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75 0.00 1.00 0. Districts of British India which are currently in Pakistan. The table also excludes the states of Assam and Kerala.85 1.00 0. .66 0. We use un-split districts in all our analysis.00 0.51 Classification of revenue systems Individual Village bodies based Landlord Non-landlord 8 0 7 0 15 1 14 2 0 0 9 0 0 56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 12 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 35 0 46 Total districts State Landlord based 2 12 0 0 0 14 4 6 0 1 2 0 11 52 Andhra Pradesh Bihar Gujarat Haryana Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Total 10 12 7 5 15 15 18 8 6 1 11 47 11 166 Notes: This table lists only districts which used to be part of British India.42 0.78 0.00 0.87 0. some of which were split into two or more districts over time. Bangladesh or Burma are excluded.TABLE 1 : STATE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF LANDLORD AND NON-LANDLORD DISTRICTS Mean nonlandlord proportion 0.32 0. The table lists 1960 districts. Areas where the British did not set up the land revenue system are excluded. for which agricultural data is not available in the World Bank dataset.10 0.

7119 0.4967 0.3747 0.60 148.2096 0.4214 0.26 36.050* (0.1237 0.1145 0. .090) (0.157 0.023) (0.054) (0.1598 0.35*** 93.031) (0.244*** -0.4991 -4.8102 0.172 0.005** 0.135** 0.008) (0. corrected for district-level clustering.5689 0.14 471.088 0.1352 -0.02) (0.128*** 0.961) (25.0980 0.3193 0.92 0.634 85.5482 5.64*** -373.4082 0.1677 0.048) (0.2289 0.072) (0.109) (4.149 14.41 1263. 1991 log(Population) Population density Proportion of scheduled castes Proportion of scheduled tribes Proportion rural Proportion of working population in farming 0.034** -0.024) (0. the difference is calculated after controlling for year fixed effects.193 0.018) (0.TABLE 2 : DIFFERENCES IN GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHICS Mean Standard deviation Differencea Standard error of difference Geography Latitude Altitude Mean annual rainfall (mm) Coastal dummy Top 2 soil types: Black soil Alluvial soil Red soil <25 cm 25-50cm 50-100 cm 100-300 cm >300 cm 22.003 0.088) Top-soil depth Area share of various crops:1956-1987 area share of rice area share of wheat area share of other cereals area share of oilseeds area share of cotton area share of tobacco area share of sugarcane Cash crops to cereals ratio Demographics: 1961.051) (0. * significant at 10%.152*** -0.010 -0.058) (0.075) (0.058** 0.005 0.088 -11. ** significant at 5%.83) (0.065) (0.19 366.096 0. For the area under different crops and demographics.075 0.366 0.09 0.194*** -0.031) (0.298 0. computed as the regression coefficient on the non-landlord proportion.44 0.066*** 0.026) (0.64 0.065*** 0.041 0.0904 0. 1981.98) (80.053 0.067 0.0733 0.015 0.067) (0.0181 0. *** significant at 1% a Difference represents the average difference between non-landlord and landlord districts.99*** 0.084 0.076 0.1630 0.3579 0.22** -0. 1971.027) Standard errors in parentheses.149 0.013) (0.135*** -0.1497 0.257 0.268*** (0.205 0.031 0.2876 0.016 -0.1336 0.014) (0.002) (0.066*** -0.

031 (0.992*** (3.043) 0.035) 10. The non-landlord dummy is assigned as follows: the dummy equals one for all individual-based districts and all village-based districts except those in Oudh.157** (0.708*** (3.057* (0.062) 0.099 (0. and dummies for soil type and coastal regions.053) 0.035 (0. the dummy is zero.025) 0.345) 0.032) 0.196 Fertilizer use (kg/ha) Proportion of rice area under HYV Proportion of wheat area under HYV Proportion of other cereals area under HYV 0.988*** (2.094** (0. *** significant at 1% Each cell represents the coefficient from a regression of the dependent variable on the measure of non-landlord control.228*** (0.074* (0.081) 0.406) 0. corrected for district-level clustering.64 0.195** (0.031) 0.081) 0.276 24.089 (0.034) 10.005 (0.188*** (0. ** significant at 5%.046) 0. latitude.070) 143 YES YES YES 0.032) 10.045) 0.066* (0.4274) Mean of dependent variable Coefficient on non-landlord proportion OLS OLS Full sample Excluding Bengal and Bihar (1) (2) Coefficient on non-landlord dummy OLS OLS Full sample Excluding villagebased districts (3) (4) Dependent variable AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENTS Proportion of gross cropped area irrigated 0.077*** (0.024) 0. Geographic controls are altitude. of districts Year fixed effects Geographic controls Date of British land revenue control Standard errors in parentheses.071) 0.=0.084*** (0.TABLE 3 : DIFFERENCES IN AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENTS AND YIELDS Mean non-landlord proportion = 0.173** (0. Data are from 1956-87.d.107** (0. .079) 0.092** (0.041) AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY log(yield of 15 major crops) log(rice yield) log(wheat yield) 0.298 0.695*** (3.119*** (0.085) 0. * significant at 10%.301) 0.152** (0.143 (0.098) 109 YES YES YES No.044) 0.079* (0.229*** (0.067) 166 YES YES YES 0.052) 0.027) 9.040) 0.109*** (0.065* (0.518 0.5051 (s. mean annual rainfall.173*** (0. Data for area under high-yielding varieties (HYV) is after 1965.054) 166 YES YES YES 0. For landlord-based districts and the village-based districts of Oudh.016 (0.036) -0.038) 0.074) 0.171** (0.

253*** (0.63 166 YES YES NO YES .409 (0.163) 0.024) 0. latitude.129) AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY log(yield of 15 major crops) log(rice yield) log(wheat yield) 0.084) 35 YES YES YES 0.137) 26. PANEL B: FIRST STAGE REGRESSIONS FOR IV Dependent variable : Non-landlord proportion Coefficient on Instrument (=1 if date of British revenue control is between 1820 and 1856) R-squared No.589** (4.098) 0.126 (0. Data are from 1956-87. Geographic controls are altitude.40 166 YES YES NO NO (2) 0. ** significant at 5%.285) 0. and dummies for soil type and coastal regions. corrected for district-level clustering.087) 0.584*** (0.419*** (0.216 (0.411** (0.331*** (0.015 (0.078** (0.TABLE 4: ROBUSTNESS OF OLS RESULTS PANEL A: ROBUSTNESS CHECKS Dependent Variable Coefficient on non-landlord proportion OLS IV Neighbors only Full sample (1) (2) AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENTS Proportion of gross cropped area irrigated Fertilizer use (kg/ha) Proportion of rice area under HYV Proportion of wheat area under HYV Proportion of other cereals area under HYV 0.214) 166 YES YES YES No.086) 0.061) 0.979) -0.706*** (0.198** (13.083) 0. *** significant at 1% Each cell represents the coefficient from a regression of the dependent variable on the non-landlord proportion. mean annual rainfall.43 166 YES YES YES NO (3) 0.041) 10. Instrument is a dummy which equals one if the date of British revenue control is after 1820 and before 1856.244) 0. * significant at 10%. of observations Geographic controls Date of British land revenue control Date of British land revenue control squared State fixed effects (1) 0.261) 0.526*** (0. of districts Year fixed effects Geographic controls Date of British land revenue control Standard errors in parentheses. Data for area under high-yielding varieties (HYV) is after 1965.034) -0.163) 0.025 (0.092) 0.554* (0.430*** (0.101** (0.145** (0.

. of districts Year fixed effects Geographic controls Date of British land revenue control Standard errors in parentheses.TABLE 5: ARE YIELDS EXPLAINED BY INVESTMENTS? Dependent variables Log total yield OLS (1) Proportion non-landlord Proportion of gross cropped area irrigated Fertilizer use (kg/ha) % area under HYV Log rice yield OLS (2) Log wheat yield OLS (3) 0. ** significant at 5%.122) 0.063) 0. * significant at 10%. and dummies for soil type and coastal regions.117) 0.001 (0.435** (0.112) 0.096) 0.001) 4. Geographic controls are altitude.693** (0. *** significant at 1% Data are from 1956-87.439** (0.60 166 YES YES YES 0.053) 0.007** (0.580** (0. Data for area under high-yielding varieties (HYV) is after 1965.109 (0.274** (1. corrected for district-level clustering.001) 0.56 166 YES YES YES Adjusted R-squared No.004** (0.063) 0.618** (0.070) 0.063) 0. latitude.070 (0.52 166 YES YES YES 0. mean annual rainfall.001) 0.035 (0.

of districts Year fixed effects Geographic controls Date of British land revenue control Standard errors in parentheses.44) AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENTS Proportion of gross cropped area irrigated Fertilizer use (kg/ha) 0.058) 166 YES YES YES 0. * significant at 10%. mean annual rainfall.514** (0.122* (0. and dummies for soil type and coastal regions. Estimates in column (3) are computed from a regression of the dependent variable on the interaction of the non-landlord proportion and a dummy for year>1965.089) 0.088** (0.026** (0.076) 0. as well as geographic controls. PANEL B: RICE YIELDS FOR TAMIL NADU DISTRICTS Sample : 10 districts of Tamil Nadu Data are for 1870.TABLE 6: WHEN DO THE DIFFERENCES APPEAR? PANEL A : FULL SAMPLE Dependent variable Coefficient on non-landlord proportion 1956-65 After 1965 (1) (2) 0. after controlling for the main effects of these variables. 1911.425) AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY log(yield of 15 major crops) log(rice yield) log(wheat yield) 0. 1919. and five-yearly intervals from 1922 to 1982 Dependent variable Coefficient on non-landlord proportion Before 1965 After 1965 Difference Log rice yield -0. Geographic controls are altitude.063) 166 YES YES YES No. adjusted for district-level clustering.268*** (0.108 (0.581*** (4. ** significant at 5%. 1917.033) 1. 1901.079** (0.217) 10 YES No.763) Difference (3) 0.172) 10 YES 0. of districts Year fixed effects Standard errors in parantheses.036) 15. *** significant at 1% .099 (0.044) 0.033** (0.069) 0.55*** (4.196** (0. latitude.415 (0.366) 10 YES 0.016) 14.201*** (0.046 (0. corrected for district-level clustering.033) 0.135*** (0.079) 166 YES YES YES 0. ** significant at 5%.065) 0. *** significant at 1% Data are from 1956-87. * significant at 10%.066 (0.146** (0.

046) 0.007 (0.036) 4.0171) -25.093*** (0.308) 0.71*** (5.026) 0.174** (0.297 (3. 1971.092** (0.012*** (0.072) 0.243*** (0.014) 0.035) 10.006) 0.036) 0.009) 0.0524** (0.033*** (0.074** (0.052*** (0.011) 0.17 State fixed effects Year fixed effects Geographic controls Date of British land revenue control Standard errors in parentheses.150*** (0.037) 0.031 0.042) 0.013) 0.018) 0.81*** (5.044) 0.38) NO YES YES YES 0.002 (0.019 (0.2945 Infant mortality rate (1991) 82.043* (0.083 (0. .000 (0.0241 (0.023 0.034) 10.004) 0.016 (0.067) 0.64 0.072) 0.059 (0.039) 0.062* (0.011*** (0.43*** (5.081) 0. and dummies for soil type and coastal regions.028 (0.047) 0.082 0. *** significant at 1% Geographic controls are altitude.064*** (0.102*** (0.031) 0.28) NO YES YES YES 0.708*** (3. latitude.40) YES YES YES YES PANEL D: EDUCATION AND HEALTH OUTCOMES Literacy rate (1961.0190) -32.298 0.518 0.061 (0.157** (0.030** (0.079* (0.276 24.0290* (0.717) 0.345) 0. mean annual rainfall.023) 0.229*** (0.076) 0.040) 0.745 Middle school High school Primary health center Primary health subcenter 0.028 (0.018) 0. 1991) 0.025 (0.006 (0.021) 0.004) 0.154*** (0.082) 0.057* (0.039) 0. * significant at 10%.004) 0.030) 0.011 (0. corrected for district-level clustering. ** significant at 5%.0176) -15.071) 0.171** (0.204 0.TABLE 7: IMPACT OF STATE POLICY Dependent variables Mean of dependent variable Coefficient on non-landlord proportion OLS OLS OLS Base specification Control for state State FE dev exp per capita (1) PANEL A: AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENTS Proportion of gross cropped area irrigated Fertilizer use (kg/ha) Proportion of rice area under HYV Proportion of wheat area under HYV Proportion of other cereals area under HYV PANEL B: AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY log(yield of 15 major crops) log(rice yield) log(wheat yield) (2) (3) 0.196 0.065* (0.045) PANEL C: EDUCATION AND HEALTH INVESTMENTS 1981 Proportion of villages having: Primary school 0.805*** (3.125*** (0.078) 0. 1981.

Faridpur. Tinnevelly Tanjore Mysore Princely states Mysore Granted by Nawab of the Carnatic in 1750-63 Granted by Mughal emperor in 1765. Malabar. Maimansingh. Shahabad. Khulna. Kistna. Champaran. Murshidabad. Dinajpur. Karnul Carnatic Districts Tanjore Nellore. Patna. Bakirganj. Lohardagga. North Arcot. Madras Vizagapatam. South Arcot. Midnapore (parts). Nadiya(modern West Bengal). Noakhalli. Obtained from Mysore after the Second Mysore War 1792 Obtained by Nizam of Deccan after Mysore War and then ceded to British in 1800 Ceded to British by Nawab of Carnatic in 1801 Taken over by British due to incapacity of Hindu ruler in 1799 Taken over by British in 1831 due to mismanagement of ruler. Saran. Rajshahi. Malda. Chittagong Bankura. Darjeeling. Godavari Northern Circars Territories obtained from Mysore Ceded Districts Salem. Darbhanga. Madura. Puri (rest of Orissa under tributary chiefs) Chingleput. Hazaribagh. Singhbhum (modern Bihar). Bogra. Jessore. Howrah. Rangpur. grant confirmed by Nizam of Deccan in 1768. Coimbatore. Purnea. Bhagalpur. Pabna.Gaya.APPENDIX TABLE 1: DISTRICTS OF BRITISH INDIA. Hooghly. Ganjam. Cuttack. WITH DATES AND MODE OF ACQUISITION BY THE BRITISH Province Bengal Presidency 24-Parganas (parts). Region Calcutta Districts included Calcutta First conquests Date and mode of acquisition Set up by British in 1690 on land obtained from Mughal emperor Came under British political control from 1757 to 1761 Revenue collection rights granted by Mughal emperor in 1765 Bengal and Behar Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling Orissa Came under control in 1826 and 1838 respectively. Kanara. some areas of Madura Anantapur. Santal Parganas. Conquered in 1803 Madras Presidency Jagir Balasore. Dacca. Munger. given back to Wodeyars in 1881 . Bellary. Tipra (modern Bangladesh) Jalpaiguri. Burdwan. Trichinopoly. Birbhum. Cuddapah.

forfeiture etc. Khasi and Jaintyas. Poona. Bijnaur. Jabalpur. under local chief till 1849 Central Provinces Maratha territory Sambalpur Darrang. Balaghat. Hamirpur Jalaun. Jaunpur. Rai-Bareli. Wardah Sambalpur . Gonda. Ceded after the Nepal war in 1815 Annexed from Nawab of Oudh in 1856. Mainpuri. Kamrup. Etah. Sagar. Ghazipur. Shikarpur. Moradabad. some areas left under Bhonsle till 1854 Conquered in 1818. Jaintya Parganas. Kanpur. Damoh. Muzaffarnagar. Sibsagar Cachar. Nasik. Bareli. Mathura. Chanda. Sylhet (modern Bangladesh) Assam Hill districts Obtained in 1861 Obtained as part of diwani in 1765. Meerut. Mandla. Barabanki. Narsinghpur. Nagpur. Sitapur. Lalitpur Dehradun Oudh Conquered by Lord Lake from Scindia and others in 1803 Conquered in parts from 1803-17. Thar & Parkar (modern Pakistan) Panch Mahals Goalpara (modern Assam). Badayun. Betul. Sultanpur. Taken over due to lapse. Ahmednagar. Shahjahanpur. Cachar Hills. Naugong. Bijapur. Dharwar Satara Kanara Karachi. Seoni. Lakhimpur. Nimar (1820). Bombay Presidency Surat Gujarat Dehradun. Saharanpur Banda. Kheri. Eastern Dwars (1866). Allahabad. Kolaba. Broach Maratha territory Obtained from Nawab of Surat in 1800 Conquered from Baroda in 1803 and Marathas in 1818. Mirzapur. Bilaspur. Lucknow. Ratnagiri. Conquered from Peshwa in 1818 Satara Kanara Sindh Taken over by lapse in 1848 Transferred from Madras in 1862 Conquered in 1843 Assam Panch Mahals From Bengal Thana. Basti. Unao. Aligarh. Hardoi. in years after 1840. Raipur. Azamgarh. Chhindwara. Bahraich Surat Ahmedabad. Ballia. later transferred to Assam Conquered in 1824 Brought under control in 1830-35 Conquered from Bhonsle in 1818. Kaira. Faizabad. Upper Sindh Frontier.Province United Provinces Region Benares Ceded Districts Date and mode of acquisition Ceded by the Nawab of Oudh in 1775 Ceded by the Nawab of Oudh in 1801 Conquered Districts Bundelkhand Taken over Districts included Benares. Hoshangabad. Belgaum (some parts obtained in 1827). Farukhabad. Sholapur. Naga Hills. Bhandara. Pilibhit. Tarai Parganas Agra. Bulandshahr. Haidarabad. Partabgarh. Fatehpur. Gorakhpur. Etawa. Khandesh. Jhansi.

Peshawar. Gurdaspur. Kangra. Kumar (1982) . Karnal Ambala. Lahore. Ludhiana Amritsar. Multan. Dera Ismail Khan. Bannu.1894). Hisar. Montgomerty. Jhelum. Gurgaon. Sialkot (Pakistan) Shimla Source: Baden-Powell (1892. Kohat.Province Panjab Region Delhi Sikh territory Sikh territory Date and mode of acquisition Conquered in 1803 Obtained after Sikh War in 1845-46 Obtained after Sikh War in 1849 Shimla Obtained in 1815 Districts included Delhi. Dera Ghazi Khan. Muzaffargarh. Rawalpindi. Gujranwala. Hazara. Jhang. Shahpur. Hoshiyarpur. Gujrat. Rohtak (India). Firozpur. Jalandhar.

No fixed policy until landlord settlement (malguzari ) announced in 1853. implemented in 1850s. Village-based system put into place everywhere. leases renewed for 10 years in 1810-11. revenue secretary Holt Mackenzie's 1819 Minute recognized the existence of village bodies and asked for their rights to be protected in any settlement. several defaults and famine. regulation passed in 1822. Some areas transferred from Bengal had Permanent Settlement. Question of Permanent Settlement widely debated. Madras Presidency 1765. Permanent Settlement in 1775 areas. in 1807 all districts put under landlords for 3 years. 1801-03 Oudh 1856 Central Provinces 1818. all future defaulting landlord estates also converted to individual system. 1849 Berar 1856 Assam 1765. 1824-26 Panjab 1846. Individual system tried in Poona in 1820's. 1849 . Munro and Read tried individual system in some districts from 1796-1805. 1765 Formation of land tenure system Bengal Presidency Revenue auctions in early 1770s. 1790-1801 Bombay Presidency 1803. landlord system tried found unsuccessful. Munro went to England and convinced the Directors of the East India Company to order an individual settlement in the whole of Madras.old landlords reinstated in 1784. 1817-18 North-West Provinces 1775. Lord Cornwallis announces Permanent Settlement in 1793: landlords' rents fixed in perpetuity with stiff penalties for default. but failed. Wingate and Goldsmid start Bombay Survey System in 1835 for individual settlement system. Was under Nizam till 1856. Mutiny in 1857 before this could be done. Sambhalpur district however put under individual cultivator system. 3 and 4-year landlord leases in 1802-1819. Lord Canning reversed policy in 1858 and brought back landlords (talukdars ) with full proprietary rights. a few long-standing landlords left in place in certain areas.APPENDIX TABLE 2: ESTABLISHMENT OF LAND REVENUE SYSTEMS IN BRITISH INDIA Province Dates of British land revenue control 1757. old landlords dispossessed. practically no big landlords. Lord Dalhousie announced settlement with village bodies wherever possible. 1765 territories came under Permanent Settlement. Bombay Survey System (individual cultivator based) implemented.order implemented after 1820 when leases expired. others got individual-cultivator systems.

fertilizer use. 1948) pp. 1961-1991: Machine-readable data file and codebook.worldbank. For Madras Presidency: non-landlord proportion obtained from Baden-Powell (1892). 1987): based on National Sample Surveys.com Village infrastructure variables: State statistical abstracts of 1981 Land-holdings by size category: Agricultural census of 1990-91. Gaurav Datt and Martin Ravallion (World Bank) Data on state land reforms: Besley and Burgess (2000) Historical data Districts and maps of British India: Baden-Powell (1892) Non-landlord proportion: For Uttar Pradesh. For Bombay Presidency.html Districts and maps of modern India: http://www. .APPENDIX TABLE 3: DATA SOURCES AND CONSTRUCTION OF VARIABLES Post-Independence data Data on district geography.org/indian/home. Kumar (1982). College Park. Orissa. Reproduced in Stokes (1978b). Madhya Pradesh and Panjab: computed from district-level Land Settlement Reports as the proportion of villages. Center on Population. Land revenue inequality 1885: Digital South Asia Library (http://dsal. Gupta (1940). 12-17. irrigation. Bengal Presidency.bsos. Sources of information include Baden-Powell (1892). Gender.edu) Land revenue inequality 1948 for districts of Uttar Pradesh: Report of the United Provinces Zamindari Abolition Committee. Mukherjee (1962) and Patel (1957). Maryland. crop areas. estates or land area not under the revenue liability of landlords.edu/socy/vanneman/districts/index. Reeve and Douglas Barnes (2000) Indian District Data. URL: http://www. Berar and districts for which we do not have district-level settlement reports: Non-landlord measure is assigned as zero or one based on historical accounts of the dominant land tenure system in the district. proportion of scheduled castes etc: Indian Database Project Vanneman. 11 (Allahabad. yields.cfm District level data on literacy. adoption of high-yielding varieties: India Agriculture and Climate Data Set (World Bank) http://www-esd.mapsofindia. Data on state development expenditure: Database on Poverty and Growth in India compiled by Berk Ozler. occupation classes. and Social Inequality.umd. Misra (1942). Data on poverty and inequality (1972. The Settlement Reports were compiled by British administrators in the 1870's and 1880's.uchicago.

062) 0.186) yes 166 0.196*** (0.145) -0.189) -0.243) 0.029 (0.038) yes 166 0.093) -0. coastal dummy (3) Soil dummies Date of British land revenue control (5) Proportion non-landlord Altitude (x 10-3) 0.171* (0.502) yes 166 0. .067) 0.117* (0.161** (0. *** significant at 1% Standard errors in parantheses.060) 0.085) 0.002*** (0.091 (0.006) 0.004 (0.007 (0.032 (0.194) -0.052) -0.722*** (0.104 (0.088) 0. Data for from 1956-87.644*** (0.007) Mean annual rainfall (x 10-3) 0.086) 0.094) -0.003 (0.586** (1.409*** (0.085) 0.42 Constant 0.396*** (0.296 (0.23 -0.006 (0.096) Coastal dummy Black soil dummy Red soil dummy Alluvial soil dummy 0.137* (0.069) 0.053) Date of British land revenue control -0. latitude Mean annual rainfall. of districts R-squared * significant at 10%.503*** (0.19 -0. adjusted for district-level clustering.181) yes 166 0.494*** (0.190*** (0.071) 0.157** (0.43 Year fixed effects No.071) (2) (4) Altitude.076) 0.782*** (0. ** significant at 5%.425* (0.17 yes 166 0.101 (0.007) Latitude 0.123 (0.245) 0.069) 0.001) 3.APPENDIX TABLE 4: DETAILED REGRESSION SPECIFICATION Dependent variable: Log agricultural yield (based on 15 major crops) No controls (1) 0.007) 0.006 (0.072 (0.314*** (0.

Madhya Pradesh Chandrapur Wardha Betul Allahabad Azamgarh Basti Gorakhpur Jaunpur Farrukhabad Fatehpur Kanpur Nagar Pilibhit Shahjahanpur Oudh districts have greater % of landlords because of change of policy after 1857 Mutiny. . Amravati Yavatmal 5 Uttar Pradesh (East) Faizabad Gonda Pratapgarh Sultanpur 6 Uttar Pradesh (West) Hardoi Kheri Rae Bareli Unnao Oudh districts have greater % of landlords because of change of policy after 1857 Mutiny. Berar province was individual-based while Central Provinces was landlord-based. Reason for difference in tenure Group States Landlord districts 1 Andhra Pradesh Srikakulam Vishakhapatnam 2 Tamil Nadu Madurai Ramanathapuram Coimbatore Thanjavur Tiruchirapalli Tirunelveli Raigarh Sambalpur Sambalpur district was put under individual cultivator system. Orissa Bilaspur Raipur 4 Maharashtra. 3 Madhya Pradesh. Areas put under landlords and Permanent Settlement before the rest of Madras Presidency was converted to individual system. unlike the rest of the Central Provinces.APPENDIX TABLE 5 : LIST OF NEIGHBORING DISTRICTS Non-landlord districts East Godavari Areas put under landlords and Permanent Settlement before the rest of Madras Presidency was converted to individual system.

.844*** (2. States which have no within-state variation in the non-landlord proportion (West Bengal. The number of districts is 184 for 1981 and 150 for 1971. and dummies for soil type and coastal regions.701** (2. * significant at 10%.018** (0. corrected for NSS region level clustering.019* (0.007) -5.108) -6. mean annual rainfall.011 (0.APPENDIX TABLE 6 CHANGES IN POVERTY AND INEQUALITY Mean of dep.026) Change in rural income Gini coefficient from 1972-1987 -0.491 (3. latitude.013 (0.466) -4.010) 0.235) 0. ** significant at 5%.013) -3. and the number of districts is for states which have within-state variation in the non-landlord proportion.187 (13.010) -0.965) 8. of districtsa 218 YES NO YES NO 218 YES YES YES NO 37 YES YES YES NO Year fixed effects Control for initial 1972 level Control for geography and date of British revenue control State fixed effects 218 YES YES YES NO 150 YES YES YES YES Standard errors in parentheses.951 (2.275) Dependent variable Coefficient on non-landlord proportion OLS OLS OLS IV Full sample Full sample Neighbors only Full sample (1) (2) (3) (4) 0. Bihar. a This refers to 1991 districts.95 Change in rural Head Count Ratio from 1972 to 1987 No. Gujarat and Karnataka)are effectively dropped from regressions involving state fixed effects.033** (0. *** significant at 1% Geographic controls are altitude.0018 -10.var OLS State FE (5) 0.

0071) 0.18 (2. Landlord states are Bihar.0497 0. Karnataka.40 19. after controlling for state domestic product (SDP) per capita and year fixed effects. .80 29. Data is for 14 major states.0869 0.1135 0. Assam.0639 0. Maharashtra.37 (2.18 44.0227 (0. Madhya Pradesh.54) Development expenditure/state domestic product 0.0195 (0.0952 0.0218 (0. Non-landlord states are Andhra Pradesh.40 49.1056 1960-1992 1960-1965 1966-1992 0. Orissa. Punjab and Tamil Nadu.38 12. Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Rajasthan.24 1960-1992 1960-1965 1966-1992 7.45) 5.APPENDIX TABLE 7 DIFFERENCES IN STATE DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURE Mean Landlord states Non-landlord states Difference (1) (2) (3) Variable Real development expenditure (1960 rupees per capita) 26. Kerala. Gujarat.67 (1.83) 8. Differences between landlord and non-landlord states is computed by regressing on state-level average non-landlord proportion.0071) 0.0074) Robust standard errors in parantheses.

1991 Total crime/'000 population 2. and dummies for soil type and coastal regions.023) -0.178 (0. ** significant at 5%.021 (0.059 (0. *** significant at 1% Geographic controls are altitude. dacoity and riots. mean annual rainfall. . Gujarat and Karnataka)are effectively dropped from regressions involving state fixed effects.461** (0. States which have no within-state variation in the non-landlord proportion (West Bengal. 1981. Violent crime includes murder.026) -0.178** (0.009) -0.423) -0.039) -0.223) -0.010) -1.024 0.070*** (0.055 Violent crime/'000 population Petty crimes/'000 population -0.239) -0. latitude. and the number of districts is for states which have within-state variation in the non-landlord proportion. The number of districts is 184 for 1981 and 150 for 1971. Petty crime includes cheating and counterfeiting.888) -0.998** (0.APPENDIX TABLE 8 DIFFERENCES IN CRIME RATES Mean of dep. kidnap. of districtsa 218 YES YES NO 37 YES YES NO 218 YES YES NO Year fixed effects Control for geography and date of British revenue control State fixed effects 150 YES YES YES Standard errors in parentheses.007 (0.045* (0.246 0.083) -0.733*** (0.002 (0. Bihar. a This refers to 1991 districts. corrected for district-level clustering * significant at 10%.var OLS Full sample (1) OLS State FE (4) Coefficient on non-landlord proportion OLS IV Neighbors only Full sample (2) (3) Dependent variable CRIME RATES: 1971.009) No.019) -0. homicide. rape.007 (0.

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75 Non−landlord proportion 1 0 0 .75 Oudh . Provinces 1885 B.5 CP NWP Madras .5 .75 .25 Panjab Bombay Berar .25 .25 .5 .75 Non−landlord proportion 1 A.5 .Land ownership inequality (Gini) 1 Land revenue inequality (Gini) 1 .25 0 . Uttar Pradesh districts 1948 Fig 2: Land tenure and land inequality .

Tamil Nadu districts 1911 Fig 3: Agricultural yields in Colonial period .508931 1.08671 0 Non−landlord proportion 1 Log rice yield A. Uttar Pradesh wheat yields: 1870’s . Uttar Pradesh rice yields: 1870’s B.633193 Log rice yield .122169 .37976 −1..373244 Non−landlord proportion .95945 0 Non−landlord proportion 1 Log wheat yield −1.99279 C.

125587 1765 1800 1820 Date of British conquest 1856 −.(first stage) Log yield(reduced form) .155067 Non−landlord proportion .876013 .Non−landlord prop.194232 Kernel regressions Fig 4: Instrumental variables strategy Log agricultural yield .

Proportion of irrigated area B. Log rice yield: Tamil Nadu districts Fig 5: Investment and productivity time series . Fertilizer usage Landlord districts .713 Landlord districts Non−landlord districts .773232 Landlord districts Non−landlord districts −.148565 1901 1911 1917 1927 1937 1947 1957 1967 1977 year C.176707 1960 1965 1970 year 1975 1980 .466565 Non−landlord districts 85.488489 1960 1965 1970 1975 year 1980 1985 −.418232 Non−landlord districts . Mean log yield D.Landlord districts .346324 1960 1965 1970 1975 year 1980 1985 A.

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