷﻔﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﻦ * ﻓﻤﺎ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺬآﺮة ﻣﻌﺮﺿﻴﻦ * آﺄﻧﻬﻢ ﺣﻤﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺮة * ﻓﺮت ﻣﻦ ﻗﺴﻮرة * ﺑﻞ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ آﻞ اﻣﺮئ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫أن ﻳﺆﺗﻰ ﺻﺤﻔﺎ ﻣﻨﺸﺮة * آﻼ ﺑﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺨﺎﻓﻮن اﻵﺧﺮة * آﻼ إﻧﻪ ﺗﺬآﺮة * ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﺎء ذآﺮﻩ *‬ ‫وﻣﺎ ﻳﺬآﺮون إﻻ أن ﻳﺸﺎء اﷲ هﻮ أهﻞ اﻟﺘﻘﻮى وأهﻞ اﻟﻤﻐﻔﺮة *‬
‫ميظعلا ﻩللا قدص‬

Chapter 1
Sura 74: Surat Al-Muddathir (‘The Cloaked One’) – An Introduction to a Numerical Miracle Absolutely the first verse of the Holy Qur’an to be revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in his Prophethood stage was: “Recite! In the name of thy Lord the Creator, who created mankind from a clot of blood…” (‘Al-‘Alaq’, 96:1) However, the first revelation in the Prophet’s mission or apostolic phase was “O, thou wrapped up in a mantle…” (74:1) In other words, the revelation of Sura 96 to Muhammad (pbuh) made him a Prophet. When he received Sura 74, he was asked therein to deliver a message to mankind and eo ipso became a Messenger, or Apostle. What concerns us in this context is Surat Al-Muddathir, which is the first revelation of Apostlehood, rather than Prophethood. Because the Sura was not revealed in its entirety on one occasion, it records the first moments, and the ensuing attempts to refute, oppose, resist and nullify the truth of the Qur’an. The Sura discusses the failure of the Idolaters in this respect, a failure that reduced them to defiance and antagonism. In this they were like all the arrogant; like all those whose hearts and minds are filled with self-interest and lust; like all those who, accustomed to a situation, no matter how bad, detest all change, even one that brings with it blessing and goodness. Because of this tendency in people, there has to be a shock, a threat that will break down the barriers and throw aside the veils that conceal. There has to be a sense of danger in order to mobilize energies to revolt against customs, traditions and norms. Hence there is the threat of Saqar (Hell-Fire) - “Naught doth it permit to endure and naught doth it leave alone.” (74:28) Saqar burns and changes all the features of transient beauty - “Darkening and changing the color of man” (74:29) - that lure those oblivious of the illusory nature of this transient present life. The Qur’an then proceeds with: “Above it are nineteen.” (74:30) HellFire is watched over by nineteen angels. It is possible that there are nineteen of these noble creatures or nineteen types or categories. We do not know. In his book Fi Thilal Al-Qur’an (‘The Shades of Meaning in the Qur’an’) Sayyed Qutub surmises: “Why there are nineteen – whatever this number signifies – is a matter known to Allah who harmonized all existence and creates in proportion and measure.” Though ultimately we agree with this, we ask if the number here is to be considered as one of those verses in the Qur’an that is beyond comprehension because they relate to the metaphysical, where no person can appreciate any part of its significance or its implications, or if it is rather a hint to open the mind to the many meanings and mysteries contained in the Qur’an. However, we believe in the rule that we should try to understand utterances, not disregard them as meaningless, and we believe that the key to unlocking many of these mysteries is to be found in the ayat: “Above it are nineteen. And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Fire; and We have fixed their number only as a trial for Unbelievers…” (74:30-31)

The Qur’an thus provides a detail of this mysterious number: “We have fixed their number only as a trial for Unbelievers…” We do not want to explore the meanings of the Arabic word Jaal (to fix their number), but we simply find that the aya states that this number is a trial for the Unbelievers. If we refer to the meaning of the Arabic word fitna (trial), we find that its root meaning means to expose gold ore to fire to separate the gold from the impurities by smelting. Thus, each process intends to extract the usable from the useless. The target group, then, is the group of Unbelievers. Number 19, as stated in the Holy Qur’an, can thus be seen as a “sorter”, separating the righteous from the wicked. Some interpreters hold that stating the number 19 in the aya is there merely to tempt the idolaters of the Quraish into making the issue an object of inquiry and ridicule. However, this opinion views the word fitna only in a negative light, seeing it as a source of no good. However, fitna has other shades of meaning that depend on the true nature of the one who is exposed to it, what Allah knows of them, and what Allah wills. Thus, Allah leads astray whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases as we find if we consider aya 155 of Surat 7 (‘Al-A’raaf’), where Allah says through the words of Musa (Moses): “This is no more than a trial. By it Thou causest whom Thou wilt to stray, and Thou leadest whom Thou wilt into the right path.” “And We have fixed their number only as a trial for Unbelievers – in order that the People of the Book may arrive at certainty, and the Believers may increase in faith – and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the Believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the Unbelievers may say ‘What doth Allah intend by this mathal?’” (74:31) Mustafa Khairi says in his work, Al-Muktataf min Uyoon Al-Tafasir (‘Selections from the Leading

Interpretations’):

“This number has become an instrument of temptation for Unbelievers in two ways: 1- They say mockingly: Why are there not twenty? And, 2- They say: How can only 19 be sufficient for punishing most of the creatures of the world from the beginning of creation to the Day of Resurrection? The theme of these two questions is the denial of the omnipotence of God.” It is obvious that such an argument relates to the unbeliever whose mistaken approach leads him to false conclusions. But the question still remains: How can such a number divide the Unbelievers’ camp in such a way that out of it can emerge those who believe to join the Believers’ group? So, how can this number, or this trial, be a cause for certainty for the People of the Book? Most interpreters say: “They will find what Allah has told us about the number of Hell-Fire guardians compatible with what they already believe.” But we do not know how this agreement in one fact can result in certainty for the People of the Book. We know that there are agreements in various matters and that there are divergences. What prevents us from explaining this agreement in the light of the above quotation? And if agreement in this little fact can lead to certainty for the People of the Book and to the increase of faith in those who believe, how can you eradicate doubt in order “that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the Believers….” Is it logical or sensible to think that all this issues from the agreement of the fact that states that the Guardians of Hell-Fire are nineteen?

The aya continues: “And that those in whose hearts is a disease and the Unbelievers may say ‘What doth Allah intend by this mathal?’…” (74:31) Some interpreters understand: “What doth Allah intend by this mathal (saying)?” is a question to suggest that this number is as strange as the saying. Others say that this mathal is their description rather than their number, i.e. what Allah means by describing the Guardians as 19. So how can this small number be able to punish so many of the Jinn and humanity who are sent to Hell-Fire? Yet others hold that these verses talk about the future. This belief stems from the fact that the Meccan Suras were the earliest of the revelations and they discuss hypocrites, “those in whose hearts is a disease”, and that hypocrisy appeared only in Medina. To a certain extent this is acceptable, but although interpreting the mathal as a description is correct, it does not resolve the matter, so we will try here to express our opinion, which may contribute to the interpretation of the verse. We say that if you ask a Christian or a Jew about evidence that proves the existence of the Creator, you find them producing evidence approximating to that of the Muslim approach, which contradicts the approach of an atheist. And if you ask a Christian or a Jew about prophecies and the supernatural, similarly, you will find them giving evidence from an approach somewhat similar to that of the Muslim. This is because between us there is no controversy about our belief in the Unseen or the notion of religion, but rather about whether faith fits in with reality or not, and it is a controversy that also relates to the details of Islamic law. Thus, Muslims and the People of the Book do not argue about the existence of the Creator but about His attributes, actions, laws and judgements. Atheists and hypocrites, on the other hand, deny the very idea of religion and make tangible material things the ultimate goal and the ultimate end. Now, let us return to the words: “And that those in whose hearts is a disease and the Unbelievers may say ‘What doth Allah intend by this mathal?’…” The number 19 is mentioned in connection with the threat of Saqar (Hell-Fire), and that it is guarded by nineteen must seem ambiguous. If the fire were described as a burner we could understand that, though different in quality, the fire of the after-life is somewhat similar to fire in this one. If the fire were described as “painful”, we would similarly have some point of comparison because we have experienced pain and we know it. But what of the threat of “nineteen”? It is a threat we cannot relate to because the threat from twenty is greater than nineteen. And what is the difference between the threat of 17 and 19? On this subject Zamakhshari says in his book, Kashaaf (‘Pathfinder’): “The Believers see it as wisdom and abide by it due to their belief that acts of Allah are all good and wise, thus increasing their faith, and the Unbelievers deny it and doubt it, thus increasing their unbelief and aberration.” Ka’bi says: “Fitna means a trial or test so that Believers attribute the secret of specifying a number to the Creator’s omniscience.” While we accept and agree with Zamakhshari and Ka’bi, our opinion is that those who believe in the notion of religion, the Unseen and heavenly revelation are called on to search for the secret behind this number and for the reason behind there being nineteen Guardians. It appears that the matter relates to a natural law. We are expected to exercise our minds, whilst being aware of the limitations of the human intellect. The Qur’an has expanded the horizon of the Believer and has rectified his reasoning methodology and stimulated him to meditate and contemplate. There is no reason to believe that the issue in question is one that the human mind cannot ponder.

Muhammad Al-Taher Ibn Ashur says in A-Tahrir wa Tanweer (‘Liberation and Enlightenment’): “Allah has made the number of Hell-Fire guardians for other reasons which necessitated that specification which Allah alone knows.” Certainly the answer rests with Allah, but with Allah alone? Ibn Ashur also says: “That number (is) intended for other benefits, for people other than Unbelievers, those who commit knowledge to Allah’s omniscience and to fruitful contemplation.” Note the phrase “to fruitful contemplation.” Thus, a Believer’s faith that the Holy Qur’an is the Word of Allah, the All-Knowing and the Just, makes him take a positive attitude and exercise his mind. He or she will contemplate Qur’anic verses and the marvels of the created universe, because the Believer knows that Allah has revealed and that Allah has created. It is thus unwise to immediately consign knowledge to Allah alone and give up hope of intellectually penetrating the mystery of the Qur’an’s treasures. Our efforts to do this in no way contradict the admission of the inadequacy of the human mind to grasp the whole truth. If anything, the increase in human knowledge is visible evidence of the human mind’s fundamental limitations when compared to the knowledge of Allah. After all, isn’t meditation one of the obligations of being a Muslim? Those who have a religious approach are led by this to reach for and thence grasp wisdom. However, those who have an atheist approach move in a vicious circle, never reaching true understanding, because their premises do not lead them to results but merely make them question the idea behind the number 19, saying, Why not 20, or even 1000, and so on, without result. “Thus doth Allah leave to stray whom He pleaseth, and guide whom He pleaseth.” (‘Al-Muddathir’, 74:31) This comment suggests that fitna is intended to sort people. Consider His saying: “Do men think that they will be left alone on saying ‘We believe’ and that they will not be tested? We did test those before them, and Allah will certainly know those who are true from those who are false.” (‘Al-Ankaboot’, 29:2-3) The question remains: How will the number 19 be a trial out of which will emerge certitude? “And none can know the forces of thy Lord except He.” Zamakhshari says. “It is not hard for Him to increase the mentioned number of guardians, but in this particular number lies a wisdom that we don’t know, but He – exalted be He – knows it.” “And this is no other than a warning to mankind.” Abu-Bakr Al-Jazaeri in his work Nahru Al-Khair ala Aysar Al-Tafasir (‘The River of Goodness to the Easiest Interpretations’) says: “It is possible that the pronoun this in the above aya refers to the number of angels (nineteen) and it is possible that it refers to Qur’anic verses or to Saqar (Hell-Fire) or to the forces of Your Lord. This is part of the Qur’anic miracle – one single word means more than tens of words.” Nasafi also says, “These verses are no other than a warning to mankind” while Razi remarks: “These verses containing these ambiguities … are a warning to all Believers and those who practice, though the beneficiaries are only the people of faith.” Tantawi Jawhari says in his book Al-Jawaher (‘Gems’): “This Sura containing Saqar and the number of guardians of Hell-Fire is nothing but an admonishment to them.” Ibn Ashur says the pronoun this in the aforementioned verse refers to the number of the angels or guardians of HellFire. However, Al-Qaasami says: “This (i.e. their stated number) is no other than a warning to mankind, or a lesson…It is also said that the pronoun refers to Saqar and it is said that it refers to verses. To me the first opinion is more plausible...”

In my opinion, if the pronoun refers to Saqar, the understood meaning is that Hell-Fire is a warning to mankind. If the pronoun refers to verses it is also understood. However, if the pronoun refers to the number 19, which accords with the surface structure of the sentence and which has been emphasized by Al-Qaasimi, then we have to ask: How can number 19 be a warning to mankind? After this quick survey of the meaning of these holy verses we reach the following conclusions: 1 – The Holy Qur’an has not made any number a theme discussed in detail except the number 19. 2 – God Almighty has made number 19 a trial for the Unbelievers, and this trial has four results: (i) – The achievement of certitude for the People of the Book that Muhammad (pbuh) is an apostle from Allah. (ii) – An increase in faith for the Believers. (iii) – There will not be the least doubt for the People of the Book or for Believers, which means that the evidence that will achieve certainty is incontrovertible. (iv) – The meaning of the number 19 will remain a mystery for the Unbelievers and hypocrites. They will thus not achieve their aim because of a flaw in the whole approach of their investigation and deduction, and the corruption of their hearts. Consequently they will not achieve the knowledge that would lead to learning from their errors. 3 – Those who read the verses will sense that they are in the presence of a serious issue – “This is but one of the mighty portents.” (74:35)

Suspicion of numbers & the significance of number 19 In the 19th Century there appeared in Iran a sect called the Babists. The first to follow the leader, Al-Bab (meaning ‘The Door’), were a group of eighteen, making the total number 19. After the killing of Al-Bab, Babism became what was called Bahaism. One of its tenets was the sanctification of the number 19 and in fact they divided the year into 19 months, made a month 19 days and devoted the remaining days of the year to acts of charity, as they perceive them. As Bahaism was considered a sect that was outside Islam, we find that many Muslim scholars have taken a hesitant and suspicious attitude towards the issue of number 19. In my view there are no reasonable grounds for this attitude. We will find that there is a logic to the matter that is related to the configuration of letters and words, and our stand should not be a reaction to the illusions of certain people, especially when the Holy Qur’an has set this number as a trial for the Unbelievers. However, in the late 1970’s when Rashaad Khalifa, an Egyptian living in the United States, published research on the number 19 in the Qur’an. Initially people received the research favorably, not knowing that it was contrived, and that the researcher was a Bahai with a hidden agenda. Following this, it did not take long before Khalifa proceeded to claim Prophethood based on the number 19, his claim coinciding with our discovery that he had faked his research.The

reader will find details about the issue in our book, ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Qur’an – Premises Awaiting Outcomes’. The contrived research of Rashaad Khalifa and his claim to prophethood has left a negative impact on the whole issue of numerical miracles, as if those who were impressed by the research realized later that they had been fooled and reacted accordingly. However, we must remember that the question has nothing to do with either Bahaism or with Rashaad Khalifa. The Qur’an clearly states the specificity of this number and that it is a trial for the Unbeliever, and a matter of certainty for the People of the Book who look for truth, and a cause for the increase in the faith of Believers. It is remarkable that the case of this number 19 has not been considered at any age before as it is now. It could thus be seen to be one of the prophecies of the Holy Qur’an that is now becoming apparent. It now seems that our understanding of this mysterious number will develop in a positive direction that will contribute to the achievement of certainty and the increase in faith, as predicted, in an age when people have raised doubts and demanded more evidence and more proof. There is no need for a negative attitude towards the issue of numerical miracles, though verification is a necessity. At the moment we can verify any fact – this is what we have done in our research – and it is possible to judge the significance of any proposition. A negative attitude may close off a major aspect of the Qur’anic miracle, which may have a positive impact on the level of faith and on the level of Qur’an-related studies and on the level of refuting doubts raised about the Qur’an, its purity and inimitability. As to Bahaism, its nullity is obvious, its perversity is clear and the number 19 will not help them in promoting their ideology. In fact, the number 19 will be their weakest point, because this number actually testifies to the truth of the Islamic message which they stand against, thus becoming their fitna (trial). We are living in a time of the resurgence of certitude that is paradoxically coming from the center of fitna. This resurgence, insh’Allah, includes the signs of this miracle that we have researched in this book, signs that testify to the purity of the Holy Qur’an from distortion and alteration, consolidating certainty and increasing faith. What we can see of this question gives promise of universal blessing. If the number 19 is a warning to humanity as stated in the Holy Qur’an, this means that people will reach certitude through this number, a number that is a warning, an admonition and a proof. It makes more sense to say that this will be achieved by a numerical miracle based on number 19, considering that certainty is not arrived at without decisive evidence, and a miracle is without doubt such decisive evidence. What gives weight to, and confirms, this is what we find in the numerical configuration of Surat Al-Muddathir (Sura 74) which can be summarized as follows: 1 – The verses of Surat Al-Muddathir are very short except for one verse that is notably long. This is verse no. 31, which delineates the wisdom of singling out the number 19. 2 – This verse consists of 57 words, i.e. 19×3. 3 – This verse falls into two sections. The first section comprises 38 words, i.e. 19×2. This is the part that discusses the wisdom of specifying number 19. It ends with: “What doth Allah intend by this mathal?” The second part consists of 19 words, serving as a comment on what was mentioned in the first part: “Thus doth Allah lead astray whom He pleaseth and guide whom He pleaseth. And no one knows Allah’s forces except Him. This is nothing but a warning to people.” 4 – The word count of the first 19 verses of Surat Al-Muddathir is 57, i.e. 19×3, and thus it becomes clear that the word count of verse 31 of Surat Al-Muddathir equals the word count of the first 19 verses.

5 – Verses 1-30 - i.e. to the end of “Above it are nineteen” (aleyha tisaata ashar) - have 95 words, i.e. 19×5. 6 – Verse 30 consists of 3 words, ‫ .ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬Therefore it becomes clear that verse 31 (which discusses the wisdom of earmarking number 19) equals 19 times the number of words in verse 30. 7 – The letter count from the beginning of Surat Al-Muddathir up to the end of the word ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ Alayha (i.e. before ‫ - ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬Nineteen) is 361 letters, i.e. 19×19. Reflect on this!! 8 – The phrase ‫( ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬tisaata ashar - nineteen) consists of 7 letters. In the light of the previous piece of information, it becomes clear that the median letter of this clause is the 365th letter from the beginning of the Sura. This is the number of days of the year. Is this related to Astronomy? We will return to this later. 9 – “By the moon and by the night as it retreats and by the dawn as it shineth forth. This is but one of the mighty portents. A warning to mankind.” (74:32-36) Why swearing by the moon, the night and the dawn, or rather by the moon, the earth and the sun? Is this related to the number 19? In fact, yes, because there is more than one relation between the sun, the earth and the moon based on number 19, which will be discussed in a later chapter. 10 – Verse 31 contains 57 words, i.e. 19×3. It is the last verse in the order of the Mus’haf that contains 19 words or a multiple of that number. 11 – In the above-mentioned Verse 31 there is a parenthetical clause – ‫“ - و ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺟﻨﻮد رﺑﻚ إﻻ هﻮ‬And none can know the forces of thy Lord save He” – consisting of 19 letters. Is it not possible that this, nineteen, is the numerical miracle of “the forces” stated in the verse? Why not, if the goal when mobilizing the troops is the victory of the idea? 12 – The verse about debtors and creditors (2:282), the longest in the Holy Qur’an, consists of 128 words, 6 times the average number of words in Sura 2’s verses. This is one of the highest ratios in the Qur’an apart from two: Verse 20 of Sura 20 (‘Muzzamel’), the one preceding Surat Al-Muddathir, whose word count is 78 words or 7.8 times the average word count for Surat Muzzammel, and Verse 31 of Surat Al-Muddathir, the one under discussion. With 12.5 times the average of the word count for each verse in Surat Al-Muddathir, this is by far the highest ratio in the Holy Qur’an.

So, what does it mean that the word count for the first 19 verses of Surat Al-Muddathir is 19×3 and the word count for the first 30 verses is 19×5? And what does it mean that the letter count from the beginning of Surat Al-Muddathir until the word ‫( ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬Alayha) is 19×19, and that this is followed immediately by the number 19? What does it mean that verse 31 - which points out the wisdom of specifying the number 19 and is relatively the longest verse in the whole Qur’an consists of 19×3 words and is divided into 19×2+19? What does it mean that the number of words comprising it equals the number of words comprising the first 19 verses, and that this number is 19 times the number of words in Aleyha Tisaata Ashar? And why is it the last verse in the Mus’haf consisting of the number 19 and its multiples? What does it mean that the number 19 is talked about in the first revelation of Apostlehood? What does it mean that this number is the only number in the Holy Qur’an that is discussed in detail? And what does it mean that Allah

swears by the moon, the earth and the sun, and then we find several astronomical links between these three based on the number 19? It seems that, indeed, “This is but one of the mighty portents.” Do not these observations make interpretation of this verse clearer, deeper in import and greater in challenge? Let us imagine ourselves when the true nature of this number has become manifest and recurrent. Our book, ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Qur’an – Premises Awaiting Outcomes’, is nothing but an introduction to this grand series which predominates so that everyone will realize the trivia of the Bahais and that the ambivalence of the good-hearted avails nothing against the truth. OR Do not these observations make interpretation of this verse clearer, deeper in import and greater in challenge? We have explored the meaning of the number 19 fully in our book, ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Qur’an – Premises Awaiting Outcomes’ and will return to it later in this one. But for now we will leave (you with) these questions and move on to study the overall mathematical structure of the Qur’an.

Chapter 2

The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras in the Holy Qur’an

Since the early centuries Muslims have paid attention to numbers in the Qur’an. Dr Ghanem Al-Hamad, the verifier of the book Al-Bayan fi Ad Ayel-Qur’an (‘The Inventory of the Qur’anic Verse Count’) by Abu Amru Al-Dani mentions 36 books on the science of Qur’anic numbers, from Kitab Al-‘Adad (‘The Book of Numbers’) by Ata’ Ibn Yasaar (103 AH) to Zahr Al-Ghurar fi ‘Adad Ayat Al-Suwar (‘The First Blossoms of Verse Count’) by the Andalusian scholar Ahmad A-Salami (747 AH). This interest has not flourished sufficiently through the ages to yield definitive results but as the Qur’an is the word of God Almighty who created and perfected the universe and counted everything, it is to be expected that the book will be different from conventional books written by fallible humans. However, with the ascent of human consciousness, people today are more capable of criticism and evaluation through modern sciences and other means. Scholars have differed in their understanding of the order of Qur’anic Suras. The majority have maintained that the order of Suras is Tawqifi, that is by command of the Apostle (Peace be upon him) on the instruction of the Angel Jibreel. Sayuuti believed that the order was an act of revelation except Suras 8 (‘Anfal’) and 9 (‘Tauba’). Some believe that it was the independent judgement of the Prophet’s companions, though the evidence for this is insubstantial and this matter is not for elaboration in this context. We merely observe that the opinion that regards the order of the Suras as not being a revelation is based on implicit evidence, while belief in the order inspired by revelation rests on direct evidence. In any case, our intention is to present mathematical evidence to support the revelation viewpoint and, in fact, we may even go beyond that to assert that the order of verses is an act of revelation that is in itself evidence for Prophethood and an aspect of miracle.

There are many publications in contemporary intellectual scholarship related to Qur’anic miracles. These include the rhetorical, the scientific, the legal, etc. However, what we today call the “numerical miracle” is still controversial, which is why it has been out of favor with scholars and researchers. This is despite the fact that there have been partly successful attempts to study the subject, such as the one by Abdul Razaq Nawfal and the Jordanian researcher Abdullah Jalghoom in his book ‘The Secrets of the Order of the Qur’an: A Contemporary Reading’. Here we will acquaint the reader with the most important points made in his book and with what we have done by way of development and follow up.

Point 1 The Holy Qur'an has 114 Suras or chapters. If we add up the serial numbers of these Suras in this way: (1+2+3+…. +114) the sum total will be 6555. (Alternatively you can use the following mathematical formula: (N+1) N / 2. i.e.: (114+1) 114 / 2=6555.) The question here is: Is there a relationship between this sum and the total number of Qur'anic verses, which is 6236? By investigation the researcher Jalghoom has found that there are 60 Suras with an even number of verses. For example, the second Sura (Al Baqara) has 286 verses; the fourth Sura (Al Nisa) has 176, and so on. The number of Suras with an odd number of verses is 54. The first Sura (Al Fatihah) has seven verses; the ninth Sura has 129, and so on. Comment We looked into Jalghoom’s results and found them to be correct. Now, why 60 and 54? This has been found to relate to the number 19 which is discussed further in this book and in our book ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Qur’an: Premises awaiting Outcomes’. Point 2 Consider the following facts: 114 = 6×19, or 6×(10+9) where 6×10=60 and 6× 9=54. Jalghoom found the 60 Suras with an even number of verses fall into two categories: 30 have an even serial number, while 30 have an odd one. As for the 54 Suras with an odd number of verses, there are 27 with an even serial number and 27 with an odd one. Comment By investigation we found the result to be correct. Here is an illustrative figure: (114) Suras (54) (60) (27) (27)(30) (30) Suppose that the 60 Suras with an even number of verses were placed first in the Mus’haf, you would have 30 Suras with odd serial numbers Suras and the rest would be even serial-numbered. Similarly, if the 54 Suras with an odd number of verses were placed last in the Mus’haf, there would be 27 even serial-numbered Suras and 27 odd serial-numbered ones. We would get the same result by reversing the previous order, i.e. by placing the 54 Suras with an odd number of verses at the beginning of the Mus’haf, and putting 60 Suras with even-numbered verses at the end. Without these two orders, it would be difficult to get the results shown in the figure above. Although the even-numbered and odd-numbered Suras are not arranged in the Mus’haf according to this hypothetical order, yet the result surprisingly and unexpectedly is the same in the actual order as with the hypothetical case discussed above. Consequently there are 57 homogenous Suras, that is, even numbered in the number of verses they contain, and even numbered in their serial number; and odd numbered in the number of verses they contain, and odd numbered in their serial number. This means that there are 57 heterogeneous Suras (30+27). Examples of Homogenous Suras: The first Sura, ‘Al-Fatiha’: Serial Number (1) Number of verses (7) – odd-odd The second Sura, ‘Al-Baqara’: Serial Number (2) Number of verses (286) – even-even

The fourth Sura, ‘Al-Nisa’: Serial Number (4) Number of verses (176) – even-even Examples of Heterogeneous Suras: The third Sura, ‘Aal-I-Imran’: Serial Number (3) Number of verses (200) – odd-even The fifth Sura, ‘Al-Ma’ida’: Serial Number (5) Number of verses (120) – odd-even The sixth Sura, ‘Al-An’aam’: Serial Number (6) Number of verses (165) – even-odd Point 3 Now, if we add up the serial numbers of the 57 homogenous Suras and add this to the number of verses each contains, we find that the total is 6236. In other words, the number of verses in the Qur’an. By the same token, if we add up the serial numbers of the 57 heterogeneous Suras and add this to the number of verses each contains, we find that the total is 6555. In other words, the total of the individual serial numbers added together. Comment We investigated the matter and found the results to be correct. Putting the result in mathematical form we find: Serial numbers of homogenous group + number of ayat in same group = total number of Qur’anic verses = 6236 Serial numbers of heterogeneous group + number of ayat in same group = total of serial numbers of Qur’anic Suras = 6555 Thus we can see that there is a relationship between the serial number of each Sura and the number of verses it contains in such a way that we will have co-ordinates suggesting a correlation between the serial number of the Sura and the number of verses it contains. This is the same for all Suras of the Qur’an. To perceive the depth of this issue consider that if there had been just one verse less in one Sura the whole numerical system then falls apart. For example, if the second Sura had one less verse (making it 285 verses long instead of 286) this would mean that the number of Suras with an odd numbers of verses would be 55 and the number of Suras with even numbers of verses would be 59. Similarly, if the second Sura had been placed third and vice versa, then the second Sura would be heterogeneous and the third would be homogenous. The total for Sura 2, ‘Al-Baqara’, (286+3) would fall in the heterogeneous group and the total for Sura 3, ‘Aal-I-Imran’, (200+2) would fall in the homogenous group. The total of the 57 homogenous Suras would no longer be 6236 and the total of the 57 heterogeneous Suras would no longer be 6555. This, of course, applies to any of the 114 Suras in the Qur’an. In the light of this if we calculate the chances of this happening according to probability theory, we find ourselves facing one of the miracles of the Qur’an which proves that the order of the Suras and the number of verses is a revelation from Allah the Wise, the Almighty. Point 4 Jalghoom broke down the above law of addition as follows: (114+1) 60÷ 2=3450 (114+1) 54÷ 2=3105 Total=6555 One of the amazing things we find is that the total of the numbers of the 60 even-numbered Suras in the Holy Qur’an is 3450. Thus, the total of the order of the 54 odd-numbered Suras is 3105 because the sum total has to be 6555 since (1+114) 114÷ 2 is in fact (1+114) (60+54)÷ 2. Comment After verification we found the result to be correct. In order to see that this tight mathematical structure correlates with the order of Suras and the number of verses each contains according to the order in the Mus’haf, we tried to transpose Suras 3 and 17. Since we exchanged two oddnumbered Suras, much of what we said did not change. However, we found that the total of the serial numbers of the 60 Suras with an even number of verses including Sura 3 was 3464. The

total of the serial numbers of the 54 Suras with an odd number of verses was 3091. Thus, after this transposition, the total of the serial numbers of the 60 Suras with an even number of verses did not conform to the mathematical law (1+114) 60÷ 2=3450. The same applied to Suras with an odd number of verses. This applies to each of the 114 Suras. Point 5 Jalghoom divides the Qur’anic Suras with regard to numbers into two equal halves: 1-57 and 58114. There are 29 odd serial-numbered Suras in the first half of the Holy Qur’an and thus 28 even serial-numbered ones. In the second half there are 28 odd serial-numbered Suras and thus 29 even serial-numbered ones. He found that there are 28 homogenous Suras in the first half and 29 heterogeneous ones, and that there are 29 homogenous Suras in the second half and 28 heterogeneous ones.

Comment We verified this and found the results to be correct. There does appear to be a balance between the homogenous and the heterogeneous in the two halves of the Holy Qur’an.

Point 6 Jalghoom also observed that there are 27 Suras with an even number of verses in the first half of the Holy Qur’an and therefore there are 33 Suras with an even number of verses in the second half. He noted that the total number of ayat in the 27 Suras with an even number of verses in the first half is 2690, which is the total of the serial numbers of the 33 Suras with an even number of verses in the second half. Comment We verified this research and found it to be correct. The first half of the Holy Qur’an has 57 Suras, i.e. 19×3. If we multiply 10×3 the result is 30 and 9×3=27. Hence we find that there are 27 Suras with an even number of verses and 30 Suras with an odd number of verses. This is when we deal with the first half, but when we deal with the Qur’an as a whole as above, there are 60 Suras with an even number of verses, 10×6, and 54 Suras with an odd number of verses, i.e. 9×6.

Diagram 54+60 = 27+30 = 6×19 3×19 = = 114 57

After surveying the important issues of Jalghoom’s findings, we now present some of our observations which can rightly be called both complementary and extensions of this accurate mathematical line of research:

A. Sura 57 is Al-Hadid (Iron), which marks the end of the first half of the Qur’anic Suras. It has 29 verses. If we multiply the serial number of the Sura by the number of verses it contains, the result is 29×57=1653, which is the total number of the serial number of Suras 1-57, i.e. (1+57) 57/2=1653. B. On the basis of Jum’mal, a system that is used in Semitic languages (including both Arabic and Hebrew) where each letter of the alphabet has a numerical value, we find that the Jum’mal of the word Al-Hadid is 1+30+8+4+10+4=57, the serial number of ‘Al-Hadid’. As for the word Hadid, its total Jum’mal is 8+4+10+4=26, the atomic number of iron. The atomic weight of iron is 57. Reflect on this!! C. Iron has 5 isotopes, the atomic weights of which are: 55, 56, 57, 58 and 59. The isotope 57 occurs in the middle as shown and the total weight of these is 285. D. Related to this we find that in a book called ‘The Numerical Miracle of the Qur’an’, Syrian author Sudqi Al-Beik calculated that the total frequency of integers (whole numbers) in the Qur’an is 285. The number 1, for example, occurs 145 times; number 2, 15 times; number 3, 17 times, and so on, adding up to 285 (See Table 6.?). This calculation includes the numbers 309 and 950, which are stated implicitly in the Qur’an. If we ask what the final number is in the sequence of consecutive numbers that, if added together, equal 285, we find that the nearest integer is 23. (i.e. 1+2+3+…+23=276). If we multiply the number of integers (285) by this number (23), the result will be 6555, which is the total of the serial numbers of the Qur’anic Suras. This effectively proves that there is a relationship between the order of the Mus’haf and numbers in the Qur’an. So reflect on this!! E. The only Sura ending with the word ‫‘( ﻋﺪدا‬Adad - number) is Surat Al-Jinn: “And takes account of every single thing.” (78:28) The word count of Surat Al-Jinn is 285 so, in other words, the word ‘Adad is the 285th word.

Finally, from this line of research we come to the following conclusions: 1. The order of the Suras must be by revelation because it is not plausible for this mathematical configuration to occur by chance. This is the view of the majority of the people of the Sunna and the Jum’a. 2. The number of verses in each Sura is also a revelation (although this does not necessarily mean that other opinions about number are invalid due to the possibility of, for example, different scripts). 3. The issues under discussion are contemporary discoveries and thus the Qur’anic miracle appears in a new form. We should note that the world of numbers is the world of facts and that its language is of greater clarity and decisiveness. 4. These findings destroy the attempts of the orientalists to doubt the serial order of the

Mus’haf.

5. Such research might serve as a key to studies that deal with Qur’anic text far from merely its historical aspect, which is utilized by people of falsehood for distortion and disturbance. Of course, we do not intend to overlook the historical aspect, but we add it as a separate proof.

6. The reader will note that the matter is based on investigation rather than independent judgement. Therefore, there is no room for rejecting or denying it unless more accurate calculation proves the error of the results.

Chapter 3
The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras opening with Abbreviated Letters The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras opening with Fawatih (Letters) Table There are 29 Suras in the Holy Qur’an beginning with letters, such as: Alif. Lam. Mim; Alif. Lam. Ra. These are called luminous letters and interpreters have discussed their meanings at length without arriving at any conclusion that is based on any evidence. One widely held opinion is that the Qur’an consists of letters like these which do not incapacitate you and thus Allah challenges people to produce a similar Qur’an with the letters available to them. However, generally, “Allah knows better what He means” has become the conventional answer to attempts at interpretation. Here we do not intend to interpret or explain their meanings but we do intend to discuss the mathematical configuration of these openings based on the number 19, and thus show, if not why they are significant, then at least how significant they are. Introducing Openings (Fawatih) 1. 2. 3. Out of 114 Suras, there are 29 with letter openings. The ratio of the number of words in them to the number of words in the whole of the Holy Qur’an is approximately 48%. The total number of different openings is 14, consisting of 14 letters of the alphabet. Out of these 29 Suras, the first to be revealed was Sura 29, which opens with the letter Noon (‫ .)ن‬This opening is not repeated. Sura 50 was revealed next, beginning with the letter Qaf (‫ ,)ق‬which is also the beginning of Sura 42. The third revelation was Sura 38, beginning with the letter Sa’ad (‫ ,)ص‬which later began Suras 7 and 19. Thus, it is clear that the opening Noon (‫ )ن‬which was revealed first occurred once; the opening Qaf (‫ )ق‬which was revealed second occurred twice, while the opening Sa’ad (‫ )ص‬which was revealed third occurred three times. There are one-letter openings: ( ‫ )ن ,ق ,ص‬which, as shown above, were the earliest revelations, and this has its significance. There are two-letter openings: (‫,ﻃﺲ ,ﻳﺲ ,ﻃﻪ‬ ‫ ;)ﺣﻢ‬there are three-letter openings: ( ‫ ;)ﻃﺲ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﻢ‬there are four-letter openings: ( ‫ ,)اﻟﻤﺮ,اﻟﻤﺺ‬and there are five-letter openings: (‫.)ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻖ ,آﻬﻴﻌﺺ‬ Openings can be classified on the basis of their frequency into:

4.

5.

A. Openings whose forms occur only once: ‫ﺣﻢ ,ص ,ﻳﺲ ,ﻃﺲ ,ﻃﻪ ,آﻬﻴﻌﺺ ,اﻟﻤﺮ ,اﻟﻤﺺ‬ ‫.ن ,ق ,ﻋﺴﻖ‬ B. Openings occuring more than once: ‫.ﺣﻢ ,ﻃﺴﻢ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﻢ‬

C. Some of the aforementioned openings occur as part of another opening, such as the opening ( ‫ )ﻃﺲ‬which occurs in (‫ ;)ﻃﺴﻢ‬the opening (‫ )ص‬occurs in (‫آﻬﻴﻌﺺ‬and ‫ ;)اﻟﻤﺺ‬and the opening (‫ )ق‬occurs in (‫.)ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻖ‬

The Mathematical Configuration of Openings and their Suras: Number 19 in the Configuration of Openings and their Suras The first Sura of the 29 is Surat Al-Baqara and its order in the Mus’haf is two (i.e. It is the second Sura in the Qur’an). The last is Surat Al-Qalam, the 68th Sura. Thus, the number of Suras from Baqara to Qalam is 67. This means that there are 38 Suras between Baqara and Qalam that do not open with luminous letters. (67-29=38, i.e. 19×2) The openings are: ‫ﺣﻢ , ﺣﻢ ,ص ,ﻳﺲ ,ﻃﺲ ,ﻃﺴﻢ ,ﻃﻪ ,آﻬﻴﻌﺺ ,اﻟﻤﺮ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﻤﺺ ,اﻟﻢ‬ ‫ ق ,ﻋﺴﻖ‬and ‫ .ن‬The letter count in these openings is also 38, i.e. 19×2. The four letter opening ‫ اﻟﻤﺮ‬contains the two openings, ‫ اﻟﻢ‬and ‫ ,اﻟﺮ‬and so does ‫اﻟﻤﺺ‬ which contains the openings ‫ اﻟﻢ‬and ‫ .ص‬However, ‫ ﻃﺴﻢ‬contains only ‫ ﻃﺲ‬because ‫م‬ is not an opening… and so on. Thus we observe that the occurrence of openings in the 29 Suras is 38, i.e. 19×2. Here is an illustration of that: A. The opening ‫ اﻟﻢ‬occurs separately or as part of other openings in the following Suras: ‫اﻟﻢ‬ (Sura 2, ‘Al-Baqara’); ‫( اﻟﻢ‬Sura 3, ‘Aal-I-Imran’); ‫( اﻟﻤﺺ‬Sura 7, ‘Al-A’raf’); ‫( اﻟﻤﺮ‬Sura 13, ‘ArRa’d’); ‫( اﻟﻢ‬Sura 29, ‘Al-‘Ankabut’); ‫( اﻟﻢ‬Sura 30, ‘Ar-Rum’); ‫( اﻟﻢ‬Sura 31, ‘Luqman’); and ‫اﻟﻢ‬ (Sura 32, ‘As-Sajda’). Thus, there is a total of 8 occurrences. B. ‫ اﻟﺮ‬occurs singly or as part of another opening in the following Suras:‫( اﻟﺮ‬Sura 10, ‘Yunus’); ‫( اﻟﺮ‬Sura 11, ‘Hud’);‫( اﻟﺮ‬Sura 12, ‘Yusuf’);‫( اﻟﻤﺮ‬Sura 13, ‘Ar-Ra’d’); ‫( اﻟﺮ‬Sura 14, ‘Ibrahim’) and ‫(اﻟﺮ‬Sura 15, ‘Al-Hijr’). Thus, there are 6 occurences. C. The opening ‫ ﺣﻢ‬occurs in: ‫( ﺣﻢ‬Sura 40, ‘Gafir’), ‫( ﺣﻢ‬Sura 41, ‘Fussilat’), ‫( ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻖ‬Sura 42, ‘Ash–Shura’), ‫( ﺣﻢ‬Sura 43, ‘Az-Zukhuf’), ‫( ﺣﻢ‬Sura 44, ‘Ad-Dhukan’), ‫( ﺣﻢ‬Sura 45, ‘AlJathiya’) and ‫( ﺣﻢ‬Sura 46, ‘Al- Ahqaf’). Thus, the total is 7 occurrences. D. ‫ ﻃﺲ‬occurs singly or as part of another opening in the following Suras: ‫( ﻃﺴﻢ‬Sura 26, ‘AshShu’ara’), ‫( ﻃﺲ‬Sura 27, ‘An-Naml’) and ‫( ﻃﺴﻢ‬Sura 28, ‘Al- Qasas’). Thus, it occurs 3 times. E. ‫ ﻃﺴﻢ‬occurs in: ‫( ﻃﺴﻢ‬Sura 26, ‘Ash-Shu’ara’) and ‫( ﻃﺴﻢ‬Sura 28, ‘Al- Qasas’) and thus it occurs twice. F. ‫ ص‬occurs in the following Suras: ‫( اﻟﻤﺺ‬Sura 7, ‘Al-A’raf’), ‫( آﻬﻴﻌﺺ‬Sura 19, ‘Mariam’) and ‫( ص‬Sura 38, ‘Sa’ad’). Thus, it occurs three times. G. H. ‫ ق‬occurs in the following Suras: ‫( ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻖ‬Sura 42, ‘Ash–Shura’) and ‫( ق‬Sura 50, ‘Qaf’). Thus, it occurs twice. The following openings occur only once: ‫( اﻟﻤﺺ‬Sura 7, ‘Al-A’raf’), ‫( اﻟﻤﺮ‬Sura 13, ‘ArRa’d’), ‫( ﻗﻬﻴﻌﺺ‬Sura 19, ‘Mariam’), ‫( ﻃﻪ‬Sura 20, ‘Ta-Ha’), ‫( ﻳﺲ‬Sura 36, ‘Ya-Sin’), ‫ﺣﻢ‬ ‫( ﻋﺴﻖ‬Sura 42, ‘Ash–Shura’) and ‫( ن‬Sura 68, ‘Noon’). Thus, the total is 7. Thereby it is shown that the total is 38, i.e. 19×2. The following table illustrates the point:

Total 38

‫ن‬ 1

‫ق‬ 2

‫ﺣﻤﻌﺴﻖ‬ 1

‫ﺣﻢ‬ 7

‫ص‬ 3

‫ﻳﺲ‬ 1

‫ﻃﺲ‬ 3

‫ﻃﺴﻢ‬ 2

‫ﻃﻪ‬ 1

‫آﻬﻴﻌﺺ‬ 1

The letters that make up the openings are: ‫ ق ,ح ,س ,ط ,ع ,ي ,ﻩ ,ك ,ر ,ص ,م ,ل ,ا‬and ‫.ن‬ Each of these 14 letters is a constituent of openings as follows: ‫اﻟﺮ, اﻟﻢ, اﻟﻤﺺ اﻟﻤﺮ - أ‬ ‫اﻟﺮ, اﻟﻢ, اﻟﻤﺺ, اﻟﻤﺮ - ل‬ ‫, اﻟﻢ, اﻟﻤﺺ, اﻟﻤﺮ - م‬ Thus the total number of these openings which contain each of the 14 letters is 38, i.e. 2× 19. 5. The serial number of Surat Mariam is 19, which distinguishes it from the others in the order. If we refer to the order of Suras with openings as shown we will find that Surat Miriam is the 10th Sura with an opening. In other words, it is followed by 19 Suras with openings. 6.

Mus’haf counting them only once, we find that the letter count of the openings until the

If we write down the openings according to their occurrence in the order of the

opening of Surat Mariam is 19. We find that the number of letters in the openings after the opening of Surat Mariam is also 19. We have already noticed that the position of Surat Mariam in the order of the Mus’haf is 19, followed by 19 Suras with openings. See table below:

TABLE Openings ordered without repetition Letter count in opening Total 3 4 3 4 5 2 3 2 2 1 2 5 1

1

7. The order of the 29 Suras with openings in the Mus’haf indicates that only Surat Mariam and Sura 38, ‘Sa’ad’ (‫ )ص‬have the serial number 19 or one of its multiples (i.e. 38). By reference to the order of Suras with openings we find that there are 19 Suras after Surat Mariam and 19 before Surat Sa’ad, as said above. 7. 8. The opening of Surat Mariam (‫ )آﻬﻴﻌﺺ‬begins with the letter ‫ ,ك‬which is not repeated in the Suras with openings, and this opening ends with the letter ‫ .ص‬That is,

‫ ك‬represents Surat Mariam which is Sura 19 and ‫ ص‬represents Sura 38, i.e. 19×2. It is also noticeable that in the opening of Surat Mariam (‫ )آﻬﻴﻌﺺ‬that the letter ‫ ك‬does not occur except in Mariam and ‫ ﻩ‬occurs only in ‫ طﻩ‬and ‫ ي‬occurs only in ‫ ,ﻳﺲ‬while ‫ع‬ occurs only in. ‫ﻋﺴﻖ‬ 8.

Mus’haf is 38, i.e. 19×2; of Surat Qaf (50 ,(‫ ,ق‬and of Surat Noon (68 ,( ‫ .ن‬Thus, if we
start counting beginning with Surat ‫ ,ق‬Surat ‫ ن‬will be 19 Suras after.

9. The one-letter openings are: ‫ ص ,ق‬and ‫ .ن‬The serial order of Surat Sa’ad in the

9.

10. With reference to the Mus’haf we find that in each of the following openings is a verse: ‫ ﺣﻢ ,ﻳﺲ ,ﻃﺴﻢ ,ﻃﻪ ,آﻬﻴﻌﺺ ,اﻟﻤﺺ ,اﻟﻢ‬and ‫ . ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻘﻦ‬These are the openings of the 19 Suras of the 29 but the remaining 10 Suras start with openings that are not verses: ‫ ق ,ص ,ﻃﺲ ,اﻟﻤﺮ ,اﻟﺮ‬and ‫.ن‬

10. 11. The Suras opening with ‫ اﻟﺮ‬and ‫ اﻟﻤﺮ‬form a series in the order (10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15). The openings of these 6 Suras are: ‫ اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﻤﺮ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﺮ‬and. ‫ اﻟﺮ‬The letter count of these openings is 19. It will be noted that the opening of Surat Ar-Ra’d (‫ )اﻟﻤﺮ‬contains ‫ - اﻟﺮ‬as discussed earlier – and that the letter count of the openings through ‫ اﻟﺮ‬is 13, the serial order of Surat Ar-Ra’d in the Mus’haf. The Sura was given this name because of the occurrence of the word ‘thunder’ (Ra'd): “Nay, thunder hymneth His praises and so do the angels for awe of Him. He launcheth the thunderbolts and smiteth with them whomsoever He will while they dare to dispute about Allah concerning the might of His wrath.” (13:13) This is Verse 13 of the Sura and it contains 19 words. What is also noteworthy is that Surat Ar-Ra’d is in Part 13 of the Qur’an. The number of verses in the Sura is 43, which means that its verses end with 43 words, called “commas”, such as:‫ ﻳﻮﻣﻨﻮن‬or ‫ .ﺗﻮﻣﻨﻮن‬We have already noted that there are 13 “commas” in Surat Ar-Ra’d ending with the letters that make up the word Ra’d (the letters‫ ع ,ر‬and ‫ .)د‬Eight endings end with the letter ‫ ,ر‬one ends with ‫ ,ع‬and four end with ‫.د‬ The opening of Ar-Ra'd (‫ )اﻟﻤﺮ‬contain the openings ‫ اﻟﻢ‬and ‫ .اﻟﺮ‬If we order the openings containing ‫ اﻟﻢ ,اﻟﺮ‬and ‫ اﻟﻤﺮ‬in the order followed in the Mus’haf, we will find that the number of these openings is 13: ‫ اﻟﻢ ,اﻟﻢ ,اﻟﻢ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﻤﺮ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﻤﺺ ,اﻟﻢ ,اﻟﻢ‬and ‫.اﻟﻢ‬ Notice that the opening of Surat Ar-Ra’d (‫ )اﻟﻢر‬lies in the middle of the order, preceded by 6 Suras and followed by 6 Suras. The word ‫( رﻋﺪ‬Ra’d – thunder) occurs twice in the Qur’an. The first time is in verse 19 of Surat Al-Baqara where the word count is 19 and the letter count is 83. The second occurrence is in verse 13 of Surat Ar-Ra’d where the word count is again 19 and the letter count is again 83. This coincidence is worth our attention especially when we learn that the frequency of the letters ‫ ع ,ر‬and ‫ د‬in the Baqara verse equals the frequency of the letters in the Ra’d verse. Also the total frequency of the letters of ‫ رﻋﺪ‬in the word Al-Ra’d in the Baqara verse equals the total frequency of the letters in the Ra’d verse. This correspondence between the two becomes even more noticeable when we learn that the frequency of the letters at the opening of Baqara (‫ )اﻟﻢ‬in the Baqara verse equals the total frequency of the letters at the opening of Surat Ar-Ra’d (‫ )اﻟﻤﺮ‬in the Ra’d verse. What does this coincidence mean? What is the secret behind the repetition of the word ‫( ﺻﻮاﻋﻖ‬claps of thunder) in only two verses when the words ‫ رﻋﺪ‬and ‫ ﺻﻮاﻋﻖ‬occur only in these two verses? 12. There is another group that comes as a series and, in fact, they were revealed as a series as ordered in the Mus’haf. These are the Hawameem (Suras opening with ‫ ,)ﺣﻢ‬whose

numbers are: 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 and 46. These are the seven Suras with the openings ‫ ﺣﻢ ,ﺣﻢ ,ﺣﻢ ,ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻖ ,ﺣﻢ ,ﺣﻢ‬and ‫ .ﺣﻢ‬In the same way that ‫ اﻟﻤﺮ‬was different from the rest of the openings in the ‫ اﻟﺮ‬group, ‫ ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻖ‬is different from the rest of the openings in the ‫ ﺣﻢ‬group, noting that ‫ اﻟﻤﺮ‬contains ‫ اﻟﺮ‬and ‫ ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻖ‬contains ‫ .ﺣﻢ‬There is a difference between the two in that ‫ ﺣﻢ‬is a verse and ‫ ﻋﺴﻖ‬is another verse, which means that if we multiply the number of letters of ‫ ﺣﻢ‬which open 7 Suras by the number of letters in ‫ ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻖ‬we find that the total is (2×7)+5=19 letters. 13. There are 29 Suras with openings and if we order these Suras according to their occurrence in the Mus’haf, we find that Surat Al-Ankaboot is the median Sura, preceded by 14 Suras and followed by 14. It is important to note that this Sura in the medial position of the group is also number 29 in the Mus’haf order. We should also note that the aya in which Ankaboot is mentioned has 19 words. It is aya 41, which means that it is followed by 28 verses through to the end of the Sura. In other words it is in the middle position of the last 57 verses of Surat Al-Ankaboot, which is the position of Surat AlAnkaboot with respect to the first 57 Suras of the Holy Qur’an, where it is preceded by 28 Suras and followed by 28. Also the verse count of Sura 57 is 29. Reflect on this!! We have said that Surat Al-Ankaboot occurs in the middle of the 29 Suras with openings and that it is Sura 29 in the Mus’haf order. It seems that it is medial from more than one angle. (See Table) A. There is a group of 3 Suras immediately preceding Surat Al-Ankaboot (numbers 26, 27, 28) that open with ‫ ﻃﺲ ,ﻃﺴﻢ‬and ‫ ﻃﺴﻢ‬and there is also another group of three Suras directly after Surat Al-Ankaboot (numbers 30, 31, 32) that open with ‫ اﻟﻢ ,اﻟﻢ‬and. ‫اﻟﻢ‬ B. If we count 5 Suras before Surat Al-Ankaboot, Sura 19 is the 5th. Counting 5 Suras after, Sura 38 (19×2) is also the 5th. C. If we count 8 Suras before Surat Al-Ankaboot, the 8th Sura will be Surat ArRa’d, which opens with ‫ ,اﻟﻤﺮ‬the word that is distinctive among the ‫اﻟﺮ‬ openings. If we count 8 Suras after, the 8th Sura will be Surat Al-Shura, whose opening is‫ ﺣﻢ ﻋﺴﻖ‬which is distinctive among the ‫ ﺣﻢ‬openings. All this means that Surat Al-Ankaboot has both a distinguished and medial among the Suras with openings. 14. In a previous piece of research looking at the relationship of each Sura in the Mus’haf and the number of verses it contains, Jalghoom found that there were 57 homogenous Suras with respect to their number of verses and serial numbers. (i.e. odd/odd or even/even). When he divided the Qur’anic Suras into two sections (1-57 and 58-114) he found that there are 28 homogenous Suras in the first half and 29 heterogeneous ones. In the second half the ratio was reversed. In the 29 Suras with openings, there are 14 homogenous Suras and 15 heterogeneous ones. This means that there is some balance when we deal with the Qur’an as a whole, when we deal with it by halves, and when we deal with a group such as the group with openings.

This is a reflection on Suras with openings with regard to their order, and this order is proposed as an introduction to the frequency of letters in Suras opening with abbreviated letters. We have elaborated on this in our book ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Qur’an: Premises Awaiting Outcomes’, where it became clear to us that there is a well-knit

mathematical configuration related to the frequency of letters occurring in openings on the basis of what we might call the “chemistry of letters”. To conclude, we would like to draw attention to the fact that this is only one of many mathematical possibilities related to the order of the Suras. The miraculous nature of the Qur’an increases when viewed from all these angles.

Chapter 4

The Numerical Values of Letters of the Alphabet and the Numerical Miracle

The Numerical Values of Letters of the Alphabet and the Numerical Miracle The Arabic alphabet comprises 29 letters. However, in the Abecedarian alphabet there are 28 because there is considered to be no difference between Hamza and Alif. What concerns us about this Abecedarian order is the link between it and the Jum’mal numerical values of the letters (the NVL) mentioned in the previous chapter. As mentioned above the system is common to both Hebrew and Arabic but the Hebrew and Abecedarian Arabic systems only coincide up to the letter ‫ .ت‬After that, Arabic has the extra letters ‫ ظ ,ض ,ذ ,خ ,ث‬and ‫غ‬ which can be combined in the mnemonic (though meaningless) phrase thakhath dathagh.

It is not easy trace the origin of the Abecedarian order and the calculation associated with it in Semitic languages because views on it have diverged in such a way that it is difficult to decide which is correct or even to make a choice between them. The Jewish clergy use it extensively, Muslims have used it in historical dating, Sufis have overused it, and fortunetellers, magicians and sorcerers have used it too. Thus, although the calculation may have had a religious basis it has been later distorted, altered and abused. The Abecedarian order in North Africa differs slightly from the well-known order which was used in the past and from that which is in current use in the Middle East (same or different). In mnemonic form the latter consists of the following letters: (Arabic) Abjad Hawaz Hutti Kalamun Saa’fas qurishat thakhath Dathagh. Each letter has a numerical value as shown in the table below:

‫ن‬ 50 ‫غ‬ 1000

‫م‬ 40 ‫ظ‬ 900

‫ل‬ 30 ‫ض‬ 800

‫ك‬ 20 ‫ذ‬ 700

‫ي‬ 10 ‫خ‬ 600

‫ط‬ 9 ‫ث‬ 500

‫ح‬ 8 ‫ت‬ 400

‫ز‬ 7 ‫ش‬ 300

‫و‬ 6 ‫ر‬ 200

‫ﻩ‬ 5 ‫ق‬ 100

‫د‬ 4 ‫ص‬ 90

‫ج‬ 3 ‫ف‬

In the Jum’mal (the NVL) it is noticed that there is no difference between the numerical values of Alif and Hamza, because it refers to the Abecedarian, rather than the Alphabetical, letters. This calculation has been used for various purposes – Muslims have used it to date battles, deaths, buildings etc. as mentioned above. Examples of use When Sultan Barquq, a Burji Mamluk, died, a phrase was coined indicating the date of his death. This phrase was ‫( ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﻤﺶ‬fil-mishmish). [It means, literally: “In the apricot (season)” which is very short, so the implication in current usage at least is of transience]. It seems that they chose a humorous phrase, but also the numerical values of the phrase are 80+10+1+30+40+300+40+300. The total is 801, and thus Sultan Barquq died in 801 AH. Another example is, when a poet called Dalenjawi died, his friend eulogized him in general verses and at the end dated his death with the phrase ‫( ﻣﺎت اﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‬maat a-sha’oru

ba’da) which means: “Poetry died after him.” This came after the words “I dated…” which indicated the point at which to begin counting – i.e. after “dated”. Thus, the date of Dalenjawi’s death is: 40+1+400+1+30+300+70+200+2+ 70+4+5=1123 AH.
It is clear that this use of calculation in chronology is thus not objectionable from a religious viewpoint because it is a matter of convention and is thus permissible. However, the misuse of this system in the areas of fortune telling, magic and sorcery has created negative associations with a system that is not intrinsically negative. Muhammad Ben Omar Nuwawi Al-Jawi, an interpreter, Sufi and Shafi’i jurist, migrated to Makka and died there in the year 1316 AH. He produced many works, one of which is a twovolume interpretation of the Qur’an in which he said in the introduction: “I have titled this book to confirm to its date” – ‫ .ﻣﺮاح ﻟﺒﻴﺪ اﻟﻜﺴﻒ ﻣﻌﻔىﻰ ﻗﺮان ﻣﺠﻴﺪ‬It is clear from these words that he chose a title to conform to the Jum’mal system to show the date he began writing his book (1304 AH). I have cited this particular example to give evidence of a Muslim scholar’s attitude towards the question of the Jum’mal system and to show that nothing was found to be wrong in using such a system, even for a book on Qur’anic interpretation. We have used it for generations so why don’t we reconsider using it again since we have found it to be beneficial. Another famous Qur’anic commentator, Baidawi, says in his interpretation of the opening of Surat Al-Baqara that the Prophet (pbuh) was approached by the Jews and he recited to them the opening of Al-Baqara. They calculated the numerical values of the letters of the opening and said: “How can we enjoin a religion that will last only seventy-one years?” The Prophet (pbuh) smiled. They said: “Is there anything else?” He said: ‫ اﻟﻤﺺ ,اﻟﺮ ,اﻟﻤﺮ‬and they replied that he had confused them and they know longer knew which Faith to follow. Baidawi comments on this Hadith by saying: “His reciting to them in this order and his confirmation of their inference…” Thus, Baidawi considers that the Apostle (pbuh) confirmed their inference. In Shihab’s commentary on Baidawi’s interpretation he says: “ This Hadith was verified by Bukhari in his history and by Ibn Jarir through Ibn Issac Al-Kalbi… Its chain of narrators is weak.” Thus we cannot rely on Baidawi’s conclusion, though on the other hand the Prophet never said anything that denied that Jum’mal had a religious basis. What matters is that there is neither evidence for denial nor confirmation. Although we must be careful not to assume that we are building on absolutely solid foundations we find that confirmation is more likely in the light of this weak Hadith. We can prove by induction that the Qur’an has kept some secrets in certain words and clauses and therefore, we assume that the Qur’an has used this linguistic convention of the Semitic languages. After all, the Qur’an was revealed in Arabic! Since language suggests meanings there is no reason to prevent it from suggesting numerical values. The question is: How can we know that a certain phrase in the Qur’an carries such a numerical secret? Our answer to this is that this has to be proven either through Islamic legal methods or by reasoning. The reader will find that our approach to this question is new and has nothing to do with the Sufis or others, whether they did the right thing or erred and deviated. We are satisfied that the reader will be convinced by the examples of the Jum’mal system that we will give that are based only on induction and not hearsay. Following are examples that open the door for a new direction in Jum’mal, examples that simply involve calculation based on Qur’anic vocabulary. It should be pointed out that in our research we are dealing with the Qur’anic script called Ottoman script, which is regarded by

the majority of scholars as a revelation (Tawqifi) in itself, because it was supervised by the Prophet as revealed to him. Me Example 1 The Sacred Mosque (‫ )اﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ اﻟﺤﺮام‬is defined in the Qur’an as: ‫“ - ﻟﻠﺬي ﺑﺒﻜﻪ ﻣﺒﺎرآﺎ‬at Bakka (Makkah) full of blessing” (3:96). The Jum’mal of this aya is 1063. The Farthest Mosque (‫ )اﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ اﻻﻗﺼﻰ‬is described: ‫“ - اﻟﺬي ﺑﺮآﻨﺎ ﺣﻮﻟﻪ‬whose precincts We have blessed” (17:1). The Jum’mal of this aya is also 1063. We ask, what does it mean that they both have the same numerical value? Example 2 Sura 17, ‘Al-Isra’, the Sura that begins with the second quotation of the first example, is also called Surat Bani Israel (‘The Children of Israel’). The Farthest Mosque is only mentioned once in the Qur’an, in this position. The subsequent verses discuss Jewish corruption (‫إﻓﺴﺎد‬ ) on earth and their being “elated with mighty arrogance” (17:4) suggesting actual political power (which was not the case at the time of the destruction of the Second Temple in70 CE). This combination of corruption and arrogant power shall happen twice. Each time the corruption ends with the entry of the Jews enemies into Masjid Al-Aqsa, or the Temple. In other words, the mention of Al-Aqsa necessitates mentioning Jewish corruption in the area, once before Islam and once after (the destruction of the Second Temple is discounted for the reason mentioned above). Masjid Al-Aqsa (‫ )اﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ اﻻﻗﺼﻰ‬is written in Ottoman script as (‫ ,)اﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ اﻻﻗﺼﺎ‬the Jum’mal value of which is 361 (i.e. 19×19). As discussed above, the number 19 is the root of a Qur’anic numerical miracle. The phrase Bani Israel ( ‫ﺑﻨﻮ‬ ‫ ,)إﺳﺮاﺋﻴﻞ‬written in the Ottoman copy as (‫ ,)ﺑﻨﻮ إﺳﺮءﻳﻞ‬also has a Jum’mal value of 361. (We have explored the further implications contained in this aya in another piece of research entitled ‘The Year 2022 and the Fall of Israel'). Example 3 Surat Al-Naml (‫ )اﻟﻨﻤﻞ‬opens with the two letters ‫ .ﻃﺲ‬The Serial order of the Sura in the Mus’haf is 27 and we have found that the frequency of the letter ‫ ط‬in the Sura is also 27. ‫س‬ on the other hand occurs 93 times in the Sura. 93 happens to be the number of verses in the Sura. Thus, the total frequency of ‫ ط‬and ‫ س‬is 120, which is the total of the serial number of the Sura plus its number of verses. Finally, the Jum’mal of the word Naml (‫ )ﻧﻤﻞ‬is 120. Example 4 White can be considered to be the basis of all colors because white light can be refracted into the seven colors of the spectrum. If mixed in different proportions these can then create thousands of colors. The Jum’mal of white (‫ )أﺑﻴﺾ‬is 1+2+10+800=813.

The word ‫( اﺑﻴﻀﺖ‬became white) occurs twice in the Qur’an. The first occurrence is in verse 107 of Sura 3, the second in verse 84 of Sura 12. The word ‫( ﺗﺒﻴﺾ‬become white) occurs once in verse 106 of Sura 3. The word ‫( اﻷﺑﻴﺾ‬the white) occurs in verse 187 of Sura 2 while the word ‫( ﺑﻴﻀﺎء‬white) occurs 6 times: 7:108; 20:22; 26:33; 27:12; 28:32 and 37:46. Meanwhile, the words (‫ ﺑﻴﺾ‬and ‫ )ﺑﻴﺾ‬occur in verse 27 of Sura 35 and in verse 49 of Sura 37:

Word ‫اﺑﻴﻀﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﻴﻀﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻴﺾ‬ ‫اﻷﺑﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺾ‬

Sura 3 12 3 2 7 20 26 27 28 37 35 37 Total

Verse No. 107 84 106 187 108 22 33 12 32 46 27 49 813

If we add together the verse numbers where the words which mean ‘white’ occur, we find that we have the same total as the Jum’mal of the word ‘white’ (‫ ,)اﺑﻴﺾ‬i.e. 813.

Example 5

Surat Al-Hadid is the last Sura in the first half of the Qur’an and is the only Sura named after a chemical element. Its order in the Mus’haf is 57. The Jum’mal of the word ‫ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬is 1+30+8+4+10+4=57 while the Jum’mal of the word ‫ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬is 8+4+10+4=26. We have already noted that 57 is the atomic weight of iron and 26 is its atomic number.

It is known in chemistry that the atomic number is the number of neutrons that the nucleus contains and that atomic weight is related to protons plus neutrons. So we ask: Is there a plan behind ordering the Sura according to the atomic weight of iron (57) which coincides with the Jum’mal of the word ‫?اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬

Some may say that the atomic weight of iron is 55.8 rather than 57. The fact is that there are 5 iron isotopes, which have atomic weights of 55, 56, 57, 58 and 59. What is noticeable is that Isotope 57 occurs in the middle while 55.8 is not related to atomic structure but is an average related to the percentage of the presence of each isotope in nature.

Following are some further remarks that emphasize the special importance of the number 57 in this context:

A-

The serial order of Surat Al-Hadad is 57 and the number of verses in it is 29. If we multiply 29×57 the result is 1653, which is the total of numbers 1-57. (i.e.: 1+2+3+4…+57)

B-

The word ‫ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬occurs in the Qur’an in Sura 22 (‘Al-Hajj’) and Sura 50 (‘Qaf’) and the word ‫ ﺣﺪﻳﺪا‬occurs in Sura 17 (‘Bani Israel’). The word ‫ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬occurs in Sura 18(‘AlKahf’), Sura 34 (‘Saba’) and Sura 57. After Surat Al-Hadid itself the word is not mentioned. Thus the word for iron occurs 6 times in the Qur’an in 6 different Suras. The word ‫ ﺣﺪﻳﺪا‬in Sura 17 is the 667th word in the Sura while the word ‫ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬in Sura 18 is the 1402nd. The word ‫ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬in Sura 22 is the 368th and the word ‫ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬in Sura 34 is 177th. The word ‫ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬in Sura 50 is the 183rd word in the Sura while the word ‫ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬in Sura al-Hadid (number 57) is the 461st. Thus the total for all the word positions is: 667+1402+368+177+183+461=3258, the square root of which is almost exactly 57, (57.0788 in fact).

Word ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺪا‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬

Sura 17 18 22 34 50 57 Total

Word no. in Sura 667 1402 368 177 183 461 3258

C-

The word ‫ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬in Surat Al-Hadid comes in aya 25 as: “And We sent down iron.” In reply to the implied question as to what the wisdom behind sending down iron is, this line is followed by the answer: “…In which is material for mighty war as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who, Unseen, will help Him and his Apostles, for Allah is full of strength, exalted in might.” If we calculate the Jum’mal of this aya we find that it is 3263, the square root of which is again just over 57. (57.12 in fact). The difference between 3263 and the total of the positions of the word ‫ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬is 5! So, what is the secret?!

Example 6

There are 29 Suras in the Qur’an opening with “luminous” letters, four of which begin with the letter ‫ .ط‬These are: ‫( ﻃﻪ‬Sura 20); ‫( ﻃﺴﻢ‬Sura 26); ‫( ﻃﺲ‬Sura 27); and ‫( ﻃﺴﻢ‬Sura 28). In the chapter about verse endings in Dr Faadel Samirra’i’s book ‘Qur’anic Interpretation’, he says: “Each Sura that begins with a ‫ ط‬begins with a detailed narrative about Musa (Moses) before other narratives. Examples of such Suras are ‫ ﻃﻪ‬in Surat Ta-Ha (Sura 20) and ‫ ﻃﺴﻢ‬at the beginning of Surat Shu’araa (Sura 26). This pattern does not occur in Suras with other openings. What is held in common among Suras beginning with ‫ ط‬is the detailed story of Musa at the beginning (of the Sura)…”

In our research we have noted that the letter ‫ ط‬occurs 19 times in Sura 28 (‘Al-Qasas’). When we read Dr Samirra’i’s words and his observation that Suras beginning with the letter ‫ ط‬elaborate on the story of Musa, we counted the frequency of the mentions of Musa himself and his brother Haroun (Aaron) in Surat Al-Qasas. We found that Musa’s name appeared 18 times and his brother’s once, a total of 19 appearances. It is worth noting here that among all the Prophets the concurrence between Musa and Haroun is unique – in fact they were commissioned with the message simultaneously. It is also worth noting that Sura 28 mentions no other Prophets’ names except those of Musa and Haroun (aleihi salaam).

The numerical value of the letters making up ‫( ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬Musa) is 116, while that of ‫هﺎرون‬ (Haroun) is 261. Thus the total Jum’mal of the two is 377. On the basis of this finding four observations can be made:

A- The word count of the verses containing the names ‫ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬and ‫ هﺎرون‬in Sura 28 is 377 which is the same value as the Jum’mal of the two names together:

Total 377

76 29

48 26

44 13

43 16

38 27

37 18

36 17

34 14

31 19

30 19

29 27

20 18

19 32

18 16

15 38

10 17

7 22

3 9

Verse no. Word count

B-

If we refer to ‘The Concordance of Qur’anic Words’ by Muhammad Fuad Abdul-Baqi, we find that the frequency of ‫ هﺎرون‬is 20 occurrences. If we add up the serial numbers of these 20 Suras containing the name ‫ هﺎرون‬we have a total of 377.

C-

In Suras beginning with the letter ‫ ,ط‬the frequency of the name ‫ هﺎرون‬is seven times in the following verses: 30, 70, 90 and 92 in Sura 20 (‘Ta-Ha’) which begins with 13 ;‫ﻃﻪ‬ and 48 in Sura 26 (‘Ash-Shu’araa’) which begins with ‫ ;ﻃﺴﻢ‬and verse 34 from Sura 28 (‘Al-Qasas’) which begins with ‫ .ﻃﺴﻢ‬If we add these verse numbers together the total is 377, i.e. 30+70+90+92+13+48+34.

D-

The frequency of the name ‫ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬in Suras beginning with ‫ ط‬is 46 times. If we multiply the Jum’mal of ‫ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬by its frequency in Suras beginning with ‫ ط‬the result is 116× 46=5336. If we multiply the Jum’mal of ‫ هﺎرون‬by its frequency in Suras beginning with ‫ ط‬the result is 261×7=1827. Thus the total of these two figures when added together is 5336+1827=7163. The surprise here is that 7163=19×377.

We do not think that the scope of the matter is limited to these four observations. Rather we feel the need to compile the various observations hoping to come up with a law for such cases.

Example 7

Allah (swt) says in Sura 15: “We have without doubt sent down the message and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).” (‘Al-Hijr’- 15:9) The Holy Qur’an has been preserved by Allah (swt) because it has been revealed for all nations until the Day of Judgement. Previous messages, however, did not need to be preserved because each Prophet was sent to his people in particular. What is the point in preserving a message that was valid only for a certain period, for a certain people and for a certain place?

It makes sense that this aya that describes the preservation of the Holy Qur’an is itself preserved in its position in this Sura and in other Suras. There might be more than one mathematical method to show this but here is one method that illustrates the point that involves a Jum’mal calculation:

The theme of this aya is ‫( اﻟﺬآﺮ‬the message) because the aya talks about the revelation of the message and its protection. If we look for the words ‫ ,اﻟﺬآﺮ‬which means the Holy Qur’an in this case, and find those which are prefixed by the definite article ‫ ,ال‬we find that the word ‫ اﻟﺬآﺮ‬in 15:9 is the 63rd word. The next appearance of the word ‫ اﻟﺬآﺮ‬is word number 575 in Sura 16. Next it comes as word number 1103 in Sura 21. After this it is word number 357 in Sura 25, followed by word number 62 in Sura 36. After this it comes as the 4th word in Sura 38 and finally as word number 63 in the same Sura. See the following table:

Sura Serial no. Word no. in

Hijr 15 63

Nahl 16 575

AlAnbiya 21 1103

AlFurqan 25 357

Ya-Seen 36 62

Sa’ad ‫ص‬ 38 4

‫ص‬ 38 63

Total 189 227

Sura 2416

Note that the word ‫ اﻟﺬآﺮ‬in Sura 15 is the 63rd word, as is the second occurrence of the word in ‫ ,ص‬i.e. the first and last appearance. This coincidence might make us stop and ponder the relationship between the word ‫ اﻟﺬآﺮ‬in the first appearance: “We have without doubt sent down the message and We will assuredly guard it [from corruption]” (15:9) and the last: “What! Has the message been sent down to him [of all persons] among us?”(38:8) If we do we to find that:

A- The first aya of Surat Sa’ad is: “Sa’ad: By the Qur’an, full of admonition…” In other words, the Sura begins by talking about ‫ ,اﻟﺬآﺮ‬the message.

B- The verse count from 15:9 to 38:8 is 2166 words, which is 19×114, 114 being the number of Suras in the whole Qur’an, and the theme of the aya here being the revelation of the Qur’an and its protection.

C- Aya 9 of Sura 15 and aya 8 of Sura 38 consist of 19 letters of the Arabic alphabet: (‫ و ,ﻩ ,ن ,م ,ل ,ك ,ق ,ف ,ع ,ظ ,ش ,ز ,ر ,ذ ,ح ,ب ,ا ,ء‬and ‫ ,)ي‬the Jum’mal of these letters being 2530. If we subtract this figure from the Jum’mal of aya 15:9 the result will be 2530-2416=114, again the total number of Suras in the Qur’an.

D- As can be seen in the table, if you add up the serial number of the Suras that contain ‫اﻟﺬآﺮ‬ and the word number of ‫ اﻟﺬآﺮ‬in those Suras, you will be amazed to find that the total equals the Jum’mal of 15:9, which is 2416!!!

Chapter 5

The Mathematical Miracle and Astronomy

The Mathematical Miracle and Astronomy

Sura 74 belongs to the early revelation phase of the Holy Qur’an and it contains elaboration on the number 19, which has been discussed in a previous chapter. We noted then the oath sworn by Allah in the context of the discourse about the number 19: “Nay, verily by the moon and by the night as it retreats and by the dawn as it shineth forth. This is but one of the mighty portents. ” (74:32-35)

Night and day result from the sun’s relation to the earth. But what is the relationship of the sun, the moon and the earth with the number 19? If we refer to astronomy books, we find that there are several relationships. We have discussed these at length in our book ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Qur’an: Premises Awaiting Outcomes’, but our main concern here is to give some examples relating to the Holy Qur’an and astronomy without referring to its relation to the number 19 or any other number:

Example 1

The solar year is 365.2422 days long, while the lunar year is 354.361. Thus the difference between the two is 10.8752 days. Thus, after 33.58 solar years the total number of these differences is one solar year, i.e. (365.2422/10.8752=33.584). In other words, the lunar year coincides with the solar year at the same starting point every 33.58 years. We can consider each returning point to be one cycle of 33.58 years. In the light of this if we ask in what years of history after the birth of Christ was the 19th cycle, we find that it began in the year 604 CE (AD) and ended in 638. It is noteworthy that the Prophet Muhammad received his first revelation six years after the start of the cycle in 610 and he died in 632 six years before its end, making the period of the message the focal point of the 19th cycle.

Example 2 When the earth completes one revolution around the sun it has revolved around itself 365 times while the moon will have revolved around the earth 12 times. Thus, one revolution of the earth around the sun contains 365 revolutions around itself and 12 revolutions of the moon around the earth and around itself too. That is why astronomers say that the year is solar and the month is lunar. Referring to ‘The Concordance of Qur’anic Words’ by Muhammad Fuad Abdul-Baqi we find that the words for ‘day’ and ‘a day’- ‫ ﻳﻮم‬and ‫ - ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‬occurring in the singular are repeated 365 times, noting that one occurrence of ‫ ﻳﻮم‬was dropped from the concordance by mistake, a fact that was pointed out in the introduction of the work. We also find that the words for ‘month’ and

‘a month’ - ‫ ﺷﻬﺮ‬and ‫ - ﺷﻬﺮا‬in the singular are repeated only 12 times. Why are the words ‫ﻳﻮم‬ and ‫ ﺷﻬﺮ‬counted in the singular? We think that this goes back to two matters: Firstly, in Arabic a year is 365 ‫( ﻳﻮم‬singular), not ‫( أﻳﺎم‬plural). Likewise, a year is 12 ‫ ﺷﻬﺮ‬not ‫ .ﺷﻬﻮر‬Secondly, a year is one revolution of the earth around the sun and this includes 365 revolutions of the earth around itself and 12 revolutions of the moon around the earth and around itself too. Some people have objected to Abdal Razaq Nawfal not counting the words ‫ ﻳﻮﻣﻬﻢ ,ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ‬and ‫ﻳﻮﻣﻜﻢ‬ and this objection is somewhat justified when there are no direct rules for counting. Here we count ‫ ﻳﻮم‬and ‫ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‬when it is not attached in the script to what follows it. If the word form ‫ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ‬ had been written as ‫ ﻳﻮم إذ‬we would have counted it. In the light of this, we count the word forms ‫ ﻳﻮم‬and ‫ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‬but we do not count ‫ ﻳﻮﻣﻬﻢ ,ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ‬and ‫ ﻳﻮﻣﻜﻢ‬because in the Qur’anic word count we deal with script rather than meaning. Nevertheless we have noticed that the words ‫ﻳﻮم‬ and ‫ ﻳﻮﻣﻬﻢ ,ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ ,ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‬and ‫ ,ﻳﻮﻣﻜﻢ‬and ‫ أﻳﺎم‬and ‫ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ‬occur 475 times in the Qur’an, which is the number of earth days in 19 days of the sun. The day of any star or planet is its revolution once around itself. The day of the sun equals 25 days of the earth so when the sun has revolved once around itself, the earth will have revolved 25 times around itself. Consequently, when the sun has turned 19 revolutions, the earth will have turned 19×25=475 times. Thus, 475 is the number of earth days in 19 days of the sun. When the earth revolves once around the sun, it will have revolved 365 times around itself, and the moon will have revolved around itself and the earth 12 times. This revolution is called one year. A year, then, is the return of the earth to the point from which it started revolving around the sun. However, when this return of the earth occurs, the moon will not have returned to its starting point. Thus, “year” means return of the earth to its starting point, but not the return of the moon. Astronomers say that the moon and the earth meet at the same returning point once every 19 years. In other words, it occurs when the earth has moved around the sun 19 times and the moon has moved around the earth 235 times, a revolution which astronomers call an “ecliptic revolution”. This revolution has been scientifically used to match the solar and lunar years. Hence, calendars refer to this revolution and the number 19. Every 19 years then, we have simultaneous revolutions of the earth and the moon when they return to the same co-ordinate. The word ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬occurs in the Holy Qur’an 7 times and ‫ﺳﻨﻴﻦ‬ occurs 12 times. Thus the total frequency of ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬and ‫ ﺳﻨﻴﻦ‬is 19 times. It is worth pointing out at this point that every 19 lunar years contain 7 leap years, which have 355 days, and 12 normal years, which have 354. Thus, when the earth and the moon turn one revolution around the sun the result is 365 revolutions of the earth around itself and 12 revolutions of the moon around the earth and around itself. It is, then, a revolution that contains sub-revolutions. Similarly the ecliptic revolution contains 19 sub-revolutions of the earth around the sun and each sub-revolution is called a year which equals about 19.58 lunar years. Hence the words ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬and ‫ ﺳﻨﻴﻦ‬occur 19 times in the Qur’an. We can also illustrate the question in a different way: the word forms ‫ﻳﻮم‬ and ‫ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‬occur 365 times in the Holy Qur’an which indicates one revolution of the earth around the sun. Likewise, the words ‫ ﺷﻬﺮ‬and ‫ ﺷﻬﺮا‬occur 12 times, this being an indication of one revolution of the earth around the sun. This revolution is called ‫( ﺳﻨﺔ‬a year). However, when the words ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬and ‫ ﺳﻨﻴﻦ‬occur 19 times, this indicates a more complex revolution not related to the earth alone but to the earth and the moon together. While the concept of ‫( اﻟﻴﻮم‬the day) is well defined with respect to the earth and with its relation to the sun, the concept of ‫( اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬a year) is multifold, as there are star years, tropic years, perigee years, ecliptic years… the lengths of which vary. Hence, there are ‫( ﺳﻨﻴﻦ‬years) and not simply ‫( ﺳﻨﺔ‬year). It is also noticeable that, as mentioned earlier, ‫ ﺳﻨﻴﻦ‬occurs 12 times in the Holy Qur’an and that this number is the same as the number of even-numbered years (i.e. 354 days) every 19 lunar years. As for ‫ ,ﺳﻨﺔ‬it occurs 7 times, this being the number of odd-numbered years, those containing 355 days.

Example 3 Of Nuh (Noah), peace be upon him, Allah (SWT) says in Sura 29 (‘Al-Ankaboot’): ‫“ - ﻓﻠﺒﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ أﻟﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ إﻻ ﺧﻤﺴﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‬He tarried among them a thousand years (‫)ﺳﻨﻪ‬ less fifty years (‫ ”.)ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‬If the point of this holy aya is to say that Nuh (pbuh) stayed with his people for 950 ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬wouldn’t the meaning be fully understood if the aya simply ended with the word ‫ ?ﺧﻤﺴﻴﻦ‬Why did He use ‫ إﻻ ﺧﻤﺴﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‬in one moment and ‫ أﻟﻒ ﺳﻨﻪ‬in the next? Doesn’t this indicate that the concept of ‫ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬differs from that of ‫ ?اﻟﻌﺎم‬If we refer to the Holy Qur’an, we find that there are verses that clearly shows the word ‫ ﻋﺎم‬being applied to the lunar year, such as in Sura 9: ‫“ - ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺮﺑﻮا اﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ اﻟﺤﺮام ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﻬﻢ هﺬا‬So let them (the idolaters) not after this year of theirs approach the sacred mosque.” (9:??) It is known that this aya talks about pilgrimage, which is connected with the lunar year. The same distinction is made in the aya: ‫“ - إﻧﻤﺎ اﻟﻨﺴﻲء زﻳﺎدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻳﻀﻞ ﺑﻪ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ آﻔﺮوا ﻳﺤﻠﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ و ﻳﺤﺮﻣﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‬Verily the transposing of a prohibited month is an addition to unbelief: The Unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year.” (9:37). It is known that this aya talks about the Idolaters’ tampering with the order of the Sacred Months, which are months of the lunar year. If we look for the opposite notation we find that there is no word ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬in the Qur’an clearly indicating the lunar year, just as there is no word ‫ ﻋﺎم‬in the Qur’an clearly indicating the solar year, though this does not necessarily mean that the concept of ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬does not include the concept of lunar year. It is noticeable that when the Holy Qur’an intends maximization, it uses the word ‫ ,ﺳﻨﺔ‬such as in the aya: ‫“ - و ﻟﺒﺜﺖ ﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮك ﺳﻨﻴﻦ‬And didst thou not stay in our midst many years of thy life?” (26:18) Also in the aya: ‫إن ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ رﺑﻚ آﺄﻟﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫“ - ﺗﻌﺪون‬A day in the sight of thy Lord is like a thousand years of your reckoning.”(22:47) In the aya under discussion the 1000 ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬has come to suggest the length of the period Noah peace be upon him preached. It is known that the solar year is longer than the lunar year so the 50 ‫ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‬is used to minimize the thing expected. In any case we cannot reverse the concept by making ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬suggest the lunar year and ‫ ﻋﺎم‬to suggest the solar year. Since this aya mentions both ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬and ‫ ,ﻋﺎم‬it is likely that ‫ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬is solar and ‫ اﻟﻌﺎم‬is lunar. Astronomers classify the solar year into star year (365.25636 days) and tropic year (365.2422 days). If we take the averages of the star and tropic years, the number of days in 1000 ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬is 365249 days. Astronomers also divide the lunar year into star year (327.85992 days) and tropic year (354.36707 days). If we take the averages of the star year and the tropic year, the number of days in 50 ‫ ﻋﺎم‬is 17056 days. Now we can do the following subtraction: 365249 –17056= 348193 days. This is equal to 953.3 tropic years and 953.28 star years. Thereby it becomes clear to us that Noah stayed 953 ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬not 950 ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬as might be understood from the first glance. Is there numerical evidence for this conclusion we have come to? A. Sura 71 in the Holy Qur’an is Surat Noah. What is the relation of this Sura to how long he stayed and to the conclusion we have reached above? The reader will be amazed when he does a letter count of Sura 71.The number of letters is 953 letters, which is the length of Noah’s stay by astronomical calculation. The letter occurrences in Sura 71 are as follows: ‫ا+ء‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬

B.

Letter

Frequency Letter Frequency Letter Frequency Letter Frequency Letter Frequency

192 ‫د‬ 25 ‫ص‬ 4 ‫ف‬ 18 ‫ﻩ‬ 34

27 ‫ذ‬ 10 ‫ض‬ 6 ‫ق‬ 21 ‫و‬ 88

6 ‫ر‬ 60 ‫ط‬ 5 ‫ك‬ 32 ‫ي‬ 55

19 ‫ز‬ 4 ‫ظ‬ 2 ‫ل‬ 106 Total: 953

3 ‫س‬ 20 ‫ع‬ 25 ‫م‬ 77

10 ‫ش‬ 2 ‫غ‬ 8 ‫ن‬ 60

When we check the letter frequency of Surat Noah, we find the letter ‫ ح‬repeated 3 times only. It could not have been possible for any of the other letters to be repeated 3 times. What is noticeable is that the number 3 is the difference between 953 and 950, the period Noah stayed preaching to his people, as we calculated astronomically above, and as understood from the Qur’an at first glance, respectively. The matter is even more striking when we realize that the letter ‫ ح‬occurs only in the words ‫ ﻧﻮح ,ﻧﻮﺣﺎ‬and ‫ . ﻧﻮح‬Isn’t it amazing that Surat Noah does not have the letter ‫ ح‬except in the word ‫ !ﻧﻮح‬Is the aim to draw attention to the difference between the length of his stay from the first-impression and the real length of his stay? Or are there other secrets related to the world of astronomy and other worlds?! Example 4 Allah SWT says in Sura 18: ‫و ﻟﺒﺜﻮا ﻓﻲ آﻬﻔﻬﻢ ﺛﻼث ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺳﻨﻴﻦ وازدادوا ﺗﺴﻌﺎ. ﻗﻞ اﷲ اﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫“ …ﻟﺒﺜﻮا‬So they stayed in their Cave three hundred years and (some add) nine more. Say: Allah knows best how long they stayed…”(18: 25-26) The length of stay of the People of the Cave as stated in this aya is 309 ‫ .ﺳﻨﺔ‬While the Qur’an does not explicitly state the number of the People of the Cave, it states the length of their stay in the cave, then comments by adding: “Allah knows best how long they stayed….” Is this comment intended to emphasize the reliability of this number at a time when claims and opinions proliferate/are proliferating? Or is there some other aim? The majority of interpretations take the first view, but is it not possible that the clause “Allah knows best how long they stayed” hints that Allah knows best about the truth of this number 309, its meaning and secrets, and the wisdom behind the period the People of the Cave stayed?! Many interpreters, past and modern, maintain that 300 solar years are equal to 309 lunar years. This means to them that ‫ وازدادوا ﺗﺴﻌﺎ‬is meant to show the increase that occurs when you convert 300 solar years into lunar ones: i.e.: (365.2422×300) ÷354.367 =309.2.mistake in book When we talk the language of years, the fractions amounting to 9 years will be insignificant. These interpretations are possibly what the Qur’anic text suggests. We, in the Noon Center, have the following observations:

1. The 300 solar years comprise 109572.66 days while the 300 lunar years comprise 106310.1 days. This means the difference is 3262.56 days. This number of days is closer to 9 solar years than 9 lunar years. This means that the People of the Cave stayed 300 solar years, i.e. 300 lunar years with 9 solar years added to them. The number 300 stays the same, and the addition comes as a result of the difference between the concepts of solar and lunar year. The addition, then, is 9 solar years. 2. Allah SWT says of Noah (peace be upon him) that he tarried among them one thousand years less fifty…and we have said that the concept of ‫ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬differs from that of. ‫ اﻟﻌﺎم‬Our investigation has led us to note that the length of his stay was 953 solar years. During this period, a process of subtraction occurs, while during the stay of the people of the cave a process of addition occurs, related to the solar and lunar years. Our investigation has led us here too to the conclusion that the length of the stay was 300 solar years, i.e. 300 lunar years with the difference of 9 solar years added to it. What may suggest this difference is the word ‫ﺗﺴﻌﺎ‬ (nine), i.e. years. If Allah had said ‫ ,ﺗﺴﻌﺔ‬then the intended word would be ‫[ ﻋﻮام‬because in Arabic grammar ‫ ﺗﺴﻌﺎ‬is followed by a feminine noun form while ‫ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ‬is followed by a masculine form. The word ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬is feminine while ‫ ﻋﺎم‬is masculine. This remark may support our previous remarks on this subject.

3. The name of Sura 18 shows the importance of the narrative about the People of the Cave in the Sura. The story starts with aya 9: “Or dost thou reflect that the Companions of the Cave and of the Inscription…” As for the length of their stay, it is stated in aya 25: “So they stayed in their cave 300 years and (some) add nine (more).” In the language of numbers, if we start the word count from the beginning of the story (verse 9), we find that the word coming after the phrase “so they stayed in their cave” is the 309th word. Reflect on this?!

Chapter 6 The Significance of Number in Sura 72: ‘Al-Jinn’

The Significance of Number in Sura 72: ‘Al-Jinn’

In his book ‘The Numerical Miracle of the Qur’an’, the Syrian writer Sidqi Al-Beik counted the number of integers in the Holy Qur’an and found them to be 285. The following table shows his findings:

Integer Frequency

1 145

2 15

3 17

4 12

5 2

6 7

7 24

8 5

9 4

Integer Frequency

10 9

11 1

12 5

19 1

20 1

30 2

40 4

50 1

60 1

Integer Frequency

70 3

80 1

99 1

100 6

200 2

300 1

Integer Frequency

309 1

950 1

1000 8

2 000 1

3000 1

50000 1

100000 1

After checking with the 'Concordance of Words in the Holy Qur’an’ by Mohammed Fuad AbdulBaqi we found Albeik’s results to be correct, noting the following points:

1. 2.

In this result we relied on the accuracy of the Concordance. The number one occurred in the Holy Qur’an in the following forms: ‫أﺣﺪ ,واﺣﺪة,واﺣﺪ‬ and. ‫إﺣﺪى‬

3. The word ‫ أﺣﺪ‬occurs in the concordance 33 times, but in fact the frequency is 32 times because ‫ أﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ آﻮآﺒﺎ‬is counted in the frequency of 11) ‫ ,أﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ‬which is literally one and ten).

4.

The clause ‫ ﺛﻼث ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺳﻨﻴﻦ وازدادوا ﺗﺴﻌﺎ‬in Sura 50 (‘Al-Qaf’), contains the number 300 and the number 9 directly, but the number 309 is the one that registers in the mind and is, in fact, the one intended because the Companions of the Cave stayed 309 years. Indeed, as discussed at the end of the previous chapter, the word that follows the phrase ‫ )52:81( و ﻟﺒﺜﻮا ﻓﻲ آﻬﻔﻬﻢ‬is the 309th word if we start the word count from the beginning of the story of the Companions of the Cave.[there is no number five in the text] 5. With reference to Noah, the verse ‫( ﻓﻠﺒﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ أﻟﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ إﻻ ﺧﻤﺴﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‬ref?) contains the number 1000 and the number 50 directly. However, the number 950 is the one that registers in the mind and is, in fact, the one intended. Indeed, Noah stayed with his people preaching for 950 years or close to that number as we explored in the previous chapter. We have also shown in a previous study relating to the letter count of Sura 72. 6. We have mentioned that the number of integers in the Holy Qur’an is 285, a number which is equal to 19×15.We have previously noted in more than one study the relation of this number 285 to various numerical issues.

Sura 72 and its Relation to the Numbers 285 and 19 Sura 72 is the only Sura in the Holy Qur’an which ends with the word ‫ ,ﻋﺪدا‬occurring in the verse ‫ .و اﺣﺼﻰ آﻞ ﺷﻲء ﻋﺪدا‬So, what is the relation of this word to the number of integers in the Qur’an? We find the answer lies in the number of words in Sura 72, i.e. 285 words. The verse count of Sura 72 is 28 ayat. This means that the number of verse endings in the Sura is also 28. A verse ending or fasila (plural fawasel) is the word that comes at the very end of each verse. The verse endings of Sura 72 are: ‫,رﺷﺪا ,رﺻﺪا ,ﺷﻬﺒﺎ ,أﺣﺪا ,رهﻘﺎ ,آﺬﺑﺎ ,ﺷﻄﻄﺎ ,وﻟﺪا ,أﺣﺪا ,ﻋﺠﺒﺎ‬ ‫أﺣﺪا ,أﻣﺪا ,ﻋﺪدا ,أﺑﺪا ,ﻣﻠﺘﺤﺪا ,رﺷﺪا ,أﺣﺪا ,ﻟﺒﺪا ,أﺣﺪا ,ﺻﻌﺪا ,ﻏﺪﻗﺎ ,ﺣﻄﺒﺎ ,رﺷﺪا ,رهﻘﺎ ,هﺮﺑﺎ ,ﻗﺪدا‬ , ‫ رﺻﺪا‬and. ‫ ﻋﺪدا‬What is noticeable is that there are 27 endings, each consisting of 4 letters except for one ending which is made up of 6 letters (‫ .)ﻣﻠﺘﺤﺪا‬This means that the number of letters comprising these endings is (4×27) +6= 114, i.e. 6×19, which is the number of chapters in the Holy Qur’an. This also means that the last letter of the word ‫ ﻋﺪدا‬is the 114th letter. Is this a matter of chance that the word ‫ ﻋﺪدا‬combines indicating both the number of integers in the Holy Qur’an and the number of chapters contained therein? So that the readers may not think the aforementioned finding is sheer chance, we must draw their attention to the following observations: 1. The number of verse endings of Sura 72 is 28. If we omit the repeated endings, we find that the number of endings is 19. 2. The Arabic alphabet has 29 letters. It is noticeable that the unrepeated 19 endings in Sura 72 consist of 19 letters of the alphabet. 3. 4. The syllable ‫ دا‬occurs in the 28 endings 19 times. Sura 72 begins with “Say: It has been revealed to me that a company of Jinns listened to the Qur’an. They said…” The discourse continues through the words of Jinn up to verse 19, then it shifts to that between Allah and the Apostle from: “Say: I do no more than invoke my Lord…”

5. By referring to ‘The Concordance of Words in the Holy Qur’an’, we find that the word ‫ﺟﻦ‬ occurs, before Sura 72, 19 times, but it is not mentioned after Sura 72 except in the form ‫.اﻟﺠﻨﻪ‬ We said earlier, the word ‫ ﻋﺪدا‬is the 285th word of Sura 72 and the last letter of the word is the 114th letter of the letters making up the verse endings in the Sura. The matter becomes more remarkable when we discover that the total frequency of the letters ‫ د ,د ,ع‬and ‫ ا‬in Sura 72 is 361, (37+54+54+216), which also equals 19×19. Is it mere coincidence that the word ‫ ﻋﺪدا‬contains the number of integers in the Holy Qur’an (19×15), the number of Qur’anic chapters (19× 6), and the number 19×19?! So, why the word ‫!? ﻋﺪدا‬ It was pointed out earlier that there are 19 unrepeated endings of verses in Sura 72. What is noticeable is the fact that 10 of these endings are repeated 23 times in the verse endings of Sura 18: ‫ ﻋﺪدا ,أﺑﺪا ,ﻣﻠﺘﺤﺪا ,رﺷﺪا ,آﺬﺑﺎ ,ﺷﻄﻄﺎ ,وﻟﺪا ,أﺣﺪا ,ﻋﺠﺒﺎ‬and. ‫ أﻣﺪا‬The two endings ‫ﺷﻄﻄﺎ‬ and ‫ أﻣﺪا‬each occur only twice throughout the whole Qur’an in Suras 18 and 72. What is noticeable is that there are 91 endings in Sura 18 containing 4 letters as is the case with the majority of Sura 72 verse endings, which means that there are 19 endings in Sura 18 which do not consist of 4 letters. These numerical observations invite us to check the meanings of the two Suras more carefully. At a quick glance we find that Sura 18 begins with a protest against those who claim that God had a son: “And to warn those who say: Allah hath begotten a son. No knowledge have they of such a thing, nor had their fathers. It is a grievous thing that issues from their mouths as a saying. What they say is nothing but falsehood!” (18:5) This is also what we find in the opening verses of Sura 72: “And exalted is the majesty of our Lord: He has taken neither a wife nor a son. There were some foolish ones among us who used to utter extravagant lies against Allah. But we do think that no man or spirit should say aught that is untrue against Allah.” (72:3) It is clear that each of the two Suras begins with denial of a son. It is noticeable from the numerical point of view that the total frequency of the letters making up the word ‫( وﻟﺪا‬son) in Sura 72 is 457 letters[1]. This is the total number of letters constituting the 110 verse endings of Sura 18 which ends with “Say: I am but a man like yourselves (but) the inspiration has come to me that your God is one God. Whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteousness, and, in the worship of his Lord, admit no one as partner.” (18:10) After this is Sura 19 (Mariam), whose serial order is significant because it describes the Messiah’s (Jesus) birth and denies the claimed sonship attributed to him: “Such was Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth about which they vainly dispute. It is not befitting to the majesty of Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him!”(19:3435). In the light of the aforementioned numerical remarks about Sura 72, we felt we needed to reconsider the interpretation of the last three verses of Sura 72: “He alone knows the Unseen, nor does He make anyone acquainted with His mysteries except an apostle whom He has chosen. And then He makes a band of watchers march before him and behind him in order that He may know that they have truly brought and delivered the messages of their Lord: And He surrounds (all the mysteries) that are with them, and takes account of every single thing.” The opinion we express about these verses is for study and investigation. The key to our interpretation is the phrase: ‫…“ - ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ و ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻔﻪ‬before him and behind him….” The meaning could be before the appearance of the Apostle and after his appearance, and this is obvious. The evidence for this is plenty. One is seen in the Arabic idiom: ‘ ‫ ’ﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﺪي اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ آﺬا و آﺬا‬which means “Shortly before the Hour”. The Khalifa (Caliph) is given this title because he comes after those before him. Thus the meaning of the verses can be: Allah is the All-Knower of the Unseen and does not acquaint anyone with his mysteries except the holy Apostles whom He has chosen. He creates (before their appearance) first signs or harbingers revealed by angels who watch the progress of nations and supervise their destiny. The Unseen, 6.

delivered by angels and revealed before the appearance of the Apostle, is what Allah has permitted and chosen. Hence we read in books concerning the biography of Prophet Mohammed’s mother, Aamina, and her vision when she was ordered to name her son Muhammad. The Christian and Jewish transmitted heritage about Mohammed’s future appearance was a revelation and angelic inspiration to prepare them for his appearance peace be upon him. It is said in the Prophet’s Hadith that Satan insinuates evil while the angel inspires. This is confirmed and known. It seems that the role of angels does not end with the going of the Apostle, but that they continue to keep watching, guarding and inspiring. These inspirations come at the right time so that the message will be delivered to the people. If one says that the message of the Apostle has been delivered and the responsibility is thus handed over, our response is: The message has been delivered but the further significance and meanings can be discovered at any time. Thus the message will continue to be delivered till the Day of Judgement. It is then that it will have been completely delivered and thereby not only the world of reality will be unveiled but also the world of the Unseen. Then the Hour which the Idolaters asked about will be nigh: “Say: I know not whether the punishment which ye are promised is near or whether my Lord will appoint for it a distant term. He alone knows the Unseen, nor does he make anyone acquainted with His mysteries. Except an apostle whom he has chosen…” This means that the Day of Judgement will not come until the message is completely delivered. In the light of this interpretation we can summarize the import of the verses as follows: 1. The unveiling of the Unseen is concerned with the messages and this could happen: A. Before the appearance of the Apostle. In this case the Unseen foreshadows his appearance, and this is an endorsement of the Apostle. B. At the time of the appearance of the Apostle where the revelation of the Unseen is an endorsement and evidence for him. C. After the going of the Apostle. Here the role of the angels continues whereby they inspire people to explore and extract the hidden treasures of the message. 2. The Hour will not come until the message of the Apostle is completely delivered and the hidden meanings discovered: “And He surrounds all the mysteries that are with them and takes account of every single thing.” (72:28) What the angels inspire of Allah’s knowledge is only what Allah has permitted. What is learned is only what Allah has taught. Allah has counted everything which is a number, that is, anything whose reality is based on numbers. Therefore, understanding the numerical basis of things brings us closer to understanding their true nature and reality. This means that our understanding of Qur’anic numbers brings us closer to the true understanding. This includes Qur’anic prophecies pertaining to the future. Epilogue At the end of the day, these are inductive observations which we hope will arouse in the reader the motivation for research. We also hope that our conviction about the existence of numbers in the Qur’anic structure has been confirmed. It is hoped that such conviction will yield further efforts, so that the light of truth will shine in the minds and hearts of many of those who seek the truth. The Noon Center is always ready to receive your observations, criticisms, corrections and advice. This task is much bigger than can be handled by one research center. The expected yield will be very great and of enormous benefit, insh’Allah. “Our Lord! In Thee do we trust, And to Thee do we return in repentance: To Thee is our final Goal!” (60:4)

Appendix
Noon Center for Research and Qur’anic Studies

Print

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful