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COST-EFFECTIVE LNG REGASIFICATION WITH MULTI-TEMPERATURE LEVEL (MTL) AIR HEATERSAN ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY APPROACH
Cong Dinh Process Specialist Joseph Cho Head of HTC Technology Manager Jay Yang General Manager SK Engineering & Construction Co. Ltd. Houston, Texas USA www.skec.com

ABSTRACT
The main industry concerns for liquefied natural gas (LNG) import regasification terminals are lowering costs while minimizing environmental impacts. There are several options that have been developed to use renewable energy in LNG regasification terminals. One viable LNG vaporization option that can mitigate industry concerns for terminals at some locations is to use ambient air, in combination with heat transfer fluids, as the heat source for LNG vaporization. This paper proposes novel regasification methods that use multi-temperature level (MTL) air heaters to achieve cost savings by reducing the total number of air heater bays. This concept is similar to chilling with multi-temperature refrigerants that use the warmest refrigerants before using the coldest refrigerants. This paper describes how LNG can be heated and then vaporized using cold heat transfer fluid (HTF) before applying hot HTF to save capital cost. Normally, HTFs exit air heaters at constant outlet temperatures in conventional schemes that require narrow temperature approaches to ambient air temperatures. This results in larger air heater heat transfer areas than required. Shifting some of the heating from hot to cold HTF at higher circulation rates increases the temperature approaches and thus reduces the air heater heat transfer areas. This paper discusses economic/technical advantages of MTL air heaters using environmentally friendly HTF systems in conventional shell and tube vaporizers (STV). This paper also discusses the advantages of potassium-based heat transfer fluids which have superior low temperature thermal characteristics and reduced environmental impacts in comparison with heat transfer fluids using conventional, ethylene glycol water- based solutions.

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INTRODUCTION
LNG Vaporizers Vaporization of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in most import regasification terminals requires large quantities of heat. A diagram of a typical LNG regasification terminal is shown in Figure 1. This paper focuses on LNG vaporizers that use air heater vaporization (AHV) technologies.

Figure 1. Typical LNG Regasification Terminal Listed below are some major issues influencing the selection of LNG vaporizers: Proven technology Capital and construction costs Fuel and electricity operating costs Type of heat source - air / sea water / natural gas Environment impacts - CO2 and toxic emissions Safety

A summary of the characteristics of air heaters for LNG vaporizers in comparison with conventional open rack LNG vaporizers is given in Table 1.

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Table 1. Summary of LNG Vaporizer Technology

Air Heated Amb. Air Open Rack Vaporizer (AHV) Vaporizer (AAV) Vaporizer (ORV)
Heat Source Heating Medium Major Equipment Ambient air Heat Transfer Fluid (Indirect heat) STV, Air heater Air temperature, Relative humidity Air temperature variations Ambient Air None (Direct heat) Ambient vaporizer Sea water None (Direct heat) Sea water intake facility Sea water temperature, Allowable temperature drop Sea water intake facility maintenance, Environmental impact Marine life, low temperature,biocide injection Proven technology Inexpensive source of heat (Sea Water)

Key Design Parameters

Air temperature

Key Issues

Defrosting, temperature variations

Environmental Issues Advantages

HTF leakage Proven technology Inexpensive source of heat Low emissions, low maintenance

Fogging Not used in large scale plants Free Heat No emissions, low maintenance Large plot area Periodic defrosting

Disadvantages

Medium plot size area

Large sea water Inlet Periodic cleaning Large power load Sea water application - not permitted in USA

One use of air as the heating medium for LNG vaporizers is shown in Figure 2. This scheme uses a heat transfer fluid (HTF) in a shell-and-tube vaporizer (STV) and conventional air heaters to reheat the HTF using ambient air. An LNG import terminal using AHV technology has been operated at Dahej Terminal in India since 2004.

Figure 2. Indirect Heating of LNG using HTF for an Air Heated Vaporizer (AHV)

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The Ambient Air Vaporizer (AAV) shown in Figure 3 illustrates a vaporizer that uses air as a heating medium. This type of vaporizer uses air in direct contact with LNG. However, the major issues with this type of vaporizer are the requirements for periodic defrosting and large plot space. It can also produce a fog of condensed water vapor that can be a nuisance. Currently, there are no LNG import gasification terminals using only this type of vaporizer.

Figure 3. Direct Heating of LNG with Air using Ambient Air Vaporizers (AAV) Sea water is used as the heating medium in Open Rack Vaporizers (ORV) as shown in Figure 4. LNG is vaporized inside tubes when seawater flows on their outside surfaces. The use of ORVs is common in Japan/Korea and some European countries but it is prohibited in the USA because of environmental issues.

Figure 4. Typical Open Rack Vaporizer (ORV)

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Combustion of natural gas is the heat source used in Submerged Combustion Vaporizers (SCV) as shown in Figure 5. LNG is vaporized inside stainless steel tubes in a submerged-water bath. The water bath is heated and maintained at a certain temperature by the hot flue gases. SCVs have long been used in many LNG regasification terminals but usually only as back-up facilities due to their higher operation costs.

Figure 5. Typical Submerged Combustion Vaporizer (SCV) One viable LNG vaporization option as given in Table 1, which can mitigate industry concerns for terminals at some locations, is to use ambient air as a heat source for LNG vaporizers. This option addresses the main objectives to lower costs while minimizing environmental impacts. The use of an AHV is preferred over an AAV because it is a proven technology and because AAVs have not yet been used for LNG regasification terminals. An example of AHV technology is at the Dahej Terminal in India (see Figure 2), which uses ethylene glycol (EG) and water as a HTF. The environmental impact of using ethylene glycol and water as a HTF when leakage occurs can be addressed by using potassium-based HTFs (K-HTF). This type of HTF is biodegradable. The plot space areas of air heaters can also be reduced by up to 50% using multiple air heaters with different outlet temperatures in combination with K-HTF as the replacement for EG.

PERFORMANCES OF AHVS
AHV Availabilities In LNG regasification terminals that use AHVs, LNG is vaporized and superheated in shell and tube vaporizers (STV). The heat transfer fluid (HTF) provides the heating medium for vaporizing and superheating of the LNG. The air heater heats the HTF with ambient air, which is a renewable energy source. One concern with AHV technology is the availability of air that is warm enough as a heat source throughout the year to satisfy air heaters requirements. If the ambient temperature exceedance curve at a hypothetical LNG regasification terminal site is as shown in Figure 6, then AHVs are feasible. Based on this figure, the availability of air with dry bulb temperatures above 25C is 90%. The case studies in this paper are therefore based on using ambient air at 25C. Assuming a 2C cold air recirculation temperature, the air temperature entering the air heaters is 23C. The case studies in this paper further assume that the relative humidity exceedance curve is as given in Figure 7. The 90% exceedance relative humidity (RH) is at the minimum RH of 83% for an ambient air temperature of 25C.

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100%

Approximate % of year temperature is exceeded

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Site Ambient Temperature (C)


Figure 6. Ambient Temperature Exceedance Curve at a Hypothetical Site

100 90 80 70

100 90 80 70

Relative Humidity (%)

50 40 30 20 10 0 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Temperature (oC) 31 32 33 34 35
Maximum RH Average RH Minimum RH % Exceedence

50 40 30 20 10 0

Figure 7. Relative Humidity Exceedance Curve at a Hypothetical Site Based on the exceedance curve in Figure 6, the actual accumulated hours per year at different temperatures, for a hypothetical site, are given below in Table 2. The ratings of air heaters and STVs for various ambient temperatures indicate that air heaters could provide the

% Exceedence

60

60

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heating duty to the STV at a full capacity of 420 ton per hour with 3 units in operation for +99% of the time or 100% of the time for 4 units in operation in order to meet an STV outlet temperature of 14C. For operation with ambient temperatures of 23C or colder, the STV can reach full capacity with either all four units in operation, with supplemental heating using a SCV or use of a trim heater. Table 2. Capacities of STVs with Various Ambient Air Design Temperatures
Available Available Regas STV outlet STV outlet Regas temp. at Capability with temp. at 420 Capability with 420 t/ h 3 Units (t/ h) at t/ h with 3 4 Units (t/ h) with 4 STV Outlet Units (C) at STV Outlet Units (C) Temp. Temp. 10.8 12.3 14.0 15.0 317 399 420 420 @14C @14C @14C @15C 14.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 420 420 420 420 @14C @15C @15C @15C

Ambient Air Temperature (C) 22 23 24 25

Actual Air Heater Actual Accumulated Inlet Accumulated Design hours per year % per year (hours) Temp. (C) 20 21 22 23 4 55 322 8379 0.05 0.63 3.68 95.65

Heat Transfer Fluids for AHVs The selection of a HTF for an air heater vaporizer directly affects its sizing, reliability, operating cost and environmental impact. HTFs are chosen on the bases of operating temperature ranges (-1 to 99C), low freezing points, and flammability. Other physical properties that should also be considered are freezing points, densities, thermal conductivities, viscosities and specific heats. The Dahej Terminal in India that is operating with AHV technology uses a 36% (by weight) ethylene glycol (EG) in water solution as a HTF. One alternative HTF that can be substituted for ethylene glycol is a potassium-based aqueous coolant designated in this study as K-HTF. K-HTF is an environmentally friendly low to medium temperature heat transfer fluid that can operate efficiently within the range of -50C up to 218C. It is a non-combustible fluid that does not support bioactivity and has better thermo-physical qualities than aqueous solution of ethylene glycol. It is also virtually odor free, biodegradable, CFC free and is considered non-toxic. The general requirements for low temperature HTFs are given below in Table 3. Table 3. General Requirements for Low Temperature HTFs
Des c riptio n Operatio nal Temp. Range Thermal Co nduc tivity Vis c o s ity Spec ific Heat To x ic ity Vo latility So lubility in Water Co rro s io n rate Odo ur Enviro nmental Des irable Pro perties Lo w Freez ing Temperature High Lo w High Lo w Lo w So luble in all pro po rtio ns Lo w No ne Friendly EG 36% Freez ing po int - 20C Lo w High High High Lo w So luble High No ne No n Friendly K- HTF Freez ing po int - 20C High Lo w Lo w No ne Lo w So luble Lo w No ne Friendly

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K-HTF was selected in this study as the HTF of choice rather than EG (36 wt %) because it has better thermal transport properties and can provide the same freezing point of -20C. In addition, K-HTF has lower viscosities (see Figure 8) especially at low temperatures and has better thermal conductivities (see Figure 9).
6.0
EG 36%

5.0
KHTF

4.0
Viscosity(cP)

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Temperature(C)

Figure 8. Viscosities of K-HTF vs. EG 36 wt% Solutions

0.7 0.6 0.5


ThermalConductivity[W/mk]
KHTF

0.4
EG 36%

0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Temperature(C)

Figure 9. Thermal Conductivities of K-HTF vs. EG (36 wt %) Solutions

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Use of K-HTF in air heaters and shell and tube vaporizers reduces their heat transfer surface areas. Tube wall temperature on the HTF sides of these shell and tube vaporizers are higher because of the larger film heat transfer coefficients of K-HTF. This means K-HTF is more likely to prevent freezing in shell and tube vaporizers than ethylene glycol solutions. Changing HTFs from EG (36 wt %) to K-HTF can improve heat transfer properties and reduce STV and air heaters sizes. In addition, K-HTF prevents corrosion caused by possible degradation products of ethylene glycol.

DESIGN BASES OF LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS USING AHVs


Process Vaporize 500,000 Nm3/hr LNG (420 metric ton/h) in shell and tube vaporizers (STVs) using either HTFs of heated ethylene glycol (EG)-water solutions or of heated K-HTF at a hypothetical South East Asia location 4 units (3 units in operation + 1 standby) of 140 metric t/h capacity each Send-out LNG temperature of 14C at 40 barg Air heaters designed for an ambient air temperature of 25C with a site-specific exceedance probability of 90% (see Figure 6). 2C air heater temperature correction decrease due to cold air recirculation. Inlet air temperatures to LNG air heaters of 23C (25C ambient air temperature with 2C air recirculation temperature correction) Site-specific relative humidity of 83% for ambient air temperature of 25C

Case Definitions Case A EG 36 (wt %) HTF with a Single Outlet Temperature Case B - K-HTF at a Single Outlet Temperature Case C K-HTF at Two Different Outlet Temperatures Case D K-HTF at Two Different Outlet Temperatures with Modified STV (Add 3rd nozzle) Case E K-HTF at Two Different Outlet Temperatures using a NG Super-heater (SH) and STV Case F K-HTF at Two Different Outlet Temperatures with a Modified STV (Add 3rd nozzle) and Air Heaters in Series Case G K-HTF at Three Different Outlet Temperatures with Modified STV (Add 3rd nozzle)

CASE STUDIES OF LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS USING AHVs


The case studies described in this paper improve AHV technologies. Case A, using 36 wt % EG as the HTF, is compared with Case B which uses K-HTF. K-HTF is used in all the other cases. Case B is used as the base case for all the other cases C to G. All cases are compared in Table 4. 9

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Table 4. Case Study Definitions


Case Option HTF HTF Temp. Level Air Heater Air Heater Bays/ unit STV Superheater (SH) A EG EG 36 wt% 1 Parallel 10 No Mod No B K- HTF K- HTF 1 Parallel 8 No Mod No C K- HTF 2 Levels K- HTF 2 Parallel 7 No Mod No D 2 Levels w/ Mod STV K- HTF 2 Parallel 6 Add Nozzle No E F G

2 Level w/ 2 Level w/ 3 Level w/ Add SH AH Series Mod STV K- HTF 2 Parallel 6 No Mod Yes K- HTF K- HTF 2 3 Series Parallel 6 5 Add Nozzle Add Nozzle No No

Operating Data for AHVs The operating data used in this study for each type of AHV unit are given below in Table 5. UAs of Cases C to G are compared against Case B. Table 5. Operating Data for AHVs
Case LNG Flow of Each Unit STV Duty SH Duty STV+SH Duty STV UA (note 2) SH UA (note 2) STV+SH UA (note 2) % STV+SH UA of Case B STV HTF Hot Inlet T STV HTF Warm Inlet T STV HTF Cold Inlet T STV HTF Return Outlet T STV LNG Inlet T STV NG Outlet T NG SH Outlet T HTF Flow % HTF Flow of Case B HTF Type HTF Pump Hydraulic Power Air Heater Hot Duty Air Heater Warm Duty Air Heater Cold Duty Air Heater Total Duty Air Heater Hot UA (note 2) Air Heater Warm UA (note 2) Air Heater Cold UA (note 2) Air Heater Total UA (note 2) % AH UA of Case B Air Heater Bays/ Unit ton/ hr MW MW MW kJ/ C- h * 1E6 kJ/ C- h * 1E6 kJ/ C- h * 1E6 % C C C C C C C gpm % MW MW MW MW MW kJ/ C- h * 1E6 kJ/ C- h * 1E6 kJ/ C- h * 1E6 kJ/ C- h * 1E6 % MW Case A 1 Temp. 140 29.9 29.9 note 1 19 2 - 156 15 1,634 101 EG 36% 0.27 29.7 29.7 note 1 10 0.64 Case B 1 Temp. 140 29.9 29.9 2.07 2.07 100 19 2 - 156 15 1,610 100 K- HTF 0.27 29.7 29.7 14.30 14.30 100 8 0.64 Case C 2 Temp. 140 29.9 29.9 2.11 2.11 102 19 16.5 2 - 156 15 1,725 107 K- HTF 0.32 16.6 13.0 29.5 7.23 5.32 12.55 88 7 0.64 Case D 2 Temp. 140 29.9 29.9 2.28 2.28 110 19 15 2 - 156 15 2,029 126 K- HTF 0.38 4.2 25.3 29.5 1.82 8.80 10.62 74 6 0.64 Case E 2 Temp. 140 29.1 0.8 29.9 1.82 0.48 2.30 111 19 15 2 - 156 7 15 2,031 126 K- HTF 0.38 4.2 25.4 29.5 1.82 8.81 10.63 74 6 0.64 Case F 2 Temp. 140 29.9 29.9 2.27 2.27 110 19 13.7 2 - 156 15 2,190 136 K- HTF 0.41 1.8 27.6 29.5 1.81 8.90 10.71 75 6 0.64 Case G 3 Temp. 140 29.9 29.9 2.29 2.29 111 19 14 12 2 - 156 15 2,364 147 K- HTF 0.44 5.2 11.3 13.0 29.5 2.26 3.69 3.66 9.61 67 5 0.64

Note 1: The heat transfer area requirement for Case A in comparison with Case B is based on actual heat exchanger ratings since the heat transfer properties of EG 36 wt% are different from K-HTF. Note 2: UA is the product of U (overall heat transfer coefficient) and A (heat transfer surface area).

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Case A EG 36 (wt %) HTF with a Single Outlet Temperature Case A, with a single outlet temperature from the air heater, uses EG 36 wt% as a HTF and is shown in Figure 10. Case B with a single outlet temperature from the air heater and which uses K-HTF is also shown in Figure 10. Case A serves as the basis for HTF comparisons since this is the HTF being used at the Dahej Terminal. Case A will result in a requirement for 10 bays of air heaters for each unit or a total of 40 bays for 4 units. The number of bays per unit in this study is different from the number used for Dahej Terminal because the capacity and air heater design criteria are different. In case A, the air heater design at a single outlet temperature will require a large heat transfer area due to the relatively close approach temperature between the ambient air temperature and the HTF temperature. This fact will translate into a relatively high cost and large plot space requirement for Case A compared to other cases. The use of a trim heater is optional in Case A depending on the natural gas (NG) battery limit specifications and the actual ambient air temperatures. The convention method is to provide a trim heater on the natural gas stream which would require a separate heating source such as hot water since direct fire heating is undesirable. The use of a trim heater on the HTF stream is not recommended since it would require a large heat duty. To simplify the scheme for discussion, the trim heater is discussed but omitted from further analysis in this study.

NG
M

Air Heater

Trim Heater (optional)

Hot HTF 10 Bays (Case A) 8 Bays (Case B) Return HTF

LNG Vaporizer (STV)

HTF Pump

LNG

Case A and Case B

Figure 10. Single Outlet Temperature (Case A and Case B) Case B - K-HTF at a Single Outlet Temperature Case B with a single outlet temperature using K-HTF is shown in Figure 10. Case B will reduce the number of bays to 8 (compared to 10 for Case A) for each unit since K-HTF has improved HTF heat transfer properties compared to EG solutions. The use of K-HTF can potentially save $1.5 million in initial capital investment for an import regasification terminal as given in Table 6. In Table 5, Case B is the base for comparison of its UA with the UAs of other cases. It is expected that the total fan power remains the same for all cases since the total air heater duties

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and air delta temperatures remain the same. Larger fan motors would be required if the number of bays decreased to provide the same total air throughput for each unit. Table 6. Economic Comparison
Case Units Equipments Estimated Air Heater Cost/Unit Estimated STV Cost/Unit Estimated subtotal Cost /Unit No. of Units Estimated grand total cost HTF HTF Cost basis Initial HTF Fill-up for 4 units Estimated HTF Total cost Grand Total Potential Saving vs. Case A Potential Saving vs. Case B $/gallon gallons $million USD $million USD $million USD $million USD 3.6 105,000 0.38 21.42 Base 9.5 105,000 1.00 19.94 1.48 Base 9.5 105,000 1.00 16.68 4.74 3.26 $million USD $million USD $million USD $million USD 2.84 2.42 5.26 4 (3+1) 21.04 2.56 2.18 4.74 4 (3+1) 18.94 1.60 2.32 3.92 4 (3+1) 15.68 Case A EG 36 wt % Case B K-HTF Case G K-HTF w/3 Temp.

Case C - K-HTF at Two Different Outlet Temperatures Case C with two different outlet temperatures using K-HTF is given in Figure 11. Dividing the total heat duty for the HTF into a hot stream and a cold stream at a higher total circulation rate for the same overall total duty requirement will reduce the heat transfer area of the air heaters since it increases the temperature approaches. The air heaters are grouped into two sections operating in parallel with one section requiring four bays and the other section requiring three bays. Each air heater section will have different HTF outlet temperatures. The cold HTF stream is used at the LNG inlet end of the STV and the hot HTF stream is used at the outlet end for superheating the natural gas. The single LNG Shell and Tube Vaporizer (STV) shown in Figure 11 utilizes inlet nozzles for the HTF at both ends of the shell. The HTF nozzle at the LNG inlet end is required to prevent excessive ice layer build-ups of HTF on the surfaces of the tubes since the LNG entering temperature is at -156C. The HTF nozzle at the NG outlet is required to provide for superheating. The hot HTF temperature remains at 19C going into the NG outlet end while the cold HTF temperature going into the LNG inlet end is at 16.5C. The combined HTF stream that returns to the air heaters remains the same as Case B at 2C. The vaporization of the LNG at -156 C at the cold end of the STV will have little impact whether the HTF is at 19C or 16.5C since this is only about a 2% change in LMTD. However, it has large impact on the air heater design since the ambient air is at 23C and the HTF outlet is at 19C for hot HTF or 16.5C for cold HTF. The HTF outlet temperature approach to the inlet ambient air is therefore improved from 4C for hot HTF to 6.5C for cold HTF. This fact has a significant impact on the air heater design.

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Air Heater
M

Hot HTF 4 Bay Air Heater NG Cold HTF 3 Bays


M

LNG Vaporizer (STV)

Return HTF HTF Pump

LNG

Case C

Figure 11. Two Different Outlet Temperatures (Case C) Changing the air heater design in Case B to the design in Case C and as shown in Figure 11 reduces the total number of bays from 8 to 7 bays per unit or a 12% reduction in total heat transfer area when compared against Case B. The STV heat transfer area increases by 2% and the HTF flow and pump power increases by 7%. This scheme will require a rearrangement of the air heaters to provide two HTF streams at two outlet temperatures at the outlet of the air heaters. Minimal changes in the designs of the STV and HTF pumps will occur. Case D K-HTF at Two Different Outlet Temperatures with Modified STV (Add 3rd nozzle) Case D shown in Figure 12 describes an improvement to the air heater design given in Case C that uses HTFs at two different outlet temperatures and involves a modification to the design of the STV. The air heaters are grouped into two sections operating in parallel with one section requiring five bays and the other section requiring one bay. Changing the cold HTF to 15C coupled with a higher HTF circulation rate and maintaining the hot HTF at 19C will reduce the air heater design from 8 to 6 bays per unit or a 25% reduction in total heat transfer area when compared against Case B. This will require however, a STV with a larger heat transfer area and an additional HTF inlet nozzle as shown on Figure 12. The heat transfer area of the STV increases by 10%. The total HTF flow rates and pump power increase by 26%. This option will allow the trim heater to be located on the hot HTF stream which uses only a small flow compared to the total flow of required HTF. The trim heater in the hot HTF loop could eliminate the hot water loop if a fired heater were to be used for heating of the hot HTF. The use of a fired heater as a trim heater is not recommended if the trim heater is located on the main NG circuit as shown in Figure 10.

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Figure 12. Two Different Outlet Temperatures with Modified STV (Case D) Case E K-HTF at Two Different Outlet Temperatures using a NG Super-heater (SH) and STV Case E is shown in Figure 13. The additional of a NG super heater (SH) would allow the implementation of an MTL air heater design without any modifications to the STV. The operating conditions for Case D and Case E are nearly identical. The main differences are the addition of a SH on the NG stream and the additional nozzle as given in Case D and shown in Figure 12. Case E may be required if modifications to the STV are not possible. Case E is also useful to revamp the design of an existing plant. It would require modifications to the air heater as far as alignments, larger air heater fans and piping are concerned. The additional surface area of the STV for increase in capacity could be added to the SH. Modification of the HTF pumps and piping would be required for an increase of 26%.
Trim Heater (optional) Hot HTF NG 1 Bay Air Heater
M

Air Heater
M

NG Superheater (SH) LNG Vaporizer (STV)

Cold HTF 5 Bays

Return HTF

HTF Pump

LNG

Case E

Figure 13. Two Different Temperatures HTF using a NG SH and with STV (Case E)

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Case F K-HTF at Two Different Outlet Temperatures with a Modified STV (Add 3rd nozzle) and Air Heaters in Series Case F shows a rearrangement of air heaters in series to provide two different HTF temperatures with a hot HTF air heater in series with a cold HTF air heater. This arrangement serves the same general objective as Case D with air heaters in parallel. However, the parallel approach in Case D would be preferable since it would allow independent flows from each air heater, a lower total HTF circulation rate and lower pump powers (See Table 5). Operation of the air heaters in parallel as given in Case D is the recommended option rather than operation of air heaters in the series as given in Case F.

Figure 14. Two Different Outlet Temperatures with a Modified STV (Add 3rd nozzle) and Air Heaters in Series (Case F) Case G K-HTF at Three Different Outlet Temperatures with Modified STV (Add 3rd nozzle) The use of K-HTF at three different temperatures is given in Figure 15. The different temperatures of HTF are given as hot, warm and cold. The HTF temperatures are 19C for hot, 14C for warm, 12C for cold and 2C for return. The air heaters are grouped into three sections of one bay for hot, two bays for warm and two bays for cold. Using three different temperatures reduces the number of air heater bays per unit from 8 to 5 bays or a 38% reduction in plot space area when compared against Case B. The single air heater bay for hot HTF would require about 15% higher heat transfer area. The total heat transfer area is reduced by 33% when compared against Case B. The total STV heat transfer area however, increases by 11% and the total HTF flow rates and pump powers increase by 47%. Case G can potentially save $3.2 million in initial capital investment for an import regasification terminal when compared to Case B as given in Table 6.

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Figure 15. Three Different Outlet Temperatures with Modified STV (Case G)

CONCLUSIONS
The use of K-HTF to replace EG (36 wt %) can potentially reduce the heat transfer areas of air heaters by 20%. This represents a potential cost savings of $1.5 million in initial capital investment for a LNG regasification terminal. In AHV technology, the heating medium is air and the utility service uses a HTF. Using HTFs in AHVs at several different temperatures reduces significantly the total capital costs of the air heater bays with only some increment costs for the STVs, HTF pumps and piping. The implementation of three different HTF temperatures, for example, hot, warm and cold, as described in Case G reduces the total number of air heater bays from 8 to 5 per unit. This is significant because the plant has 4 units. Therefore, the total number of bays for the plant is reduced from 32 to 20 when comparing Case B with Case G. This represents a potential cost savings of $3.2 million in initial capital investment and a reduction in air heater plot space of 38% when compared against Case B. The actual equipment costs, energy savings and economic evaluations will be dependent on the actual site location and other economic criteria. If the benefits of both K-HTF and MTL air heaters are combined as evidenced by comparing Cases A and G, the total number of bays can be reduced from 40 to 20 bays. This represents a potential cost savings of $4.7 million in initial capital investment or a reduction in plot space of 50% when compared with Case A. This study has shown the benefits of an MTL approach in AHV design that increases the number of HTF outlet streams, each with a different temperature. The MTL approach for design of AHVs can also be applied for expansions or revamps of existing plants to maximize their air heating capabilities.

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