The Forgotten Terrorist Ground Dr.
Hassan al Turabi, a graduate of Khartoum University School of Law and of the Sorbonne, became a leader of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood in the early 1960s. When Gen. Jafa'ar Nimeiri took power in a coup in 1969, Tura bi's Islamist party was dissolved and its members arrested, only to return to political life in 1977 in reconciliation with Nimeiri, who became general Turabi’s attorney. Nimeiri made shari'a the law of the land in Sudan in September 1983 . However, shari’a amputations and hangings contributed to a popular nonviolent overthrow of Nimeiri in 1985, and the reinstatement of parliamentary rule. In the 1986 elections, Turabi led a new faction of the Muslim Brotherhood, the National Islamic Front (NIF), to third place in the national assembly. The NIF sought to create an Islamic state in Sudan. In 1989, from behind the scenes, this party participated in a military coup overthrowing the elected government. From that time until 2001, Turabi was the power behind the throne, whether as leader of the NIF or later as speaker of the assembly. He led the creation of the NIF police state and associated NIF militias to consolidate Islamist power and prevent a popular uprising. The NIF police state and militias committed man y human
rights abuses, including summary executions, torture, ill treatment, arbitrary detentions, denial of freedoms of speech, assembly, and religion, and violations of the rules of war, particularly in the south, where a civil war was being waged from 1983 to the present. Established A Regional Umbrella For Political Islamist Militants, The Popular Arab Islamic Conference (PAIC), Headquartered In Khartoum. In 1990-91, Turabi also established a regional umbrella for political Islamist militants, the Popular Arab Islamic conference (PAIC), headquartered in Khartoum. It was formed with the immediate aim of opposing American involvement in the Gulf War. Turabi became its secretary general. Under his guidance, the Sudan government created an open -door policy for Arabs, including Turabi's Islamist associate Osama bin Laden, who made his base in Sudan in 1990 -1996. The efforts of the NIF to refashion Sudan into an Islamic state bore mixed results because of the opposition it inspired and the civil war. The Gov ernment of Sudan ceased hosting PAIC in 2000. SOURCE: BIOGRAPHY OF HASSAN AL TURABI, HUMAN RIGHTS NEWS
BUT THE READER SHOULD NOTE :
In 1990-91, Al-Turabi established The Popular Arab Islamic Conference (PAIC), an international umbrella organization for political Islamist militant movements headquartered in Khartoum, and became its secretary general. During the early 1990’s, Al-Turabi allowed Osama bin Laden to use the Sudan as his base, and became the spiritual mentor. The NIF's efforts to refashion Sudan into an Islamic state yielded mixed results, due to the opposition it generated and the civil war, and in 2000 the Sudanese government ceased hosting PAIC. In March 2004 , Al-Turabi was imprisoned in Kha rtoum on the orders of his one -time ally, current president Omar al-Bashir, and was released in June 2005. 1 The United States and Sudan in mid -2000 entered into a dialogue to discuss US counterterrorism concerns. The talks, which were ongoing at the end of the year, were constructive and obtained some positive results. By the end of the year , Sudan had signed all 12 international conventions for combating terrorism and had taken several other positive counterterrorism steps, including closing down the Popul ar Arab and Islamic Conference, which served as a forum for terrorists. Sudan, however, continued to be used as a safehaven by members of various groups, including associates of Osama Bin Ladin's Al Qaeda organization, Egyptian al -Gama'a alIslamiyya, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the Palestine Islamic Jihad, and HAMAS. Most groups used Sudan primarily as a secure base for assisting compatriots elsewhere. Khartoum had still not complied fully with UN Security Council Resolutions 1044, 1054, and 1070, passed in 1996--which demanded that Sudan end all support to terrorists. They also required Khartoum to hand over three Egyptian Gama'a fugitives linked to the assassination attempt in 1995 against Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia. Sudanese officials continued to deny that they had a role in the attack 2.
 THE MIDDLE EAST MEDIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE, SPECIAL DISPATCH SERIES 1143, APR 21 st, 2006 MEMRI.ORG/BIN/ARTICLES.CGI?PAGE=SUBJECTS&AREA=REFORM&ID=SP114306  : STATE-SPONSORED TERRORISM SUDAN TERRORISMFILES.ORG/COUNTRIES/SUDAN.HTML.
Sudan declared itself an Islamic state in 1990 when General Bashir visited Iran and said the two countries shared a common duty to propagate Islam. The Sudanese sided with Iraq in the Persian Gulf War I, Desert Storm. Clearly Sudan had become a place where indifference between Muslim Countries such as Iran and Iraq were set aside; they were openly welcomed and even courted. Hence, Sudan became a land bridge, for different State sponsors of terrorism.
The Sudan is in a strategic position to export its Islamic revolution because of its borders with both Egypt and Libya and with six African countries, including Ethiopia, which has a large and impoverished Muslim population. Egypt regards the Sudan as vital because the c ountries share then Nile River, and the High Dam of Aswan is only 150 miles north of the Sudanese border.
After Dr. Hassan al Turabi, seized power he did two things: first, he imposed a fundamentalist regime almost identical to the one that the Ayatollah had created in Iran, except that it was based on Sunni Ideals. Secondly, he welcomed and invited world wide terrorists to Sudan . He exempted them from paying taxes, local law enforcement authority, and other economic befits. Steven Emerson, American Jihad,
1992 Sudan After a visit in 1991 to Khartoum by the then Iranian President, Hashemi Rafsanjani, Iran agrees to grant mili tary and economic assistance to Sudan, extending to it the potential to not only consolidate its power at home but als o to materially and morally promote Islamic groups. The Sudanese have accelerated the training of a paramilitary force of conscripted Government workers and university students, known as the Popular Defense Force. Officials acknowledge that it is modeled after and is receiving help from Iran's Revolutionary Guard. December 1991, Iran: The then Iranian President, Rafsanjani , along with Iran’s (former) Other Governmental members Intelligence Minister Al Fallahian, Revolutionary Guard Corps Commander In Chief Moshsen Rezaii, Defense Minister Al Torkan,
Rafsanjani, in addition to these top Iranian Officials , and another 150 Iranian delegates, told his hosts, in a speech given in Khartoum : “Sudan can play a more important role in the new world order .” During the trip, Iran provided 17 million dollars and purchased 300 million dollars worth of military equipment for Sudan from China. Majid Kamal Iranian Ambassador sent to Khartoum, in 1992, Majid Kamal was involved in the 1979 takeover of the US Embassy in Tehran and guided Iranian efforts in developing the Lebanese Hezbollah group while he served as Iran's top diplomat in Lebanon during the early 1980s. His presence illustrated the importance Iran places on Sudan.
ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM, THE NEW GLOBAL THREAT , MOHAMMAD MOHADDESSIN SEVEN LOCKS PRESS, 2001, PAGES 90 -92.
As Sudan hardens its Islamic rule at home, it is providing easy access, and apparently in some instances training installations, to internati onal terrorist groups, such as some of radical Palestinian organization of Abu Nidal , the Iranianbacked Party of God and Islamic Holy War. The Abu Nidal group has evidently been scaling back its operations in Tripoli, the Libyan capital, as Libya seeks to soften its
image as a sponsor of terrorism. Th e other two groups, long linked with the kidnapping of Westerners in Lebanon, have seen their activities curtailed as the Syrian-allied Lebanese Government moves to extend cont rol.
SOURCE: SUDAN IS SEEN AS SAFE BASE FOR MIDEAST TERROR GROUPS PUBLISHED: J ANUARY 26th, 1992 RESEARCH SERVICES< NYTIMES.COM/SEARCH/RESTRICTED/ARTICLE?RES=F10613FD35540C758EDDA80894DA494D81
NOTE: Again I am going to take the reader in another direction, not quite off the beaten path, because Abu Nidal Organization, (named after its founder), is important in understanding Saddam Hussein links with terror. As we shall see, Saddam was a master at keeping his activities quite secret, and compartmentalized. Palestinian organization of Abu Nidal, Abu Nidal Organization (ANO): Anti-Western and anti -Israel international terrorist organization led by Sabri al -Banna; left the PLO in 1974. The Organizational structure is composed of various functional committees, including a political, military, and financial configuration.
The ANO Has Carried Out Terrorist Attacks In 20 Countries, Killing Or Injuring Almost 900 Persons.
Targets have included the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and various Arab countries. Major attacks included the Rome and Vienna airports in December 1985, the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul, the Pan Am flight 73 hijacking in Karachi in September 1986, and the City of Poros day-excursion ship attack in Greece in July 1988. THE ANO is suspected of assassinating P LO deputy chief Abu Iyad and PLO security chief Abu Hul in Tunis in January 1991. ANO assassinated a Jordanian diplomat in Lebanon in January 1994. It has not attacked Western targets since the late 1980 ’s. Al-Banna relocated to Iraq in December 1998, wher e the group maintains a presence. Financial problems and internal disorganization have reduced the group’s capabilities; activities shut down in Libya and Egypt in 1999.
SOURCE: PBS US DOCUMENTARY FRONTLINE: TARGET AMERICA PBS.ORG/WGBH/PAGES/FRONTLINE/S HOWS/TARGET/
Abu Nidal Organization State Supported Terrorist Organization Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan and Libya have all harbored the group and given it training, logistical support, and funding, often using the ANO as guns for hire. Abu Nidal began worki ng with Iraqi intelligence while representing Fatah in Baghdad, experts say. He formed his organization with Iraq’s help and began by attacking Syria and the PLO. In 1983, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein expelled Abu Nidal and his group in an attempt to win American military support for Iraq’s 1980s war with neighboring Iran. Once the war ended, Iraq resumed its support of Abu Nidal.
SOURCE: COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, ABU NIDAL ORGANIZATION (IRAQ, EXTREMISTS) UPDATED: OCTOBER 2005 CFR.ORG/PUBLICATION/ 9153/
There is more on Abu Nidal and Saddam Husse in’s terror connection later in this report, but keep these facts in mind.
Day of Terror Bombings, America, The Sudan Connection Sudan : there is evidence provided in the trial of the Day of Terror Bomb ings , (New York USA ,1993-1994) plus information gathered by Federal Agents, proved that top officials in Sudan not only knew in advance but actively facilitated the plot. Taped conversations linked the defendants with members of Sudanese government offic ials.
Although there is no conclusive evidence linking the Government of Sudan to any specific terrorist incident during the year, five of 15 suspects arrested this summer following the New York City bomb plot are Sudanese citizens.
Sudan an Overview, 1993, Memorial Institute For The Prevention Of Terrorism (MIPT), The Terrorism Knowledge Base Offers In -Depth Information On Terrorist Incidents, Groups, And Trials . LINK : TKB.ORG/MOREPATTERNS.JSP?COUNTRYCD=SU&YEAR=1993
In those tapes, Siddig Ali, a tra nslator for the blind sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman openly proclaimed that “our relation is very, very, very, very, strong with the
Sudanese Government, and with the Islamic leaderships of Sudan, thanks to God I have a direct contact with the Islamic Leaders themselves.” Steven Emerson, American Jihad , pp. 142-143.
After the first World Trading Center bombing in 1993, the FBI began to investigate Rahman and his followers more closely. With the assistance of an Egyptian informant wearing a listening device, th e FBI managed to record Rahman issuing a fatwa encouraging acts of violence against US civilian targets, particularly in the New York and New Jersey metropolitan area. The most startling plan, the government charged, was to set off five bombs in 10 minutes , blowing up the United Nations, the Lincoln and Holland tunnels, the George Washington Bridge and a federal building housing the FBI , basically, the routes into New York City from New Jersey, home to the terrorists. Government prosecutors showed videotape s of defendants mixing bomb ingredients in a garage before their arrest in 1993. Rahman was arrested in 1993, along with nine of his followers. In October 1995 , he was convicted of seditious conspiracy and was sentenced to life in prison. Siddig Ali, Aid Of The Blind Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman Planned To Assassinate Egyptian’s President Hosni Mubarak, Siddig Ali, aid of the blind sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman, planned to assassinate Egyptian’s President Hosni Mubarak, who was to visit New York in that spring. I n a taped conversation of Siddig, he stated concise details only known to US Secret Service, of Mubarak’s security detail, - the US Secret Service security staff, the exact motor car President Mubarak would be in and the exact travel routes as it drove President Hosni Mubarak, from Kennedy Airport to his hotel. In addition, Siddig Ali, in a taped conversation, said he had received this information from the Sudanese 8-5
Embassy, from his contact he called the Sudanese Ambassador, his brother . Steven
Emerson, American Jihad, page 143. One must be astounded at the above implications, but how was Sudanese Officials in America, able to obtain such high level US Secret Service detailed information?
Sudan and Another Attempted Assassination of Egyptian’s Preside nt Hosni Mubarak In 1995, three suspected members of the Egyptian terror organization Al Gama'at alIslamiyya attempted to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia. Sudan has provided safe haven to the three suspects and has refused to extr adite them to Ethiopia. The United Nations imposed diplomatic sanctions on Sudan , in 1996, for its failure to turn over the fugitives and for general Sudanese support of international terrorism. For the same reasons, the U.S. has implemented both diplomatic and economic on Sudan. NOTE: as already discussed , Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman was leader of Al-Gama'a alIslamiyya (also known as The Islamic Group). A Look Back Understanding Sudan’s Terror Ties , US Department of State Report s Kenneth R. McKune Acting Coordinator for Counterterrorism , Statement before the Subcommittee on Africa Senate Foreign Relations Committee Washington, D.C., May 15 th, 1997, U.S. Department of State "Sudan and Terrorism" Mr. Chairman: Thank you for the opportunity to testify to day on our counterterrorism policy toward Sudan. Before commenting on Sudan specifically, I would like to briefly provide a context by outlining several key elements of our overall counterterrorism policy. They apply to Sudan and other countries on the ter rorism list, and to individual terrorists.
First, a fundamental principle of U.S. policy is to make no concessions to terrorists. We have a longstanding policy of not giving in to terrorists' demands and not making concessions that would reward terrorist actions, including payment of ransom for hostages. Of course, we will use every appropriate resource to gain the safe return of American citizens held hostage, but without making concessions. These principles have guided our counterterrorism policy and a ctions for many years. We urge other governments to follow these principles, and we apply them in practice. Second, we treat terrorists as criminals, consider their acts of violence as crimes, and make every effort to apprehend international terrorists wh o attack U.S. citizens or interests so that they are prosecuted according to the rule of law. Third, regarding countries that support terrorists, we seek to bring pressure on them to end their assistance by imposing a variety of economic, diplomatic, and political sanctions. Sudan was brought under this sanctions regime in August 1993, when the Secretary of State formally designated it as a country that has repeatedly provided support to groups engaged in acts of international terrorism. Sudan thus joined six countries already on the list: Iran, Iraq, Libya, Syria, North Korea, and Cuba. Sudan was designated under Section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act and related Foreign Assistance and Arms Control legislation because it provided --and continues to provide--safe haven to terrorist groups, training facilities, and a transit point for these
groups. Although we do not have information that Sudan provides the level and type of assistance and active support for specific operations as do some countries on the state sponsor list, the type of hospitality Sudan grants to terrorist groups makes it easier for them to maintain their viability, to train, and to carry out terrorist actions -such as the June 1995 attack by Al -Gama'at al-Islamiyya against President Mubarak in Addis Ababa. Sudan harbors a number of terrorist groups. They include an "old line" secular group, the Abu Nidal Organization, but most of them are militant Islamic extremist organizations. Among them are: HAMAS, the Lebanese Hezbollah, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and Egypt's Al -Gama'at alIslamiyya. The Sudanese government also supports Islamic and non -Islamic opposition groups in Algeria, Uganda, Tunisia, Ethiopia, and Eritrea . Sudan did take a positive step last year by expelling ex-Saudi financier Osama Bin Laden and expelling members of some terrorist groups. However, Sudan has yet to comply with the UN Security Council Resolutions 1044, 1054, and 1070 which call on Sudan to extradite to Ethiopia the three suspects in the June 19 95 assassination attempt against Egyptian President Mubarak and end its support for terrorism. Sudan has not cut off its support for terrorist organizations that continue to have a presence there. The United States have the most stringent set of laws of any country in imposing trade and other sanctions against state sponsors of international terrorism. There are more than a dozen such measures imposed against the seven countries designated by the Secretary as state sponsors, including Sudan. These measures include the Export Administration Act, which curbs the sale of dual use items that could enhance a designated country's military capability or its ability to support acts of terrorism, as well as provisions prohibiting economic assistance, export of military equipment, and GSP trade treatment. Furthermore, as noted on U.S. income tax forms, U.S. individuals and companies are denied any foreign income tax credits for doing business in terrorist list countries. Judging by the inquiries we receive from c ompanies and law firms in the course of a year, this seems to be a considerable disincentive to establishing a business relationship with a country, such as Sudan, that has only a minimal trade with the United States for about $30 million, each way. Other sanctions which apply to Sudan and the other terrorist list governments include using our voice and vote against loans or grants by international financial institutions. In addition, U.S. laws also prohibit American economic assistance to governments tha t provide economic aid or lethal military equipment to Sudan and other governments on the terrorism list. We have been monitoring whether there is any such assistance to Sudan, and if we find such cases we will take appropriate action. These measures are aimed at the potential pressure points of state supporters of terrorism: foreign assistance, international loans, and items which might have military use. The combined weight of these measures imposes severe limits on the U.S. relationship with Sudan and i s designed to persuade Sudan to change its behavior in supporting terrorists. Already our trade relationship with Sudan is relatively minor; we mainly import arabic gum, which is used to provide the backing for stamps and post -it notes. With these economic sanctions as a background, we have continued our efforts to put political and other pressures on Sudan. One arena, as I mentioned, is in the United Nations. But we also work bilaterally, both in our contacts with Sudan and with other governments that ha ve relations with Sudan, to persuade the Sudanese leadership to end their support for terrorism.
The United States believes that the Government of Sudan, which is dominated by the National Islamic Front (NIF), has not taken sufficient steps to stop its su pport for terrorist extremist groups or expel them from its territory. Until Sudan ends such support, it will remain on our state sponsors of terrorism list. Mr. Chairman, at this point, that concludes my overview and I would be pleased to answer any questions you may have.
[End of document]
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE 1996 APRIL: PATTERNS OF GLOBAL TERRORISM, 1995 Office of the Secretary Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Philip C. Wilcox, Jr. OVERVIEW OF STATE -SPONSORED TERRORISM Sudan / Summary Sudan
Sudan continued to serve as a refuge, nexus, and training hub in 1995 for a number of international terrorist organizations, primarily of Middle Eastern origin. The Sudanese Government, which is dominated by the National Islamic Front (NIF), also condoned many of the activities of Iran and the Khartoum -based Osama Bin Laden, a private financier of terrorism. Khartoum permitted the funneling of assistance to terrorist and radical Islamist groups operating in and transiting Sudan. Since Sudan was placed on the US Government's official list of State Sponsors of Terrorism in August 1993, the Sudanese Government has continued to harbor members of some of the world's most violent organization s: the Abu Nidal organization (ANO), Lebanese Hezbollah, the Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ), Egypt's al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group or IG), and the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS). The NIF also supports Islamic and non Islamic opposition groups in Uganda, Tunisia, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Eritrea. Uganda severed diplomatic relations with Sudan in April, citing the inappropriate activities of representatives of the Sudanese Embassy in Kampala. The Government of Uganda said it found these activities threatening to its security. Both Ethiopia and Egypt accused Sudan's security services of providing direct assistance to the IG for the attempt on the life of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa on June 26th. Three surviving assailants captur ed by Ethiopian police provided incriminating information about Sudan's role. Sudanese help to the IG included supplying travel documents and weapons and harboring key planners of the operation. Despite a private plea by the Ethiopian Government, the Sud anese regime did not act on Ethiopia's request for the extradition of three Egyptian suspects involved in the Mubarak assassination attempt, claiming it was unable to locate them. Those being sought included the operation's mastermind - resident in Khartoum - his assistant, and a surviving member of the assassination team. (After the attack misfired, this last individual fled from Addis Ababa to Sudan on Sudan Airlines using a Sudanese passport.) In rare actions against a member state, the Organization of A frican Unity (OAU) on September 11th and again on December 19th called on Sudan to extradite the three IG suspects believed to have been involved in the assassination attempt and to stop aiding terrorism. In an apparent attempt at damage control not long after the assassination attempt, President Bashir removed the head of Sudan's security services and proclaimed a new visa policy requiring Arab foreigners to obtain visas to enter Sudan. The policy did not apply to citizens from three state sponsors of te rrorism - Iraq, Libya, and Syria however, because of bilateral agreements . Khartoum also permitted Osama Bin Laden, a denaturalized Saudi citizen with mujahedin contacts, to use Sudan as a shelter for his radical Muslim followers and to finance and train militant groups. Bin Laden, who lives in Khartoum and owns numerous business enterprises in Sudan, has been linked to numerous terrorist organizations. He directs funding and other logistic support through his companies to a number of extremist causes.
US Bombing Plots A Sudanese national, who pleaded guilty in February 1995 to various charges of complicity in the New York City bomb plots foiled by the Federal Bureau Investigation, alleged that a member of the Sudanese UN Mission had offered to facilit ate access to the UN building in pursuance of the bombing plot. The Sudanese official also is said to have had full knowledge of other bombing targets.
“Sudan's support to terrorist organizations has included paramilitary training, indoctrination, money, travel documentation, safe passage, and refuge in Sudan. Most of the organizations present in Sudan maintain offices or other types of representation. They use Sudan as a base to organize some of their operations and to support compatriots elsewhere. Suda n also serves as a secure transit point and meeting place for several Iranian -backed terrorist groups. ”
Is Sudan Terrorism’s New Mecca? CSC 1997 Subject Area – Topical Issues Executive Summary / Background
Is Sudan terrorism's new Mecca, or a victim of anti -Islamic fear? If you ask Sheik Hassan al-Turabi, leader of Sudan's National Islamic Front, Sudan has no connections to terrorism and is being falsely accused because of its Islamic affiliatio n. However, if you ask any of Sudan's bordering neighbors, the image of terrorism is quite vivid. In a time when terrorist oriented countries such as Iran and Libya were tempering their passion for openly funding terrorism, an unlikely supporter emerged . Who would have thought that a country desperately trying to stabilize after a 1989 coup d' état, engulfed in civil war for the past thirteen years, and economically crippled would openly engage in terrorist activities?
Despite the historical religious animosity, for the first time in history, a minority Shia sect of Islam forged links with a Sunni Muslim government... Iran and Sudan. The world braced for the resultant off -spring that this unholy alliance would produce. The courtship started in late 1991, and the results were quickly revealed. Revolutionary Guard personnel began training fundamentalist people's militias set up by Sudan's Islamic regime. Syrians, Palestinians and Iranians infiltrated schools looking for recruits to indoctrinate into terrorist training. The ultimate goal of this Iran -Sudan connection was the spread of radical fundamentalist Islam.
Links to Terrorism
Despite the denials of Sheik Hassan al -Turabi, there are some peculiar coincidences that he has failed to account for. Following the Libyan shut down of some of its terrorist camps, elements of the radical Palestinian Abu Nidal organization surface in Sudan. Lebanon's Hezbollah and the Palestinian Islamic movement Hamas open offices in Khartoum. Terro rist training camps are identified outside of Khartoum.
Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman, convicted in the bombing of the World Trade Center obtains his visa to the U.S. in Khartoum. Sudan's involvement in the attempted assassination of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in June 1995.
The evidence is overwhelming, Sudan has not only provided a safe haven for terrorists, it has also facilitated in the training of these groups, and become a launch pad for terrorism.
Libya shuts down some of its terrorist camps, and elements of the radical Palestinian Abu Nidal organization surface in Sudan. Lebanon's Hezbollah and the Palestinian Islamic movement Hamas set up offices in Khartoum. Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani visits Khartoum, and Irania n Revolutionary Guard personnel soon arrives to train the fundamentalist people's militias se t up by Sudan's Islamic regime. 9/11 – Sudan Al Qaeda –Iran - Hezbollah, Connections While in Sudan, senior managers in Al Qaeda maintained contacts with Iran and the Iranian-supported worldwide terrorist organization Hezbollah, which is based mainly in southern Lebanon and Beirut. Al Qaeda members received advice and training from Hezbollah. Intelligence indicates the persistence of contacts between Iranian security officials and senior Al Qaeda figures after bin Lad en's return to Afghanistan. Khallad bin Attash, a high -level Al Qaeda. U.S. Al Qaeda detainees have described the willingness of Iranian officials to facilitate the travel of Al Qaeda members through Iran, on their way to and from Afghanistan. For example, Iranian border inspectors would be told not to place telltale stamps in the passports of these travelers. Such arrangements were particularly beneficial to Saudi members of Al Qaeda. Our knowledge o f the international travels of the Al Qaeda operatives selected for the 9/11 operation remains fragmentary. But we now have evidence suggesting that 8 to 10 of the 14 Saudi "muscle" operatives traveled into or out of Iran between October 2000 and February 2001.1 Khallad bin Attash was an Al Qaeda member first suspected of being a member of the network in August 1998, when investigators learned he had assigned Mohamed Rashed Daoud Al-Owhali to bomb the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. In January 2000, Tawfiq bin Attash attended the 2000 Al Qaeda Summit, in the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ( Wherein he met with two of the September 11 th, 2001 hijackers). Bin Attash claimed to be in Malaysia to take delivery of a prosthesis (his leg had been amputated below the knee following an injury in the Afghan -Soviet War). In October 2000 , bin Attash was identified as the mastermind behind the USS Cole bombing which took place in Aden, Yemen. Bin Attash was captured by U.S. forces in May 2003, in Karachi, Pakistan .2, 3
 FOUR MOMENTS WHEN 9/11 MIGHT HAVE BEEN STOPPED COMMISSION REPORTS REVEAL HOW CLOSE US INTELLIGENCE WAS TO THWARTING THE AL QAEDA PLOT BY FAYE BOWERS AND PETER GRIER | STAFF WRITERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR FROM THE APRIL 19, 2004 , EDITION. CSMONITOR.COM/2004/0419/P01S01 -USPO.HTML  PROFILE: TAWIFIQ ("KHALLAD") BIN ATTASH .COOPERATIVERESEARCH.ORG/ENTITY.JSP?ENTITY=TAWIFIQ_(_KHALLAD_)_BIN_ATTASH  BIN ATTASH, TAWFIQ ALIASES: KHALLAD, KHALID AL -ATTASH, TAWFIQ ATTASH KHALLAD, TAWFIQ ATTASH KHALLADA, WALEED MOHAMMED BIN ATTASH, WALID BA'ATTASH TKB.ORG/KEYLEADER.JSP?MEMID=6294
Many Sudanese NIL leaders and cadres were trained in Lebanon by Hezbollah and in Afghanistan by Mujahideen. In the 1990’s the NIL made efforts to unify all Islamic movements, for they believed that an Islamic revival was only possible through establishing Islamic States everywhere and by all means. The NIL along with al Turabi were able to convince both Sunni and Shiite extremists to ignore their differences in orde r to implement shari’ governed Islamic states through out the world. In 1991, they formed the Islamic Arab People Conference ,( which evolved in the Popular Arab and Islamic Conference ) in the following years after 1991 Khartoum became headquarters for Is lamic terrorist operating in Ke nya, Zambia, Uganda, Tanzania, Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Chad, Saudi Arabia, Europe, Bosnia, and the US. From 1991 – 1993 Bin Laden transferred millions of dollars from Iran through his network and established the north Isla mic Bank (Bank al – Shamal) in Khartoum. Bin Laden also purchased one million acres of land in Cordovan, in western Sudan. By 1996, Bin Laden had built over twenty -six terrorist training camps in Sudan. This caused a wave of terror ist attacks through out Africa and the Mid-East. In 1995, an attempt was made to assassinate Egypt’s President Hosni Mubarak, linked to this attempted assassination was bin Laden’s –Al Zawahri. By 1996 , bowing to international pressure Bin Laden was forced to leave Sudan.
FROM: RADICAL ISLAMIC RULES , THE WORLDWIDE SPREAD OF EXTREME SHARIA LAW PAUL MARSHAL , ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD 2005 , PAGES 104-105.
Imad Fayez Mugniyah Who Is Imad Fayez Mugniyah, The International Operational Leader Of Hezbollah? Before the attacks on 9/11 brought bin Laden to the forefront of American interest, Mugniyah was considered “the prime focus of American anti -terror efforts, and had been on the FBI’s Most wanted Terrorist list , almost a decade, before Bin Laden. As the international operations le ader of what the US intelligence community often refers to as “The A-Team of Terror”, many consider him to be even more dangerous than bin Laden.
Born in Lebanon and now 44 years old, the Shi’ite Imad Fayez Mugniyah first trained in his home country with Yassir Arafat’s al -Fatah in the PLO-run Sunni Lebanese camps, Imad quickly rose through the rank, to become part Arafat’s personal body guard, and commando in Arafat’s Force 17 . Imad gained considerable warfare knowledge in Lebanon fight against Israel starting in the 1980’s.1 Relatively little is known about Imad Fayez Mugniyah, considered one of the most influential members of Hezbollah's inner circle. He is thought to be the organization's chief international operator, a shadowy figure behind its leader Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah, and he has been linked to nearly every major terrorist operation executed by Hezbollah over the last twenty -five years. 2 Imad Mugniyah's most importa nt patrons were found in the al Quds Force, a special operations unit part of I ran's Revolutionary Guards, and various elements of Iran's intelligence organs. The direct operational link between Mugniyah and the Revolutionary Guards is likely through the Protection and Intelligen ce Department supporting the al Quds headquarters facil itating external operations Mugniyah was involved in operational supervision of multiple Hezbollah terrorist activities throughout the 1980s (The Jerusalem Report, August 6 th, 1989). In the aftermath of the 1985 TWA 847 hijacking, he left the security of F adlallah to his brother Jihad Mugniyah and moved into the Hezbollah Security Apparatus . It was this entity that initiated the hostage taking and other operations under Hezbollah auspices using the name Islamic Jihad (al -Jihad al-Islami) throughout the mid -1980s. 3 Mugniyah left Lebanon during the later part of 1987 and was in northern Iran. He went to Qum in January 1988 and returned to Lebanon in 1990. Mugniyah became progressively more distant from day -to-day Hezbollah operations and more closely associated with Iran's Revolutionary Guards. The relationship between Imad Mugniyah and the Revolutionary Guards was one of mutual exploitation. Mugniyah acted as a Guards asset by filling an important niche in many operational environments furthering Iranian fo reign policy goals. Conversely, Mugniyah had a great patron in the Guards with the infrastructure and resources of a state to facilitate Mugniyah as a notable in his own right both in Hezbollah and within the Musawi clan. This enabled Mugniyah to create hi s own client and patronage networks as a terrorist facilitatin g his operational capabilities. 4 Sudan
Bin Laden meanwhile met with Imad Mughniyah, the secretive, Iran based head of Hezbollah’s security service. This was an important meeting: It was Imad Mughniyah, who masterminded the suicide truck bombing of the Marines barracks in Beirut in 1983, which killed 283 American servicemen and precipitated a US pullout from Lebanon within a few months . “
------ Peter Bergen, Holy War, Inc.: Inside The Secret World Of Osama Bin Laden , Page 85.
In fact, we have already learned it was through Bin Laden’s top US operative through FBI investigations, court records, it was Al Mohammed wh o forged the links of Bin Laden which would ‘set the world on fire ’.
By the early 1990s, Iran's foreign operations extended to Sudan . There, in 1993, Mugniyah was said to have been introduced to Osama bin Laden ( Asharq al-Awsat , August 11th). Throughout the 1990 ’s, Mugniyah apparently worked to e stablish Hezbollah support cells everywhere from North Carolina to Latin America to Africa.
Mugniyah's current age and value as an operational asset for the Revolutionary Guards preclude his direct involvement in risky operations. The kidnap operation against Israeli Defense Force soldiers that ignited this summer's Israeli -Lebanon war, for example, was unlikely to have merited his participation. If he was involved, his actual role would have likely been mentoring the commanders who did carry out the operation.5 Iraq –Iran- Hezbollah - Al Qaeda Demonstrating Mugniyah's operational maturity, Hamid Zakiri, a defector from the Guards' al-Quds Force, argued that Mugniyah himself facilitated the escape of senior Al Qaeda personnel to Iran after September 11 th. This included some of Osama bin Laden's close family members. Zakiri also alleged that Mugniyah was taking an active role in organizing Shiite resistance in southern Iraq ( Asharq al-Awsat ). The Shiites in Iraq may well come to bear arms against the West as their brethren in Lebanon have done under the influence of Iran and with the assistance of operatives like Mugniyah. Lebanon's battle of Bint Jubail, where Hezbollah held off the full fury of the IDF for 28 days, is testament to the quality of Hezbollah ar ms and operational skills ( al-Jazeera , September 5 th). The hard won status of Hezbollah in the face of Israeli military might in the August confrontation is for politicians like Hassan Nasrallah to exploit. Yet , in the twilight war between Hezbollah and th e West, it is men like Imad Mugniyah that keep men like Hassan Nasrallah alive. 6
SOURCES AND NOTES  IRAN'S TERRORIST ASSET: A HISTORY OF IMAD MUGNIYAH BY CARL ANTHONY WEGE 2006 JAMESTOWN.ORG/TERRORISM/NEWS/ARTICLE.PHP?ARTICLEID=2370123  IRAN'S TERRORIST ASSET: A HISTORY OF IMAD MUGNIYAH BY CARL ANTHONY WEGE VOLUME 4, ISSUE 17 (SEPTEMBER 8 th, 2006) JAMESTOWN.ORG/TERRORISM/NEWS/ARTICLE.PHP?ARTICLEID=2370123&PRINTTHIS=1  PROFILES IN TERROR, THE GUIDE TO MIDDLE EAST TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS , AARON MANNES JINSA BOOK 2004, IMAD MUGNIYAH , PAGES 158-159.  HEZBOLLAH OPERATION LEADER WITH AHMADINEJAD IN DAMASCUS? FACILITATING IRAN'S NEW TERRORIST 'COALITION OF THE WILLING' ALLIANCE AMONG HEZBOLLAH, HAMAS, PFLP AND OTHERS BY STEVE SCHIPPERT INBRIEF.THREATSWATCH.ORG/2006/01/HEZBOLLAH -OPERATION-LEADER-WIT/  IBID 1  IBID 1
Canada and America Testifying before the U.S. Senate, U.S. Attorney Robert J. Conrad confirmed that Mugniyah directly oversees the Canadian operations and, by extension, the American division. This reasoning stems from the fact that Dbouk was in direct contact with Hassan Hilu Laqis, a Hezbollah agent operating out of Lebanon who managed many of the procurement projects in North America.
In a fax intercepted by Canadian intelligence , Dbouk assures Laqis that he is doing all he possibly can to help Hezbollah. In addition, Dbouk says he will do “anything”, and “he means anything”, to help the “father”.
The Canadian prosecutor involved in the case, Kenneth Bell, stated that the father is in fact a codename for Imad Mugniyah. In addition, a recent report in the Washington Times suggested Hezbollah currently runs active cells in at least 10 U.S. cities. Mugniyah has never attacked a target in North America, but with tensions rising between the United States and Iran over the issue of nuclear proliferation, his terrorist network could rapidly become Iran’s weapon of choice against American targets
SOURCE: TEHRAN TERROR MASTER MAY 2005, MUGNIYAH AND AL -QAEDA PATRICK DEVENNY IS THE HENRY M. J ACKSON NATIONAL SECURITY FELLOW AT THE CENTER FOR SECURITY POLICY IN WASHINGTON D.C. FRONTPAGEMAG.COM/ARTICLES/READARTICLE.ASP
Parting SHOTS: April 21 st, 2006: Dispatch Series - No. 1143 MEMRI, Sudanese Scholar and Islamist Leader Hassan Al-Turabi on Al-Arabiya TV. Hassan Al-Turabi: 2006
"This is the weakness of the Muslims. They always just sit there and beg God to solve their problems: 'Oh Allah, kill the Jews, kill the Americans.' That's what they do, just sitting there. They want Jesus to come, the y want the Mahdi to come, and fill the world with justice and light .”
SOURCE: MEMRI: APRIL 21 st, 2006 DISPATCH SERIES - NO. 1143 MEMRI MEMRI.ORG/BIN/ARTICLES.CGI?PAGE=ARCHIVES&AREA=SD&ID=SP114306
2005: Al-Rai Al-Aam: Sudanese Official Warns Against Sche mes Targeting Syria Sudan-Syria, Politics, 9/21/2005 . Sudanese Foreign Minister Musstafa Osman Ismail has said that Syria is targeted by Israel and hardliners in the American administration. In a statement to Kuwaiti al-Rai al-Aam newspaper published Tuesday, Ismail warned against the repercussions of these schemes against Syria, calling all the Arabs to be aware of their dangers to all Arabs.
2005: Sudanese President Declares Solidarity With Syria Sudan-Syria, Politics, 11/25/2005 . Sudanese President Omar Hassan al -Bashir declared on Thursday his country is standing by Syria as a government and people to confront what she is exposed to of pressure.
SOURCE: ARABICNEWS.COM/ANSUB/DAILY/DAY/05112 5/2005112514.HTML
Did Saddam Hussein Missiles and WMD Go To Sudan, And then Removed? Sudan Orders Syrian Missiles WMDs Removed May 3 rd, 2004: Arab diplomatic and Sudanese government sources report that Sudanese President Omar Bashir has ordered the Scu d C and Scud D ballistic missiles originally from Syria be removed from Sudan, as well as the chemical weapons materials stored in Khartoum. The Syrian missiles were apparently sent to Sudan in January 2004, by way of about 30 Syrian flights. The Sudanese source quoted by Geostrategy -direct suggested that the removal order was prompted by concerns that the missiles would be discovered by the United States and lead to worsening of sanctions: “We consider our relations with the United States more important th an those with Syria, ” the Sudanese source said, and also indicated that another “unidentified African country” may be the next destination for the missiles .
Sudan Orders Syrian WMD Out Of Country Middle East News Letter April 22nd, 2002 LONDON [MENL, Middle East News Line, Defense & Strategy ] -- Sudan has ordered the removal of Syrian missiles and weapons of mass destruction out of the African country.
Arab diplomatic and Sudanese government sources said t he regime of Sudanese President Omar Bashir has ordered that Syria remove its Scud C and Scud D medium-range ballistic missiles as well as components for chemical weapons stored in warehouses in Khartoum. The sources said the Sudanese demand was issued aft er the Defense Ministry and Interior Ministry confirmed a report published earlier this month that Syria has been secretly flying Scud -class missiles and WMD components to Khartoum. The sources said the Bashir regime has been alarmed over the prospect th at the United States would discover the Syrian arsenal and conclude that Damascus and Khartoum were cooperating in the area of missiles and WMD. They said this would have delayed or dashed U.S. plans to lift sanctions from Sudan.
A U.S. official confirme d the Syrian missile shipments to Sudan, saying they were meant for use against rebels in the south. But the official said the U.S. intelligence community has not determined that Syria sent WMD systems to Khartoum.
LINK: FREEREPUBLIC.COM/FOCUS/F -NEWS/1124399/POSTS
Other than interesting information as to the Syrian, Iraq WMD possibly, I have not been able to find any further concrete information on the subject. Walid Phares holds degrees in law and political science from Saint Joseph University and the Lebanese University in Beirut, a Masters in international law from the Universit é de Lyons in France and a Ph.D. in international relations and strategic studies from the University of Miami. He has taught and lectured at numerous universities worldwide, practiced law in Beirut, and served as publisher of Sawt el-Mashreq and Mashrek International . He currently teaches Middle East political issues, ethnic and religious conflict, and comparative politics at Florida Atlantic University. Dr. Phares has writt en seven books on the Middle East and published hundreds of articles in newspapers and scholarly publications such as Global Affairs , Middle East Quarterly , and Journal of South Asian and Middle East Studies . He has appeared on CNN, MSNBC, NBC, CBS, ABC, P BS, and BBC as well as on radio broadcasts. Aside from serving on the boards of several national and international think tanks and human rights associations, Dr. Phares has testified before the US Senate Subcommittee on the Middle East and South East Asia and regularly conducts congressional and State Department briefings. Dr. Phares is a visiting fellow with the European Foundation for Democracy in Brussels and a senior fellow with the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies in Washington, D.C. His most recent book is Future Jihad , and he was the author of the memo that introduced UNSCR 1559 in 2004. Turabi, Architect of 1.5 Million African Genocide
“Ironically, I learned personally about Hassan Turabi while on academic visit to the University of South Florida in 1991. I found flyers put out by WISE, ideas and academic projects associated with the university, and promoting an “exchanger of ideas and academic projects with the Muslim world.” One summarized a visit by Turabi, who was described as a promin ent Muslim Thinker, to the university. The “prominent” Turabi had indeed toured US
Campus for years, talking about “dialogue and coexistence and the negative effects of colonialism.” Smooth and polished, Turabi, was at the same time “prominent” in engineer ing the largest ethnic cleansing and genocide in Africa’s modern history: 1.5 million black Africans were exterminated by a regime whose central figure was called a “man of intellectual renaissance “ by the Middle East Studies elite in the United Sates and Western Countries.”
--- Future Jihad , Terrorist Strategies Against America , Walid Phares Palgrave Macmillan 2005, Page 124. Final Note: WISE, World Islamic Studies Enterprise Palestinian Islamic Jihad Sami Al-Arian Sami Al-Arian was a Computer Science professor at the University of South Florida (USF). Al-Arian, of Palestinian heritage, came to the United States in 1975 to begin his university studies. In 1986, he began teaching at the University of South Florida in Tampa and became a tenured professor in 1992. Al-Arian served as one of the original founders of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), a designated terrorist organization. PIJ, as we have seen, is “committed to…the destruction of Israel through holy war.” PIJ has been responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, including suicide bombings, resulting in the deaths of civilians in Israel. In the late 1980s, Al -Arian established two think tanks: the Islamic Concern Project (also know as the Islamic Committee for Pal estine) and the World and Islam Studies Enterprise (WISE). Several terrorism experts and government officials have alleged that ICP and WISE served as financial and strategic conduits for the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), a designated terrorist organization. On a videotape of a 1991 conference in Cleveland, Ohio, seized by FBI agents, al Arian is introduced as “the president of the Islamic Committee for Palestine . A short briefing about the Islamic Committee for Palestine proves it is the active arm of the Islamic Jihad movement in Palestine, and we like to call it the Islamic Committee for Palestine here for security reasons. ” After being introduced, Al -Arian stated, “Let us continue the protests. Let us damn
America. Let us damn Israel. Let us damn their allies until death.”
In another seized videotape, Al -Arian delivered an impassioned speech before a rapt audience at a high school in Chicago in 1991. Al -Arian referred to Jews as “monkeys and pigs” and stated, “Mohammad is leader. The Qu’ran is ou r constitution. Jihad is our path. Victory to Islam ! Death to Israel! Revolution! Revolution! Until Victory! Rolling, rolling to Jerusalem.” In October 1995, Ramadan Abdullah Shallah took over as head of the Islamic Jihad, based in Damascus, Syria. From 1991 through early 1995, Mr. Shallah was a professor at Tampa's University of South Florida and director of the World Islamic Studies Enterprise, (WISE) ostensibly an academic research center. After the ex-professor assumed his Islamic Jihad post, the FB I and the Immigration and Naturalization Service raided his former campus office, as well as the offices and home of his USF colleague Sami Al -Arian, the founder of WISE and an affiliated "religious charity" called the Islamic committee for Palestine. Fede ral investigators
uncovered overwhelming evidence proving, that both organizations were the arms of the Islamic Jihad. Under the cover of legitimacy its university affiliation provided, WISE actually brought terrorists into the U.S. and raised funds for Islamic Jihad. Mr. Al-Arian, organized a series of conferences for "Islamic leaders and thinkers" in Chicago and St. Louis between 1988 and 1992, which featured a number of the world's top, terrorist leaders. The evidence found in his home and office constitutes one of the largest collections of raw terrorist material ever seized in the U.S. Links to 1993 WTC Bombing According to federal sources, documents and testimony connected with the Florida investigation, the Islamic Jihad front groups in Tampa had ex tensive financial and political ties with many Islamic extremist groups worldwide. They collaborated with Sheik Omar Abdul -Rahman and others involved in the World Trade Center bombing. They also laundered millions of dollars, worked with Hamas leaders in t he U.S. and elsewhere, and helped oversee terrorist cells in the Middle East. The spiritual head of Islamic Jihad, Abdul Aziz Odeh, who had visited Tampa and stayed with Mr. Al -Arian several times, was an unindicted co -conspirator in the World Trade Center bombing.
In 1995, after a suicide bombing operation carried out by Palestinian Islamic Jihad where Israeli soldiers were killed, the University of South Florida computer science professor Sami Al-Arian wrote a fund-raising letter in which he "call(s) up on you to try to extend true support to the jihad effort in Palestine so that operations such as these can continue." Many of Al -Arian's past statements and associations have raised suspicions that he was involved with terrorist organizations based in the Middle East. However, the fund -raising letter signed by al -Arian, shown during the October 28th telecast of NBC's Dateline, is direct evidence of his active support for terrorism.
It was not until 2006 that Al-Arian was convicted for his links with terro rism, and sentenced to 57 months in prison. Source: Steven Emerson and the Investigate Project on Terrorism, Jihad Incorporated, A Guide To Militant Islam in the US /WISE, pages 245 -261. Department Of Justice Statement Regarding The Arrest Of Mazen Al Najjar WASHINGTON, D.C. - - The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) today arrested Mazen Al Najjar, in Tampa, Florida. The arrest is based on a final order of deportation recently upheld by the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, in Atlanta, Georgia. Al Najjar was ordered deported because he violated his visa and was ineligible for any form of relief from deportation. Al Najjar had also established ties to terrorist organizations and held leadership positions in the Tampa based Islamic Concern Project (ICP) and the World and Islam Studies Enterprise. This case underscores the Justice Department's commitment to address terrorism by using all legal authorities available. The ICP and the World and Islam Studies Enterprise are fr ont organizations that raised funds for militant Islamic -Palestinian groups such as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) and Hamas. The PIJ, designated by the Secretary of State as a terrorist organization, has claimed responsibility for several acts of ter rorism including at least two deadly attacks on Israeli citizens this month. Furthermore, Al Najjar's Tampa based ICP was responsible for petitioning for other known terrorists to obtain visas to enter the United States.
The Eleventh Circuit Court's rece nt affirmation of the final order of removal provided INS with the authority to take Al Najjar into custody and proceed with removing him from the United States. His current detention is not based on classified evidence. The INS regularly detains individua ls who have a final order of deportation while it prepares for their removal from the United States if they are a flight risk, a threat to the community or a threat to national security. Al Najjar is being detained under this standard.
SOURCE: FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE, SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 24 th, 2001. WWW.USDOJ.GOV
We are not confronted by a rag -tag group of extremists, a few of whom are little educated. We are dealing with a whole class of highly educated individuals who has embraced Islamic Fascism, a heino us twisted belief in a worldwide genocide of those who conceive of life, of God differently from them. These extremists believe they have a holy mandate from God, to wash the earth with the blood of the unbelievers; they are fired with a rabid frenzy, wher e they have committed their soul purpose in life is to remove the Great Satan; they have worldwide links, billions of dollars in resources, much comes from oil revenues and the kindness of American heart, which allowed them to come to the US, as a means of dialogs, to mend differences, to build a peace. Here in America, hidden behind the blanket of mutual respect and a desire for peace, they have woven a web for death and destruction on American soil. After being introduced, Al -Arian stated,
“Let us continue the protests. Let us damn America. Let us damn Israel. Let us damn their allies until death.”
Sudan Useful Facts Background Sudan 2006 Geography Area: 2.5 million sq. km. (967,500 sq. mi.); the largest country in Africa and almost the size of continental U.S. east of the Mississippi River. Cities: Capital--Khartoum (pop. 1.4 million). Other major cities are Omdurman (2.1 million), Port Sudan (pop. 450,000), Kassala, Kosti, Juba (capital of southern region). Land boundaries: Central African Republic , Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, and Uganda. Terrain: Generally flat with mountains in east and west. Khartoum is situated at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile Rivers. The southern regions are inunda ted during the annual floods of the Nile River system (the Suud or swamps). Climate: Desert and savanna in the north and central regions and tropical in the south. People: Nationality: Noun and adjective (sing. and pl.) --Sudanese. Population (2005 est.): 4 0.2 million; 30%-33% urban. Annual growth rate (2004 est.): 2.6%. Ethnic groups: Arab/Muslim north and black African/Christian and animist south. Religions: Islam (official), indigenous beliefs (southern Sudan), Christianity. Languages: Arabic (official), English, tribal languages. Education: Years compulsory--8. Attendance--35%-40%. Literacy--61% Health: Infant mortality rate --64/1,000. Life expectancy --58.5 years. Work force: Agriculture --80%; industry and commerce --7%; government--13%.
U.S., Sudanese Relations in 2006 Although Sudan is on the U.S. Government's state sponsors of terrorism list, the United States is a major donor of humanitarian aid to Sudan, and the U.S. has welcomed steps toward peace in the country. The U.S. also has been a leader in pressing for strong international action by the United Nations and its agencies in Darfur. The U.S. and the international community welcomed the January 9 th, 2005 signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and the May 5 th, 2006 signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), while a series of UN Security Council resolutions in late March 2005 and 2006 underscored concerns about Sudan's continuing conflicts. On September 11 th, 2006 the U.S. linked improved relations to Sudanese acceptance of a UN peaceke eping operation in Darfur. (For more, see "End to the Civil War" and "Darfur," above.)
We have explored the covert world of Islamic Fascism, its world wide web of terror. These entities are at war with America, Europ e, Israel, and the west. But these forgotten facts, and little noted associations, and their decades ’ long endeavors, must be realized, for they have not and will not put aside their war, for they believe they have a holy mandate from God. This Jihad, cries out for the death and destruction of everyone and anything which does not conform to their Islamic ideology, and nothing, no one will be spared, nothing is sacrilege, butcher with immunity. You cannot reason with them, you cannot bargain with them, for they want your death, your children’s deaths, to remove your way of life from the face of the earth. Their war has nothing to do with what America may or not do, for America is “The Great Satan”. What are the consequences if we remain in ignorance? Much of the world will turn into an ocean of death, and blood, much more heinous that what is seen in Iraq, chaos and sanguinary. However we have explored the covert world of Islamic Fascism, its world wide web of terror. These entities are at war with Americ a, Europe, Israel, and the west. But these forgotten facts, and little noted associations, and their decades’ long endeavors, must be realized, for they have not and will not put aside their war, for they believe they have a holy mandate from God. This Jihad, cries out for the death and destruction of everyone and anything which does not conform to their Islamic ideology, and nothing, no one will be spared, nothing is sacrilege , butcher with immunity. You cannot reason with them, you cannot bargain with t hem, for they want your death, your children’s deaths, to remove your way of life from the face of the earth. Their war has nothing to do with what America may or not do , for America is “The Great Satan”. What are the consequences if we remain in ignora nce ? Much of the world will turn into an ocean of death, and blood, much more heinous that what is seen in Iraq, chaos and sanguinary.