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1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND

In 1991, the government of NWFP created Sarhad Tourism Corporation (STC) as a public limited company to promote tourism in the province. This was done in recognition of the enormous potential for economic development through environmental tourism based on the diverse landscape, rich culture and pristine ecological resources of the province. Basically, whatever tourism development had taken place in Pakistan, was mostly through ad-hoc planning of the Tourism Corporations financed by the Government of Pakistan. No planned or integrated efforts were made to systematically and gradually develop the tourism industry in Pakistan. Neither the environment impact nor need or demand assessments were carried out before embarking upon development activities in this sector. Unfortunately, this unplanned, disorganized and ad-hoc approach resulted in wasting a lot of natural and financial resources. It has also destroyed the ecology and environment of the potential areas. The mushroom like development of infrastructure both by the private and public sectors without keeping the future in view marred the beauty of the areas with tourism potential. The resources were concentrated in a few areas, resulting in over-crowding certain places and totally ignoring other areas, which were left behind under-developed. The standard of tourists facilities and man made attractions were far below the national and international standards, which is limiting tourists traffic. Inadequate security measures in these areas further sailed the environment, No concerted and integrated efforts seem to exist to 1

publicize, promote and expose Pakistan's tourism potential to the outside world and that is why Pakistan is called "Asia's best kept secret". Due to the total dependence and heavy burden on the government's financial resources, the Tourism Corporations of Punjab and Sind have become parasites and a liability for their governments. Learning from the experiences of the other Tourism Corporations in Pakistan and the other sister organizations of Siri Lanka and Maldives etc. the Sarhad Tourism Corporation (STC) was established by the government of N.W.F.P with a clear mandate to play its role as a catalyst and help promote the tourism industry through the private sector. It is the government of NWFP's strategy to help the STC to stand on its own feet and become a self sustaining organization. STC was supposed to receive a one time grant from the government to begin its activities but would essentially be self-financing. It was decided by the G.0. NWFP that STC should have a Regional Master Plan to have a planned and systematic approach towards developing the tourism industry of Malakand. In that, it was decided that STC would hire a team of consultants to prepare a 5-10 years Regional Master Plan for the development of Tourism in Malakand. The Joint Venture of M/S Gulf Consulting Associates, 34-Abdara Road University Town, Peshawar and M/S Universal Development Associates, 3-Asif Plaza Defence Chowk, Lahore Cantt. were awarded this consultancy assignment in April 1996, and this Report has been prepared as a final product in this regard. 1.2 LOCATION

Malakand division marks the northern most boundary of Pakistan 2

(Fig.1). It is strategically located in close proximity to Afghanistan, China and Central Asian States of Tajikistan. Hazara Region makes its boundary on the eastern sides, whereas the districts of Mardan and Charsadda are located in the south. Some area of Bajaur Agency and the international boundary with Afghanistan makes its boundary on the western side. Malakand division is situated between 34 -17' to 36-52' N and 71-15' to 70 E on the world map.

Fig.1

1.3

TOPOGRAPHY

Malakand division is an all mountainous area, surrounded on the north by Hindukush and Karakuram Ranges where high snow covered peaks of world fame are located. The area starts gaining the altitude from Malakand Agency which starts from the foot hills of the Malakand Range. The Swat valley stretches from here on and reaches at high altitudes at Kalam and further towards north. Dir is relatively higher than Swat and subsequently Chitral is the highest valley bounded by the highest altitudes in the whole division. All three valleys are separated by mountain ranges running almost parallel in north-south orientation. The relative average altitudes of the district headquarters above sea level are as follows: i. ii. iii. iv. 1.4 Dir Swat Chitral Malakand CLIMATE 1382 Meters 1067 Meters 1475 Meters 689 Meters

Except Malakand Agency which is located at comparatively lower altitude, the climate of whole division is temperate during summer and colder in winter as compared to the rest of the province. Rainfall is spread over the months of January, February, March and April during the winter season and over the month of July and August during the summer. Most of the downpour occurs during January and March as a result of easterly winds from the Mediterranean sea.

Rainfall various around 100 mm to 150 mm while the temperature varies between 7 and 30 C. Most part of the division witnesses snow fall every year, mild at low altitude and heavy at high altitudes. Most peaks especially on the northern side remain snow clad all the year round, where glaciers are commonly found. 1.5 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The history of Malakand Agency is intricately woven with history of Swat, Dir and Chitral. Early in the sixteenth century the Yousafzai Pathans effected their entrance into Swat by the Malakand and in the 1587 Zain Khan, a general of the emperor Akbar, built a fort here. In 1845 the Pass was taken by the Chitral Relief Force and has since been occupied as a military post near which is also located the head quarters of the Political Agency. On July 26, 1897, the post was suddenly attacked by a large gathering of Swat under a fanatical leader, the Mulla Mastan. Tribesmen from Utman Khel and Upper Swat attacked which were later repulsed and the area was relieved on August 2, 1897. It remained under British control till 1947 when it became a part of Pakistan. However, its tribal status was recognized and to date it is a tribal area under the provincial control as (FATA)Provincially Administered Tribal Area. The district presently now and previously before, is partitioned between two parts by Malakand hill. The northern part is called Swat Ranizai and the southern part is called Sam Ranizai. Primarily the population of the area was and still is dependent upon agriculture with two distinct classes of agriculturists; the owners and tenants, with periodic uprising from time to time against each other. Without a mention of Malakand Operation, the history of Malakand is incomplete.

Back in 1895, the British Govt. adopted a forward policy to extend its occupation to Malakand and beyond, and lured some local influential to side with them, of course with immediate and long term benefits. They marched onwards despite resistance from the locals, but were fully engaged at Malakand Pass. A fierce battle between the British force and the local Mujahideen took place. The British finally succeeded in overcoming the resistance. The hill top and surrounding area was occupied by the British forces. Sir Winston Churchill, who later became the British Prime Minister was a lieutenant at that time, travelled in a tonga from Nowshera to Malakand and took part in the operation. One picket near Chakdara on the adjoining hill top, was named after him as "Churchill Picket". A few decades back in early sixties, Queen Elizabeth, on her way to Swat on the invitation of President Ayub visited this spot and conveyed her message to Churchill, who was alive then. The first historical mention of Swat is made by Arians, who record that in 326 B.C. Alexander the Great led his army through Kunar, Bajaur, Swat and Buner; but his successor, Seleucus, twenty years later handed over territories to Chandragupta. The inhabitants were in those days of Indian origin. Buddhism being the prevailing religion, they remained thus almost undisturbed under their own kings until the fifteenth century. They were the ancestors of the non-Pathan tribes. The invasions of the Yousafzai and other Pathan tribes, aided by the Utman Khel, then began; and by the sixteenth century, the Yousufzai were in possession of Buner and Lower Swat. The advent of these Pathan invaders introduced Islam throughout Swat. At this time the Emperor Babar, by a diplomatic marriage with the daughter of Malik Shah Mansoor, the head of the Yousafzai clan, and

by force of arms, established his sovereignty throughout these areas. However, Upper Swat was still held by the aboriginal Swatis under Sultan Uais or Wais, who also tendered a voluntary submission,. claiming protection from the invaders which Babar gave. In Humayun's reign, however, the advance was continued, and the Yousafzai overran Upper Swat. Humayun's yoke was rejected by them and even Akbar in 1584 could exert no more than a nominal submission. By 1658, however, in which year Aurangzeb ascended to the throne, the tribes refused to pay revenue, declared their independence, and maintained it till the time of Nadir Shah, whose successors, Ahmad Shah Durrani and Timur Shah, kept their hold on the area. The grasp was not lost by those who came after, and when Azim Khan attacked Sikhs in 1823, the Yousafzai sent a large contingent with their army. They were defeated and Ranjit Singh entered Peshawar, but did not move toward north. Syed Ahmad Shah Brailvi stood against the Sikhs but was martyred near Balakot in 1831. On the establishment of British rule in the Peshawar valley in 1849, no attempt was made to penetrate into these hills. The primacy then passed to Abdul Ghafoor, the famous Akhun, who established himself in 1835 at Saidu in Upper Swat, where he lived until his death in 1877. He was the most powerful man of his time. His shrine is located at Saidu which is now called Saidu Sharif. His son Abdul Wadud and grandson Miangul Jehanzeb were into Pakistan in 1968. Dir takes its name from the village Dir, situated at the extreme north which was the capital of the ruler, called Nawab, till 1960. Dir is situated on the bank of Dir tributary of Panjkora river. Presently the district has been bifurcated into Lower Dir and Upper Dir Districts with later called Bacha Saheb and Wali of Swat respectively. The state was merged

headquarter of Lower Dir is located at Timargara which occupies a central position in the district and Dir Town as the headquarter of Upper Dir, administratively. The problems of sovereignty over Dir has witnessed many a campaign between local Khan and Chieftains, prominent amongst them being the Khan of Jundool, Umara Khan, Mohammad Sharif Khan, Miangul of Swat (the son of Abdul Ghafoor Akhun). Chakdara, its extreme south village has seen many events from the days of Alexander the Great, Babar, the Mughal King and his descendants and finally the British in 1895 and 1897. It is to recall that the local Mujahideen voluntarily fought the British forces in 1895 when they tried to find their way to Chitral via Malakand-Chakdara. The "Ghazis" were defeated and a fort at Chakdara and a picket by the mane of Churchill Picket on the two hills were constructed. Dir as mentioned earlier was ruled by the Nawab, and his successors for over eighty years till 1960 when the control was taken over by the Pakistan Government after a brief and bloodless plan. Dir has the unique historical background of the visit by three prominent and powerful personalities. First of them was Alexander the Great who entered Dir from Bajaur side. At Talash in Dir he was stopped by the forces of a local monarch who happened to be a woman. A brief skirmish ensued and Alexandra sustained an injury on his leg by an arrow. Later on, a compromise was struck which resulted in the marriage of Alexander with the woman monarch. Secondly, Mahmood Ghaznavi also conquered the area by defeating the east while Hindu Shahi near Chakdara. The huge graveyard near Batkhela (Malakand Agency) is the resting place of many a Ghaznavi martyrs. In and around Chakdara are also found many coins of Mahmood of Ghaznavi, bearing evident to the Ghaznavi rule in the area. Thirdly, the Mughal King Babar also crossed over to Dir via Bajaur and then to Swat

through an intervening hill between Dir and Swat near village Ouch. The exact site where he crossed over the hill is called Ghakhai (Ghakhai means a cut). Lately, Umara Khan, a local Khan of Jandool (Dir) who rose high, fought with the British at Chitral. Because of his limited resources he could not stand the forces of the British and crossed over to Afghanistan. For his strategic moves and tactics in the war against British and local encounters he was sometimes called Napoleon of France. He was suffering from extreme lack of resources. All he depended upon and till very late thereafter, was the locally manufactured arms from a native area in Barawal, near Dir. The people of Chitral are predominantly emigrants from Afghanistan which is their close neighbor. Part of the population are those who came with Alexander the Great and settled here when he left the area. These remnants of those days have maintained their culture and identity till this day. The valleys where they live are known by the name of Kafiristan, the name which is now the main attraction for the tourists. Not only their beauty and attire but also their customs are attractive. By passage of time their number has decreased considerably as they are converting to Islam. There is a strong feeling for trying to maintain their identity and to have the least interference in their affairs. The name Kafiristan, as it was introduced in last forties has attracted tourists not only from far and wide within the country but also from all around the world. Till late fifties the district, previously known as a princely state of Chitral was ruled by "Mehtars". These Mehtars were emigrants from Afghanistan. The word `Mehtar' means superior, and the way they as Babar's

ruled and behaved was superior too. One of the main reasons of the backwardness and poverty of the area, besides difficult accessibility was the tight grip over the residents by these superior rulers. 1.6 AREA AND POPULATION

Malakand division is the largest in Pakistan in terms of area., The population of the division was 2.467 million in 1981, which has been estimated to be 3.725 million in 1991, at the growth rate of 3 % per annum. The 1996 population on the same growth rate has been estimated to be about 4.52 million. Table: 1 shows the population and area by districts of the division.

TABLE: 1 Population and Area by Districts S.NO . NAME OF DISTT AREA IN SQ.KM POPULATIO N IN 1981 POPULATION IN 1991 (ESTIMATED) 12,10,000 14,35,000 POPULATIO N IN 1994 (ESTIMATE D) 1412000 1641000 POPULATIO N IN 1996 (ESTIMATED ) -

1. 2.

DIR SWAT (with Shangla)

5,282 6,945

7,67,409 9,67,484

3.

BUNER

1,843

2,65,517

4,05,000

467000

4. 5.

CHITRAL MALAKAND TOTAL

14,850 952

2,08,560 2,57,797

2,91,000 3,84,000

325000 415000 42,60,000

45,20,000

1.7. ADMINISTRATIVE SET UP Malakand division has been divided into the following administrative units, which are also shown in Fig-2: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Malakand Agency District Buner District Swat District Shangla District Lower Dir District Upper Dir District Chitral

Districts of Buner and Shangla had been historically a part of district Swat and are relatively recently established administrative units. However, the Malakand Division can be divided into distinct entities in a different fashion based on its physical, geographical and topographical features as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Malakand Agency Swat Dir Chitral

Fig. 2

2. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


2.1 GOALS

The goals of the Regional Master Plan are:a. Promote and develop the tourism industry of Malakand Division by involving both the private and public sectors. b. Fully protect and preserve the culture, traditions, history, heritage, environment and wild life of the target areas. c. Develop the socio-economic conditions of the people and areas having tourism potential. d. Gradually and systematically identify and develop all the existing potential areas for attracting tourists both from in and outside the country. e. Introduce, promote, develop and publicize the tourism potential of Malakand Division in and outside the country and f. 2.2 Make the STC a self financing agency. OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the Regional Master Plan are to:i. Systematically and through short, medium and long term strategy/plan/approach, gradually develop the potential areas of Malakand Division for generating income

by attracting the foreign as well as the potential areas. ii. Set the future direction of the

local tourists to the Sarhad Tourism

Corporation/Government of NWFP/Ministry of Tourism for the promotion and development of tourism in Malakand Division. iii. Involve private enterprises in setting up profitable and

innovative recreational tourist facilities/attractions in Malakand Division either individually or jointly with the government of N.W.F.P. iv. Explore and identify various ways and means for generating revenue for making the STC a self-financing organization. v. Provide the basic infrastructure and recreational activities required for the development of potential tourism areas to facilitate tourist travel, lodging, food and recreation etc. in collaboration with the private sector. vi. Develop the human resources of various institutions, both private and public, directly linked with the tourism industry, for providing services to the tourists. vii. Address the problems of unemployment, migration from rural to urban areas, income generation for the poor masses, and raising the standard of living of the potential areas. viii Identify the weaknesses in STC and their resolution to

strengthen the STC to fully implement the regional master plan and play its role as a catalyst.

ix.

Identify various areas having tourism potential and work out the appropriateness and feasibility of various activities for developing attractions in these areas.

x.

Promote and market the Malakand tourism industry in and outside the country.

xi.

Regulate, control and protect the environment of the crowded areas already thronged by the tourists/visitors and prevent the recurrence of this mishap in the potential tourist areas.

xii.

Privatize the tourism industry and install a sense of ownership of the tourism industry in the private investors.

xiii

Establish a network

amongst the private sector, Federal

Government, Provincial Government and other sister tourism institutions both in and outside the country for the improvement and promotion of the tourism in Malakand Region.

3. AN OVERVIEW OF EXISTING CONDITIONS


3.1 EXISTING TOURISM ACTIVITY

3.1.1 Tourism Potential Pakistan enjoys a unique position due to its strategic location on the world map and its topographical and geographical features, especially the areas in the north. The area is known by virtue of its lofty mountains covered with snow, ever green pine, oaks and shrubs. Karakuram (K-2) the second highest peak in the world has graced this land by its location in the northern most part of the country. Picturesque mountain slopes with snow melt rivers flowing in the gorges present fascinating scenes which are attractive to locals and foreigner alike. Nature has gifted this country with vast scope of developing the beautiful hills and panoramic views. Malakand division constitutes a significant part of the beautiful country located north of Pakistan. It consists of the valleys of Swat, Dir and Chitral, all unique in the potential scenic beauty as attraction for tourists. To the outside world these valleys truly represent Pakistan for tourism activity. Besides the natural beauty, these areas have rich historical background. If backwardness is taken as blessing in disguise, few of the locations here have seen little impact of modern life, therefore they are culturally preserved in original form. The flow of visitors started towards Malakand division in early fifties when the first book on Kafiristan was published. The attractive narration of the different customs of the local inhabitants, together with beautiful description of the valleys opened a new era for this

otherwise forgotten land. Whosoever went to the valleys of Kafiristan in Chitral was enchanted by the rhythmic music of turbulent streams, chirping birds on the trees and beautiful Kalash women. 3.1.2 Tourism Seasons Most areas in Malakand Division are located at high altitudes which witness extremely cold winters. Besides, due to the land sliding and excessive snow fall, the access to these areas especially Chitral becomes extremely difficult and sometimes impossible. Therefore, the most suitable period for tourists to visit these areas is during summer. This is the time when other parts of the country witness scorching heat and people flock to the hilly areas. Although the tourists visit these areas around the year even during winter but they are very few in number and their visits are limited to relatively low-lying areas. The main-stream of the tourists starts coming sometimes during May and continue till October. Therefore normally the tourists season is considered to be from mid May to mid October, every year. 3.1.3 Composition of Tourists In the early days of Pakistan a tourist was necessarily taken as a foreigner, as both words (tourist and foreigner) were synonymous to each other. As the time passed and socio-economic conditions in Pakistan improved, a significant number of local population started taking part in tourism activity. With exposure to the outside world, increased number of educated families with increase in affordability and the revolution brought by the mass media, people of Pakistan realized need for recreation to enjoy vacationing. Gradually a class of local and domestic tourists developed which has now increased to a significant size.

The tourists now are divided into three categories: (a) (b) (c) Local tourists. Domestic tourists. Foreign tourists.

Local tourists belong to the same area and make short time visits mostly on daily basis. They are generally week-end holiday makers. Domestic tourists are presently perhaps the largest proportion of tourists. These are the people who visit the tourists places during the annual vacation (summer and winter) periods and belong to Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi and the remaining parts of the country. Foreign tourists mainly come from Europe, America, Australia and

Japan. The only country in Asia which has significant share in Pakistan Tourism is Japan. Foreign tourists are a significant proportion of the total tourists in Pakistan. According to the Additional Secretary, Tourism, Mr. Hassan Raza Pasha, Since 1983, tourists arrival in Pakistan ranged between 3,65,000 and 4,54,000. He noted that the tourists arrival in Pakistan as much lower than in most other countries in the region. According to a recent World Travel and Tourism Council Survey in 1995, there are 212 million tourism related jobs in the world which are contributing $ 3.4 trillion or 10.9 % of the global GDP. According to a forecast, till the year 2010 East Asia and Pacific regions will grow by 7% on the average in the tourists arrival which is almost double the world average. 3.1.4 Tourism Related Services

There are two significant aspects regarding the services to be provided to tourists at any place. One is comfort and the other is adventure. Tourists prefer to make their period of stay as comfortable as possible. However, there are certain instances when any difficulty during the journey or stay needs little hardship which is taken as adventure. But under normal circumstances, there are basic human needs which certainly require to be provided. Following is an overview of the basic services which are presently existing for the tourists.

a.

Transportation

The country has at present a vast and extensive network of air, rail and road linkages. However, appropriate modes of suitable transport within the division exist in the private sector alone as no specific arrangements for tourists is made by the public sector. Private busses, wagons and small vehicles ply everywhere in the division, which are mostly not very comfortable seating capacity wise nor to the level of service. To approach the attractive but difficult terrains in the far flung areas jeeps are available to hire, but the system lacks an organized network. The rates of these jeeps are determined at will by the operators and are quite exorbitant during the peak tourists season. There is no uniformity in rates nor there is any organized check system on the fares. b. Hotels

Hotel business is mainly owned by the private sector, except at locations where PTDC owns motels, one at Kalam and the other at

Chitral. There is only one four star hotel located at Mingora; all others are either two star or one star hotels. It is extremely difficult to assess the total number of hotels in the division or their total bed capacity, the reason being that none of them has been registered with the Ministry of Tourism which exercises control on them. However, the major concentration of hotels are in Mingora, Madyan, Bahrain and Kalam in Swat. A number of hotels are also located in Dir and Chitral, in the private sector. The performance of these hotels has been poor both in terms of standards and level of service. Due to the lack of any control on this business, they operate under the free market system. Room rents are fixed by the management which changes according to the demand. It was revealed during an interview with some of the tourists in Madyan and Kalam that the rent peak season. c. Restaurants for a single room of Rs. 300.00 per night during the off-season rises upto Rs. 3,000.00 per night during the

Similar to the case of hotels, the restaurants also have shown a poor performance. Firstly, there is a shortage of standard restaurants throughout the division. Secondly, the level of service is poor as most of them do not follow the basic principles of health and hygiene. Thirdly, due to the lack of any control measures, the meals service charges are quite exorbitant, especially during the peak tourists season. d. Basic Urban Facilities

Basic urban facilities including shopping areas, post and telegraph offices, telephone offices, banks etc. are sporadically located in the division. While the shopping areas and postal services are adequately available, telecommunication network has been recently improved but not to the level of satisfaction. Those provided by the hotels are often too expensive due to the additional service charges and sales tax. Public telephone facility is limited to a few locations only and that also is limited to the office working hours. Night shift at any telephone exchange is not operative. e. Safety

Safety to the visitors is the first and foremost requirement for any tourism industry to develop and flourish. While the law and order situation in the valleys has been always under control, there had been some incidents of theft, looting, decoities, kidnapping and even killing in the fast past. An extensive network of police surveillance has now been established even to the remote areas, as a result such incidents are very rarely happening now. The most recent incident reported in the press was the looting of four wagons at Lowari Top during the broad day light on June 22, 1996. In general, the police remains on high alert during the tourist season and safety of the visitors is adequately guaranteed.

f.

Tourists Information Centers

There are not many tourists information centers in the division. Only PTDC provides this facility at few locations only, which is extremely deficient in terms of the level of service. Their number is very small

and they provide little information, and are not operating around the clock whereas the tourists have no specific time to arrive at a certain place. These centers are open only during the working hours on the working days. Tourists have been observed to be stuck up during the weekly holidays and late in the evenings, due to the lack of information regarding the road conditions to proceed further in their journey. g. Tour Operators and Guides

An extensive network of tour operators working as travel agents exists in the area to provide an adequate level of service to the tourists during all seasons. Besides, tour guides area also available on specific locations to be hired for specific journeys. However, due to the lack of an organized institutional arrangement for control of their activities, their performance has not been excellent. 3.1.5 An Overview of Tourism in Pakistan In spite of the presence of all that, a tourist looks forward to enjoying lofty mountains, verdant valleys, unrivalled sprawling sky line, archaeological sites, inviting mountain slopes, rich cultural diversity, exquisite curiosities and above all, a highly hospitable people. Pakistan has not made significant progress in tourism industry. This is a discouraging situation when compared with countries with much less to offer to tourists while reaping a rich harvest of travellers and tourists by way of collecting millions in foreign exchange.

Pakistan still remains absent from the world tourist map because

tourism has been treated by the successive governments casually and not as an industry with great potential as a foreign exchange earner. Tourism is already the world's fastest growing industry after oil. Its annual turn - over is about $ 3.0 trillion. It is expected to surpass every other industry by the end of the first quarter of the 21st century, if a systematic progressive policy is adopted to development in the coming few years from now. Over two and half decades back Pakistan seemed destined to become the hottest tourists spot in South and South East Asia. That was in the early 1970's. A french firm had been commissioned to carry out a study to suggest short and long-term plans for the promotion of Tourism. The firm, Sena Metra, in its voluminous report prepared a 20 year perspective plan which included development of new tourists sites, upgrading of existing infrastructure facilities, promotion and publicity on incremental basis to market the tourist products thus developed. This plan was never taken seriously and since then has been shelved. The sector in spite of having received the status of an industry has remained neglected due mainly to the bureaucratic bottlenecks and various related reasons. 3.1.6 Recent Efforts In response to growing demands and awareness of the potential in this sector major steps are being under taken to develop tourism in Pakistan. Well thought over arrangement are being made in this regard. Following recent activities undertaken by various organizations are indicative of a national policy change and attitude.

i.

The year 1996 marks the advent of professionally organized tourist inflow from Italy to Pakistan. This has come in wake of a recent agreement between one of the largest tour operators of Italy, Vegetal Buonconsiglio and Pakistan Tours Ltd, (PTL) of PTDC which is government's organization for promotion of tourism in Pakistan. Two large groups of tourist have already visited Pakistan and more are expected. Tourists inflow from Italy which till now averaged around 3000 per year are expected to double by next year. The country is likely to earn over US $ 5 million Europe. from the new Italian market of tourism. Similar agreements are planned to be signed with 5 more companies of

ii.

A 2-day unique exhibition, the EXPO's TRAVEL - 96 was held in Karachi, providing an opportunity to people to plan their holidays in accordance with their disposable expenditure.

iii.

The recently introduced STC Copter Safari provides an excellent opportunity to visit Naran, Saiful Muluk, Kalam, Mahudand, and the valley of Kalash. The one day trip from Peshawar includes round trip, sight seeing, lunch and refreshments.

iv.

Jashn-e-Swat is an annual event, which has been recently organized at official level and is held with fervor.

v.

TDCP has very recently established Institute of Tourism and Hotel Management (ITHM) in Lahore to bring trained work force into tourism industry.

vi.

A 2-day workshop was held in Lahore on "Tourism in Pakistan Opportunities and Challenges" during May 1996.

vii.

According to the Federal Additional Secretary for Tourism, Mr. Hassan Raza Pasha, the plans to establish a National Tourism Council are already being made, which will be hopefully established very soon.

viii.

Pakistan Tourism Human Resource Development Committee is carrying out a programme for introducing new standards in eight disciplines of hospitality sector to cater to the needs of foreign tourists in Pakistan. The project is financed by the European Commission for an integrated human resource development programme for seven SAARC countries at a cost of 10 million US dollars and coordinated by the South Asian Tourism Secretariat (SATS) will train 48,000 workers of hospitality sector by the year 2000. Consequently, it was decided to hold 28 workshops to train 600 persons in Pakistan alone.

3.2

INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES

The availability of various infrastructure facilities at selected locations in Malakand Division are shown in Fig.3-A, and have been described here. All the major settlements of the Malakand Agency are located along the major road connecting the Malakand Division with Peshawar. The small villages located within the valleys are also connected to this regional road network through metalled roads or Jeepable tracks. The Malakand Agency provides links to rest of the Division from Dargai, being the last railway station from Nowshera and Mardan. However, no air-link is provided to it from any other place. All major

settlements in Malakand Agency have electricity and telephone facilities. Supply of water is also provided adequately to these settlements. However, the sewerage facility is completely lacking in the area and so are the appropriate measures for solid waste collection and disposal. Sui gas supply has reached Dargai, and it is planned to be extended to the Agency and beyond. Swat is well connected to other parts of the Province through a good quality road which runs north-south, linking all the major settlements in the area. Within Swat this road starts from Malakand and leads all the way upto Kalam in the north, from where two roads; one to Mahudand and another to Athror provide reasonable links in the area. The road providing accessibility to the Buner district and the Shangla district, however are not of excellent quality as they need continuous maintenance and improvement works. In addition to the main regional road network, smaller access roads linking the smaller valleys are also not of good quality. Rail link is provided upto Dargai only which is located across Malakand Pass. However, regular commercial flights are operated providing air link of Swat with the rest of the country. The Saidu Sharif Airport is Fig.3-A

located near Mingora across the River Swat. The Municipal water supply system exists in Mingora and a limited number of villages only. Most of other settlements either use spring water or river water for drinking purpose. Water is normally available except at a few places located at high altitudes where spring water and flowing streams are away from the vicinity. Sewerage system is also limited to Mingora city only. However, open drains exist in other human settlements. Being a hilly terrain rain water drainage is not a problem. Haphazard constructions however have posed problem of obstructing the flood water run off during the past, with partial damages to the built up properties. Municipal solid waste collection and disposal exists in Mingora city only and that also is not without deficiencies in operation and coverage. All other settlements have virtually no system as such, creating serious environmental pollution problems, which need to be taken care of. Mingora is connected with rest of the world through the Nationwide Direct Dialling Telephone network. Telephone facility is provided to almost all the settlements located along the main road. Electricity in also provided to most of the areas in Swat. However, gas facility has not yet reached in this part of the country though a programme is on the anvil. The situation in Dir is different than any other area of the division. Till 1960, there was no concept of any facility whatsoever as the Nawab being the despotic ruler of the state, did not allow even a primary school though he had a hospital for his dogs and falcons. He had "Hakims" for his private treatment also. After attaining a district status, a network of roads has now been constructed. The main Chakdara-Dir road is black topped and so are quite a few more. Water supply schemes have been established in major villages of the district. Sewerage arrangements are being introduced now while there is no

concept of solid waste disposal, anywhere in the district. Accessibility to certain places is perhaps the most basic requirement and Chitral has been quite unfortunate in this regard as the only road link to the rest of the country passes through Lowari top which remains closed for almost 6 months of winter during the year. This Top, located at more then 13,000 feet above sea level comes under heavy snow fall during the winter and after the snow melts, the land sliding activity takes place, bringing considerable damage to the road. A proposal to build a tunnel under the pass has been a sweet dream of the people of Chitral which has also been a broken promise of the successive governments since past many decades. It is also a much used and still effective political slogan. Even now, the last Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mrs. Benazeer Bhutto has announced an amount of Rs 200.0 millions in the 8th Five Year Plan for this purpose. However, there are little hopes for this dream to come true. As an alternate the people of Chitral are forced to use the road through Arandu into Kunar Province of Afghanistan and then again into either Mohmand Agency or Khyber Agency of the tribal areas. This route has proved extremely unsafe and risky and is certainly not suitable to the foreign and domestic tourists. Although Chitral has an airlink with Peshawar and a daily flight operates, but it is always subject to the weather conditions and rarely operates regularly. However, when the Lowari Top opens during the summer both foreign as well as domestic tourists flock to the area, which is otherwise well connected to its various parts. No adequate access roads are otherwise provided to the numerous small valleys of the area. Water is abundantly available in Chitral valley. The major towns have tapped water supply, whereas other settlements use either spring water or the river water. Planned and well designed sewerage system does not exist anywhere in the

district. Electricity is available to only the major towns and that also from the local generators of limited capacity. However, there are plans to electrify the settlements in the near future. The district has by now been connected with the national grid but extension of power lines are yet to be done, depending on availability of financial resources. 3.3 EXISTING CIVIC AMENITIES

Fig. 3-B and Fig. 3-C give a brief description of the availability of civic amenities and tourist facilities at selected locations in the Malakand Division. The settlements along the main road in Malakand Agency are adequately served by the civic amenities including banks, post offices, police stations, and shopping areas. The Fig.3-B

Fig.3-C

Agency headquarters hospital located at Batkhela near the Malakand Top is well equipped to provide basic as well as specialized health facilities both to the locals and the transit visitors. Two other hospitals at Dargai and Thana are also serving the respective area. Hotels are almost non-existent in the area as the visitors including the tourists are mostly transit passengers. A number of government rest houses are located along the main road but these do not provide accommodation to the visitors unless by special arrangements. A PTDC road side facility near Batkhela has been provided recently. There are large number of local restaurants located in the towns along the main road but few are upto the standard. No tourist information centre is located in the Agency area, however, information is provided in an informal manner by the locals, if required. A detailed survey was carried out by the Consultants team in order to ascertain the availability and condition of the existing infrastructure facilities and civic amenities in each of the potential sites, to become a basis for the future plans and proposals. The copy of the proforma is attached at the end of this Report as Annexure-I. Being the capital of Malakand Division, most of the civic amenities are concentrated at Mingora, Saidu Sharif. The branch facilities are provided to most of the human settlements in the area. They include banks, post offices, police stations, hospitals, dispensaries and shopping Centers. Mingora is also the centre of the tourist activities as most of the tourists leading towards north make a stop over at Mingora. There are a number of hotels with varying bed capacity and quality of service. However, there is only one five star hotel which is located at Mingora. Hotels are scattered all over the Upper Swat at various locations with varying quality and bed capacities. Restaurants are also located in almost all the settlements along the road, but good

quality restaurants are few. Rest Houses belonging to various government departments/agencies are also located at a few locations in Swat, but are not available for the tourists. Police posts have been established at important villages with sub-posts around for the purpose of maintaining law and order. Postal services are also available, whereas hospitals/Rural Health Centers have also been established. District Headquarter Hospital at Timargara is mostly fulfilling the needs of the patients. NWD facilities have been extended to all the important settlements. Shopping facilities exist at a number of places, the main business Centers are Batkhela in Malakand Agency, while the second one is at Timargara, the district headquarter of Lower Dir. Good quality restaurants are not available anywhere. From tourism point of view there is no facility whatsoever throughout along the main Chakdara to Dir road nor anywhere in the beautiful lateral valleys. At Panakot near Dir a PTDC motel is nearing completion. The major urban settlements of Chitral are linked by the telephone network, which however, needs to be further extended. Other urban facilities including health centers, post & telegraph offices, police and scout offices, banks and shopping areas are all located in the major settlements of the area. There are few quality hotels in the district, which are mainly concentrated in Chitral city. Most other towns do not have decent arrangements for overnight stays. Local restaurants catering for the needs of the locals and visitors alike are available at most of the settlements, but their quality and level of services is generally poor. However, some good quality restaurants are located in Chitral town only. Other amenities like tourist information centers, tour agents/operators and guides are also available at limited

locations.

4. DATA COLLECTION & ANALYSIS


Preparation of Master Plan for the development and promotion of tourism at Regional level is perhaps the first exercise of its kind ever undertaken in Pakistan. Therefore no baseline data was available for various aspects involved in tourism. A large scale country vide and multiple questionnaire survey for this purpose was neither possible to be carried out within the time allowed nor was it within the scope of this Master Plan. However, necessary opinion surveys have been conducted in order to provide adequate background information and gain better insights into the problems faced by the tourists and other related aspects. These surveys are simply meant to reflect various opinions and have been carried out with small sample size which can not be statistically analyzed on any level of confidence. The results however reflect the existing conditions in an appropriate manner to serve the purpose of this Master Plan. Adequate data pertaining to various aspects has been collected both from primary as well secondary sources, in order to gain in depth insights to arrive at useful conclusions. Primary source data collection involved number of site visits and questionnaire surveys. The details of data collection and its analysis are as follows. 4.1 SURVEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL

TOURISM SITES The whole Division was visited and studied by the team of consultants in order to identify the potential sites to be selected for tourism attractions. They included sites of historical and cultural significance,

scenic and natural beauty and other places of interest. As a result, a long list of potential sites was prepared and is included in chapter 6 of this Master Plan.

4.2

SURVEY OF EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES

The data regarding the existing infrastructure facilities including roads, water supply, sewerage, solid waste disposal, electricity and telephone were collected from various government departments and agencies. The data included the availability of service, level of service, and condition of service in order to estimate deficiency in each facility in terms of its provision at various specific locations with regard to the potential tourism sites selected for the Master Plan. The departments visited for this purpose included the C&W department, Public Health Engineering Department and Local Municipal offices. Information was also collected regarding the projects presently under execution and those already approved for execution . The results of this survey have already been given in chapter 3 of this master plan. 4.3 SURVEY OF EXISTING CIVIC AMENITIES

The data regarding the existing civic amenities including Police, Post, Health, Banks etc. was collected from the Divisional Police Headquarters, General Post Office, Peshawar, Directorate of Health and Zonal Head Offices of various commercial banks respectively. The data was than separated which was related to the specific selected potential tourism sites. The data included the availability of service, level of service and service area covered, in order to identify the deficiencies. The analysis of this survey is also already given in

chapter 3 of this Master Plan. 4.4 SURVEYS OF THE FOREIGN TOURISTS

Foreign tourists were divided into two categories. i) ii) (A) Foreign tourists Foreigners working in N.W.F.P Foreign Tourists

A total of 12 foreign tourists were randomly approached and interviewed for this purpose. The results of the interviews are as follows. Out of the total 8 were male and 4 were female. Except one

Australian all other belonged to Europe with as much as 8 from U.K alone. They belonged to a variety of professions including engineers, students, farmer, factory workers and even a priest. The countries last visited before Pakistan were India, Iran , China, Egypt and Malaysia, out of which India, China and Iran are neighbors of Pakistan. The foreign tourists expressed a multitude of purposes behind their visit to Pakistan. They mostly came for tracking , mountain climbing, sight seeing and to visit the historic and cultural places. A few of then (2 out of 12) came for sex and drugs. This clearly reflects that the tourists interested in sex and drugs are actually very small in number, leading to the fact that good tourism is quite possible without sex and drugs.

Peshawar, Swat, Chitral and Northern Areas were the places of attraction for these tourists. Other places in Pakistan included Mohenjodaro, Quetta and Bahawalpur. Books and friends were among the most common means to come to know about tourist places in Pakistan. Half of the tourists entered into Pakistan by air while the others came by road. After entering into Pakistan bus and coach were the most common modes of transport used by the foreign tourists. It is interesting to note that most of the foreign tourists were travelling single and not in groups. The expenditure mostly ranged from Rs. 20,000/- to Rs. 40,000/- per person. Foreign tourists have expressed the following problems faced by them during their stay in Pakistan. Problems. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. Lack of information and sometimes wrong information. Harassment by local males to female tourists . Cheating in terms of many matters. Child beggars. Lack of permission to visit Khyber Pass and Tribal Areas. Non-availability of transport at night. Difference in price charged to a foreigner or a local. Lack of credit card /currency exchange facility. Too many police check posts and movement restrictions. Short duration of visas for Pakistan.

xi. xii.

Poor quality food and other goods. Lack of good quality , average period hotels.

Following are some of the suggestions came from the foreign tourists. Suggestions. i. ii. iii. iv. v. Provide better and efficient garbage collection and

disposal system for generally clean environment. Police checking should be made at few places only to make movement easier. Accessibility possible. Regulate the pricing system for hotels, restaurant and transport. Appropriate tourism literature should be made available for better information. It was revealed by the survey that normally the duration of the tourist stay ranged from one week to one month. A copy of the survey proforma is attached at the end of this report as Annex-II. (B). Survey of Foreigners Working in NWFP. to more areas should be made easily

A large number of foreigners working mostly with the international aid agencies are living in NWFP, mostly in Peshawar. A total of 10 such foreigners were interviewed in connection of tourism in NWFP. A copy of the proforma is attached with this report as Annex-III. The analysis of these interviews is as follows. Out of the 10, only one was a female and all others were male. Except

one Afghan and one American all others were from different countries of Europe. They had been in Pakistan for a period ranging from 1 year to 4 years. Most of them were doing administrative jobs of managerial level. It is revealed from the survey that these foreigners quite frequently visit the tourism places and often the same place more than once. The most frequently visited places include Murree in Punjab, Swat, Chitral, Kaghan and Guliyat Area in NWFP. Books, literature and friends have again emerged as the most common means of information about these places. Following are some of the problems faced by these tourists. Problems. i) ii) iii) Lack of adequate and authentic information about specific sites, even from the Tourist Information Centers of PTDC. Frequently cancellation of flights, especially to Gilgit and Chitral. Lack of appropriate and adequate facilities. Some of the suggestion made by these tourists to improve tourism activity are as follows. Suggestions. i) ii) iii) iv) Provide adequate information about the tourism locations. Improve the advertising and promotion of tourism. Improve physical conditions on tourist locations. Introduce more tourist locations and attractions.

v) vi) vii) 4.5

Improve the general hotel conditions. Improve the means of communication. Improve hotel, restaurant and car rental services.

SURVEYS WITH THE LOCAL/DOMESTIC TOURISTS

A total of 20 questionnaires were completed at various locations in the Region. A copy of the proforma is attached with this report as Annex-IV. The analysis of the survey results is as follows: Level of education is essentially a strong determinant of a persons's awareness and attitude towards recreation. Therefore persons with varied type of education level were interviewed. Out of the total 15 % had no formal education, whereas 25 % of the total were metric and as much as 30 % had intermediate level of education. Another 30 % were graduates. Responding to the question, everybody agreed that recreation was essential for life and a necessity for good health. A significant majority of the respondents revealed that they go frequently for recreation and as much as 95 % of the total respondents confirmed it. It was revealed that most of the people (65 %) go for recreation on monthly basis. Another 10 % show an annual opportunity for this purpose. Social, Cultural and tribal values are very strong in NWFP. Most areas still reflect traditional attitudes in activities of daily life including recreation of female family members. However, these values are changing fast, but to some extent they are still intact as shown by the survey results. The survey has shown that only 85 % of the total respondents take their family out for recreation and the remaining 15 % do not follow this practice. There are three common reasons discovered for not taking the family out for recreation, which are as follows:

i. ii. iii.

Personal disliking Lack of security in public places Religious reasons

People go to various places for recreation. As much as 42 % of the total go to the Malakand Region which includes the valleys of Swat, Dir and Chitral. Swat being located closest is perhaps the most popular destination. Places located in Punjab are the second most popular destinations and they include Murree, Islamabad and Lahore, as about 30 % of the total respondents go there during vacations. Hazara Region is another popular destination as about 15 % go to Abbottabad and Kaghan for this purpose. About 8 % remains in Peshawar and visit the local recreation places including Hayatabad. As much as 95 % of the total respondents expressed that such activity will be good for the local economy, as it will generate income for the local population. 4.6 SURVEY FOR THE COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

A total of 20 locals belonging the nearby areas where most of the tourism activities take place were interviewed. A copy of the proforma for this purpose is attached with this report as Annex-V. The results of this survey are discussed in details in chapter 13 of this report being the appropriate and relevant place.

5. OVERALL STRATEGY FOR THE MASTER PLAN


5.1 IMMEDIATE ACTION PROGRAMME. (IAP)

The overall strategy of the Master Plan is based on two pronged approach; an immediate action programme for the initial period of 2 years, and a long term programme spanning over a period of 10 years. The long term programme period will include the immediate action programme, and will be integrated accordingly. The Immediate Action Programme (IAP) will essentially prepare and provide a base, an environment and a set up for the implementation of the long term programme . In order to achieve this objective and to ensure smooth implementation of the Master Plan, the actions proposed at this stage will not be based on large scale financing. This stage will involve the preparation of various policies and regulatory measures and their implementation in order to improve the existing conditions in tourism sector without proposing facilities and infrastructure carried out during this period are as follows: i. design, adopt and enforce the regulatory measures for the provision of various tourism facilities. ii. carry out marketing and promotion drives at intensive and extensive levels. iii. improve/upgrade the existing deficient infrastructure facilities and the civic amenities. the large scale new The major activities proposed to be

iv.

commence the institutional strengthening of STC to enable it to fully discharge its future role as a leading agency in tourism sector.

5.2

LONG TERM PROGRAMME.

Once the policies have been prepared and a general environment for the tourism promotion an development has been established, the long term programme will be implemented which will certainly involve large scale funding and financing. This stage will involve the project preparation, planning and implementation in a phased out manner based on the established priorities. All the development projects are proposed to be executed in this stage in an integrated fashion as will be reflected later in the chapter on the project implementation. The major activities proposed to be carried out during this stage are therefor as follows: i. extension of the infrastructure facilities and provision of civic amenities to new sites in an integrated manner. ii. extension of the level and coverage of the marketing and promotion campaign. iii. emphasis on revenue generation activities for sustainable development in the tourism sector.

6. POTENTIAL TOURISM SITES AND LOCATION S


A long list of potential sites and location was prepared and included in the Report on Existing Conditions. However, the list is neither exhaustive nor it is within the scope of the consultants work to prepare a 100% complete list of potential sites and location. In absolute terms every location within the study area is a candidate for development into some kind of tourism facility, be a picnic spot or a roadside facility. Nonetheless, the consultants have made every effort to identify all the potential sites and locations for the purpose of this Master Plan.

6.1 MALAKAND AGENCY


Malakand Agency has a few places of interest to the visitors (Fig.4-A). The details of which are as follows: 6.1.1 Jabban This site is close to Dargai, located at the exit the Upper Swat Canal of tunnel from the Malakand hill. Hardly four km away from Dargai, this beautiful spot covered with thick growth of trees presents a fascinating view. As the first of the two power houses is located here, the churning of water fall, the humming of the transformers and chirping of birds, all combined, pervade the atmosphere. Visitors, mostly college students, boys and girls from all parts of the country make it an annual feature of their excursion trips to visit this site and spend a few hours. Some periodically come here for picnic which they find as ideal place to enjoy with friends and realties.

Fig.4-A

6.1.2 Malakand Pass Malakand Pass throughout its length from the bottom near Dargai to the top offers excellent views of scenic beauty and an interesting drive. The view of valley down from the top is immensely impressive and attractive. The lush green fields in the far distant and the shining waters of Upper Swat Canal catch the attention of every passer by. One or two view points at appropriate locations need to be established with necessary protective measures. As soon as one completes the ascent and reaches the top, one feels like taking a little rest and to enjoy the view. Presently, the restaurants located at the top do not offer adequate and decent facilities, Therefore, a good quality restaurant is certainly required. 6.1.3 Palai This is a plain area at the foot of Chirat hill. A group of other villages also co-exist here. These villages belong to the Khans of Thana. Climatically the area is not attractive but its chief specialty lies in two ways. Firstly the area abounds in old Buddhist remains. Valuable statues have been recovered from the area illegally as well as unauthorisedly. The second specialty of the area is the high quality oranges produced here which have no comparison elsewhere in the whole of the country. The area is accessible from two routes. One is from Thana via Cherat mountain. The hill has a steep rough climb. The black topping of the road is in progress under the ADP and it is hoped that it will make the access easy for the area. The second and longer route is from Shergarh of Mardan district. Palai area is also known for production of tomatoes in autumn and early winter.

6.1.4 Moora Hill This high mountain resort is partly accessible by road as a television booster has been established here but the scenic spots are a little higher and not presently connected by road. The present electric line can be extended to here and access road will also be necessary. Spring water is already available. The average height of the area is 5500 feet hill. 6.1.5 Seelai Patai This site is a hill resort apposite Kalangai near the junction of Swat and Panjkora rivers, at a height of 4500 feet above sea level. This is a pleasant tourist potential site, which lacks good approach at present. Initially some police protection may be needed as the population is not tourism oriented. 6.1.6 Left bank of River swat The road from Batkhela to Swat passes through green fields with shady trees on both sides of the road. This is particularly applicable in the stretch from Batkhela to Thana. The river on the left somewhere touching the road boundary is an added attraction. Cool aromatic breeze even in the hot summer months refreshes the tourists while driving. A tourist park on the left bank of river Swat starting from Chakdara which affords enough cool climate for the tourists. The approach is from Thana to the T.V. booster and a little higher in the

Bridge upstream in a length of 2 to 3 Km with a reasonable width of around 100 feet, constructed will provide a picnic spot for the visitors. The site is ideal for such a facility. Opposite on the right bank are a few huts each owned by the district administration, the Dir scouts and others. These are however, not available for the tourists. A police "Chauki" is already established at the bridge site and it can extend safety cover for all tourists.

6.2 BUNER DISTRICT


The little explored and relatively unexposed district of Buner has many potential sites for tourism as shown in Fig.4-B and discussed below: 6.2.1. The Shrine of Pir Baba

This shrine located at Pacha Killi is known far and wide in the NWFP and is visited by devotees from every district of NWFP, some from Azad Kashmir and others from Punjab. The saint Said Ali was a pious man devoted to worship and preaching of Islam. He therefore attracted people and many of them reformed themselves. Incidentally he was also a close relative of Moghal King Akbar. A beautiful spot with a great deal of tourism potential from the natural and scenic beauty point of view exists at a distance of about 2 kilometers north-east of this Ziarat which is most suitable to be

developed as a picnic spot. 6.2.2 Mahaban Valley This valley is known for its natural beauty in between green hills and sweet spring waters. Of late the Frontier assembly unanimously resolved to declare it a natural area for preservation. As no facilities exist here the area is infrequently visited even by the nearby district inhabitants of Swabi and Mardan. 6.2.3 Elum/Dosarri These are two adjoining hill tops of about 7000 ft height each and are visible from a distance from what ever direction you look them within Buner. Their view is more conspicuous during winter when the tops are covered with snow. An interesting legend prevails in Buner in old days, that the villagers when asked to decide which hill top Fig.4-B

was higher than the other they were always indecisive. Some who favored one hill top would fight with others who favored the other hill top. Because of the high altitude these hill tops are most attractive in summer for their fresh cool air and green surroundings of pine trees and mostly medicinal shrubs and sweet smelling wild flowers. The greenery is a good abode for wiled life, goats, monkeys, and even leopards. No facility of tourism activity exists though potentially there is no better place than this throughout Buner and in the near part of Swat. 6.2.4 Karakar Top The beautiful mountain top falling on way from Barikot to Daggar has good potential to be developed as a tourist attraction with related ancillary facilities.

6.3 SWAT
Swat is graciously blessed by God in terms of natural and scenic beauty. The journey on the road from Malakand to Swat for most part is thrilling and exciting. The fruit gardens on one side and the River Swat on the other side with snow clad peaks in farther hills and lush green paddy fields by the river side presents an enchanting and enamoring scenery. Almost all areas are beautiful and the preference of one spot over the other is extremely difficult to decide. However, for the purpose of this project and based on the criteria of tourism the following sites/settlements have been designated as candidate sites where some sort of tourism activity can either be established or enhanced (Fig.4-C).

6.3.1 Udegram Ruins Udegram was an extremely large town where we can see the ruined massive buildings dating back to the Kushan period. Here an imposing staircase has been uncovered consisting of a series of steps about 25 feet long which belong to the Sassanian period. Arrows found in great quantity testify to the fierce battles which in various Fig.4-C

periods were fought for its capture. Coins, pottery, beads and a few ornaments are precious items of reference in the chronological order with reference to the various layers. 6.3.2 Shankar Dara There is a stupa most probably of the days of Ashoka and building remains/ruins on a small hill, which also date back to the Buddhist days which was the prime period of this religion for its followers in this part of the country. A unique feature of the buildings constructed during the Budhist civilization is that these buildings used to be located on the adjacent hills adjoining the cultivable lands or in some cases adjoining flowing water. This indicates that they would try to be placed on safe commanding sites away from the vagary of floods and/or possible invaders. 6.3.3 Ghalegai Cave This is a prehistoric cave near a stupa close to the village Ghalegai. Details of this cave are shrouded and have to be explored. This is an outstanding challenge for the present day archaeologists. 6.3.4 Budha On Rock Near village Ghalegai on road from Chakdara to Saidu Sharif is a large statue of Mahatma Budha carved on a big rock and is an item of attraction for the visitors. There is no sign post and most of the tourists cross over the bend of the road unaware of the location. A few steps were constructed during the past for observing the statue closely. With manhandling during the past, the statue has been

disfigured. Even now it is not too late to mend. A railing with a small gate and a sign post is needed. The sign post or impression that the statue is meant to be preserved. 6.3.5 Gogdara Beyond Ghalegai , this is the most attractive site just off the main road. Carvings of historic significance on rock here are of main interest. 6.3.6 Landaki Fishing Point This is a beautiful spot as the Swat River hugs the road here in a bend. Reclaimed river bed with grassy cover and few shady trees has made this site attractive. Small improvised refreshment stalls have been created for temporary stop over of passengers and tourists. Some amateur anglers try their luck for fishing here, others enjoy the roasted fish with a cup of tea or a cold drink. 6.3.7 Mingora Mingora is the district as well as the division headquarters and main commercial area. Its shopkeepers are always prepared to engage in serious bargaining and they offer wide range of items such as jewellery, gems, embroidery, local handicrafts and Swati shawls. Foreign made items are abundantly available as a number of people of Swat are employed overseas and in merchant navy who bring these items with them and dispose them off in the local market. It is the main concentration of a large number of tourist facilities including hotels and restaurants. A bridge across the river links Mingora with the board will give indication for the location while the railing and the gate will give an

Airport and also with the newly developed Kanju Township. 6.3.8 Saidu Sharif

Saidu Sharif is the administrative capital of Malakand Division. Here is located the Swat Museum, the remains of Butkada stupa, the Wali of Swat palace, the tomb of Akhun of Swat called Saidu Baba and of course, the only five star hotel of the Region. 6.3.9 Gulkada

At Gulkada, 2 kilometers north of Saidu Sharif, probably the most important monastery of the country has been located. It surrounds a big Stupa from where clandestine diggers have in the past many years brought to light some of the most beautiful fragments of Gandhara art. This is now within the precincts of Mingora extension of the town where office complex of the district administration is situated. This name of Gulkada is not more than two decades old. Its older name was Butkadah meaning a place where statues are located. The site is an old place of a village/ town of the Buddhist period and excavations done here during the past by the archaeology department exposed the ruins which are now visible to the visitor. 6.3.10 Swat Museum

Nearby is located a Museum called Swat Museum which houses many valuable collections of the excavations in and around Mingora and the adjoining archaeological sites. These collections are indications of the life style of the people and their beliefs.

When we talk of collections preserved in the Museums here, at Chakdara and even at Peshawar. the provincial metropolis, we are reminded of the sad picture of reckless trade of these valuables going on clandestinely on large scale. Measures are needed to discourage and stop this illegal trade which deprives this region of its valuable heritage which is in another way a brute attempt to misrepresent the course of past history. 6.3.11 Marghozar

This beautiful spot is situated about 12 km towards South-East of Mingora. There is a building of a palace made of white marble and used to be occupied by the Wali's father, namely Abdul Wadood , alias Bacha Sahib. There is an open mosque a spring of very cold water at a lower level than the palace. A parking platform is also available between the mosque and the palace. For several decades the building remained vacant just to remind the rule of the ex-autocrat. Now this has been leased out to become a restaurant-cum-hotel. It has also got the facility of joy rides for the children. Since this is situated at a height of about 4000 ft and has got shaded trees around and also along the approach road, it has wholesome cooling effect on the visitors. 6.3.12 Fizagat

The scenic river bank located a few kilometers from Mingora is a tourist attraction spot throughout the year but more so during the summer months as the cold snow melt water of Swat river affords welcome relief to the visitors who sometimes enjoy a dip in the river.

The site has attraction as a picnic spot in all seasons of the year. The back history of this attractive name is however very gruesome. This site used to be called Qazaghat previously as condemned prisoners of the then Swat State were executed here by firing squads of the ex-ruler Bacha Sahib, Abdul Wadood by name and father of the ex- Wali. Shariat Laws were practiced under the patronage of Bacha Sahib Abdul Wadood by his appointed Qazis. The implementation of the Islamic Jurisprudence by the then Qazis was according to their own knowledge of Islam and there was no scope of appeal against the verdict. 6.3.13 Miandam

This is situated midway between Mingora and Khwazakhela. It has got an attractive commanding view over the narrow valley at the end of which it is situated. A PTDC hotel has sometime back been established which offers facilities to the tourists for stay. There is yet another Rest House nearby. The connecting road between the two has been proposed to be black topped at a cost of R: 2.0 million. A provision of 0.5 million is made for 1995-96 while R: 1.5 million are proposed to be spent in 1996-97. 6.3.14 Malam Jaba

Malam Jabba is a Ski-cum-summer Tourist Resort, 35 kilometers from Saidu Sharif (an hour long drive) where a beautiful white palatial building of a newly built hotel welcomes the tourists. There are two kinds of lift chairs. One for reaching the hill top and the other which takes us to the skiing area during the winters. The resort is still not

fully

developed.

luxurious

hotel

accommodation

has

been

constructed with the cooperation of Austrian Govt. Situated at a height about 6,500 ft it has an attraction for the tourists to welcome them. The tourists are however visiting the site infrequently . There could be a few reasons for the same. Lack of publicity, uneasy and uncomfortable access road and lack of adequate security measures could be the possible reasons. 6.3.15 Manglor

This is a populous village situated on the left bank of Swat River between Mingora and Khwazakhela. It is an important village historically as it has remained the seat of rule during the Mughals and even before that. 6.3.16 Madyan and Yakh Kandao

This is located on the main Mingora Kalam Road. By now it has a few good hotels to accommodate tourists. From the bridge over Swat river right in the bazaar, splashing turbulent water downstream and the winding river upstream with green hills on the north and west present an enchanting scenery. One is always tempted to have a stay of at least a day or two if not more, to enjoy the view and bulling water of Swat River.

6.3.17

Bahrain

It too is situated on the main Mingora-Kalam Road, just short of Kalam.

Here the gushing and splashing crystal clear cold water of two tributaries meet which presents an absorbing moment to the mind and the eyes. The swift movement of beautiful trout fish to and for is an added attraction. 6.3.18 Kalam

Kalam (6,800 feet above sea level) is about 110 kilometers (65 miles) north of Mingora and is the highest city in the Swat valley. A wooden bridge links the city parts across the river. On all sides there are snowcovered peaks of the Hindu Kush range, dense forests of fir, pine, deodar and wild flowers. This is the terminus of the main glen starting somewhere from Khwazakhela, as the valley here splits into two, one towards Ushoo and the other towards Athrore. The river bed here slightly wider, forms two small islands which further adds to the beauty of the place as tourists reach the island with picnic arrangements, photography and angling. It is to remind that trout fish here is one of the greatest attraction, which is available under licensed reel and rod. 6.3.19 Usho

Beyond Kalam on right is a beautiful valley by the name of Usho. Traversing the road through thick grooves of pine trees, one is enchanted by the attractive avenues of the greenery and the mild ascent. Small hamlets on either side add to the beauty, away from humdrum life of cities and vehicular noise. The valley is long enough to touch more and still more scenic sites ahead. 6.3.20 Matiltan

Matiltan is the first small habitation in the Usho valley and akin to the greenery just traversed. A tributary of Swat river with its constant rumbling sound and shining snow melt water presents a perpetual sources of joy to the mind. Angling for trout here is an astonishing pastime. 6.3.21 Mahudand Lake

From Kalam, Mahodand Lake is 30 kilometers and to visit the lake one has to hire a jeep. About 10 kilometers before the lake, there is a fascinating waterfall. It is the most beautiful and biggest fall in this area. En route to Mahudand one comes across two or at least one glaciers, which may pose an obstacle for onward journey. 6.3.22 Athrore

The left of Kalam valley upstream leads to Athrore. The shingle road runs all along the tributary of Swat river for 24 kilometers. This tributary is in fact the major affluent of the two and because of comparatively steeper slope presents an awe when this water strikes against very high rocks. Up and up as we approach Athrore proper, the valley becomes wider and wider. Green fields of potatoes and corns present a true natural picture of village life undisturbed by the artificial human innovations. Goats grazing on the slopes, small children cutting grass along the terraced field while singing in their dialects is a common scene. 6.3.23 Kandolo Dand

This is a beautiful lake in the extreme end of Athrore valley, so far seen and visited by very limited number of tourists. The lake is one and half kilometer long and one kilometer wide. Its beauty lies in its location at a very high altitude and surrounded by the high mountains. One distinct feature of this lake is that its water does not flow directly from the lake itself. Unlike Saiful Muluk Lake in Kaghan, water flows from the toe of the hill. This is a unique specialty gifted by God. This specialty is an indication to the fact that it will survive many vagaries of climatic changes if and when they happen in the near or distant future. To reach the lake one has to take a road passing Athrore bazaar. Gabral is the terminus of the road beyond which one has to walk on foot. Gabral is accessible through jeep with about 1 hour run while the journey on foot takes about 2 hours with 2 to 3 times rest on the climb. For about 1 hour enjoys the fast gushing stream flowing downhill while striving to go up. You reach a forest Rest House beautifully located in the thick groove of trees all around it. Up you go and reach the top, you see the beautiful lake surrounded by high hills and blue sky in the background. The reflection of the trees in the crystal clear water presents a captivating scene. The lake is said to be about 100 feet deep. Kandalo Dand means a lake of bowls. One interpretation is that it is exactly a bowl in shape, some what oval. The other is legendary tale that a golden bowl used to float on the surface but disappeared later on for unknown reasons. Whatever the meaning the lake is not less than a golden bowl by all means. 6.3.24 Gabral

Gabral is the next beautiful spot in the Athrore valley. This is a

beautiful resort of the valley 8 kilometers ahead in the same direction. 6.3.25 Khawazakhela

Khwazakhela, about 30 kilometers (20 miles) from Mingora on the bank of the Swat River, is the largest commercial centre in this part of the valley. The main street is worth exploring for silver tribal jewellery, locally woven and embroidered fabrics, carved woodwork, semiprecious stones and ancient coins. The bridge across the Swat River at Khwazakhela leads to a metalled road that follows the river all the way down to Chakdara. One road on the north westerly direction leads to Besham and the Karakuram Highway. 6.3.26 Kabal

Kabal is an attractive site located on the north of Mingora town across river Swat in relatively plain land at the foot of hill range. Nearby is the airport connecting Swat with the rest of the country. Kabal is a Golfers Paradise. An eighteen-holes golf course is open all the year round and a tourist can play by paying the nominal government fee. A Rest House and a large fruit orchard are also located here. A modern hotel is planned to be constructed here in the coming years which will provide facilities of stay for tourists which is presently lacking as the Rest House is not available to visitors.

6.4

SHANGLA DISTRICT

Shangla is the smallest among all the districts of Malakand. It has the following potential sites for tourism activity (Fig.4-D). 6.4.1 Shangla Top

It is a mountain top with a great deal to natural beauty. Being located in relatively higher altitude it remain covered with snow during winter. The main Shangla road actually passes from the top. Most travellers stop here for a short time . The place is presently without any facility or amenity. 6.4.2 Besham Besham is an important settlement located at the junction of roads with the Karakuram Highway. A number of tourist facilities including hotels, motels and restaurants are already offering a wide range of services.

Fig. 4-D

6.5 LOWER & UPPER DIR DISTRICTS


The sites and locations having potential for tourism activities in Dir are shown in Fig 4-E and described below. 6.5.1 Churchill Picket This is situated at the hill top on the left of Chakdara bridge on river Swat. The bridge separates Dir from Malakand Agency . The Churchill Picket is named after Sir Winston Churchill the British Prime Minister during the World War and was built in 1895. He participated in the Malakand Operation in 1895 as a lieutenant. At the base of the Churchill picket is the excavated site of Dam kot, which further increases historic importance of the locality. The picket was also visited by Queen Elizabeth in 1961 when she visited Swat on the invitation of then President of Pakistan Field Marshal Ayub Khan. The site is easily accessible. All facilities such as police post, bank, dispensary and shopping area exist nearby . A recently constructed motel by PTDC is a new addition to the facilities. This is situated in between Batkhela and Chakdara. 6.5.2 Chakpat or Chatpat At hardly two kilometers from the Chakdara bridge on the north westerly direction, half a km from the main Chakdara-Dir road a village by the above name is situated. This small but historic village is located at the foot of the hill, close to which is a mound. Archaeologists detected signs of old relics of Buddhism and excavated Muhammad

the area. As per their expectations and initial visible signs, they were able to find valuable statues, which are now adorning the show eases of the Chakdara museum. The site is significant from historic and archaeological stand point and is of interest to the tourists .

Fig 4-E

6.5.3 Chakdara Museum The museum is situated on the main Chakdara - Dir road, at a distance of one and a half Km from the Chakdara bridge. It is 135 Km away from Peshawar and 40 Km from Saidu Sharif-Swat. The collection in the Museum comprises of items from the finds of excavations around in the area. The Adamzai plain where the museum is situated and the adjoining Talash plain are rich in archaeological sites, mostly exploited by the archeology department of the Peshawar University. The collection in the Museum is a true representation of the old civilization of the then Buddhist era. 6.5.4 Ouch Located about 7 Kilometers from Chakdara and one a half km from the main road on the right side is a village called Ouch. This is the largest settlement in lower Dir District and is important from many angles. It has got sweet springs, quite a few in number, which not only satisfy the needs for drinking but also cater to a good extent for irrigation. Historically, these springs have been mentioned by Babar, the Mughal king, who passed through this village and crossed over to Swat. There are also valuable relics, some of which (the hair) are reported to belong to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). These have been housed in a portion of the mosque called Noor Mahal. Every year in the Islamic month of Rabiul Awal their display is a part of the holy function of Milad. 6.5.5 Laram Sar

This is a peak of the mountain called Laram (Scorpion). The reason behind this name is not fully known. The peak is 6,000 feet high with fresh cold air throughout the year. It is located on a bye-pass road from Chakdara-Dir road via village Ouch. The site is ideal for a tourist resort but is lacking in certain amenities like hotel accommodation and comfortable access road. The existing road is extremely rough. Potentially the site has bright chances of improvement to attain a reputation as tourist attraction. An encouraging development is the proposed black topping of this road. The pace of work however ,is extremely slow and needs to be accelerated by allocating more funds. The site was recently visited by the STC management and a consensus was found regarding the development of the site. 6.5.6 Barcharai Top This is a hill top named as such and is situated at a distance of 8 Km from Chakdara on left side of Chakdara Dir road. The top is 5700 feet high and the hill abounds in wild life. There is no access road except approach by foot. All other facilities exist in the nearby settlement of Ouch and Talash. The site can be developed into an attractive and healthy tourist resort by constructing a jeepable road and suitable accommodation for overnight stay. 6.5.7 Sheringal Valley This valley is located in the interior of Dir on a diversion road taking off 8 Km short of Dir, on the right of Chakdara - Dir road. It has a 40 Km long stretch with beautiful landscape, walnut trees on these slopes on the hills and green terraced fields, which are irrigated by a tributary of Panjkora river flowing all along the road in the valley. The

road is fairly motorable. Important villages are Sharingal are Thai, Lamothani and Kumrat which are located along this stretch. The last one is the terminus. The snow melt water flowing in the river as well as in the streams even during summer is as cold as snow itself. The road was developed when the sawing industry of timber complex was being established. No tourist facility exists presently but the valley is potentially rich for such as industry. Suitable huts for overnight stay should be built at Thai, Lamothai and Kumrat. 6.5.8 6.5.9 6.5.10 6.5.11 These Karo Dara Toremang Dara valleys of the interior Upper Dir district are rich in Nehag Dara Osherai Dara

greenery of all sorts from Walnuts, almonds terraced

and wild berries. The

fields covered with green paddy fields present fascinating

scene during July and August. The water falls with silver shining water are added attraction. The last hill on Osherai Dara has a beautiful natural lake at the top equal to the size of Saiful Muluk Lake in Kaghan Valley. Access road to the top is necessity. Each valley needs at least one tourist facility to encourage visitors. 6.5.12 Barawal Valley

This valley starts on the left from 8 Km short of Dir town and is about 20 Km in length. Barawal is at the end of this stretch with picturesque landscape, green walnut trees. Iron ore is extracted by the locals since time immemorial. It is worth mentioning that all the weaponry of the ex-ruler of Dir called Nawab was manufactured from this ore, and the

canon guns thus manufactured were also used in Kashmir Jehad in 1947. The gunners of Nawab were expert marksmen. No tourists activity presently exists in the area. Lack of interest in the environment by the authorities is resulting in thinning of greenery which must denudation. 6.5.13 Benshahi be checked, to save this attractive valley from

About 6 Km north of Summer Bagh in Jandool area of Dir is the hill called by this name. This is part of the boundary of Afghanistan. The hill is about 7000 feet high with strong winds blowing all the year around. For summer months it is an ideal place to stay. On other side of the valley is a plateau as green as a meadow. Tourist resorts are needed to attract tourists to this beautiful hill top. The near settlements is Samar Bagh where all the infrastructure facilities are available. 6.5.14 Timargarah

This is the district headquarter of Lower Dir and is the junction for Dir and Jandool. It is a historic site situated on the bank of River Panjkora. Archaeological excavations have proved historical importance of this place. All facilities exist here except those as tourist resort. Since this is an important town in Dir and is situated on the Chitral - Kafiristan route, the necessary amenities become all the more vital. 6.5.15 Dir/Panakot

Dir used to be the headquarter of the ruler - Nawab. Panakot with

7000 ft height enjoys its attraction during summer which was the residential place of the Nawab. PTDC has recently completed a road side facility here. 6.5.16 Lowari Top

This is a hill top 10000 ft high and is a natural boundary between Upper DIR district and Chitral district. Because of its height it is snow covered for about six months during the year, and is a handicap in the development activities in Chitral. Attempts to have a tunnel across this snow covered mountain during the past could not succeed mostly because of financial constraints. If and when a tunnel is drilled and safe passage to Chitral made possible the year round, the distract would develop. When the snow melts and the road between Dir and Chitral is passable, the ascent and descent on this hill present a feat of motoring. Quite a few tourists cannot face the descent and prefer to shut their eyes while others enjoy this thrill. When the top and the approaches to the top are snow covered during the winter months, a journey by air presents still more a thrilling joy when the snow all round is viewed from the plane. 6.6 CHITRAL

Chitral is the farthest district of Pakistan, which is surrounded by some of the highest mountain ranges of the world. Its is mainly accessible by road through Lowari Pass in the south, which remains closed for almost six months of the year, making it one of the most inaccessible areas of the country. The specific geographical and topographical conditions make it one of the most attractive places from the tourism point of view. The sites and locations identified as potential tourism

places are shown in Fig. 4-F and described as under. 6.6.1 Ziarat Ziarat is perhaps the first point of attraction after scaling the Lowari Top into Chitral. The place is located approximately 8 kilometers from the top on the main road. Chitral militia maintains a permanent post here. The place has a significant function/role to play during the journeys to and from Chitral as it is used for the stay by the commuters during the period when Lowari Top is closed. Both tourists and local passengers are forced to stay here during that period. The place has another significant role to play as the proposed Lowari tunnel as and when it is built, will have an exit at this point. The place has nothing else to offer as no significant activity takes place here. Few substandard hotels provide accommodation to the passengers who are forced to stay here due to reasons stated earlier. These hotels also offer substandard restaurant facility. No telephone, electricity, post and telegraph or other facilities are provided here. However, the militia has a wireless contact with other areas in the region. All foreign visitors get themselves registered here before entering into Chitral, which is done by the Chitral Scouts.

Fig. 4-F

6.6.2 Mirkhani Fort At the junction of roads, one from Arandu and the other from Lowari Top is located the historic Mirkhani Fort, at a distance of about 15 kilometers from Lowari Top. At this point Chitral river turns right towards Arandu and then into Afghanistan. The Fort itself is located on a higher level giving it prominent position from where the rulers in old days used to command the area. The Fort at present is occupied by Chitral Scouts as a wing headquarter. Mirkhani provides civic amenities and services to the visitors in addition to its own population comprising approximately 200 houses. Basic facilities including post office and telephone are available here, however, the place is without electricity, which is planned to be provided in the near future. Some 40 to 50 shops are located along the main road catering to the needs for the local population as also the visitors. 6.6.3 Naghar Fort About 3 kilometer from Mirkhani Fort towards Chitral, the Naghar Fort is located on the bank of Chitral River. The Fort is presently occupied by a nephew of the ex-Mehtar of Chitral who welcomes a number of foreign tourists every year. A suspension bridge on river Chitral links the Fort with the main road. The place is rich in natural beauty in the surrounding areas and is a favorite stop over for the foreign tourists. However, it does not offer any civic urban facility of any kind, except a telephone link which is provided to the Fort only. 6.6.4 Arandu

Located at the border with Afghanistan, Arandu is about 32 Km from Mirkhani. Arandu is the last major Pakistani town before entering into Afghanistan and provides an alternate route linking Chitral with rest of Pakistan. But almost half of the journey passes through the Kunar District of Afghanistan. Mostly the local population uses this route during the periods when Lowari Top is closed for all traffic. The route is not used by the foreign tourists as it is not safe. A few hotels of substandard level provide accommodation to the passengers who are forced to stay for one reason or the other. A small market provides the shopping facilities to the local population. Arandu is an old settlement which has played historic role during the ancient times being en route of the foreign invaders. A post office, a police station and telephone office are located here, however no bank or any other facility is located. Electricity has not yet been provided to Arandu. 6.6.5 Drosh Drosh is the second largest town of Chitral District with an approximate population of 10,000 persons. At local level this is the biggest urban center in lower Chitral. Located at a distance of about 37 kilometers from Lowari Top, this is the first urban settlement of any significant size. It used to be the headquarter of Chitral Scouts for may years, till recently when it was shifted to Chitral city. Drosh is a historic city which witnessed a number of historic events in the past. It used to be a sort of a cantonment in olden days due to its strategic location in the surrounding areas. A number of important

Darras (valleys) fan out from Drosh towards different directions. The most important of these Darras are Shishikoh and Ursun. Drosh is a Tehsil headquarter of Chitral District where a number of urban and civic facilities are located which include a hospital, a telephone exchange, a post office, a police station and a Rest House of C&W Deptt. The office of the Extra Assistant Commissioner is also located here. The town is served with adequate infrastructure facilities including water supply and electricity. However, sewerage system is comprised of open drains. It happens to be the winter station for whole of Chitral valley, where otherwise the temperature are extremely low. Drosh is also connected by a helicopter service with Dir during winter when Lowari Top is closed. A site for the old airport/airstrip used by the British, is still existing in Drosh. The garden of Drosh and the area as a whole are attractions for tourists during their short stay in Drosh. As against its strategic situation en route to Chitral, the hotel activity is not significant. It is most probably so because very few tourists choose Drosh for an overnight stay. They rather prefer to move on to Chitral. 6.6.6 Ayun Ayun is perhaps the most beautiful and the largest single village in Chitral This village is actually located at the mouth of the three famous valleys of Kalash. The very situation of this village assigns it a significant importance. Ayun is located on the right bank of Chitral River and is accessible by two suspension bridges from the main Chitral Road. The village is connected by telephone as also a police station, Basic Health Unit (BHU) and post office are located here. The village is served by electricity through a privately owned power

generator. This village also offers jeep service to the visitors travelling to the Kalash valleys. A small bazaar caters for the local needs for shopping etc. 6.6.7 Kalash/Kafiristan The Kafirs are a primitive tribe with their origin lost in antiquity. Some 15 kilometers south of Chitral city and west of Chitral river, there lies the entry to a gorge between the high and rocky cliffs. The gorge slopes gently upwards, fanning out into a number of smaller valleys, and it is in these valleys that the last surviving Kafirs dwell. Following are the three major valleys of Kalash: i. ii. iii. Birir Bamburat Rumbur

This tribe though surrounded by the Muslim population follow their own religion, customs and beliefs which dates back to several centuries, may be thousands of years. There are two distinct type of Kafirs: the Bashgarlis (Red Kafirs) and the Kalash (Black Kafirs). The Chitrali Kafirs are Kalash. The Red Kafirs are mostly Muslims converted during the last century and are settled in the upper valley of Chitral. They are also known as Shaikhs. Some historians define them as IndoIranian, while others consider that they are the descendants of Greeks left behind by Alexander the Great. The main access to the Kalash valley is from Ayun which provides all the basic facilities and amenities to these valleys. 6.6.8 Chitral

Chitral town, the largest urban settlement in Chitral Valley, the seat of rulers in old days and the present day district headquarters is located at a distance of 79 kilometers from Lowari Top. Invaders have been entering Chitral both from Afghanistan and Gilgit. Chitral Fort has been a strong defence post for the state during the invasions. The Fort is well preserved and as a central point of attractions for the visitors. Being the district headquarters with a population of about 14,000 persons Chitral enjoys all basic urban facilities and amenities including hotels, restaurants, post and telegraphs service, telephone, electricity, banks, shopping areas etc. Interesting places in Chitral include the Chitral Fort, Shahi Mosque, Shahi Bagh, Police Bagh, Council Buildings and the Polo Ground. Chitral maintains a strong polo team during the annual polo festival at Shandoor. One remarkably beautiful and interesting attractive place is Birmolasht which is a plateau adjacent to Chitral.

6.6.9 Garam Chashma The significance of Gram Chashma as is reflected from its name is due to the natural hot springs of mineral (sulphur) water located here. These springs are famous to cure a number of skin diseases for which people from local areas as well as from other parts of the country come here. A small settlement of about 400 houses has also emerged here with some commercial activities to cater for the needs of the local population as well as of the visitors. Garam Chashma is located

at a distance of about 35 kilometer from Chitral, therefore, the overnight stay facilities are not locally required. However, a police station, telephone office, a rest house and a post of Chitral Scouts are located here. The village has its own water supply system and an electricity supply system through a private power generator. Garam Chashma is anticipated to gain more attention in the near future as the proposed road leading to the Central Asia will pass through here before entering into Afghanistan. The project has now entered into a serious phase as the stretch of road passing through Afghanistan is already under execution and the Chief Minister of NWFP, Mr. Aftab Ahmad Khan Sherpao has recently paid a special visit to Garam Chashma in this regard. 6.6.10 Gobar Bakh Darra

Gobar Bakh Darra is a pass en route to Afghanistan from Pakistan at a distance of about 20 Kilometers from Gram Chashma. Gobar Bakh is the last village of Chitral before crossing the border. Gobar Bakh has little significance otherwise, however, the scenery in far distance showing the snow clad peaks of Hindu Kush is quite attractive and enchanting.

6.6.11

Koghoozi

Located at a distance of about 20 kilometers from Chitral to Mastuj is a beautiful spot with tremendous natural beauty. The place is famous for the "Chinar" and walnut trees which are found in abundance here. Koghoozi village has a population of about 2,000 persons with a small bazaar catering for the local needs. In addition to walnuts and grapes pomegranates are also in abundance in and around this area which is well irrigated by natural springs. A post office, a hospital, locally generated electricity, telephone, water supply and police post are all existing in the village. 6.6.12 Trichmir Top

The mighty peak of Trichmir with elevation of more than 25,000 feet is located towards west of Chitral. This peak being the most striking feature of the natural landscape can be seen from every where in Chitral. The peak remains covered with snow all year round and during the summer sunshine looks as beautiful as a bride with full dress condition. It is a popular trekking attraction both for domestic as well as foreign tourists. Scaling the peak is an open and inspiring invitation with a lot of temptation to the trackers. Guides for trekking are available from Chitral in addition to all necessary arrangements for this purpose. The trekking expeditions normally are carried out from June to September. Challenging as it is the climb is at the time fraught with danger of fatal fall. 6.6.13 Buni

The third largest urban center of Chitral with a population of about 8,000 persons, is the headquarters of Mastuj sub-division. Located along the main Chitral-Mastuj Road at a distance of 75 Kilometers from Chitral, Buni is situated on the western side of the River Chitral. A trackable suspension bridge links the town with the main road. Buni is located on relatively plain area which is considerably vast in its coverage. Buni is well known for its fruits which are delicious and rich in taste. Apples, grapes, apricots and peach are found in abundance, which are mostly consumed locally and also go waste due to the lack of appropriate facilities for storage and transportation to other areas of the country. A hot mineral spring is also located in Buni which is visited by a large number of local and domestic visitors. Buni is provided with a local water supply system and electricity by WAPDA power house. The facilities like Post office, Police station, Markets, Banks, Telephone exchange etc are also located in Buni. A number of government office buildings and rest houses are also located in Buni. No hotel facility is located due to the lack of demand by the visitors for overnight stay. Some local restaurants in the main bazaar of Buni however, offer ordinary local foods. A T.V booster is under construction after which the PTV services will be extended to this area. Buni Zom located majestically and facing Buni town adds a lot to the beauty of the area. The peak remains covered with snow all the year round. 6.6.14 Snoghar

Snoghar is an old settlement of Chitral which is known because of its

natural springs which are amazingly large in number. It is therefore called the home of springs. The area is rich in natural beauty and natural vegetation. Snoghar is located at a distance of about 87 kilometer from Chitral on the left side of Yarkhun River near the main road. The old road used to pass through here. The place is also accessible from Buni. The village is comprised of 300 to 400 houses. A striking feature of the village is its grassy fields where the grass is thick like austro turf. Glaciers are located relatively closer from here at a distance of not more than 3 hours walk. A polo ground is also located in Snoghar. A legend among the local population says that once this glacier was broken and a large number of live frogs emerged from it. When the frogs were killed, pieces of gold were discovered from them. A post office and BHU are located in Snoghar to cater for the local population. 6.6.15 Mastuj

The historic settlement of Mastuj was the headquarter of Mastuj District during the time of Mehtars. However, it was made a part of Chitral District later on, but remained the seat of sub-division Mastuj which it is to date. After Drosh, Chitral and Buni, Mastuj is the last major settlement of Chitral valley towards north. The town is located at a distance of 112 kilometer from Chitral and 33 Km from Buni in the north, along River Yarkhun. All the administrative offices of sub-division level are located at Mastuj. The town is actually situated at the mouth of two Darras (valleys) one is Darra Laspur and the other is Yarkhun. Darra Laspur leads to the famous Shandoor Pass, whereas the other takes one to

Broghol Pass which is about 150 kilometer away in the north leading further to Wakhan Area of Afghanistan. Laspur valley leads to Shandoor Pass after 43 Km and ultimately enters into Gilgit after crossing Shandoor Top. A PTDC motel is near completion in Mastuj, which will be perhaps the only hotel of reasonable standard in Mastuj. A known personality of the area is Col (Retd.) Khush Waqt al Mulk who is a charming personality and is a definite tourist attraction. He has been the Governor of Mastuj during the time of Mehtars. Most foreign tourists like to pay visit to him, who also offers overnight accommodation to them. The people of Mastuj are fond of Polo and maintain a strong polo team. The polo stadium of Mastuj is well known in the area. A degree college is located in Mastuj together with other public buildings. All basic public facilities are existing including water supply, electricity, telephone, post & telegraph, police station, banks and hospitals etc. The wing headquarter of the Chitral Scouts is also located here. 6.6.16 Pari Mari

Pari Mari is a small village at a distance of 6 kilometer from Mastuj. There is an interesting feature of this place which is a very old "Chinar" tree of extra ordinary size, whose trunk is submerged in mud caused by the land slides from the surrounding mountains. The four enormous branches of the tree have a coverage approximately one acre of land. The village otherwise is an ordinary place but with the abundance of local fruits. There is no other urban facility or civic amenity available here.

6.6.17

Shandoor Top

Shandoor Top is located at the end of Laspur valley which is about 43 kilometers long starting from Mastuj. The height of Shandoor Top is above 13,000 feet. The pass leads to the territory inside Gilgit. Shandoor has gained significant fame both nationally and internationally due to the annual festival of Polo which is attended by a large number of visitors from all around the world, including the dignitaries like President and Prime Minister of Pakistan. The festival lasts for almost 10 days during which various interesting cultural programmes of music, dance and sports are performed. The festival is held during the last week of June or the first week of July. A lake located close to the pass called Shandoor lake is a beautiful spot. The lake becomes frozen during the winter when it can be scaled on foot. While travelling between Chitral and Gilgit. this route is open during the summer only. 6.6.18 Mooza Takht Khatan at Reshun

Reshun is a small village located at a distance of about 50 Km north of Chitral before reaching Buni. The village offers significant material reflecting the traditional culture of Chitral. The village is known because of a single room located here which is all made of wood and shows Chitrali skills in wood designs and carving. The room measures 30 feet x 24 feet in size. 6.6.19 Brep

Brep village consisting of about 900 houses is known for its apples and walnuts and beautiful scenery. The gardens of these trees surround the village on all sides. The apples of Brep are unique in taste as also are its walnuts. So delicate is the walnut shell that if fallen from the tree, the shell gets broken. The village is located about 24 Kilometer away from Mastuj in Yarkhun valley right along the main road. 6.6.20 Madak Lasht

This a beautiful valley offering scenic views near Drosh. Six months of summer are very pleasant. We can enter Dir through this valley. The inhabitants of this area belong to Persian ethnic group. Natural Deodar trees are abundant in quantity. 6.6.21 Chitral Gol

Gol means a stream. The Chitral Gol is a small valley, with outstanding natural landscapes. Natural wild life like deer, "markhore, Titer, Choter" are found. There are also numerous archaeological sites representing the old Buddha civilization. The rulers of Chitral known as Mehtar used to play game in the valley. 6.6.22 Birmugh Lasht

This is a beautiful spot located at a distance of 5 km from Chitral and is situated on a relatively higher altitude, where Mehtar of Chitral has his rest house. 6.6.23 Goleen Gol Valley

It is another beautiful valley with natural vegetation of trees of deodar and fruits. Its entrance lies near Koghoozi village towards Mastuj, at one km distance. The mountains of this place are high with vertical slopes looking splendidly with snow covered white peaks. The natural water of springs flow and looks beautiful. The people of this area do grazing and maintain goats and sheep. The government has started to construct a grid station and a hydal power project. 6.6.24 Tirich Valley

This valley is 60 km long with beautiful natural coverage of vegetation. Through Tirich Valley we can reach Tirich Top. It is subTehsil of Mulikoh. Most of the tourists like to pass this beautiful valley. It is close to Pak-Afghan international boarder. 6.6.25 Shahjinali

It is a uniform level flat spot full of beautiful natural landscape. Walking through this valley one can enter in sub-Tehsil of Turikoh of Sub-division Mastuj.

7. DEFINITIONS OF TOURIST FACILITIES


Following are the definitions of various tourism facilities and activities proposed in the Master Plan in terms of their purpose, function, area and other necessary information. i. HOTEL

A hotel is meant to be a building providing facilities to stay overnight for the tourists and visitors, includes a number of bed rooms, a kitchen, a restaurant, a lobby and other facilities for the entertainment of the visitors . Hotels have been classified in various categories from single star to five stars depending upon the number and type of facilities provided. ii. MOTEL

A motel is meant to be a building providing facilities to stay for the tourist and visitors overnight in a limited capacity and duration. Generally a motel is a place for shorter stays than in hotel and offers limited facilities as compared to that of a hotel . In the context of this Master Plan a motel is essentially awned and or managed by STC. iii. TOURIST HOSTEL

A tourist hostel is a building with a number of rooms for overnight stay of the tourists with common bathrooms and no restaurant or cooking facility. It offers accommodation on thrifty rates with no extra facilities. In the context of this Master Plan a tourist hostel is owned and or managed by STC.

iv.

RESTAURANT

A restaurant is an area where meals and snacks are served. It necessarily is comprised of a dining hall and a kitchen . An open eating/ sitting space is optional. In the context of this Master Plan a restaurant is essentially owned and or managed by STC. v. PICNIC SPOT

Picnic spot is an area with potential of scenic and natural beauty , suitable for passive and light active recreation of the tourists. It will comprise of grassy field, landscaping, sitting place, and properly designed walkways. The picnic spot varies in size but will not be less than 5 kanals in area in order to adequately perform its functions and will not be more than 20 canales to become a recreation park. In the context of this Master Plan the proposed picnic spots will be designed , developed owned maintained and managed by STC. vi. ROADSIDE FACILITY.

A roadside facility is a small ..kiosk offering light refreshments like cold drinks, candies, cigarettes etc. A small car park for 4 to 5 cars can also be provided to facilitate its functions. STC will encourage the small scale local entrepreneurs or individuals to establish such facilities on designated sites. vii. TOURIST FACILITATION CENTRE.

Tourist Facilitation Centers (TFC) are proposed to actually replace the presently existing Tourist Information Centers. The Tourist Facilitation Centre will have a much broader scope of services and facilities offered to the tourists. In addition to providing information regarding the places of interest, the TFC will also provide information regarding day to day whether conditions, road conditions, availability of hotel accommodation during the peak season, alternate tour/route plans, make contacts with car rentals, tour operators, tour guides etc. Tourist Facilitation Centre will be located along the main roads at prominent and easily accessible sites. It will cover small area comprising of 2 rooms only. A Tourist Facilitation Centre can also be located within the premises of a hotel, motel or restaurant, if adequately accessible. viii. CABLE CAR / CHAIR LIFT A Cable Car is a mode of transport for the recreation of tourists located mainly between the two hill tops across a valley. While the chair lift is open , the cable car is an enclosed / glass container with seating for 2 to 6 persons. The car/ chair moves hanging with a cable. ix. CAMPING SITE

Camping site is a designated area where tourist can erect tents/camps for overnight stay. The whole area is paved and space for tents/camps is marked on the ground . The necessary infrastructure facilities like water, sewerage etc. are provided for common use. An adequate space for car parking is also provided . The site area varies from 2 kanals as minimum to make it functionally viable to 10 kanals as maximum to keep it manageable.

x.

FISHING

Fishing is a sport popular at few spots in the fresh water rivers. Fishing does not require any designated area in terms of space. However, it stretches along the river banks and spots need to be identified which are suitable for this activity in order to control the activity and restrict the commercial motives.

xi.

BOATING. However,

Boating is also a popular sport and mode of recreation.

appropriate measure need to be provided for safety purposes. xii. RAFTING

Rafting is a challenging, exciting and adventurous game common is the U.S and some European countries which is essentially played in the rivers with very rough waters identical to the conditions prevailing in River Kunhar in Kaghan Valley. Rafts are specially made boats of fiber glass or light materials, small in size and meant for a single person ride. xiii. WINTER SPORTS There are many winter sports played on snow. It the context of this Master Plan winter sports mean skiing as out door sport and iceskating as indoor sport. Ice skating domes with adequate space and atmosphere are proposed as a new attraction for tourists in this area.

xiv. ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES Archeological sites are places of historic and cultural significance, interesting for tourists and mainly consist of excavated ruins and preserved old buildings and monuments. xv. TRACKING recreation purpose is

Scaling hilly areas and mountains on foot for flora and fauna.

called tracking. It is generally undertaken to enjoy nature, beauty and

8. PROPOSED TOURIST FACILITIES


Various sites have potential for various types of tourist facilities depending on the location, cultural and historical significance, topography and natural environment. Accordingly, various types of tourist facilities are suitable at various locations depending on the expected usefulness of the facility. Pakistan is an Islamic country with peculiar cultural and social background, especially the tribal values and culture still prevail in Hazara Region. Therefore, certain tourism facilities like bars serving liquor, discos and night life are totally non existent nor have any prospects to flourish in near future. Furthermore, Pakistan including its northern areas is economically a developing nation with limited budgetary allocations to provide lavish and extensive infrastructure facilities to offer to its people as well as to the tourists. Hence a very realistic approach has been adopted while making various proposals in this Master Plan. Within the above context, the following tourist facilities have been considered for this purpose.

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv.

Hotel Motel Tourist Hostel Restaurant Picnic Spots Roadside Facility Tourist Facilitation Centre Cable Car/ Chair Lift Camping Site Fishing Boating Rafting Winter Sports Archeological Sites Tracking

Following are the proposed locations suitable to provide the above tourist facilities by district. The provision of these facilities in terms of number and location have been guided mainly by the existing demand and also the anticipated demand at the end of the next 10 years (the plan period), when the tourist traffic is likely to increase by at least five folds, as a result of the vigorous promotion and development phases carried out by STC. 8.1 MALAKAND AGENCY

Malakand Agency is the gate way to the Malakand Region and is relatively a small area. A road from Mardan provides the most important and major vehicular access to the Region after scaling the famous Malakand Pass. The Malakand top offers breath taking panoramic views of the Swat canal

and its valleys. It is also the seat of the Political Agent and various other government offices, including a hospital located at the top. Since most of the tourists have destinations either in Swat, Dir or Chitral, this place has no potential for a hotel, therefore no hotel is proposed for Malakand Agency. After descending down from the top towards north, one road goes straight into Swat valley, the other goes right towards Thana and leads into Buner District, whereas another road turns left into Dir after crossing River Swat at Chakdara Bridge. This junction, is therefore an important location. A motel has been proposed near Chakdara Bridge. A few rooms accommodation will be sufficient to cater for the needs during the high season. This motel will also include a restaurant. This will be in addition to few restaurants and rest places already existing at the top of Malakand Pass. Due to its important location as entry point to the Malakdand Region. A Tourist Facilitation Centre is proposed to be located at the top in order to provide a variety of guidance. Jabban and Moora Hills are two beautiful spots located in Malakand Agency. It is proposed to further develop them into picnic spots, with restaurants to be located at each of them. A spot near a small ziarat along the main road just before the Malakand top is also proposed to be developed as picnic spot. The closed vicinity of existing restaurants on the top does not require another restaurant here. However a road side facility is proposed at this location. Another picnic spot is proposed to be located at Seelai Patai being a potential location. However, being in close vicinity to the existing settlements no other facility is proposed. Following is the summary of the proposed tourist facilities in Malakand Agency, which are also shown in Table-2 and Fig. 5-A.

A. i. B. i. ii. iii. Malakand Pass Jabban Moora Hill Chakdara Bridge

Motel

Restaurant

C. i. D. i. ii. iii. vi. E. i. Jabban Moora Hill Ziarat Near Top Selai Patai Malakand Top

Tourist : 1

Facilitation

Centre

Picnic Spots 4

Roadside Facility Ziarat near Top

TABLE-2

Proposed Tourist Facilities in Malakand Agency by

Location and Type.


Motel Restaurant Picnic Spot Roadside Facilities T.f Centre

1. Malakand

Pass 2. Near Top 3. Chakdara Bridge 4. Jabban 5. Moora Hill 6. Selai Patai TOTAL 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -

Fig.5-A

8.2

BUNER DISTRICT

Relatively remotely located and less accessible, is the recently established district of Buner, which was traditionally a part of the Swat District. An all weather black-top road leads from Thana in Swat to Daggar, the capital of Buner. Another road links it with Swabi through totalai but is not much used for all traffic. The famous Ziarat of Haji Baba is located closed to Daggar in the north. Buner has a rich historic background dating back to the periods of Alexander the Great, Buddhist era and Mughals of India. Many events significant in the history of Malakand actually took place in Buner. The sacred wars of Ambela by the Bare Head Saint against the British were also fought here. The famous minister Birbal of Akbar the Great was killed at Karapa with his 810 soldiers. Buner is a relatively isolated area as it is located off the main trading route of Malakand. This is one of the reasons for its neglect and poor socio-economic conditions. However, the area is otherwise rich in terms of scenic beauty. Mahaban valley has been recently declared as natural area for preservation by the provincial assembly of NWFP. Buner is accessible from the Swat through a road turning right from Barikot. The beautiful mountain top of Karakar falls on the way to Daggar. This place has a great deal of potential to be developed into a picnic spot. In addition to the picnic spot a restaurant is proposed here to cater for the needs of the tourists. Since a large scale tourist movement is not anticipated in Buner, no hotel is proposed to be located here. However, 2 motels are

proposed, one at Daggar and the other at an appropriate location in Mahaban valley. These motels will also provide the restaurant facilities.

There is another beautiful spot with good potential at a distance of about 2 kilometer north east of Ziarat Haji Baba. A picnic spot and a restaurant are proposed to be located here. Buner is also accessible from south linking it with Swabi and Mardan. It is proposed to develop only roadside facilities at 2 location; one at Shahbaz Garhi and the other at Totalai. Though Shahbaz Garhi is not located in Malakand Region, it has strong linkage with Buner District. Since most tourists are expected to cross Malakand Pass to enter Buner, the tourist facilitation centre at the pass will serve the Buner area as well, therefore no separate facility has been proposed. Following is the summary of the proposed tourist facilities in Buner District, which are also shown in Table -3 and Fig 5-B. A. i. ii. B. i. ii. C. i. Karakar Top Karakar Top Near Ziarat Picnic spots : 2 Dagger Mahaban Valley Restaurants : 2 Motel : 2

ii. D. i. ii.

Near Ziarat Roadside Facilities Shahbaz Garhi Totallai : 2

Table-3: Proposed Tourist Facilities in Buner Distt. by Location and Type of Facility Motel Restaurant s 1.Daggar 2.Mahaban valley 3.Karakar Top 4.Near Ziarat 5.Shahbaz Garhi located in Mardan Dist 6.Totalai Total 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 Roadside Facilities 1 Picnic Spots 1 1 -

Fig.5-B

8.3

SWAT DISTRICT

Swat district is undoubted by the hub of the tourism activity in the whole of Malakand Region as well as that of NWFP. The lush green and picturesque valley of Swat starts from Malakand Agency to Kalam in the north for a distance of about .... kilometers with River Swat running almost in the centre as the main life line of the valley. While moving north from Malakand Agency, the snow-clad peaks in the background present awe-inspiring views. Tourists from abroad as well as all over the country throng to the valley during all seasons of the year. Swat was an important cultural centre of Gandhara Civilization, the remains of which are still found scattered at various locations in the valley. It remained an independent state during and after the British rule. The state hood was however, abolished during the late sixties to become an integral part of Malakand Region. The main road of Swat runs north-south along the river to provide access to almost all the human settlements of the valley either directly or through secondary roads network. Immediately, after crossing down from Malakand Agency, the ruins of Landake and Udegram are places of interest for the tourists. They include Buddhist stupas and old ruins. The inscribed statue of Buddha is located near Ghalegai. Two roadside facilities, one at Landake and the other at Udegram are proposed to be located for short stay of the tourists visiting these shrines. The river side here offers excellent opportunity for picnic spots, therefore one picnic spot at Landake and the other near Ghalegai have also been proposed.

Moving onwards, the road takes to Mingora, the biggest urban settlement of the Region and its administrative seat. Mingora offers all urban civic facilities including a large number of hotels, restaurants, shopping centre and other necessary service. Saidu Sharif Airport is located across the river and provides a direct air link with the rest of the country. Kanju Township located near the airport is a recent addition of decent housing area of the city. Mingora offers a variety of hotel accommodation from a 4 star hotel to a number of 3 stars, 2 stars and single star hotels. Keeping in view the increase in demand during the next 10 years, at least 2 more hotels are proposed to be located at Mingora. Additionally one motel is also proposed at an appropriate location. In order to meet a variety of demand a tourist hostel is also proposed for Mingora. Being the centre of the tourism activity, a tourist facilitation centre is also proposed to be located in Mingora. A site near the bridge of the river offers an excellent opportunity to provide a recreation park of adequate size. An interesting recent development is the Kabal Golf course located across the river. It is a fully planned and designed golf course of international standard, therefore nothing new has been proposed here. The beautiful white palace at Marghozar in another attraction in the vicinity of Mingora, which offers both hotel and restaurant facility, therefore no additional facility has been proposed. Moving awards in north, a road takes off from the main road at Manglor to the tourist resort of Malam jaba. A five star hotel and a cable car were built few years back but have not been operational to date due to various administrative and other reasons. The place has already started deteriorating. There is an urgent need to resolve the issues and commence the operation at Malam Jaba.

Khawazakhela is an important road junction as a road turns right from here into Shangla District and links Swat Valley with Karakuram Highway in Hazara Region. A motel with a restaurant is proposed to be located at Khawazakhela. Madyan and Bahrain are two important settlements on road to Kalam. Both offer hotel and restaurant facilities to the tourists. No additional facility has been proposed for them. Mankial however offer a great deal of potential as a resting spot. A picnic spot with a road side facility are proposed to be located here for short stay of the tourists between Mingora and Kalam. After Mingora, Kalam is the most important urban settlement of Swat valley and is also the destination of most tourists visiting the valley. This Master Plan proposes Kalam to be developed as the future centre of the tourist activity in the entire Swat valley. Kalam has the potential to be development as tourist resort at the national level. Special consideration has therefore been made in case of Kalam. The recommendations include the development of at least 4 more hotels ,one tourist hostel, one motel and one tourist facilitation centre. A camping ground of adequate size at an appropriate location, fishing in river Swat a picnic spot and a sports complex for winter sports are other special developments proposed for Kalam. The Natural environment of Kalam and the surrounding area offers excellent tracking opportunities. Three tracking routes have been proposed for this purpose; one from Kalam to Mahodand. second from Uthrore to Kandalodand and the third one from Uthrore to Dir. From Kalam two roads lead in different directions. One in the northeast direction take to the beautiful Mahodand Lake via Ushu and Matiltan. The other in the north-west direction to Kandalodand lake via Uthrore. In the north-east direction, a restaurant is proposed to be

located at Usho and another one at Mahodand lake to cater for the needs of the visitors. In the north-west direction, a motel is proposed to be located at Uthrore to provide limited facility for night stay. A restaurant is also proposed to be located. A special feature of the proposed development is a cable car service between Uthrore and Dir across the mountain range. A fishing facility is also proposed to be located at Uthrore. Following is the summary of the proposed tourism facilities in Swat District, which are also shown in Table-4 and Fig.5-C. A. i. ii. B. i. ii. iii. iv. C. i. ii. D. i. ii. iii. E. i. ii. iii. iv. Usho Mahodand Kandalodand Picnic Spot Kalam Landake Mankial Ghalegai : 4 Hotels Mingora (2) Kalam (4) Motels Mingora Kalam Khawazakhela Uthrore Tourist Hostel Mingora Kalam Restaurants : 3 : 2 : 4 : 6

F. i. ii. iii. iv. G. i. H. i. ii. I. i. ii. J. i. K. i. ii. L. i. ii. M. i. ii. iii. Kalam Uthrore Kandalodand Kalam Uthrore Kalam Uthrore Malam Jaba Mingora Kalam Mingora Udegram Landake Gokdara Mankial

Roadside Facility :

Recreation Park

Tourist Facilitation Centre 2

Cable Car

Camping Ground : Winter Sports Kalam Malam Jaba Fishing : :

1 2

Tracking

Table-: 4. Proposed Tourist Facilities in Swat Distt. by Location and Type of Facility Hot el Motel Hostel Tourist Rest auran t Mingora Kalam Khawazakh el Uthrore usho Mahodand Kandaloda nd Landake Udegram Gokdara Mankial Ghalegai 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RSF Picni c Spot Rec .Pa rk TFC Cabl e Car C.Gr ound W.Sp orts Fish -ing Trackin g

Malam Jaba Total

Fig- 5-C

8.4

SHANGLA DISTRICT

Shangla is a relatively small district which has recently been separated from Swat District. It is however an important district of Malakand Region as, it links two important valley and trading routes of national and international importance through Karakuram Highway (KKH).With Alpuri as its capital, Shangla extends on both sides of the road linking Khawazakhala in Swat valley and Besham along KKH. Shangla Top is a beautiful place with considerable snow fall during winter and cool breeze blowing during the remaining of the year. Besham is actually located at a distance of not more than 2 hours of descend from the Top. A large variety of transit facilities to the tourists travelling on KKH are already provided at Besham, including hotels, motels , restaurants and shopping areas. Therefore, no such additional facility is proposed for Besham. However, a picnic spot and a the restaurant is proposed to be located at the Top to cater for the needs of the tourists stopping for a short while to enjoy the scenic beauty of the surrounding area. Following facilities are proposed for Shangla District which are also shown in Table-5 and Fig. 5-D. A. i. B. i. Shangla Top Shangla Top Picnic Spot : 1 Restaurant : 1

Table -5:- Proposed Tourist Facilities in Shangla District by Location and Type of Facility.

Restaurant i. Shangla Top Total 1 1

Picnic Spot 1 1

Fig- 5-D

8.5

LOWER AND UPPER DIR DISTRICTS

Like other areas of Malakand Agency, Dir also has as important and rich cultural and historic background dating back to the period of Alexander the Great. While a Wali was ruling in Swat the ruler of Dir was called a Nawab Who gained power before the British arrived in this area. After the abolishing of the state, Dir was established as a District which has been very recently divided into lower Dir and Upper Dir. Lower Dir extends from chakdara to Timergarah, whereas the remaining part is included in Upper Dir. Dir is accessible from Malakand Agency by a main road which leads to Chitral after crossing the famous Loweri Pass . This main road at Chakdara goes straight into Swat Valley and also turns left into Dir after crossing River Swat at Chakdara. Located close to Chakdara bridge overlooking Swat Valley from top of a hill is the Churchill Picket. A post used by Sir Winston Churchill who later become the British Prime Minister during World War-II, to report on the Malakand Wars during the early years of his earner as news reporter. Old ruins dating back in history are also located close to the picket. Chakdara Museum and Chakdara Fort are other important places at the small market town of Chakdara. Sir John Marshal was the first archeologist who started excavations in and around this area and unearthed many historic ruins and collected a large number of various relics. Chak pat (chatpat) , and Noor Mahal at Uch Sharif are other significate historic places. Keeping in view the facilities already proposed in the vicinity and being the gateway to Dir and Chitral, a

Tourist Facilitation Centre is proposed to be located at Chakdara. A road takes off after Chakdara towards Laram Sar, a beautiful spot located on the top of the mountain separating Dir from Swat at this place. Laram Sar has a great deal of potential to be developed as a tourist attraction. It is proposed to develop Laram Sar into a picnic spot and a motel is proposed here for this purpose. This motel will include a restaurant. A cable car has also been proposed for Laram Sar as a special tourist attraction. Moving onwards to Timargarah after Talash a road takes off towards left leading to the Bajaur Agency . A bridge has been provided here to cross the river. A restaurant is proposed to be located here as a decent eating and resting stop. Barcharai Top is also a beautiful and attracting spot identified in the vicinity . It is proposed to locate a motel and a picnic spot here. Timergarah is the capital of lower Dir District and an important urban settlement on the main Dir- Chitral Road. It also acts as transit stop for the tourist traffic moving on this road. A number of substandard tourist facilities already exist here. It is proposed to located a hotel, a motel and a Tourist Facilitation Centre at Temirgarah to provide up to standard and decent tourist services here. A number of narrow but beautiful Valleys (Darras) are located in the vicinity of Timergarah and between Timergarah and Dir proper. They include Nehag Darra, Usherai Darra, Karo Darra and Toremang Darra and Sheringal Darra. Sheringal is the largest and most beautiful of them with Kumrat as an exceptionally beautiful place with extremely cold climate. It is proposed to exploit and expose the enormous tourist

potential of these Valleys by providing a wide range if facilities here. Picnic spots are proposed at appropriate and most suitable location in Nehag Dara, Usherai Dara, Karo Dara Toremang Darra and Sheringal Valley. In order to further strengthen the activity, restaurant are also proposed to be located at Nahag Dara, Usherai Dara, and Kumrat in Sheringal Valley . A motel is also proposed in Sheringal Valley most probably at Kumrat. Taking into consideration the great deal to potential of Sheringal valley, a camping ground is also proposed to be located at an appropriate place. A cable car and skiing facility at Kumrat are special proposed features. Opposite of Sheringal valley, a road leads to the west into the beautiful Barawal valley. It is proposed to also develop this valley as a tourist attraction as Benshahi is a special point of interest for natural beauty and beautiful scenery. It is proposed to develop two picnic spots, one at a suitable place in Barawal and another at Benshahi with restaurants at both location. Benshahi is also suitable for a cable car or chair lift as added tourist attraction. A camping ground is also proposed to be located at Benshahi to further enhance the proposed tourist facilities. Dir Town is the next important urban settlement after Timergarah on the main Dir-Chitral Road. It has also been the seat of the administration for Dir state and than for the Dir District for many years. Now it is the capital of the Upper Dir District. Many tourist facilities already exist in the city including hotels and restaurants. Tour operators and, tour guides are also available. People hire jeeps from here cross to Lowari Top to enter into Chitral. In order to strengthen the existing facilities and to meet the future demand a hotel is proposed to be located at Dir. Being the last important urban

settlement on route to Chitral and first one on the way back, a Tourist Facilitation Centre is also proposed to be located here. Gujar Post is the last human settlement en route to Chitral at the very start of the Lowari Pass. Vehicles are normally stopped here to move in coneys for safety purpose. A road side facility is proposed to be located here to cater for the tourists during their short stay. Lowari Top is an exciting transit point after a long and difficult journey from Dir . Most tourists like to stop here for a while, relax and enjoy the far and wide scenery. A make shift tent tea stall is presently serving the tourists. It is proposed to provide an appropriate facility like a restaurant here to cater for the tourists. One special feature of the proposals made for Dir Districts is a Cable Car across the Lowari Top to provide access to Chitral all year long. The feasibility of such a facility need to be undertaken in details as a separate project component. In addition to the above proposed tourist facilities, the location, topography and the natural environment is also suitable to provide many tracking routes. One of them is proposed from Sheringal valley in Dir to Uthrore in Swat and one from Kumrat to Chitral. Following is the summary of the proposed tourist facilities in Dir, which are also shown in Table-6 and Fig 5-E. A. i. ii. Timergarah Dir Hotels : 2

B. i. ii. iii. iv. C. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. D. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vii. viii. ix. E. i. ii. iii. F. Chakdara Timergrah Dir Laram Sar Barcharai Top Nehag Darra Usherai Darra Karo Darra Sheringal Valley Barawal Benshahi Talash Nehag Darra Usherai Darra Kumrat Barawal Benshahi Lowari Top Laram Sar Barcharai Top Timergarah Kumrat

Motels :

Restaurant : 7

Picnic Spot : 9

Tourist

Facilitation : 3

Centre

Roadside Facility

: i. G. i. ii. H. i. ii. iii. iv. I. i. J. i. ii. Sheringal Kumrat Kumrat Tracking : Laram Sar Kumrat Benshahi Lowari Top Shernigal Valley Benshahi Cable Car : Gujar Post

Camping Ground : 2

Winter Sports : 1

Table -6:- Proposed Tourist Facilities in Lower and Upper Dir Districts by Location and Type of Facility. Hotel Motel Restau -rant Timargarah Dir Talash Nehag Dara Usherai Dara Sheringal Kumrat Karo Dara Barawal Ben Shahi Gujar Post Barcharai Top Chakdara Laram Sar Lowari Top 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RSF Picnic spot 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TFC Cable car 1 1 1 Campin g 1 1 Tracking 2 1 1 W.sports

TOTAL

Fig- 5-E

8.6

CHITRAL DISTRICT

Located among one the highest mountain ranges of the world, Chitral is perhaps the remotest district of Pakistan, which remains inaccessible by surface for almost six months of the year. The relatively difficult accessibility has kept it isolated for many countries. Consequently the culture and social traits have witnessed little change from the ancient times. The district is accessible from three routes; firstly from Dir after crossing the Lowari Pass, secondly from Gilgit through Shandoor Pass and thirdly from Afghanistan through Arandu. All three routes are physically difficult passages. There are additional and less used routes into and out of Chitral through as many as 62 passes (Darras). The first three have vehicular access, where for all other routes , people travel on foot using mules to carry luggage and goods. Like Swat and Dir, Chitral was also a state till recently . While Swat was ruled by a Wali and Dir was ruled by a Nawab, Chitral was ruled by a Mehtar. Chitral has an interesting history. It is said that Alexander the Great conquered this territory and left a contingent of his Greek Army here. The decedents of Greek origin are said to still occupy three narrow valleys of Chitral known as Kalash or Kafirisitan. Their religion is different than all other know religions . Kafirs, have a totally difficult culture and society . The difficult access to these valleys and a complete isolation have kept them living in a time capsule . The western world discovered about them after the publishing of a book in the late sixties, soon after which these valleys because one of the main tourist attractions for foreign as well as domestic tourists.

The package of tourist facilities proposed for Chitral includes a variety of facilities based on the potential and demand of each location. After crossing into Chitral from Lowari Top the road makes a steep descend and the zig zag road makes as many as 42 turns. This is a suitable place to provide a Cable Car all the way upto a place called Ziarat Drosh is the first major settlement on way to Chitral . A number of restaurants are located here but are mostly sub standards . A good quality restaurant is proposed to be developed at Drosh to cater for the tourists travelling on this route. Ayun is the next important settlement along the main road. River Chitral, the gardens, bridge and the settlement of Ayun provide the natural setting suitable for a picnic spot at Ayun is also important being the gateway to the three valleys of Kafristan. After crossing the bridge on River Chitral at Ayun and passing through the settlement of Ayun, a narrow passage leads into the valleys of Bhumburat and Rumbur. A number of small hotels already exist in these valleys, however, keeping in view an increase in the tourist traffic and demand, one motel in Bhamburat and one in Rumbur have been proposed. Chitral city is next after Ayun. The city is the capital of the district and also the biggest urban settlement . A large number of tourist facilities exist here. In order to meet the future demand, it is proposed to provide at least three hotels one motel and one tourist hostel in Chitral. A camping ground will provide a variety of accommodation and will further supplement the provision . A Tourist Facilities Centre is also proposed to be located here to provide necessary assistance to the tourists . Tracking of Trichmir is a potential attraction for tourists, which needs to be further developed.

After crossing Chitral city, a road on left side inters in a narrow valley with high steep and straight mountains on both sides leads to another tourist attraction of Garam Chashma (Hot Springs). On way to Garam Chashma one finds beautiful spots on cross-valleys at Shoghor and Mounio. Roadside Facilities have been proposed at both locations. Garam Chashma is a green area with pleasant atmosphere. It is proposed to develop a picnic spot and a restaurant at Garam Chashma. The Garam Chashma road leads to Gobor Bakh, a pass to cross into Badakhshan province of Afghanistan. The pass is used by a significate number of travellers to cross into Afghanistan. A restaurant is proposed to be located here to cater for the needs of the travellers. The Chitral-Garam Chashma-Gobor Bakh route has an important role to play in future after becoming an access to the Central Asian States through Afghanistan. The proposal is already under consideration of the Government of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajkistan. Moving north from Chitral, Koghuzi, Reshun and Sarghoz are the major settlements along the main road. Road side facilities are proposed at each one of them. Buni is the next major settlement after Chitral. Keeping in view the long journey from Chitral, it is proposed to locate a hotel at Buni. Being a transit point, no other facility is proposed for Buni. Bernis is a small settlement located on the junction along the road between Buni and Mastuj. Most commuters stop here for a cup of tea. A restaurant is proposed to be located here to provide quality service. Mastuj is perhaps the last major settlement on this road. At least two hotels and a motel are proposed to be located at Mastuj. A Tourist Facilitation Centre is also proposed to be provided here to cater for

the travellers

between Chitral

and Gilgit. This centre is also

anticipated to play an important role during the world famous Shandoor polo Festival. The narrow Laspur valley runs in south-east direction from Mastuj which leads to Gilgit Agency after crossing the famous Shandoor Pass. Harchin is a small settlement located almost in the centre of the valley and has a great deal of potential for development. A hotel is proposed to be provided here to carter for the needs of the travellers during the normal season and for the tourists during the Shandoor Festival. A road side facility is proposed at or close to Laspur, located the end of the Laspur Valley before ascending to Shandoor Pass. A vast plateau at the Shandoor Top and the Shandoor Lake provide a beautiful, majestic and mystical natural environment. A polo festival is held here every year during the month of March or April. This is known to be the highest polo ground in the world. Tourists and dignitaries from all over the world come to attend this week long festival. A camping ground is proposed to be located close to the lake to provide accommodation to the tourists during and off- the festival period. The pass is also a popular tracking routes which needs to be further planned and developed Following is the summary of the tourist facilities proposed in Chitral District, which are also shown is Table-7 and Fig. 5-F. A. i. ii. iii. Chitral (3) Buni Mastuj (2) Hotels 7 :

iv. B. i. ii. iii. iv. C. i. ii. iii. iv. D. i. ii. E. i. F. i. G. i. ii. H.

Harchin Motel Bhumburat Rambur Chitral Mastuj Restaurants 4 Drosh Garam Chashma Gobor Bakh Bernis Picnic Spot Ayun Garam Chashma Tourist Hostel Chitral T.F.C Chitral Camping Ground Chitral Shandoor Roadside Facilities 6 : : 2 : 2 : 1 : 2 : : 4

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. I. i. ii.

Shoghor Mounio Koghuzi Reshun Sarghoz Laspur Tracking Shandoor Trichmir : 2

Table -7:- Proposed Tourist Facilities in Chitral Districts by Location and Type of Facility. Hotel Chitral Buni Mastuj Harchin Bumburat Rumbur Drosh Garam Chashma Gobor Bernis Shonoghor Monri Koghoozi Reshun Sarghoz Sor Laspur 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 Motel 1 1 1 1 Restaurant 1 1 RSF Picnic Spot 1 TFC 1 1 Cable car Camping 1 -

Ayun Lowari Top Shandoor TOTAL

1 2

1 1

1 2

Fig-5-F

9.PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS


The experience has revealed the fact that rational development is necessarily based on integrated development. Development particular sector needs a great deal of integration with of a the

development in a number of other sectors. Similarly, tourism development can not be achieved in isolation and separation from sectors including transportation and other basic urban services. A tourism attraction with a great deal of potential is useless if not accessible to the tourists, and same is the case with other basic urban services like availability of drinking water, adequate sewerage system, electricity, telephone etc. With an aim to make this Master Plan more comprehensive and practical, the existing infrastructure facilities have been assessed in order to identify the deficiencies within the context of the proposals made for the development of various tourism facilities in the previous chapter. These proposed infrastructure facilities are also shown in Fig.6-A, B, C, D, E and Fig.6-F at the end of this chapter. 9.1 ROADS

9.1.1 Malakand Agency The main Malakand road linking Swat, Dir and Chitral with rest of the country passes through Malakand Agency which acts as gateway to the whole area. Most of the proposed tourism facilities are either located along the main road or are easily accessible to it. However, the road to the proposed picnic spot and restaurant at Moora Hill and another to the archeological site of Palai need improvement and

upgrading to serve the future tourists. Therefore, the proposed road projects in Malakand Agency are as follows: A. i. ii. B. Road Improvement Projects Main Road to Moora Hill Main Road to Palai New Road Projects Nil 9.1.2 Buner District

Buner District is also linked with the main road by another regional road serving the district itself. Daggar is located at this road. Another road leads to Ziarat Pir Baba Sahib in the north and is also a good quality road. However, the section linking Ziarat to the proposed Picnic Spot further north at a distance of about 2 kilometers needs improvement. Similarly the road coming from Mardan via Shahbaz Garhi and Totalai also needs improvement. Mahaban valley is presently not accessible through a good quality road. A new road section is proposed to make it accessible to the tourists. The roads to the archeological sites of Ambela and Karapa also need to be improved. The proposed road projects in Buner are as follows: A. i. ii. Road Improvement Projects Ziarat Haji Baba to proposed picnic spot Shahbaz Garhi- Totalai to Daggar

iii. iv. B. i.

Daggar to Ambela Daggar to Karapa New Road Projects Daggar to Mahaban Valley

9.1.3 Swat District The main valley road links Swat District with the rest of the country through Malakand Pass. The road also provides direct access to most of the tourist facilities both existing and planned. River Swat is crossed at Mingora only through a bridge to link Saidu Sharif Airport with city and also provide access to the Kabal golf course and hotel complex. Another good quality road links Saidu Sharif with Marghozar. However, the road linking Malam Jabba with the main road at Manglour needs upgrading into a double lane single carriage. The main Swat Road terminates at Kalam. The two roads, one linking Kalam with Mahudand via Ushu and Matiltan and the other linking Kalam with Kandalodand via Uthrore needs improvement and upgrading. The road projects proposed in Swat are as follows: A. i. ii. iii. B. Road Improvement Projects Manglour to Malam Jaba Kalam to Mahudand Kalam to Kandalodand New Road Projects Nil

9.1.4 Shangla District Shangla district is presently served by one main road only running east-west and linking the two valleys of Swat at Khawazakhela and Kohistan at Besham across the Shangla. The road needs considerable amount of improvement and upgrading work to play a vital communication role in future for the tourist movement in both Hazara and Malakand Regions. Therefore, the proposed road projects for Shangla are as follows: A. i. B. Road Improvement Projects Khawazakhela to Besham New Road Projects Nil 9.1.5 Lower & Upper Dir Districts Dir District are relatively behind other districts in the provision in terms of adequate road network. Other than the main Dir-Chitral Road, there are few roads providing access to the remote areas. Taking into account the proposed tourism facilities, a new road is required to provide adequate access to Laram Sar. Additionally, new roads need to be built in Nehag Dara, Usherai Dara and Karo Dara and Toremang Darra Top. There is need to provide adequate road link in Barawal valley including Benshahi. A motel and other tourist facilities to be located at Barcharai Top also need better communication through road linkage.

The most important road link in Malakand Division is perhaps that of Lowari Pass. This road remains closed for almost 6 months a year due to snow fall and bad weather. A number of studies have been carried out and considered at national and international level to find out alternate routes/solutions. The work on Lowari Tunnel commenced few years ago but the work was stopped after the completion of some length of it and was never resumed. A alternate route is being explored now and the feasibility studies are already in progress. The proposed road projects in Dir Districts are as follows: A. Road Improvement Projects Nil B. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. New Road Projects Main Road to Laram Sar Main Road to Nehag Dara Main Road to Usherai Dara Main Road to Karo Dara Main Road to Barcharai Top Main Road to Toremang Dara Main Road to Benshahi in Barawal valley

9.1.6 Chitral District Chitral is also served by a single major road providing access to most of the settlements in the district. The good quality black top read till recently existed upto Chitral only. However, the section from Chitral to

Bunni in the north have now been upgraded. This road needs to be extended upto Mastuj and on word upto Shandoor. The Garam Chashma road in west also needs to be upgraded upto Gobor Bakh. The road from Ayun leading into the Kalash valley of Bamburat and Rambur also need a great deal of improvement and upgrading works. The road projects proposed for Chitral are as follows: A. i. ii. iii. iv. B. Road Improvement Projects Buni to Mastuj Mastuj to Shandoor Chitral to Garam Chashma to Gobor Bakh Ayun to Bamburat and Rambour New Road Projects Nil 9.2 WATER SUPPLY

9.2.1 Malakand Agency Water is already supplied to almost all the locations proposed as tourism facilities. However, local water supply schemes are required at Moora Hill and the archeological site of Palai to cater for the short visits of tourists. The details are as follows: A. New Water Supply Schemes

i. ii. B.

Moora Hill Palai Water Supply Improvement Schemes Nil

9.2.2 Buner District Adequate water supply already exists in all the major settlement of Buner District. However, local schemes need to be developed at Karakar Pass, the proposed picnic spot 2 kilometers away from Ziarat Pir Baba and Mahaban Valley. The details are as follows: A. i. ii. iii. B. New Water Supply Schemes Karakar Pass Picnic Spot near Ziarat Haji Baba Mahaban Valley Water Supply Improvement Schemes Nil 9.2.3 Swat District A careful analysis of the existing conditions with regard to the proposed tourist facilities has lead to the concision that no water supply scheme is required in Swat except Usho, Mahodand, Uthrore and Kandalodand, as follows.

A. i. ii. iii. iv. B.

New Water Supply Schemes Usho Mahodand Uthrore Kandalodand Water Supply Improvement Schemes Nil

9.2.4 Shangla District Shangla Top is the only location where tourist facilities have been proposed. There is no formal water supply system existing at the top. The water supply projects for Shangla District are proposed as follows: A. i. B. New Water Supply Projects Shangla Top Water Supply Improvement Projects Nil 9.2.5 Dir District Considering he existing settlement pattern and the location of the proposed tourist facilities, following sites have been identified where proper water supply schemes will be required. A. New Water Supply Schemes

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. B.

Laram Sar Barcharai Top Sharingal Valley Nehag Darra Osherai Darra Karo Dara Toremang Dara Barawal Valley Water Supply Improvement Scheme Nil

9.2.6 Chitral District Almost all the locations in Chitral where tourism facilities have been proposed are situated in or close to the existing settlements, where water is available in one form or the other. Therefore no water supply projects have been proposed for Chitral. 9.3 SEWERAGE

Sewerage is an important aspect of human habitation. It is an essential service for general cleanliness and healthy environment. The only Urban settlement of significate size is Mingora, the headquarter of the Malakand Region. The sewerage system in Mingora is already going through a major improvement under the second Urban Development Project (SUDP) which is funded by the urban Development Bank. All other settlements in Malakand Region are relatively small in size, generating small quantities of domestic and commercial sewerage only, which do not pore serious sanitation problem. Besides, almost all settlements are located in a hilly terrain close of water courses available for quick sewerage disposal.

Therefore no sewerage scheme is proposed for locations where tourist facilities are proposed to be located. 9.4 SOLID WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL

Solid waste collection and disposal is the most neglected aspect of the civic life in the Region. The system has been provided to few major settlements only and that also is extremely in efficient in terms of coverage and level of service. All human settlements in the Region invariably need to be included in this programme whether system already exists and new arrangements need to be made. Therefore adequate garbage collection and disposal system need to be provided at all the locations in Malakand Region where the tourism facilities have been proposed. 9.5 ELECTRICITY

Electricity has now become a basic necessity rather a sign of life. It is required mainly where tourist accommodations for an overnight stay have been proposed in the Master Plan. They include hotels, motels and tourist hostels. Electricity is also required where the restaurants have been proposed to be located. There are mainly three sources from which the electricity is provided in the Malakand Region. Firstly, through WAPDA grid network, secondly from the small hydel power projects and thirdly small thermal power plants operated by petrol or diesel. 9.5.1 Malakand Agency

Electricity is provided in Malakand Agency by WAPDA, to almost all the places where tourism facilities have been proposed, therefore no new electrification project is proposed for Malakand Agency. 9.5.2 Buner District Buner is also connected to the Wapda network. However, the following location will need to be provided with this facility. i. ii. Mahaban Valley Picnic spot north of Ziarat Haji Baba.

9.5.3 Swat District Swat is the most developed district in Malakand Region in terms of electricity supply. Most of the places in Swat are enjoying this facility. However, considering the proposed tourism facilities the following location should be provided with this facility: i. ii. Usho Valley upto Malakand Athrore Valley upto Kandalodand

9.5.4 Shangla District The only tourist facility in Shangla District is proposed to be located at the Top, where no electricity is available, therefore the requirement in Shangla District is as follows: i. Shangla Top

9.5.5 Lower & Upper Dir Districts The districts of Dir have been relatively not very lucky as the development have been mainly concentrated on the settlements located along the main Dir-Chitral Road. Electricity is made available mostly to these settlements. However, the following locations where tourism facilities have been provided need to be served by this facility: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. Laram Sar Barcharai Top Nehag Dara Usherai Dara Karo Dara Toremang Dara Sheringal Valley Barawal Valley Benshahi

9.5.6 Chitral District Most of the settlements located along the main Chitral Road have electricity either from WAPDA, small hydle projects or by diesel

generators in the private sector. However, the following locations where tourism facilities have been proposed need to be provided with this facility. i. ii. iii. iv. v. 9.6 Kalash Valleys of Bumburat and Birir Garam Chashma Buni Mastuj Harchin in Laspur Valley TELEPHONE

Once a luxury, telephone has become a necessity of modern life. It become more important if considered in the context of the modern technologies available at the turn of the century. It not the foreign tourists, but the domestic tourists certainly like to stay in touch with their families, friends and business concerns. The difficult accessibility to some parts of the Region makes at even more essential a service. 9.6.1 Malakand Agency Malakand Agency is well convected by telephone with the rest of the country, therefore no additional facility has been proposed. 9.6.2 Buner District A single line telephone exchange occupying a single room is located in Daggar. This facility needs to be upgraded into a multi lane exchange in order to facilitate the local population as well as the visitors. 9.6.3 Swat District Mingora is convected with the Nation wide Dialing (NWD) network and

most of the other settlements are convected to the rest of the country through Mingora. However, keeping in view the further role of Kalam in the tourism sector, it is proposed to located another (NWD) telephone exchange at Kalam to connected the far away places like Usho, Matiltan and Uthrore with Kalam. 9.6.4 Shangla District Keeping in view the limited tourism facilities proposed in Shangla, no telephone facility has been proposed for Shangla District. 9.6.5 Lower & Upper Dir Districts Main telephone facilities presently are available at Timergarah and Dir, however, both of them need considerable upgrading and expansion in view of the future tourist traffic in the area. It is further proposed to extend the facility to Kumrat is Sheringal Valley and to Ben Shahi in Barawal Valley. 9.6.6 Chitral District Chitral is also linked by the NWD system with the rest of the country. However, the facility needs to be extended to Garam Chashma, Buni and Mastuj.

Fig- 6-A

Fig- 6-B

Fig- 6-C

Fig- 6-D

Fig- 6-E

Fig- 6-F

10. PROPOSED CIVIC AMENITIES


Civic amenities essential for tourism activities include appropriate

security arrangements (police), post offices, Health Facilities, Banks and shopping area. Each one of them has been discussed and proposed as under, and shown in Fig 7- A, B, C, D, E, and F, at the end of this chapter. 10.1 POLICE Security to the life and belongings of the tourists is one of the most important factor for the promotion and development of tourism in any area. Police presence is essential as a curative as well as preventive measure. The mere presence of police personnel may avert many untoward incidents. There are both relatively safe and relatively unsafe areas in Malakand Region. The areas along the main traffic routes are normally safe. Areas already established as tourism area, where tourist traffic is more are also considered to be safe. Swat and Chitral are generally considered to be safe. However, nothing is certain in this regard as some well known incidents have taken place recently at very well known places. They include indiscriminate firing on visitors to Malam Jaba, kidnapping and rape of women relatives of the D.C Swat at Kalam and booting of 4 flying coaches as Lowari Top. All these happened during 1996. Therefore, there is strong need to strengthen the prevailing securing arrangements and to adopt additional measures in this regard. following are the proposed locations where enhanced security arrangements are required in Malakand Region.

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv. xvi.

Karakar Top-Buner Mahaban - Buner Malam Jaba Kalam Mahodand Uthrore Kandalodand Laram Sar- Dir Barcharai Top Sheringal Valley Nehag Dara, Usherai Dara, Karo Dara, and Toremang Dara- Dir Barawal Valley Gujar Post- Dir Garam Chashma- Chitral Mastuj Laspur Valley- Chitral

10.2 POST OFFICES The whole of Malakand Region is very well served by the postal services , including the remote area. Keeping in view the existing coverage of area, level of service and the future needs, no additional facilities have been proposed for the area. 10.3 HEALTH FACILITIES. Availability of emergency health care facility in time is another essential requirement for tourism activity . A number of health facilities of varying levels both in public and private sectors are available in the Region, ranging from the Districts Headquarter

Hospitals to Basic Health Units (BHU) and Rural Health Centre (RHC). However, additional health facilities are proposed for the following locations. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Mahaban -Buner Usho- Mahodand Athrore- Kandolodand Sheringal Valley- Dir Barawal Valley- Dir Mastuj- Chitral Laspur Valley- Chitral

10.4 BANKS The availability of banking services are another essential requirement for tourist to exchange the foreign currency, to encase the travellers cheque and transfer money in case of the need of extra cash. Various commercial banks are located in almost all the important towns and settlements both in urban as well as rural areas. Additionally some standard hotels also provide this facility, therefore no additional facilities have been proposed in this regard. 10.5 SHOPPING AREAS. Two types of shopping are done by the tourists. Firstly, the shopping of personal items of daily use including toiletries and eatables. Secondly, tourists like to shop around the souvenirs reflecting the local culture, customs and traditions. They mainly include the handicrafts manufactured locally. The shopping areas of reasonable

quality and variety exist in almost

all the major settlements of the

division. Additionally, few shops also exist in the shopping arcades of standard hotels. Therefore no additional facility has been proposed in this regard.

Fig- 7-A

Fig- 7-B

Fig- 7-C

Fig- 7-D

Fig- 7-E

Fig- 7-F

11. TRANSPORTATION
While the other tourism and tourism related facilities are more site/location specific, transportation generally and mostly is considered in a much wider context at national, regional and local basis. It is therefore studied, analyzed and proposed as a separate sector of activity. Transportation in general can be divided into three categories for the area under study. By air By rail By road

11.1. AIR TRANSPORT There are two airports for regular commercial flights located in Malakand Region. The Saidu Sharif Airport located at Mingora services, the Malakand Agency, Buner District, Swat District, Shangla Districts, and also the Dir Valley. The other airport located at Chitral mainly serves the entire Chitral District. While, the flights operating to and from Saidu Sharif airport operate regularly, it is not so in case of flights to Chitral. Through, there is a daily flight to Chitral from Peshawar, it heavily depends or the whether condition throughout its flight path, therefore, the flights to Chitral are extremely irregular and uncertain. Air traffic in general and tourist traffic in particular is badly affected due to this reason. The air link becomes more important when the road link is disconnected due to the heavy snow fall on Lowari Top and the subsequent land slides. On average the road link

stay disconnected for almost 6 months a year. Most of the tourists desperately wishing to visit Chitral and having very limited vacation time can not afford to keep waiting for a flight to operate, and therefore have to cancel there programme to visit Chitral. 11.2 RAIL TRANSPORT Pakistan Railways has a line extended from Nowshera and Mardan to Dargai in Malakand Agency. The difficult mountainous terrain of the rest of the Region does not allow to built a line economically. Therefore, the rail link does not play a significant role in the transportation of goods and people in Malakand Region. 11.3 ROAD TRANSPORT There are commonly two sectors of transport by road, which are as follows. a) b) Private transport Public transport

Various modes of transport available in the region are as follows. i) Buses

Buses operate all along the main Malakand Road from Malakand in the south upto Kalam in the north in Swat Valley. Bus service is also available from Malakand to Timergarah in Dir. Other modes of transport are used in the remaining areas of the Region.

ii)

Flying Coaches

18 to 20 seater flying coaches also operate from Malakand to Kalam and to Dir. They also operate to Dagger in Buner, Khawazakhela to Alpuri and Besham in Shangla. Flying coach also operate from Dir to Chitral city.

iii)

Suzuki Vans

Suzuki vans are available to commute to the smaller towns/villages off the main roads in the relatively plain areas of Malakand. vi) Jeeps

4- Wheel drive, 8 to 10 seater jeeps operate in the difficult areas of the Region which include the area from Kalam to Usho, Valleys of Dir and Chitral. The jeeps are hired for a single journey, around trip or on daily basis. v) Rent-a-Car

Two types of rent-a-car service is available only in the big cities of the Region. One is provided in a formal way through the rent-a-car companies and the other is through the individual car owners stationed at a few designated locations in the cities. vii) Taxis

Yellow cabs are also available only in the big cities of the Region. In principle they are supposed to be metered, but normally they are not and the fare is negotiated. viii) Rickshaw Two seater auto rickshaws are available for short journeys within the urban areas of few major cities. They are also supposed to be metered but normally the fare is negotiated.

vix) Horses and Mules In areas where vehicular movement of any sort is not possible horses and mules are available to carry the goods and tourists. They normally operate in Darras of norther Swat, Dir and high mountains of Chitral. 11.4 TRANSPORT RELATED PROBLEMS Although some mode of transport is available at most of parts of the Region, the whole system needs a great deal of improvement due to a number of problems, some of them are as follows. i) Poor condition of vehicles

The general condition of the buses, coaches or jeeps in terms of level of service, luxury Malaysia and Korea. ii) Overcrowding and comfort is very poor as compared to those available in Europe or other developing countries like Thailand,

The buses, coaches and almost all modes of transport are heavily overloaded during the peak tourist reason. iii) Lack of control on Fares

There is no strict central on the fare practice, especially by the rented vehicles including private rent-a-car service and rented jeeps. Taxis and rickshaws also charge exorbitant fares during the peak tourist season and odd hours of the day.

iv)

Poor condition of Terminal Facilities

The general conditions of the bus/coach terminals and the wagon/taxi stands are extremely poor. v) Lack of regular service

The operations generally depend upon the will of the transporter or the driver and there are no fixed routes or timings of operation. In some of the remote areas no transport whatsoever is available after the sun set. 11.5 MASTER PLAN PROPOSALS Following proposals have been made to improve the tourist

transportation in the Region. i) Improvement in Private Transport Operations

STC should coordinate with the NWFP Ministry of Transport, private transporters, tour operators and the drivers associations to being about radical changes in the existing transportation system. A more practical policy should be prepared to give a monitoring role to STC. ii) STC Tourist Transport

It is strongly recommended for STC to operate a tourist transport in the Region, comprised of tourist coaches. The operation should commence with at least 10 coaches owned and operated by STC. Additional coaches should be rented on lease from the private sector.

A joint venture with the private transporters can be achieved in which the private transport can operate under the STC management. iii) Improvement in Fare Policy

A more rational fare policy should be implemented which stays stable during all conditions. iv) Improvement of Terminal Facilities Transport terminals should be located at appropriate sites and general condition of the transport terminals including waiting areas, toilets and booking offices should be improved. v) Improvement of Air Transport.

Improvement in the air transport, especially to Chitral is desperately required . It is proposed to make necessary arrangement so that it is possible to fly a Boeing airport than a Fokkar only. Boeing has a better sustainability and stability in bad weathers . Necessary arrangements also need to be made at Chitral airport for the purpose. vi) Alternate routes across Lowari Pass.

There is an urgent need to discover an alternate route to Chitral across Lowari Pass which can remain open even during the snow falling months of winter. vii.) Cable Car across Lowari Pass.

It is proposed to provide a cable car link from Gujjar Post in Dir to Ziarat in Chitral as an alternate mode of transport which can not only remain open during winter, it will also be a tremendous tourist attraction. However, the gigantic size of the project requires special feasibility studies to assess, the technical, economical and physical aspects of the project,

12. ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT


12.1 THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Malakand Division comprises of some of the highest and most famous mountain ranges including the Hindukush and Karakuram. Therefore, the area is mostly mountainous bisected and intersected by a large number of wide, narrow, big and small Valleys. The area towards south is mostly foot hills of the mountains. These mountains also form definite physical boundaries of the Region. The largest of these valley are the Chitral Valley, Dir Valley and the Swat Valley. The are three major rivers flowing in the Region. River Swat in Swat Valley, River Panjkora in Dir Valley and River Yarkhun or Chitral in Chitral Valley. These are other numerous channels and streams flowing within the Region which actually are the tributaries of the big rivers. The other striking feature of the Region are a large number of Passes (Darras) acres the mountains, some of which are very high in altitude and some others are very famous. Chitral Valley for example has more than 60 passes on its periphery. The famous passes are the Malakand Pass, Lowari Pass, Shandoor Pass and Gobor Bakh Pass. The specific topographic features, lofty mountains, green dense forests, Valleys, rivers and lakes make this Division more specific case for the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) study, as these ecosystems are more fragile to human activities, including tourism facilities. It presents a good case study for EIA, and a proven situation where an unplanned tourism facility can cause an ecological disaster , the deforestation of Dir is a case in point. 12.2 TOURISM FACILITIES.

A large number of various tourism facilities have been proposed in this Master Plan to be located at a large number of sites scattered all over the Region. Some needed infrastructure facilities and civic amenities have also been proposed in order to complement the development process. 12.3 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT. The EIA study has become an essential component of all

developmental activities (pure economic, social, recreational) . Any economic growth model or tourism development model must be woven around people and their environment. Several types of human activities in the name of economic development and growth in fact, result with the passage of time, in environment dilemma. Tarbela and Warsak dams are two examples of environment disruption. The environmental problems are some what insidious: there are serious impediments to public comprehension ( even those desk and so-called experts and policy makers fail to understand) the full nature of the environmental dilemma. Environment degradation is a global problem. No nation is an island (separated from the rest of itself regarding environmental affairs. Whatever the world) unto benefits from

environmental health and regeneration one country and one people eventually get, would benefits all humanity. Environmental problems and their solutions are of recent origin. In the 1992 Rio Environment Summit, the heads of states used the term sustainable development that lasting economic growth and human welfare depend on a healthy environment.

Environmental problems are misunderstood by the public and policy makers both. How and environmental resources, and hazards that how affect to man, his an environmental maintain

environmental health without affecting the economic growth models: economic growth is pitting against environment and for the policy makers through out the world. vice-versa if both are not properly balanced. This situation has been a headache

12.4 THE NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Environmental problems may be simple, or complex as follows. 12.4.1 Simple Environmental problems

A simple environmental problem consists of a small number of components of one, or a few types in one hierarchical level, typically caused accidently, or short term deviation from normal equilibrium state; normal human experience allows for an appropriate action. A clear-cut consensus exists for the solution of these problems, as no interest group is involved. The best examples are the littered shoes, sandals, plastic containers, beaches and tourist spots. The polluters are tourists drivers and their vehicles. The rubbish is mostly plastic bags etc. The biological natural degrading process fails to degrade such rubbish even in decades. The petroleum based waste from the vehicles may also destroy the water bodies, resulting in the destruction of aquatic life. 12.4.2 Complex Ennivonmental Problems

A complex environmental problem exists when a large number of components with two, or more hierarchical levels are involved. The problem is caused by sustained and deep rooted dysfunction of one, or more system components. Conflict of interest exists because of the defective perception to the most appropriate probable solution. Normal human experience in one life time (around 60 years), and small number of places does not allow for solution of the problem. Even if the problem is completely understood, the interest groups sabotage the solution of the problem, including illegal payment to the concerned authority. Some of the examples are the pesticide conspiracy, and its associated environmental hazards. There are 4 hierarchical levels which are involved in pesticide conspiracy: 1. Pesticide industry; 2. Ministry of agriculture; 3. Pesticide dealers, and 4. Farmers. 12.4.3 The Problem Complexity

pesticide industry in league with the ministry of agriculture

educate the farmers to use and use more pesticides. The pesticide dealers push the sale of the products. The farmers are unhappy due to cost and no efficacy of the product. Similar examples are in transport and manufacturing industries. 12.5 ECOSYSTEM BEHAVIOR AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Environmental problems are confusing. Long sequences of

components connected by cause-effect pathways such that it will not be apparent to most observers where the causes originate and effects terminate. For example, the fishermen have been complaining that their fish catch between Tarbela dam and Attock bridge have been

decreasing . Here the causes are perhaps several : fish diseases, chemical waste from Gadoon industries etc. No reliable data exists in this regard. Likewise, there are 1900 pesticide dumps in Pakistan. One such dump lies (partially removed) at the back of police public school near the Secondary Board area on Jamroud Road, Peshawar. The question is : do we really comprehend the effect ? The natural and man-made ecosystems have special basic

characteristics: 12.5.1 Time Lags.

Time lags and cumulative effects are very important in studying EIA. A complication in many environments develops in the cause-effect systems which exhibits time lags: an effect may appear some time after the cause that gave rise to it was operating, but also an effect now may be produced not just by a cause 5 years ago, but by the sum of all the causes operating between 5 and 10 years ago. One of the clear cut examples of such cumulative effects occurs when the cumulative assault of environmental pollution on human organisms finally triggers cancer. The effects of pollutants (causative agents) now existing in Peshawar City area will appear after quite some time and not now. This is the enigma of environmental solution. 12.5.2 The Policy Implication. problem. The enigmatic nature of environmental problems further complicates their

The policy implication of cumulative effects and time lags is that it may be difficult to mobilize a constituency (i.e.; public figures,

bureaucrats, and politicians) to deal with this lagged and cumulative effect. The reason being that it is not clear in their minds that there is a connection between a cause operating long ago and an effect occurring now. Even in our scientific community it is difficult to make the case really convincing. There are numerous examples in this regard including transport. In addition to the time lags and cumulative effects, ecosystems have thresholds. Environmental thresholds are found every where, rather the whole of Pakistan is almost at the negative environmental threshold: all our habitats, natural and man-made are used above their carrying capacity which means they are at the threshold of negative environmental impact. The following indicators are necessary to be considered when analyzing the data for EIA study. A. Biological in the sectors of agriculture, industries, and

The following 3 components are important in this respect. i. Vegetation

Some of the tourism facilities proposed in the Master Plan comprise hotels, motels, restaurants, picnic spots, camping grounds, fishing and boating. These facilities will definitely cause environmental disruption in the form of localized deforestation, erosion and pollution, as the flora of these habitats consists of a variety of plant and grass species: Scrub grasses, deodar, fir, alpine, subalpine, pastures, lichens and

grasses. The increase in tourist number along with their vehicles to the proposed tourism facilities will cause environmental disruption. The one plus point here is the seasonality factor of the tourism which would have a facilities in districts of Swat, Dir and Chitral,

mitigative and regenerative effect on the concerned ecosystems. ii. Wild Life

Malakand Division has a large variety in topography and climate. Consequently, it has a diverse type of flora, and hence, a diverse type of wild life fauna. Some of the major wild life reported in and around the proposed tourism facilities are as under: Mammals. Grey languor; Rhesus monkeys; Himalayan Ibex; (musk deer) Urial (wild sheep); snow leopard; common leopard; black bear; brown bear. Birds: Snow partridges; Himalayan snow cock; and many others. iii. Aquatic life

The EIA study of aquatic life would concentrate mainly on fishing; commercial and sports. Some of the water sports including boating, fishing and rafting would have a negative impact on the aquatic habitat which in turn, would negatively affect the normal fish population. This is in addition to the rubbish, eroded matter etc. which would end up in the water, further deteriorating its endangering aquatic life. quality and

B. i.

Physical indicators Surface water

Danger to the surface water would accrue due to the unscrupulous behavior of the tourists by improperly throwing the oily discharges of their vehicles in the proposed pollutants tourist facilities. The resultant sandals etc. would cause a mainly plastic bags and

negative impact on the ecosystems in and around the tourist facilities. Ending up of eroded matter in surface water would also be a cause of concern. ii. Ground Water

The ground water will be affected by the tourism facilities, resulting in sub-standard, or non-standard quality of ground water. However, this negative impact could be easily avoided or mitigated by a modern solid waste disposal system, and good drains via public health engineering, and high standard of maintenance in the proposed tourist facilities. Therefore, surface and ground water would be saved from the pollution and safe drinking water will be available. iii. Air Quality

Vehicular traffic and organic waste would be major source of air pollution, as the diesel transport tendency is on increase, plus poor vehicle maintenance. However, the thin local population, vast expanse of the area and the green mountainous habitats would avoid or mitigate any negative impact on the air quality. Therefore, air quality

will not be disturbed by the proposed tourist facilities.

iv.

Erosion

Erosion of the concerned ecosystems would be a cause for the negative impact of tourist facilities. The people and their vehicles would erode the ecosystems because the tourist facilities have been proposed on fragile ecosystems. The erosion problem would be raindrops. The raindrops fallings with force on eroded, or semi-eroded ecosystems, exacerbated by the

ground; hilly semi hilly, mid-hill sandy habitats (as opposed to plains of D.I.Khan) would loosen the and thus the eroded matter would be carried along and flown with water. However, this situation would be avoided, or the negative impact may be mitigated by constructing and properly maintaining flood water drains. Such drains are therefore essential. v. Noise Pollution sound) on the ecosystems of the

The effect of noise (unwanted

proposed tourism facilities would be insignificant because of the more sound absorptive capacity of the hilly ecosystem (as opposed to the plain areas where sound travels fast) where the sound is rarely or slightly reflected. Therefore, noise pollution in this vast expanse ecosystem will not be above the human tolerance level. vi. Pollution

Pollution

of

the

ecosystems

would

be

associated

with

the

establishment of proposed tourist facilities. The tourist throw away rubbish (mostly non-biodegradable plastics), oily discharge of vehicles, localized deforestation, erosion etc. all would cause a negative impact on the ecosystems and their inhabitants. It is therefore proposed to be vigilant in selecting specific site for a particular tourist facility and the design, construction etc. must be positioned and maintained properly. In this way the negative impact would be mitigated, or partially avoided. C. Human Use

The quality and quantity of the benefits which would accrue, concomitantly, must also be taken into consideration, which are as follows. i. Transport

The transport facilities are very important and must be considered in the context of local road transport system prevailing in the Region, which include buses, flying coaches, horses & mules, jeeps and rickshaws. Their stops, stations, on the way to and from tourism facilities would also be beneficial to the local community in order to mitigate their existing transport problems. The road projects identified and proposed in the Master Plan would facilitate provincial travelling of the local community. ii. Power Supply inter-and intra-

The power supply projects proposed in the Master Plan are small scale

thermal power generation. The supply of such power to the local community will change their life style and living standard will be improved. iii. Land Use

With the introduction of tourism facilities and roads (in some places) mini-markets will develop for the fresh vegetables and fruits which would be marketed at high prices. Therefore, the proposed tourist facilities would act as incentive to farm small pieces of land (1/8th of an acre even ) and terrace fields with little amount of water, and grow vegetable and fruits. Thus, the people would be encouraged for farming and use land in small pieces. This would be economically beneficial to the local community.

iv.

Agriculture

As a result of the tourist facilities, road and transport system would be improved and it would be easy for the small scale farmers to transport their farm perishable produce to inter-district markets in Malakand Division, and fetch reasonable price. Transport at the right time has been expressed as a serious problem by a large number of small to the local mini-markets of farm scale farmers. This is in addition facilities in the concerned area. D. Quality of Life

produce that would develop as a result of the proposed tourist

The tourist facilities proposed in the Master Plan would have a positive

impact on the quality of life in several ways. Some of the indicators that could run through the tourist facilities impact are as under. i. Socio-Economic

The effect on the life of local community in terms of the socio economic conditions would be positive as a result of the proposed tourist facilities in the area. It would improve their living. There would be fruit, vegetable, sweats and cigarette vendors at various localities where the tourist facilities are proposed. A kind of local mini-market would develop for trading and transaction on small scale. This business and trading activity would affect their economic life and also the social interaction with tourists would widen their knowledge with more options opened. ii. Employment

The tourist facilities would attract local, domestic as well as foreign tourists. The skills and management that would be needed for managing the proposed tourism facilities in Malakand division would be easily available locally. Therefore, the local people would get employment in the operation, management and maintenance of the proposed tourist facilities. This would be a great help in reducing unemployment in the employment-starved area of the Malakand division. iii. Social Values

No social, religious, aesthetic, archaeological, historical, pure taboos, or rituals would be offended by establishing the proposed tourist

facilities at identified and selected sites in Hazara division. iv. Public Health.

All levels of public health facilities (primary secondary, and even tertiary) are generally available to the people of Malakand division, except the remote areas of Chitral Valley. Therefore, very few public health facilities have been proposed in the Master Plan. The improved road and transport facilities as proposed in some places would help the local community to transport their patients in time to the public health facilities and the patients will not succumb to bleeding before reaching such health facilities . v. Nutrition

Lack of the proper nutrition is a general problem in Pakistan, more so in the proposed Valleys. study area, mostly in some parts of the Dir and By improving the socio-economic conditions, Chitral

employment opportunities etc. as a result of the proposed tourist facilities, the local community would have more options , and hence there might be a change in their life style and traditional sources of nutrition, leading towards an improvement in their nutrition situation.

vi.

Communication

The communication facilities already exist in the Region, which are not far away from the inter-district and inter-province communication links. However, the Master Plan has proposed the establishment of

telephone exchange facilities in some parts of, which would further facilitate the communication in the area. 12.6 THE E.I.A RESULTS The EIA analysis indicates the following. i. The positive impacts of the proposed tourism facilities in the selected sites of Hazara division are far more in quantity and quality than the negative ones. ii. Pollution and erosion of the fragile ecosystems would be the major problems. iii. Localized deforestation on a small scale may result in habitat erosion. 12.7 THE E.I.A RECOMMENDATIONS i. Site selection for tourism facilities around the dams may be given a second thought, as water resources( natural and manmade) are very sensitive to ecological disruption. ii. Flood water drains are essential in some places.

iii.

Full time sanitary inspectors or caretakers must be employed to look after the cleanliness and environmental health of the area where the tourism facilities have been proposed.

iv.

Retaining walls may be needed in some places to avoid

flood water erosion of the ecosystems.

13. ROLE OF PRIVATE SECTOR


Private sector in a larger context in tourism sector comprises of two sets of population: a) b) The Community, and The Private investors

Therefore the role of the private sector has been ascertained and envisaged in both the aspects, as follows. 13.1 COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION It has now been increasingly recognized that community plays a significant and important role in the sustainable success of the projects which mainly depend on the community participation during as well as after the implementation. It has also been recognized now that community participates in the projects either directly or indirectly, the role may be as owner, as user or as facilitator. Specifically speaking with regards to tourism, community has many opportunities to contribute into various activities related especially with the services industry. Consultants have carried out a survey in order to ascertain and asses the social and cultural acceptability of tourism in the region and also to explore various modes of participation by the community in general. The results of the survey are as follows: Level of education of the respondent is normally a strong indication of his opinion. Out of all the respondents surveyed 56% were metric,

19% were intermediate and 25% had no formal education. The survey shows a fair coverage of educated as well as non-educated persons in the study area. Professional status of a person to a great deal is reflected in the opportunities available to him for recreation. Out of the total respondents as much as 50% 20% were engaged in business, were government servants and another 30% were either

employed or working in the private sectors. The survey results reveal a 100% acceptance of tourists coming for visit to the areas of tourism potential. People generally feel comfortable and welcome such an activity. It is generally accepted by almost everybody in the study area that tourism is an income generating activity. As shown in the survey results 100% of the respondents have expressed this view. There is a unanimous opinion about the willingness to participate in various activities involved in the tourism activities as 100% of the respondents have expressed their willingness communities in this regard. In response to the question as to how the participation of the will be achieved, as much as 69% were interested in their own investment, some kind of business opportunity through

whereas another 19% were seeking better employment opportunities. Only 12% were willing to participate but have no clear idea about the mode of participation. 13.2 PRIVATE SECTOR INVESTMENT Private sector in Hazara Region is already making a significate contribution by investment in the tourism and tourism related activities, as most of the hotels, motels, restaurants, transport etc. are owned and operated by the private sector. It is now widely recognized and accepted that the private sector has the greatest potential to further invest into the tourism and tourism related activities. This role

of private investment may take one of the following two forms. a) Investment by the private sector alone as individuals or entrepreneurs. b) Investment in collaboration with STC as joint venture. The modes operandi of the joint venture will however, mainly depends on the terms and conditions and the acceptability by both the parities. One thing is certain that the funding has to be made by the private investors keeping in view the limited or no capacity of STC in this regard. However, STC may contribute in terms of incentives offered for the operation and location of the investment and also in terms of management of the facilities. In simple terms private sector contributes in cash and STC contributes in kind. It is however, extremely vague and naive to the already identify the terms and conditions of any such joint venture at this stage. STC has to deal with each individual case separately in order to achieve a practical formula to each specific case. The following proposals have been specifically made by the

consultants in this regard. i) Preparation of Feasibility Studies

It is proposed that STC should prepare feasibility studies for all the projects clearly showing the nature of the project, its location, capital cost, operation & maintenance cost and amount of annual profit expected from the project. The copies of feasibility studies should be kept in STC office and made available to the interested parties for

their review and study. Further negotiations may take place if the party is interested in any specific project. ii) Holding of Investors Workshop

STC should arrange a workshop at an appropriate time and place to brief the potential investors regarding the STC projects requiring private investment. All the members of provincial and national assemblies from NWFP, industrialists, hoteliers and land lords should be invited to this workshop. Memorandums of understanding (MOU'S) should be signed at the end of the workshop with the interested parties and further negotiations should be held to clearly chalk out the terms and conditions of the investment. iii) Press advertisements

STC should advertise in the local and national press about each specific project available for private investment. Negotiations should take place about the detailed terms and conditions of the investment with financially sound and reliable parties, after careful selection. iv) Formal and Informal Contacts

STC in its own capacity may establish formal as well as informal contacts with known potential investors in the private sector, invite them for a detailed discussion on selected STC projects and negotiate terms and conditions of the proposed investment.

14. PROPOSED MARKETING PLAN

AND PROMOTION

The success or failure of any product to a great deal depends on its marketing and promotion . The importance of good marketing and promotion is fully recognized in the present day world. A comprehensive and integrated campaign both at intensive and extensive scales is an essential prerequisite for the success of tourism industry in the Region. It requires to make use of the latest and innovative marketing and promotion techniques including satellites and computers. A futuristic approach need to be adopted for this purpose. The marketing of the tourist attractions located in the Region need to be carried out both at home as well as abroad, as follows ; 14.1 DOMESTIC LEVEL.

Recreation and sight seeing is a very personal and social altitude. It is strongly linked with the political and economic conditions prevailing at one point in time. Domestic tourism has gained enormous momentum during the recent years due to the improvements in the level of education and socio economic conditions. However, it still needs a great deal of information, motivation, guidance and incentives to attract the people for tourism. The marketing needs to approach the general public at large including all segments of population. The domestic tourism market covers the whole country extending from Karachi to Peshawar, including all the metropolitan cities as well as small settlements. Most tourists arrive in groups of individuals, families, students etc. The following techniques are proposed to be

applied for this purpose. 14.1.1 PRINT MEDIA

As a result of the survey of tourists carried out by the consultants, it is revealed that one of the most common source of information for the tourists are books and other literature. Print media includes newspapers, magazines, books, booklets, brochures, leaf lets and press advertisements. The literate of the society are approached through this print media. STC needs to print and publish material promoting individual potential sites located within the Region through brochures, booklets and leaflets. These are normally complementary copies supplied free of charge. The major outlets are all the major hotels, restaurants, tourism offices, travelling agents and tour operators. Magazines and books need to be printed and published for sale through outlets stated above. Introductory features need to be published in the circulated magazines. Additionally, it is proposed that a quarterly magazine should be published by STC . This 10 page foolscap size magazine should supply information regarding the upto date and recent developments taking place in tourism sector within NWFP and also news about other tourism corporations in Pakistan together with international tourists news. A separate cell within STC need to be created for this purpose. Some of the names suggested for this magazine are as follows. STC News The Tourist Times The Tourism national dailies and widely

14.1.2

Hoarding

It is proposed for STC to undertake an extensive campaign of erecting and displaying large size sign boards/ neon signs at appropriate locations of public gatherings including the following. 14.1.3 Along national and regional roads. Railway stations Bus Terminals Airports Shopping Plazas Places of Public assembly Sports events Festivals and fairs Tele Media

Tele Media is perhaps the most effective and far reaching media to disseminate information. Most of the general Public both literate as well as illiterate are accessible through the national television network in the country. The satellite programmes through dish antenna can be seen anywhere in the country from major centers to the far flung remote mountainous areas of the country. The national television network and the satellite telecasting can be used for small duration advertisement and short duration introductory programmes. Documentary films should be prepared highlighting various potential tourist spots and places of interest. Discovery channel of satellite, CNN, NTM, STN, PTV-1, PTV-2 and many other channels are available for this purpose.

The special recommendation in the regard is to telecast the whether conditions, road conditions, availability of hotel rooms and alternate transport routes for tourists in various tourism areas soon after the national News on PTV during at least season. 14.1.4 Radio Programmes 3 months of the peak tourist

Radio broadcasting is another effective media to approach the public almost everywhere in the country. It is proposed to establish a Tourist Radio Station at Peshawar on FM frequency to relay variety of interesting and informative programmes similar to the existing FM 100 Radio Station. The information regarding the weather forecasting, condition of various roads frequently used by the tourists, availability of hotel accommodation at various tourist concentration spots and the availability of alternate modes of transport at various routes can also be aired. 14.1.5 Organized Tours

The period of summer vacations is also the tourism season for domestic tourists when all the education institutions of all levels are closed for 2 months, mainly from the mid of June to mid of August every year. Students from many education institutions make organized trips in buses belonging to the institutions or rented for the whole trip. This activity can be further enhanced by facilitating these trips by STC in many ways. Many other organizations like banks, large industrial concerns, various public and private agencies and departments with large number of employees can also be contacted

and encouraged to organize trips to various tourist attractions in the area. STC has to play a more effective role in this regard. 14.2 INTERNATIONAL LEVEL Foreign tourist traffic to Pakistan is negligible at the moment, perhaps that is why Pakistan is known as the best kept secret of Asia. Pakistan is an alien name to the people of many countries of the world. Pakistan as whole a and STC particularly needs to do a great deal of work to introduce Pakistan abroad, and promote tourism in those countries. At the same time it needs to make appropriate arrangements to facilitate the tourism activity to make it a sustainable development so as if and when the tourists come, they fully enjoy without disappointment. Following are the recommended means to promote the Pakistani Tourism at international level. 14.2.1 Pakistani Missions

Pakistani missions abroad including embassies and consulates can play a leading role in the promotion of Pakistani Tourism in respective countries. On special occasions like Pakistan Day, Republic Day, Independence Day, special congregations can be held. Special features and supplements can be published in the newspapers of those countries. Cultural programmes can also be held. Businessmen generally like to combine business with pleasure, therefore foreign businessmen visiting Pakistan can be made special offers in this regard. Cultural Exchange programmes can be arranged. Exchange programmes of students with various education institutions can also be carried out. Commercial and cultural attaches appointed in Pakistan missions abroad can play a vital role and this role should be

brought within the mandate of their services in a formal and obligatory manner. These missions should also act as outlets for the distribution of literature regarding tourism in Pakistan. 14.2.2 Joint Ventures with Tour Operators

Tour operators in foreign countries are playing an important role in the promotion of tourism. Joint ventures between STC and foreign tour operators or joint ventures of Pakistani tour operators with foreign tour operators through STC can make a great deal of business for tourism in Pakistan. 14.2.3 International Air Lines

International air lines with PIA as leading agency can arrange package tours with special discounted fares to various tourist locations in Pakistan. PIA should enter into agreements with international air lines to extend this facility on reciprocal basis. The other arrangements of local transport and hotels can be made jointly by PIA and STC. 14.2.4 Satellite T.V Programmes

As said earlier in para 14.1.3, various programmes, advertisements, documentaries and short clippings can be arranged to be aired on satellite for an effective and continuous promotion campaign in the foreign countries.

15. PROPOSED HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLAN


Human resource development has so for been a neglected aspect in

many fields including tourism industry. It is now increasingly felt that human resource development plays a significant role in order to achieve economy, efficiency, excellence of service and comfort and sustainablity. As a result, an Institute of Hotel Management has been recently established in Lahore by the Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC), which offers short term courses on hotel management. However, its capacity to impart training in many other fields related with the tourism industry is extremely limited. Additionally, STC has undertaken a series of short term Training Workshops at related jobs. The tourism related service sector includes the following occupations:i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii ix Hotel Management Hotel accounting and financing Front Desk/Receptionists. Cooks Waiters and service boys Tour Operators Tour Guides Translators Tourist Drivers. various cities in NWFP in order to enhance and strengthen the professional capacity and capability of the tourism

The Master Plan proposed the following steps to be taken to achieve an integrated and comprehensive human resource development. i. to increase the capacity as well as coverage of allied professions at the PTDC Institute of Hotel Management.

ii.

to arrange scholarships/stipends to study at the PTDC institute of Hotel Management to the applicants of remote areas and from low-income families, especially applicants coming from the areas where tourism is a dominant activity.

iii.

to arrange scholarships to study ad attend short term courses abroad.

iv.

to

ensure

regular

employment

after

completion

of

the

studies/training courses. v. to carry out short term training workshops on regular basis by STC. vi. Commercial enterprises engaged in the services of tourism should be involved to sponsor the training workshops etc. This will need a high level of coordination between the private sector involvement will also be used for many other areas where the strong role of private sector in the tourism industry is eagerly sought.

16. COST ESTIMATES


Following are the cost estimates prepared for various project components as have been identified in the Master Plan. They are mainly based on the current market prices and are entirely and extremely approximate. The actual and detailed costs for each of the project components should be prepared at a later stage together with detailed designing and at the time of its execution. Therefore, the Umbrella PC-1 to be prepared after this Master Plan will include these approximate costs and the PC-1's for each specific project to be prepared at the time of the implementation of the Master Plan will include the actual costs as and when these specific PC-1's are prepared by STC. 16.1 TOURISM FACILITIES 16.1.1 Hotels

For the purpose of this Master Plan and the estimates of rough costs, it is assumed that a hotel will be located on an area measuring about 1 acre and will provide accommodation of 100 beds (50 rooms). The total cost including the cost of land, design cost, building cost and furnishing cost is estimated to be: Rs: 20.00 million.

16.1.1

Motel

It is assumed that a motel will be located on an area of 0.5 acre (4 kanals) and will provide accommodation of 20 beds in 10 rooms. The

total cost including the cost of land, design and construction cost as well as the furnishing cost is estimated to be: Rs: 5.00 millions. 16.1.1 Tourist Hostel

A tourist hostel will provide accommodation to 40 persons in 20 rooms and will be located on land measuring 0.5 acre (4 kanals). The total cost including the cost of land, design cost, construction cost and furnishing cost is estimated to be: Rs. 10.00 million. 16.1.4 A Restaurants is proposed to be located on land measuring

restaurant

approximately 2 kanals to 4 kanals with a dining hall with the seating capacity of 50 to 60 persons. The total cost of a restaurant including the cost of land, deign, building and furnishing costs is estimated to be: Rs. 2.00 million. 16.1.5 Picnic Spot

All picnic spots will vary considerably in area depending on the location, tourism potential, anticipated and planned functions and availability of land. However, for the sake of this Master Plan it is assumed that a picnic spot will cover an area of 5 kanals to 20 kanals. The total cost including the cost of land, soft and hard landscaping and other ancillary facilities will be approximately

Rs. 4.00 million. 16.1.6 Tourist Facilitation Centre

A tourist facilitation centre is proposed to be provided on an area ranging from half a kanals to 1 kanal. It will include space for reception, offices, display area and waiting area. The total cost including the cost of land, design cost, building cost and furnishing cost is estimated to be: Rs. 0.50 million. 16.1.7 Roadside Facility

A roadside facility is assumed to be a food stall covering a small area of 0.5 kanal. The total cost including the cost of land, structure and building space is estimated to be. Rs. 0.1 million. 16.1.8 Cable Car

The cost of cable car will vary considerably based on its location, the length of the cable, the number of stations etc. Data has been collected from locations in Pakistan where such facilities have already been installed like Murree, Patriata and Malam Jaba for this purpose. For the purpose of this Master Plan, it is estimated that each cable car service will approximately cost: Rs. 15.00 million. 16.1.9 Camping Site

An average size camping site with auxiliary service provided on site is estimated to cost. Rs. 2.00 million. 16.1.10 Fishing

Establishment of the fishing spots generally does not need much of the development works. However, the cost of erecting sign boards, street furniture, supervision hut etc. for each location is estimated to cost Rs. 0.05 million. 16.1.11 Boating

The cost of boating may vary considerably depending the level of service. However, for the sake of this master plan it is assumed that including the cost of boats, motor boats, motor launches and the development of the boating basin, each facility will cost. Rs. 1.50 million. 16.1.12 Tracking

The cost of development of the planned tracking routes at proposed locations may also vary considerably, depending on the location and the length of the track. However, it is estimated track will approximately cost Rs. 0.10 million. that including the cost of direction signs, track development and street furniture, each

16.1.13

Winter Sports

Winter sports in this context means a Dome of ice-skating. It will also include the auxiliary facilities of snack bar, changing and waiting rooms, visitors gallery and administrative offices. The total cost for each facility will include the cost of land, design, building and furnishing which is estimated to be approximately Rs. 3.00 million.

The summery of cost estimates of various tourist facilities are shown in Table-8.

Table-8:

Estimated Facilities

cost

of

Proposed

Tourists

S.No

Type of Facility

No. of Facilities

Cost per Unit million Rs.

Total Cost Rs. million

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Hotels Motels Tourist Hostels Restaurants Picnic spots Roadside facilities Tourist Facilitation Centre

15 15 3 20 22 14 6

20.00 5.00 10.00 2.00 4.00 0.10 0.50

300.00 75.00 30.00 40.00 88.00 1.40 3.00

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Cable car Camping sites Fishing Boating Rafting Winter sports Tracking Total

6 5 2 0 0 3 7

15.00 2.00 0.05 1.50 1.00 3.00 0.10

90.00 10.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 9.00 0.70 647.20

Less cost of Hotels (647.20 - 300.00) 347.20

The cost for cable car does not include the cost for the proposed cable car acres Lowari Top, being an exceptionally big project. This cost needs to be calculated under a separate project component.

16.2 INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES. A number of infrastructure projects have been identified at various locations in the Region. The cost estimates will be prepared together with the detailed designs and PC-1's by the relevant executing agency. The infrastructure facilities include roads, water supply, sewerage telephone. solid The waste collection and disposal, are electricity the and relevant executing agencies Highway

Department, C & W Department, Public Heath Engineering Depart, WAPDA, PTC and the Local Administrations. 16.3 CIVIC AMENITIES Various civic amenities including police, post, health, and banks are proposed to be provided at various locations in the Region. However, the cost estimates for each one of these amenities will be determined and projects implemented by the relevant departments which include, the Home Department, Health Department, Communication/Information Department and the commercial banks. 16.4 TRANSPORTATION It is proposed in the Master Plan to operate STC transport consisting of at least 10 tourist coaches. The cost of the coaches together with terminal facilities, auxiliary services and operation for the first year is estimated to be. Rs. 50 million.

16.5 MARKETING AND PROMOTION 16.5.1 Print Media

The print media includes the publishing of at 20 different leaflets and brochures in adequate numbers, printing of a number of press advertisements, and the publishing of other promotion materials. The cost roughly has been estimated to be: Rs. 5.00 million. 16.5.2 STC Magazine

A 10 page quarterly magazine is proposed to be published by STC .It is estimated to cost STC for its establishment and launching an amount of approximately. Rs. 5.00 million. 16.5.3 Hoarding

It is proposed to erect sign boards and neon signs at not less than 100 locations all over the country. It is estimated that they will roughly cost. Rs. 10.00 million. 16.5.4 Tele Media

This will include the preparation of short duration advertisements, films, documentaries, clippings and interviews. It is estimated these activities will cost approximately: Rs. 20 .00 million. that

16.6

TRAINING AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

It will include the commencement of various training programmes, Training Workshops, award of scholarships both within Pakistan and aboard. It is estimated that these activities will roughly cost: Rs. 10.00 million. 16.7 16.7.1 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS STC Strengthening

The institutional strengthening of STC is proposed as an essential prerequisite for the implementation of this Master Plan. A number of sections/cells/departments are proposed to be created/established within STC for this purpose. The institutional strengthening will include the personal salaries, allowances, office stationary etc. It is roughly estimated that for the plan period of 10 years, it will roughly cost: Rs. 50.00 million. 16.7.2 STC Consultancy

The implementation of this Master Plan in the form of the number of various projects identified therein will require the designing and preparation of the specific projects. Keeping in view the technical and professional expertise required in a variety of fields, it is anticipated that STC will require the services of a number of Consultants in this regard. It is estimated that this consultancy service will cost approximately: Rs. 30.00 million

The aggregate cost estimates are given in Table-9, as follows.

Table-9: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Project Components Tourism Facilities Infrastructure Facilities Civic Amenities STC Transportation

Total Cost Estimates Total Cost (Rs. Millions) 347.20 50.00 40.00 10.00 50.00 30.00 527.20

Marketing and Promotion Training and Resource Dev. STC Strengthening STC Consultancy Total

17. FUNDING ARRANGEMENTS


Funding is required for the following project components as proposal in this Master Plan. The proposed funding arrangements for each category of projects is also discussed as under. 17.1 INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS The proposed infrastructure projects include, roads, water supply, sewerage, solid waste management and electricity and telephone. They include both improvement/upgrading/extension to the existing networks and the provision of new networks. Each one of the above projects fall within the responsibility of the respective provincial department including Highway Department, C & W Department, Public Heath Engineering Department, the Local Municipal Authority, WAPDA and Telecom. Deptt. Each one of these departments have allocation of funds made under the provincial and departmental Annual Development Programmes (ADP). The projects identified for various infrastructure facilities should be included in the ADP's during the coming years according to the phasing proposed in this Master Plan. 17.2 CIVIC AMENITIES PROJECTS The proposed civic amenities projects include post offices, police stations, health facilities, the Home Department, and banks. Each category of projects are Health Department, Communications the responsibility of the respective provincial departments including Department and Zonal Head Offices of various commercial banks. Each one of these departments has fund allocations made under the

Annual Development Program (ADP's) except the banks. The projects identified for the provision of various civic amenities should be included in the ADP's of the respective departments according to the phasing proposed in this Master Plan. 17.3 TOURIST FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS A large number of tourist facilities have been proposed to be developed both in the private as well as in the public sectors and also as a joint venture of both of them. The proposed funding arrangements for various tourist facility projects are as follows: 17.3.1 Private Sector

The projects proposed to be funded by the private sector alone re as follows: i) ii) 17.3.2 Hotels Roadside facilities STC

The tourist facilities projects proposed to be funded by STC alone through grants from the provincial and federal governments and loans from financial institutions are as follows: i) ii) iii) iv) Picnic spots Tourist Facilitation Centers Camping Grounds Tracking Routes

17.4 STC TOURIST TRANSPORT It is proposed to fully own and operate the proposed 10 coaches for the purpose of tourist transport by STC alone. However, additional coaches under STC arrangements should be operated under partnership with the private sector. 17.5 MARKETING AND PROMOTION Funding arrangements to carry out the intensive and extensive campaigns for the marketing of projects and promotions of tourism within Pakistan and abroad is proposed take place with the help of the private sector. A large number of private sector industries and business concerns should be contacted to sponsor various marketing and promotion activities as proposed in Chapter-14 of this Master Plan. Consultants have thoroughly explored the possibility of this funding source and have been extended full assurance in this regard by a large number of giant business establishments. 17.6 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS Service sector plays an important role in functioning of tourism activities at various levels. Master Plan has proposed various programmes in response to the need to develop the service sector which includes a number of training programmes, workshops, education sessions etc. both available in Pakistan and abroad, some requiring stipends and scholarships. It is proposed that STC should be given appropriate funds for this purpose through provincial and federal grants/allocations.

17.7 STC INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING STC needs a handsome amount of funding for its functions and operations during the future. Following are the possible modes of funding for STC administrative expenditures. i) ii) Annual Development Programma (ADP) Revenue Generation from various projects.

It is proposed that appropriate allocations should be made in the provincial ADP's to meet the STC administrative expenses during the first 2 to 3 years of the implementation of the Master Plan. During the same years some of the proposed projects will be implemented and put in operation in order to yield enough revenues for STC to support its staff and meet others administrative expenses to function properly and strongly. During the later years after the completion of the remaining projects, STC may generate enough revenues to further invest into its activities. 17.8 STC CONSULTANCY In order to achieve a sustainable development activities STC will require the services of various consultants for various activities including the designing of various proposed tourist facilities, training programmes an management purposes. The funding for various consultancy components is proposed to be made by the ADP allocations throughout the plan period of the Master Plan. 17.9 REVENUE GENERATING ACTIVITIES One of the aims of this Regional Plan and an essential salient features

is to make STC a self financing organization which is also able to expand its functions and provide further facilities in the tourism sector. Hence the Master Plan has proposed a number of activities which may involve funding from STC at initial stages but ultimately will become revenue generating activities. These are of two types. a) STC and Private Sector Partnership i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) b) STC Motels STC Tourist Hostels STC Restaurants Cable Car Fishing are/Boating Winter sports

Funded by STC alone i) ii) iii) STC Transport STC Magazine STC Publications

18. INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING

ARRANGEMENTS

AND

STC

Before discussing any new institutional arrangements to be made, it is quite useful to consider the existing institutional arrangements existing at national and local levels, in the context of their performance which are as follows. 18.1 MINISTRY OF TOURISM. Ministry of Tourism exists in Pakistan, both at the federal as well as provincial levels. It is actually a separate department attached from time to time with various ministries including Culture and Sports. At the provincial level an office of the Deputy Controller, Ministry of Tourism exists in Peshawar. The main functions of this department are to issue licenses to hotels and restaurants to legally operate in NWFP and also to issue licenses to tour operators and traveling agents under two different Acts passed in 1976. 18.2. PAKISTAN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (PTDC) Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation established in 1970 was initially envisaged to be a private sector venture. But within a few years, it became yet another semi-government organization where the crest fallen dummy-gods of bureaucracy were dumped till they were rehabilitated. Tenures of some of the managing directors were as short as 6 weeks to 10 months. The only period during which a lot of development projects were

initiated and completed was from 1973 to 1975 when enough funds were secured to upgrade tourist facilities and to build new ones. After that, Managing Directors concentrated more on were appointed and removed at short foreign tours than bringing about intervals with the result that no new projects were undertaken. They improvements in the systems. The situation prevailed till 1977 whereafter the tourism was considered as a threat to Islamic values and culture. After Martial Law was removed and a democratic system took over, serious thought was given to tourism as industry since 1988. However, no practical step was taken in this direction for improvement, mainly due to the hurdles created by the Ministry of Finance and CBR. Despite many hurdles, the Government during the previous tenure of Main Nawaz Sharif, allocated more than 250 million rupees for the development and marketing of projects. But the PTDC with hardly any expertise in these fields could not utilize such a large allocation. The funds were squandered away on purchase of luxury vehicles for personal use, inviable small motel projects and on "official foreign trips. Eighty percent of the funds allocated to PTDC were utilized for payment of salaries and overheads. However, steps taken recently are indicative of another move in the right direction and if sustained it may bring some fruitful results in the near future. 18.3. OTHERS CORPORATIONS PROVINCIAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

The story of provincial tourism corporation of Punjab and Sind is no different from that of PTDC. The Tourism Development Corporation of Punjab (TDCP) was created in mid 80's with an initial allocation of over Rs. 100 million. Luxury coaches were bought, tourists facilities began to be developed, tourists information centers were opened and a chair lift was installed at Patriata-Murree. But soon the Corporation was turned into a sort of employment agency. Hundreds of sons, nephews, and acquaintances of Ministers, MNA's and MPA's were inducted and the corporation was reduced to near bankruptcy. It is still in a financial crisis. As for Sind Tourism Development Corporation, set up some five years ago, it has yet to prove its existence. Like PTDC, it has had nearly half a dozen managing directors in five years. The chief executive is never allowed to work independently. Vehicles purchased for STDC were placed at the disposal of the then Chief Minister. No development activities have been undertaken so far though the province is rich in tourism potential. Baluchistan is yet to decide whether it needs a tourism organization, although it has so much to offer by way of beaches, archaeological sites, hill station of Ziarat and an interesting topography and full range of fruit orchards all over. 18.4. SARHAD TOURISM CORPORATION (STC) The only province is NWFP where tourism is being taken seriously as an economic activity. In 1991, the Government of NWFP established Sarhad Tourism Corporation (STC) as a public limited company to

promote tourism in the province. The objectives of the STC included to improve the existing tourism facilities and explore new ones and carry out developmental works in an integrated, coordinated and comprehensive manner, so as to preserve the environmental quality and achieve maximum efficiency. The role of STC was defined to be a catalyst and help promote the tourism industry through private sector. The involvement of private sector will mobilize the enormous potential prevailing in this sector. It was perceived that after an initial financial support the STC would become a self-financing organization. This became a distant goal after initial experience and Government's assistance was further sought on limited basis. However, the ultimate goal to become self-financing is still the underlying policy matter.

Fig. 8 shows the present organizational chart of STC, which clearly indicates the need for an institutional strengthening, particularly during the times to come due to its anticipated role in tourism promotion and development. Fig.9 shows the proposed organizational chart which is only indicative and needs careful review and in depth study under a separate consultancy assignment before it is finally approved and adopted. The proposed organizational chart shows following new departments and cells to be added. a) Registration and Licensing Section

This section will monitor the performance of the facilities existing in the private sector including hotels, restaurants and tour operations. All

these facilities will be registered with this section and an annual license to each facility will be issued. The renewal of the license will depend on the performance of each facility during the previous year. This section will have three cells, as follows: i) ii) iii) Hotels Restaurants Tour operators

The above functions are presently carried out by the Deputy Controller, Ministry of Tourism, Peshawar office. Now these functions are proposed to be transfused to STC. b) Coordination Section

Development is an integrated process. Development in tourism essentially depends the development in many other sectors of economy including roads, water supply, sewerage, solid waste management, electricity, telephone, police, post, health etc. Separate projects have ben proposed for various infrastructure facilities and civic amenities. These projects will be designed, planned and executed by a number of line departments. STC needs a high degree of coordination with these line departments to Fig.8

Fig.9

ensure the provision of various infrastructure facilities and civic amenities where the other tourism facilities have been proposed. It is therefore proposed to establish a coordination section within STC for this purpose. c) Projects Section

A large number of tourism facilities have been proposed in this Master Plan to be developed and located at various selected sites in the Region. They include STC motels, STC restaurants, STC tourist hostels, picnic spots, tourist facilitation centers, etc. It will be the responsibility of this section to design the facilities, plan them and supervise the execution of these projects. After the execution, this section will be given the responsibility for O & M (operation & maintenance) of all facilities. This section will have following different cells; i) ii) iii) d) Consultants Cell Project Design & Development Cell Project Maintenance Cell

Marking Section

This section will be responsible for all marketing and promotional activities. This will have the following cells; i) ii) iii) Publication and Distribution Cell STC quarterly Magazine Cell Audio Video Cell

e)

Training Section

A variety of programmes have been proposed in the Master Plan to organize, arrange strengthen the and impart relevant education and training to tourism service sector as a human resource

development. This cell will arrange and organize various training programmes and workshops for this purpose.

f)

Transport Section

In order to provide efficient transport arrangements and to improve the existing conditions by creating healthy competition, it is proposed to establish STC transport in the Region. This section will be operated, managed and maintained by the STC transport Section. g) Tourist Facilities Section

A number of Tourist Facilitation Centers have been proposed is the Master Plan to be located at key locations in the Region. This section will be responsible to manage these centers.

19. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION


The implementation of the Master Plan and various project

components will be carried out as follows. 19.1 IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK A number of public and private agencies will be involved in the implementation of various specific project components relating to the respective responsibilities. These agencies can be broadly categorized as follows: 1. Public Agencies i. Road Projects : Highway

Department, C&W Department ii. Water Supply and Sewerage Projects : Public Health Engineering Department. iii. Solid Waste Collection and Disposal Projects : Municipal Committees, Town Committees iv. v. Electrification Projects : WAPDA Post Offices Communications : Ministry of

vi.

Telephone

Pakistan

Telecommunication Corporation. vii. Police Stations Department viii. Health Facilities Department ix. Banks Commercial Banks The above implementation framework however requires a high degree of coordination. It is therefore proposed to establish a coordination cell within STC which will liaison with the line developments involved in the project implementation process one way or the other. 19.2 IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE It is proposed that the implementation of the Master Plan takes place in phases with activities of each phase integrated with the activities of other phases in order to complement and supplement the activities . Following are the activities proposed to commence and complete in different phases. The overall phasing programme in based on the two broad categories of the Immediate Action Programme (IAP) and the Long Term Programme. PHASE-I 19.2.1 Immediate Action Programme. : : Health : Home

Immediate Action Programme is proposed for a period of first two years and involves activities aimed at improvements and upgrading in the existing tourism facilities without involving huge capital outlays. It therefore, focusses more on adopting the regulatory measures. Various activities proposed for the immediate action are as follows.

i.

STC Strengthening.

It is a prerequisite to strengthen the institutional arrangements of STC to play a stronger role to ensure the implementation of the Master Plan. STC should expand gradually as and when required according to the expansion of the work on the other components of the Master Plan and to be integrated to other activities proposed in the Master Plan. Some of the new sections in STC should be established right now corresponding with the activities proposed as immediate actions. However, the sections involved in the activities proposed in the long -term plan should be established later. ii. Licensing of Private Sector Activities.

The performance of various tourism facilities provided in the private sector including hotels, restaurants, tour operators, tour guides etc. is extremely poor in terms of both quantity and quality. There is no mechanism to regulate and monitor these activities. It is proposed that STC should be given the licensing authority which is presently held with the Deputy Controller, Ministry of Tourism, Peshawar. Inspectors should be appointed by STC to periodically and regularly monitor the performance of the private sector activities in this regard. iii. Marketing and Promotion Activities.

Marketing and Promotion of tourism is, as a matter of fact, a continuous activity. It is proposed that some of the activities should commence with immediate effect both at home and abroad. Main emphasis during this phase should be given to designing, printing and distribution of introductory leaflets, brochures book lets etc.

iv. STC

Improvement of the infrastructure Facilities. should establish in order contacts to and coordinate and upgrade with the the line

departments

improve

existing

infrastructure facilities in the region. This will mainly deal with the implementation of the improvement/upgrading projects which have been identified in this Master Plan. v. STC Improvement of the Civic Amenities. should establish contacts and coordinate with the line

departments in order to improve and upgrade the existing civic amenities in the region. This will mainly deal with the implementation of the improvement/upgrading projects which have been identified in this Master Plan. 19.2.2 Long - Term Programme

The total span of the plan period of this Master Plan is proposed for 10 years. The Immediate Action Programme is proposed for 2 years, and the remaining period of 8 years is considered for the long-term programme. It is envisaged that after completion of the immediate action

programme in 2 years, various activities will have gained momentum and the environment will have been gained for the implementation of the long - term plan. It is also proposed to carry out long-term plan is two phases of 4 years each, as follows. PHASE-II

Following activities are proposed for phase-II of the Master Plan and the stage-I of the long-term plan. i. STC Strengthening

It is proposed to fully complete the institutional strengthening of STC which had commenced during the immediate action programme. This will help STC to function fully and completely to steer various tourism activities involved in the implementation of the Master Plan. ii. Marketing and Promotion.

It is proposed to further expand the activities involved in the marketing and promotion plan as suggested earlier. While the press advertisements, hoarding and the printing and distribution of the literature was proposed in Phase-I, it is proposed to commence the publication of the STC Magazine in Phase-II. The other activities proposed to take place during this phase are the use of tele media, video, and the satellite programmes. iii. Development of new tourist facilities.

It is proposed to start building and development of new tourist facilities as proposed in the Master Plan in the areas which are already established tourist attractions or in areas located in the close vicinity during this phase. This will involve the development of new hotels, motels, restaurants, picnic spots, road side facilities, and others. this should be done in an integrated manner to become actually an extension of the existing facilities.

iv.

Development/Extension Facilities.

of

the

new

Infrastructure

It is proposed to provide new infrastructure facilities including water supply, sewerage, electricity etc. to the areas where new tourist facilities have been developed during this phase. This should also be done in an integrated manner as an extension to the existing facilities. v. Development of new Civic Amenities.

Civic amenities including the police, health and other facilities should be provided in areas where new tourist facilities have been built during this phase in an integrated manner. vi. Human Resource Development

Some of the training programmes and workshops should commence during this stage including the formal education of higher level studies available in Pakistan. vii. In STC Transportation order to respond to the immediate need for appropriate

transportation arrangements for the tourist movement in the area, it is proposed to commence the STC transport during this phase, as mentioned in the Master Plan. viii. Private Sector Involvement

It is proposed to take necessary steps involved in the process of mobilization of the private sector to participate in the development, implementation and operation of projects identified in the Master Plan. This will involve the preparation of various feasibility reports and establishment of contacts with the private sector. PHASE-III Following activities have been proposed to fully and completely implement the Master Plan.

i.

Development of the Remaining Tourist Facilities.

It is proposed to develop the remaining tourist facilities during this last phase, as proposed in the Master Plan. They include the development of new hotels, motels, restaurants, picnic spots etc. It will include all identified locations : near as well remote. ii Development of new Infrastructure Facilities.

It is proposed to provide all the infrastructure facilities to all the areas where new tourist facilities have been developed as proposed in the Master Plan during this phase in an integrated manner. iii. Development of new Civic Amenities.

It is proposed to develop new civic amenities to the areas where new tourist facilities have been developed during this phase, as proposed in the Master Plan, in an integrated manner.

iv.

Marketing and Promotion.

It is proposed to further expand the area of marketing and promotion activities during this last phase, and the international market should also be fully covered in this regard. v. Human Resource Development

The activities in the training and formal education should be further expanded during this phase and potential candidates should be sent to the local as well as foreign institutions for this purpose.