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for railway applications

Rails and rolled products



Our quality steel in your daily life

Railway products and services

Lucchini, now part of the Severstal Group, is one of the world leaders in the manufacture of long products from quality and special steels. In the railway sector the Lucchini Group produces rails and track products in the Piombino plant and cast manganese crossings for railway points in the BFM plant in Bari. The rapid evolution of transport systems and the need for more and more sophisticated materials have required the creation of safe and efficient products suitable for high speed use. In this context of high technological demands Lucchini is one of the leading figures on an international level thanks to a balanced combination of competent human resources, an innovative engineering ability and an integrated plant system. The rails and railway equipment produced at Piombino have been used by the Italian State Railway and for the construction of the whole Italian network since 1908/09 when they were first rolled in the Piombino (LI) factory. The continuous modernisation of Piombino rails production line has allowed Lucchini to reach a leadership position on an international level and to become one of the most important business partners for the delivery of rails and railway equipment. By investing in research and technology and thus being able to use leading edge plants to deliver high quality and safe products Lucchini fulfils the steadily increasing requirements of the railway market. It does so in terms of standards, technique and quality and it facilitates cost reduction in direct

intervention on the railway network. In the context of the company strategy technological innovation has taken into account the following important factors: The development of high speed systems; National and international technical standards, ever more oriented satisfying safety, comfort and environmental issues; The directives of the European Union concerning railway transport.

Continuous caster Degassing Plant L.F. Converter Blast furnace Wharf

Mineral yard

Rehating furnace Break mill 2 Reversible stands Horizontal finishing stand

Non destructive control system US and E.C. Horizontal and vertical straightness machines


Cooling bed 108 m

Cut and drilling (on demand) Straightness control

Inspection bed for client inspection and weight

Wharf Service center


From raw minerals to finished product

Care and attention is paid from the selection of raw materials to the delivery of the finished product.

Manufacturing process
Steel production in the Piombino factory is based on integrated cycle. The raw material arrives by ship at the companys private dock, where it is stored before converting into cast iron in a blast furnace with a daily production capacity of around 6.600 tons. The liquid cast-iron is transferred to the steelworks in torpedo cars with an average capacity of 150 tons. In this phase the cast-iron undergoes an initial treatment called HMD (Hot Metal Desulphurization) aimed at reducing the sulphur content. The transformation process takes place in three 120 ton oxygen converters (BOF - Basic Oxygen Furnace) of the LBE-CBS type (Lance Bubbling Equilibrium - Control Bottom Stirring). Suitable secondary metallurgy (LF) working practices allow the completion of the steel before it is transferred to the degassing plant. The degassing plant used in the Piombino factory is a Tank Degasser. Degassing not only reduces the hydrogen and other gas value, it also permits significant internal cleaning due to the drawing of inclusions towards the surface of the bath. After degassing the steel is cast by the continuous casting process based on the most modern and precise control systems. The plant produces square section blooms with a 320 mm side or rectangular 340x245 mm blooms destined to rolled rails with high quality metallurgical characteristics.

Service center Continuous caster Rail mill Coke plant


Blast furnace

Steel plant Wharf Coal yard Mineral yard Bar mill Wire rod mill

Tradition and innovation

Lucchini has been producing rails for 100 years. Today the most modern available technologies are utilized in order to satisfy even the most demanding technical specifications.

Rolling of Rails The recently reconstructed rolling mill at the Piombino factory is based on the most modern technologies available in the field of rolling. It is possible to produce rails from 27 to 70 kg/m in finished bars up to 108 metres long with very strict and uniform tolerances that satisfy European and international standards and technical specifications. This system guarantees maximum production flexiblity and the satisfaction of the highest Customer quality standards. The reduction ratio of continuous cast blooms through a series of rolling processes is higher than the ratio required by the standards. In this way the internal structure and homogeneity of the finished product are improved, as well as the mechanical characteristics (rails heavier than 50 kg/m are produced from a square 320 mm bloom). The use of high definition video cameras and of laser sources during the rolling phase allows the constant measuring and monitoring of the profile dimensions and of all the process data such as product temperature, speed rolling rate, efficiency of equipment and ID-tracking. Furthermore during rolling, the whole rail section is checked by means of a 6 high definition cameras integrated system that is conveniently positioned to control the presence of any surface defect.

Advanced technology
Thanks to the continuous modernisation of its production line Lucchini produces rails as long as 108 meters without welding.

Hot marking The rail plant is equipped with two automatic hot marking machines controlled by the information system which manages the entire production line. The machines have a revolving heads and can print multiple markings on the rolled product moving on the roller-way at the foreseen rolling speed. This marking system guarantees the identification of every single rail produced as required by the international standards and/or by the Customers technical specifications. Cooling bed Rails are trimmed at one end before leaving the rolling stands and are positioned on the 120 metres long cooling bed by means of 52 lifting conveyors. The conveyors are each other independent moving rails on the cooling bed. In this way the bars are positioned with a curve which straightens out during cooling. This facilitates their feeding into the cold straightening plant. All is aimed at reducing to a minimum the mechanical pressures necessary for straightening and consequently at reducing internal stresses. The advancement of the rails is obtained by a walking-beam system.

Non-destructive control system

Safety and reliability for railway applications.

Rail straightening The straightening line has two straightening units positioned after the cooling bed. The straightening pressures are applied onto the relevant axis at the rail height for vertical straightening and onto the head sides for horizontal straightening. Non-Destructive Tests The increasing requirement for products with fewer surface defects derives from a variety of different reasons such as: safety in use, operational reliability, extension of life cycle, travel comfort, track geometry, increased speed, increased axial loads, increased railway traffic. For the above mentioned reasons and for the many requirements of product quality control, the rails produced in the Lucchini Piombino factory are analysed in an integrated system of NonDestructive Tests (NDT). This testing system consists of Eddy current equipment and of ultrasonic equipment. The NDT system has been specifically developed and created for controlling all rail profiles required by the market. Eddy Current Test The Eddy Current test allows the continuous and automatic control of the head and of the feet of the rail at a speed of 1m/sec. The method is based on the operation of 6 rotating probes (for flat areas) and of 2 fixed probes (for

High Speed
Technological solutions for an expanding market.

gauge corner) and uses the magnetic permeability of steel. All the probes transmit information concerning the number of detected defects, their distance from the ends and their position within the section. The calibration of the Eddy Current system is carried out with a sample rail with a length of 12 metres in which defects of known position and dimensions are artificially produced. Ultrasonic Test The Ultrasonic examination is carried out in a continuous and automatic mode soon after the Eddy current test. The system is equipped with 16 probes of the squirter type (with water jet) without direct contact with the rail that allow to check the whole section of the rail for its entire length. The defects detected by the Eddy current and ultrasonic control systems are processed in real time and signalled to the technicians both on monitors and on inspection reports. The defect detected is highlighted on the rail by means of an automatic paint spray. Cutting to length After the checks with the NDT system the rails are cut to length and drilled if required, by means of a dedicated facility. Finishing operations can also be carried out at the service centre (CSE).

Straightness check system

Employing a no-contact high definition camera system and laser sources.

Cold checking of straightness Straightness is checked by means of a no-contact high definition cameras system. The system is completely static and does not require any electro-mechanical positioning. The processed data are recorded and a reporting is generated. The control is performed on the final rail length. Finishing After cold cutting and straightness control, the rails are transferred to the inspection bed for the final controls. A dedicated, automatic handling system - capable of managing lengths of up to 108 metres turns the rail on all four sides for the visual surface control. On request, this system can also weigh individual rails. Final material identification - conforming, non-conforming - is relyed to the application of an adhesive label with a bar code. When this label is read, all the information needed for successive operations is loaded into the warehouse management information system.

In the heart of Mediterranean

Efficient logistics for clients. Maximum flexibility and punctual service.

Rail service centre The rails are then transferred to the Service Centre (CSE) for warehousing in dedicated areas equipped to handle rails from 4 to 108 metres in length or for extra finishing operations requested by the Customer (cutting into smaller sizes, drilling, packing, etc.). Shipment and logistics Rails can be shipped from the Piombino plant either by rail or by sea using the plants own port facility. By managing its own fleet of wagons to transport rails up to 108 metres in length and via continuous innovation at the port for shipping rails up to 108 metres long Lucchini is able to operate in international markets with maximum flexibility. These systems also guarantee service quality and punctuality all the way to the destination indicated by the Customer. Internal and external handling operations are executed with special systems and equipment to guarantee maximum product integrity.

Products for traditional applications and for High Speed market

Lucchini is able to design and produce a wide range of profiles requested by the market

production range

The rolling mill is designed to produce 108 metres rails without any welding, for conventional networks and for high speed ones (rails from 27 kg/m to 70 kg/m). The production range also includes: tongue bars, baseplates and check rails.

Lucchini is able to design and to produce all the profiles requested by the market in order to satisfy the Customer.

Quality grades
EN 13674 series

% in weight C 0,40/0,60 0,50/0,60 0,62/0,80 0,55/0,75 0,60/0,80 Mn 0,70/1,20 1,00/1,25 0,70/1,20 1,30/1,70 0,80/1,20 Si 0,15/0,58 0,20/0,60 0,15/0,58 0,15/0,60 0,50/1,10 Cr 0,15 max 0,15 max 0,15 max 0,15 max 0,80/1,20 S 0,008/0,035 0,008/0,025 0,008/0,025 0,008/0,025 0,008/0,025 P max 0,035 0,025 0,025 0,025 0,02

ppm 0 max 20 20 20 20 20

ppm H max 3 3 2,5 2,5 2,5

MPa Rm min 680 770 880 880 1080

% A min 14 12 10 10 9


R200 R220 R260 R260Mn R320Cr UIC 860.O 700 900A 900B 1100 AREMA Standard carbon IRS-T-12-96 880

200/240 220/260 260/300 260/300 320/360

0,40/0,60 0,60/0,80 0,55/0,75 0,60/0,82

0,80/1,25 0,80/1,30 1,30/1,70 0,80/1,30

0,05/035 0,10/0,50 0,10/0,50 0,30/0,90

/ / / 0,80/1,30

0,05 max 0,04 max 0,04 max 0,03 max

0,05 0,04 0,04 0,03

/ / /

/ / /

680 880 880 1080

14 10 10 9

/ / / /




0,25 max

0,020 max




300 min








260 min



Vignole Rails

Bars for Points



Specifications AREMA Profile 141RE 136RE 60UIC UIC 860.O 54UIC 54UIC E 50UNI UNI 3141 46UNI 36UNI 27UNI BS113A BS 100A BS 90A BS 11:85 BS 80A BS 80R BS 70A BS 60R 60E1 60E2 56E1 54E1 54E2 EN 13674-1 54E4 50E5 50E6 49E1 46E1 46E2 46E4 AFNOR NF 52-523 U50 U33 S49 DIN 5902 S49A S40 S33 GOST R 51685 - 2000 P65 ER52 R48 46 SBBI Other Specifications R45 DAN 45 81lb/yd R31 Unlimited availability upon request Weight (kg/m) 69,83 67,44 60,34 54,43 53,81 49,85 46,79 36,19 27,35 56,39 50,18 45,02 39,76 39,67 34,81 29,82 60,21 60,05 56,30 54,77 53,82 54,30 49,90 50,90 49,39 46,17 46,27 46,90 50,63 46,30 49,43 49,05 36,54 31,18 64,84 51,68 48,00 46,16 45,40 45,46 40,31 31,58 H 188,91 185,74 172,00 159,00 161,00 148,00 145,00 130,00 120,00 158,75 152,40 142,88 133,35 133,35 110,33 114,30 172,00 172,00 158,75 159,00 161,00 154,00 148,00 153,00 149,00 145,00 145,00 145,00 153,00 145,00 149,00 148,00 128,00 126,00 180,00 155,00 150,00 145,00 150,80 141,00 127,00 125,00 WF 152,40 152,40 150,00 140,00 125,00 135,00 135,00 100,00 95,00 139,70 133,35 127,00 117,47 127,00 123,82 109,54 150,00 150,00 140,00 140,00 125,00 125,00 135,00 140,00 125,00 125,00 134,00 135,00 140,00 134,00 125,00 125,00 115,00 105,00 150,00 141,00 127,00 125,00 127,00 126,00 127,00 106,00 WT 17,46 17,46 16,50 16,00 16,00 14,00 14,00 14,00 11,00 20,00 15,08 13,89 13,10 13,49 12,30 11,11 16,50 16,50 20,00 16,00 16,00 16,00 14,00 15,50 14,00 14,00 15,00 14,00 15,50 15,00 14,00 14,00 13,00 11,00 18,00 15,00 14,00 14,00 13,80 13,76 13,89 12,00 WH 77,79 74,61 72,00 70,00 67,00 66,88 65,00 60,00 50,00 72,01 72,00 66,68 65,43 63,50 62,19 57,15 72,00 72,00 69,85 70,00 67,01 67,00 67,00 65,00 67,00 65,00 62,00 65,00 65,00 62,01 67,00 67,00 58,27 58,00 75,00 66,00 68,00 65,00 67,47 72,20 63,50 56,00

Baseplates in Bars
d b c a

Check Rails


Tongue Bars
Tongue bars are turnouts components which, after machining operations, are transformed into blades and used in switch.
Specifications Italian Railway Specification Profile A 60UNI A 50UNI 60E1A2 50E1T1 Weight (kg/m) 69,09 61,04 69,04 60,96 H 134,00 148,00 134,00 148,00 WF 140,00 135,00 140,00 135,00 WT 40,00 28,00 40,00 28,00 WH 72,00 66,88 72,00 67,00

EN 13674-2 Unlimited availability upon request

Baseplates are used on track to secure the rail to the underneath sleepers.
Specifications Italian Railway Specification Profile 60 P4U 60 P5U 50 UNI 1/20 UNI 3551 60 UNI 1/20 50S UNI 60S UNI Other Specifications Unlimited availability upon request PB 68 Weight (kg/m) 58,384 58,384 59,648 64,187 55,153 55,153 68,42 a 370 370 355 370 390 390 360 b 152 152 137 152 137 152 142 c 15,5 15,5 14 15 14 14 20 d 29,5 29,5 33 33 33 33 33

Check Rails
check rails are used to guide the flange of the wheel while the train runs trought the switch.
Specifications Profile Cr 1 - 60U Cr 4 - 60U 40C1 47C1 Weight (kg/m) 40,03 47,34 39,89 47,07 H 192,00 222,00 192,00 222,00 WF 72,00 72,00 72,00 72,00 WT 18,00 18,00 18,00 18,00

Italian Railway Specification

EN 13674-3 Unlimited availability upon request

Quality directed to the future

Product and process development programs aimed towards higher quality standards.

research and development

In this field, Lucchini dominates thanks to a whole series of implemented process and product development programs, aimed at increasing the reliability, life, and safety of its products and the range of products. Innovative products have been studied, perfected and tested such as: rails with improved mechanicals properties specifically studied to reduce rolling contact fatigue phenomena in Phalesia 110 steel grade. This allows Lucchini to reach extremely high quality standards in terms of the performance and life of the products it offers.

The innovative steel: higher strength and reliability
Lucchini S.P.A. Headquarters
25128 Brescia Italy Via Oberdan 1/a Tel. +39 030 39921 Fax +39 030 3992517 E-mail:

Piombino Plant - Rail Business

57025 Piombino (Livorno) - Italy Largo Caduti sul Lavoro, 21 Tel. +39 0565 64111 Fax +39 0565 64133 E-mail:

Lucchini UK Ltd
Wheel Forge Way Trafford Park - Manchester M17 1EH Tel +44 161 8860340 Fax +44 161 8722895

Lucchini Iberia
Av. Josep Tarradellas 84-88 08029 Barcelona - Spain Tel. +34 93 3691973 Fax +34 93 4197064

Lucchini Siderprodukte
Grindlenstrasse 5 8954 Geroldswil - Switzerland Tel. +41 44 749 2111 Fax +41 44 748 4710

Lucchini USA
660 White Plains Road 10591 Tarrytown - NY Tel. +1 914 3327550 Fax +1 914 3327551

Lucchini Asia Pacific

21 Tan Quee Lan Street 02-10 Heritage Place 188108 Singapur Tel. +65 6 3346775 Fax +65 6 3347015