# Mathematics QS 026

Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-1-
TOPIC : 4.0 APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION

SUBTOPIC : 4.1 Tangents and Normals.

LEARNING
OUTCOMES :

a) To find the equations of tangent and normal to a curve.

1.
dx
dy
x f = ) ( ' is the gradient to the function of ) (x f y =

2. At point (
1 1
, y x ) on the curve of ) (x f y = , the equation of tangent is

) (
1 1 1
x x m y y ÷ = ÷

dx
dy
m =
1
is the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the point ) , (
1 1
y x

( )
1 1
, y x

Example 1:

Find the tangent and normal equation to the curve 3 2
2
+ = x y at 2 = x

Example 2:

Find the tangent and normal equation to the curve 2
2 3
= + xy y x at P(1,1)

Curve ) (x f y =
normal tangent

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-2-

Exercise: Find the tangent and normal equation to the curve 8 = xy at P(4,2)

x
y
dx
dy
÷ =

Tangent equation 8 2 + ÷ = x y
Normal equation 6 2 ÷ = x y

Example 3:

Find the equation of normal to the curve given parametrically by

t
x
2
= and 1 3
2
÷ = t y at point where t = 1

Example 4:

Given parametric equation
1
3
+
=
t
x and
2
) 1 (
2
t
y
+
= where t ≠ 1

Find the tangent equation which is parallel to line 3y = x

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-3-
SUBTOPIC : 4.2 Extremum Problem

LEARNING
OUTCOMES : a) To find the critical points.
b) To discuss and use the first derivative test.
c) To determine the intervals where a function increases or decreases.

Ask students to observed the movement of the coaster and then identify its maximum
or minimum position.

Figure 2: Application of extremum values

From the simulation above, student could predict the maximum value and minimum
value.

As a conclusion, the lecturer verifies the answer and shows them a few more different
situations.

4.2.a) EXTREMUM PROBLEMS

1. A critical point for a function f(x) is any value of x in the domain of f at
which
f ‟(x) = 0 or f „(x) is not defined.

2. The critical point where f ‟(x) = 0 are called stationary point and the value of
the function at that point a stationary value.

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-4-

Example 1

Find the stationary points and stationary values of the function 4x
3
+ 15x
2
– 18x + 7.

Example 2

Find the critical numbers of f(x) = ) 4 (
5
3
x x ÷ .

a) for f ‟(x) = 0
c
c
c
c
(b) for f ‟(x) is undefined
c = critical value
c
c c
c
Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-5-
4.2 b) & 4.2 c) Function Increases and Decreases

In sketching the graph of a function it is very useful to know where it rises and where
it falls. The graph shown in Figure 4.21 rises from A to B, fall from B to C, and rises
again from C to D. The function f is said to be increasing on the interval [a, b],
decreasing on [a, b], and increasing again on [c, d]. Notice that if x
1
and x
2
are any
two numbers between a and b with x
1
< x
2
then f(x
1
) < f(x
2
). We use this as the
defining property of an increasing function.

Figure 4.21

Definition

A function f is called increasing on an interval I if f(x
1
) < f(x
2
) whenever x
1
< x
2
in I.
It is called decreasing on I if f(x
1
) > f(x
2
) whenever x
1
< x
2
in I.

Theorem

a. if f ‟(x) > 0 on an interval I, then f is increasing on that interval.
b. if f ‟(x) < 0 on an interval I, then f is decreasing on that interval.
c. if f ‟(x) = 0 on an interval I, then f is constant on that interval

Example 3

Find where the function f(x) = 3x
4
– 4x
3
– 12x
2
+ 5 is increasing and where it is
decreasing.

Example 4

Find the intervals on which f is increasing or decreasing of the function :

f(x) = 2 4
3
1
3
+ ÷ x x

A
B
C
D
a b c
d
x
1
x
2
f(x
1
)
f(x
2
)
Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-6-
Exercises:

i) x = 0 & x =
2
1
; (÷∞,0) and (
2
1
, ∞) are increasing, (0,
2
1
) is decreasing
ii) x = 0 ; (÷∞,0) and (4, ∞) are increasing

2
2
3
x i) f(x) = x
3
÷ + 1
Find the critical value for the following and hence, determine the interval which
the function are increasing or decreasing for the following function.
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> ÷
s s
< + ÷
=
1 , 4
1 0 , 1
0 , 1
) (
2
2
x x
x
x x
x f ii)
Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-7-
SUBTOPIC : 4.2 Extremum Problems

LEARNING
OUTCOMES :
d).To find the relative extremum using the First Derivative Test.
e).To Determine the concavity and the point of inflection.
f).To apply the second derivative test.

4.2 d) The First Derivative Test

Suppose that c is a critical number of a function f that is continuous on (a, b).

a. If f „ (x) > 0 for (a, c) and f „(x) < 0 for (c, b), then f has a relative maximum at
c
b. If f „(x) < 0 for (a, c) and f „(x) > 0 for (c, b), then f has a relative minimum at c
c. If f „(x) does not change sign at c, then f has no relative extremum at c

It easy to remember the First Derivative Test by visualizing diagrams such as those in
Figure 3.22

a. Relative maximum b. Relative minimum

c. No extremum d. No extremum

f „(x) > 0
f(x)
x
x
f „(x) > 0
c
f „(x) < 0
f(x)
c
f „(x) > 0
c
f „(x) > 0 f „(x) < 0
f(x)
f „(x) < 0
f „(x) < 0
f(x)
x
x
Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-8-
Example 1

Find the maximum or minimum values of the function y = 4x
3
+ 15x
2
– 18x + 7.

Example 2

Find the relative extremum of f(x) =
3
2
3
5
18
5
9
x x ÷ .

Example 3

Find the relative extremum for the function f(x) = ( 3x + 2)e
-x

Exercise

1. The curve y = x
2
+ ax + b has a stationary point at (1, 3 ). Find a and b
2. For what value of a and b will the function f(x) = x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + 2 have a
relative maximum when x = -3 and relative minimum when x = -1.
3. Find a cubic function f(x) = a x
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d that has a relative maximum
value of 3 at -2 and a relative minimum value of 0 at 1.

4.2 e) The Concavity and points of inflection

For point of inflection, then f‟(x) = 0, with a changes of sign in the value of f‟(x) for
the
interval before and after the expected point of interval

Example 1

Given f(x) = x
3
– 6x
2
+ 9x + 2 . Find the inflection point and determine the interval
where f(x) is concave upward and concave downward.

Example 2

Given a fuction f(x) = -x
3
+ 3x
2
– 1. Determine the

a) point of inflection
b) intervals where f(x) is concave upward and where f(x) is concave downward

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-9-
4.2 f) The Second Derivative Test

Example 3

Find the relative extremum and points of inflection of f(x) = x
3
– 3x
2
and sketch the
graph

Example 4

Find the relative extremum and the inflexion points of f(x) = 3x
5
– 5x
3

Exercise

Sketch the graph of the following functions, showing all stationary points and
inflexion points ( if any )

a) f (x ) = 2x
3
– 3x
2
– 12x
b) f (x ) = x
3
– 3x
2
– 9x + 7
c) f (x ) = x
2
– 2x
4
x
3

d) f (x ) = x
5
– 5x
4
– 5x
3
-1
e) f (x ) = x
3
-
2
3
x
2
+ 1

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-10-
SUBTOPIC : 4.2 Extremun problem

LEARNING
OUTCOMES :
g) find the relative extremum using the Second Derivative
Test.
h) solve the optmization problems

4.2 g ) :The Second Derivative Test

Another application of the second derivative is in finding maximum and minimum
values of a function.

Suppose f ”(x) is continuous on an open interval that contains c
a. If f ‟ (x) = 0 and f ” (x) > 0, then f has a local minimum at c
b. If f ‟ (x) = 0 and f ” (x) < 0, then f has a local maximum at c
c. If f ‟ (x) = 0 and f ” (x) = 0, the test fails, it is inconclusive. Thus we must use the
first derivative test.

Example 1

By using the Second Derivative Test, find the relative extremum of f(x) = x
3
– 3x
2

24x + 32.

Example 2

Using the Second derivative Test, find the relative extrema of the function
f(x) = x
4
– 4x
3

4.2 h. To solve Optimization problems
Steps for solving optimum problem

Step 1: identify the variable to be maximized or minimized, say variable y.

Step 2 : express y into a single variable function, say y=f(x).

Step 3 : Solve for f

(x)=0

Step 4 : verify the solution of f

(x)=0 by the second derivative f”(x).

Step 5 : get the optimum value y=f(x) if it is required.

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-11-
Example 3

You have been asked to design a 1 liter oil can shaped like a right circular cylinder.
2r

h

What dimensions will use the least material?

Example 4

A rectangle is to be inscribed in a semi circle of radius 2. What is the largest area the
rectangle can have, and what are its dimensions?

Example 5

An open-top box is to be made by cutting small congruent squares from the corners of
a 12 cm by 12 cm sheet of tin and bending up the sides. How large should the squares
cut from the corners be to make the box hold as much as possible?

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-12-
SUBTOPIC : 4.3 Curve Sketching

LEARNING
OUTCOMES :
a) Sketch The Graph

For curve sketching, we can see the flow of the roller coaster movement from the
simulation.

figure3: Application of curve sketching

Sketch down the shape of the lane on a piece of paper and verify the answer.

In the last several section we saw how the first and second derivatives of
a function are used to reveal various properties of the function. These
techniques , combined with the knowledge of the properties of the function,
provide us with a powerful method for sketching the graph of the function.

The following procedure gives a systematic method of compiling some
useful information on the function to aid in sketching its graph.

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-13-
A Guide to curve sketching of Polynomials

1. Determine the domain of f

2. Determine the intercepts (if exist)

3. Find the relative extreme (turning point) using first derivative test or
second derivative test.

4. Find inflection point and determine the concavity of a function using
second derivative test

5. Sketch the graph.

Example 1

Sketch the graph of the function

f(x) = x
3
– 6x
2
+ 9x + 2

Example 2

Sketch the graph of the function f(x) = 3x
3
+ 3x
2
-3x + 2

Example 3

Sketch the graph of the function f(x) = 1 + 6x
2
– 3x
4

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-14-
SUBTOPIC : 4.3 Curve Sketching

LEARNING
OUTCOMES : a) Sketch The Graph

Curve Sketching of Rational Function

A Guide to curve

1. Determine the domain of f

2. Determine the intercepts (if exist)

3. Find all asymptotes.
i) Rewrite the equation so that it does not contain any algebraic fractions.
ii) Equate to zero the coefficient of the highest power of y to find the
asymptote parallel to the y-axis.
iii) Equate to zero the coefficient of the highest power of x to find the
asymptote parallel to the x-axis.

4. Find the relative extreme using first derivative test or second derivative
test.

5. Find inflexion point and determine the concavity of a function using
second derivative test

6. Sketch the graph.

Example 4
Graph the function
3
2
) (
÷
=
x
x
x f .

Example 5
Sketch the graph of
2
) 1 (
) (
+
=
x
x
x f

Exercise

Sketch the graph of the following functions , showing all stationary points and
inflexion points ( if any ).

1. f(x) = 2x
3
+ x
2
- 20x + 5

2. f(x) =
3
x
3
- 2x
2
+ 3x

3. f(x) = x
4
- 4x
2
Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-15-
SUBTOPIC : 4.4 Rates of Change

LEARNING
OUTCOMES : a) To solve related rates problems

The rate of change in velocity (the speed of an object in a certain direction) is known
as acceleration. Whether an object is speeding up, slowing down, or changing
direction, it is accelerating. Most amusement park rides involve acceleration. On a
downhill slope or a sharp curve, a ride will probably increase in velocity or accelerate.
While moving uphill or in a straight line, it may decrease in velocity or decelerate.
The force of gravity pulling a roller coaster down hill causes the roller coaster to go
faster and faster, it is accelerating. The force of gravity causes a roller coaster to go
slower and slower when it climbs a hill, the roller coaster is decelerating or going
slower. The acceleration of a roller coaster depends on its mass and how strong is the
force that is pushing or pulling it.
- If y = f (x) than
dx
dy
is the rate of change of y with respect to x.
- They are often, but not always, rates of change with respect to time.
- The rate of change of quality Q
|
.
|

\
|
dt
dQ
means: the rate of change of Q
with respect to time t.
- Rate of “I ncrease” is positive.
- Rate of “Decrease” is negative.
- Rate of change of y and rate of change of x can be shone as:
dt
dx
dx
dy
dt
dy
× =

Strategies for solving related rate problems

1. Draw a picture and name the variables and constants. Use t for time
and assume all variables are differentiation function of t.
2. Write down the numerical information (in term of the symbols you
have chosen)
3. Write down what you are asked to find (usually a rate, expressed as a
derivative)
4. Write an equation that relates the variables you may have to combine
two or more equations to get a single equation that relates the variable
whose rate you want to the variable whose rate you know.
5. Differentiation with respect to t to express the rate you want in terms of
the rate and variables whose values you know.
6. Evaluate/calculate.

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-16-
Example 1:

Gas is escaping from a spherical balloon at the rate of 2
3
m /min. How fast is
the surface area shrinking when the radius is 12 m?

Example 2:

Water is running out of a conical funnel at the rate of . sec / 1
3
cm If the radius of the
base of the funnel is 4 cm and the height is 8cm, fine the rate at which the water level
is dropping when it is 2 cm from the top.

Example 3:

Given
f v u
1 1 1
= + with f as a constant. If f = 10 cm and u decreases with the rate of
2 cm/sec , find the rate of change of v when u = 40 cm

Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-17-
SUBTOPIC : 4.4 Rates of Change

LEARNING
OUTCOMES : a) To solve related rates problems

Example 4:

A 8 meter ladder rest against a vertical wall(see figure below). If the bottom of the
ladder is sliding away from the base of the wall at the rate of 3 m/sec, how fast is the
top of the ladder moving down the wall when the bottom of the ladder is 2 meter from
the base?

Example 5 :

A person 6 meter tall is walking away from a streetlight 20 meter high at the rate of
7m/s. At what rate is the length of the person‟s shadow increasing?

Example 6

At 1:00 P.M, ship A is 25 miles due south of ship B. If ship A is sailing west at rate of
16mi/hr and ship B is sailing south at rate of 25mi/hr, find the that at which the
distance between the ships is changing at 1:30P.M.

25
y
x
Mathematics QS 026
Topic4: Applications of Differentiation –Lesson Plan
___________________________________________________________________________________

-18-
Exercise

1. The radius r of circle is increasing at the rate of 2cm/min. Find the rate of
change of area when 6 = r cm and 24 = r cm.

2. Suppose that the cost ( in Ringgit ) of manufacturing x items is modeled
by
2
05 . 0 4 200 ) ( x x x C + + = . Find the daily rate of change in this cost
function at the time when the production level is 15 = x items and
changing at the rate of 2 =
dt
dx
(items per day ).

3. In certain electronic circuit the resistence is given as 2 3 + = t r (ohms) and
the voltage is
2
3t e = (volts). Find the rate of change of the current i
(amperes) with the respect to the time t (seconds).
( Note :
r
e
i = )

4. A cylinder is expanding in such a way that its height h cm and radius r
cm are both increasing at the rate of 1% per minute. Find the rate the
volume is increasing per minute.
( Note :
2
rh V t = )

1) min / 96 , 24 cm t
2) 11 RM
3)
2
) 2 3 (
) 4 3 ( 3
+
+
t
t t

4) 3%