# Project 3: Streamlines in supersonic conical ﬂows

Due May 2nd 2013.

1

Outline

The third project requires you to develop a numerical algorithm for the analysis of the Taylor-Maccoll equation and to apply it to determine three streamlines over a cone at a supersonic Mach number.

2

Learning objective

The major diﬀerence between conical and two-dimensional oblique supersonic ﬂow is that in the former case the variation of the cross-sectional area with the streamwise distance induces a curvature in the streamlines. Such a streamline curvature eventually leads to the cone possessing a maximum shock angle (for an attached oblique shock) larger than the corresponding two-dimensional ramp. Thus, the focus of this project is on conical ﬂow and the streamwise relaxation caused by the increase in cross sectional area. The objective of this project is to learn i) conical ﬂow; ii) the application of ODE solvers to approximate the solution of a second order diﬀerential equation in one variable; iii) the determination of streamlines.

3

Required outcomes

After evaluating a numerical solution to the Taylor-Maccoll equation, determine and plot the streamlines (plot y vs. x) passing through three points contained in a plane through the apex of a right circular cone and with vertical distance h, 2h, and 4h from the apex; the student chooses h. 1

Integrate the streamline for three initial conditions. Determine a relationship linking V r . which is called by the variable step time integrator “ode15i”. • 30% for correct integration of the streamline equations. Develop the equation for the streamline. • 20% for correct plot. The project requires you to 1. 4 Provided material An incomplete numerical code written in MATLAB is included in this document and uploaded on Blackboard. Complete the routine “Tmac.0.m”. • 30% for correct equations of the streamline. 4. θ 2. V to the shock angle and M∞ . 3.m”. 5 Grade • 10% for correct modiﬁcations to “Tmac. 2 .Data: The cone angle is 30◦ and the inﬂow Mach number is M∞ = 3. • 10% for presentation (type your report).

4 and air % properties.@surfaceevent.0]). use gamma = 1.TE. % we know the cone angle is lower than beta.0].isterminal.' degrees']). Find Vtheta and Vr % determine h 0 from Mach number and temperature.IE] = ode15i(@Tmac. y0 = [Vprime r.yp0] = decic(@Tmac.Y. %radians % for a value of the Mach number infinity Minf = 3.[theta0. so theta1 is an upper bound theta1 = 0.y0.1].1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 %% The objective of the program is to find the cone angle that corresponds to a %shock angle beta which is coincident with theta s in the book beta = 50 *pi/180.options).[0.y. %the isentropic index % Note the temperature is not needed use relation 10.4. Vprime r = %fill value Vprime theta = %fill value %% steps 3+4 %% Set up the TaylorMaccol algorithm theta0 = beta.YE.4 %% steps 1+2 of numerical procedure 10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 function [value.num2str(theta c).yp) 3 .direction] = surfaceevent(t.yp) % set−up the event function v prim theta =0 value=y(2). isterminal = 1.y0.[0.yp0.theta1].4 %Solve the theta−beta−M realations. So eventually you get V' theta and V' r. disp(['Cone angle= '.y. gamma = 1. %the final result is given in degrees theta c = TE*180/pi.'RelTol'. %solution vector %% %% determine the initial derivatives [y0. %% set the surface options so that computations stop at the surface options = odeset('Events'.16 for post shock % Vprime R and Vprime theta %% %To find the solution you should follow section 10. %% integrate the TMac function [T.Vprime theta]. direction=0.theta0. 1 2 function res = Tmac(t.[1.1d−5).

res(2) = %fill.v theta] and yp is dy/dtheta res = zeros(2. res(1) = y(2)−yp(1).14 + eq 10.1). y is [v r. gm1 2=(gamma−1)/2.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 %Here we are solving a second oder ode %write it out as a system of 1st orde ode % call v prime theta = y(2) and v prime r = y(1) %the implicit system of equations is % eq 10.15 % t is theta. 4 .4. gamma = 1.