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Preliminary Biology Topic 2

PATTERNS in NATURE
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of: 1. LIVING CELLS & THEIR STRUCTURE 2. CHEMICALS MOVE IN & OUT THROUGH MEMBRANES 3. NUTRITION IN PLANTS & ANIMALS 4. GAS EXCHANGE & INTERNAL TRANSPORT 5. CELL DIVISION FOR GROWTH & REPAIR

but first, an introduction...


Cells
All living things are composed of microscopic lumps called cells. Some organisms are composed of just a single cell. All familiar organisms are made of many cells; for example, your body is composed of approximately 300 billion cells... you are multicellular. Each cell is a tiny sac of protoplasm... water with a complex mixture of chemicals dissolved in it, plus many structures called organelles (little organs).
GENERALIZED DIAGRAM OF A LIVING CELL Organelles

Organization of a Multicellular Organism


A building is not just a pile of bricks, and an army is not just a rabble of soldiers. Each has a structure, and levels of organization so everything works together. Similarly, your body is not just a big heap of cells. It has levels of organization... a

CELL is the basic unit of any living thing.


A number of similar cells working together is a...

TISSUE. (e.g. muscle tissue, bone tissue.)


Various tissues are combined to make an...

ORGAN. (e.g. heart, kidney, liver.)


A number of organs work together for a specific purpose. This forms a...

SYSTEM.

(e.g. digestive system.)

Finally, all the body systems working together form... YOU - a functioning, multicellular organism.
Cytoplasm is a jelly-l like liquid which fills the cell

Membrane on the outside contains the cell , and controls what goes in or out

Cell

& Chemistry

In this topic you will study the basics of the structure and functioning of living things. structure

Plants and animals have cells with a few important differences. Organisms such as fungi are different again, while bacteria have a totally different cell structure.
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Vital Body Systems

Cell Division

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this Mind Map to practise on.

Cell Organelles Cell Theory Plant & Animal Cells

Cell Chemicals

Structure of Membranes Diffusion & Osmosis

Living Cells & Their Structure

Chemicals Move In & Out Through Membranes

Surface Area to Volume Ratio

Photosynthesis & Respiration

PATTERNS in NATURE

Nutrition in Plants & Animals

Structure & Function of Leaf

Digestion in Animals

Cell Division for Growth & Repair

Gas Exchange & Internal Transport


Gas Exchange in Animals Gas Exchange & Transport in Plants Circulation in Animals

Reasons for Cell Division

Mitosis

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1. LIVING CELLS & THEIR STRUCTURE


The Cell Theory
The Cell Theory is one of the fundamental concepts in Biology. It simply states: All living organisms are composed of cells or are the product of cells. (e.g. viruses) All cells are produced from pre-existing cells. The evidence supporting the Cell Theory has come almost entirely from the use of microscopes to examine living things. Our knowledge of cell structure and function has developed as the technology of microscopes advanced over the last 300 years or so. Initially, only light microscopes were available, but since the 1930s electron microscopes have revealed more detail of cell structure and function.

History of Our Knowledge of Cells


Robert Hooke, 1665 Hooke is credited with being the first person to see cells and name them. Using a Sketch of primitive Hookes microscope, he microscope looked at a piece of cork (dead tree bark) and saw tiny boxes like the rooms and compartments of a gaol or monastery. (hence cells)

Comparison: Light & Electron Scopes


Light Microscope
How the image is formed Magnification beam of light focused by glass lenses

Electron Microscope
beam of electrons focused by magnetic fields

Anton van Leeuwenhoek, 1676 van Leeuwenhoek used a very simple microscope, but it was equipped with an excellent lens, through which he saw living micro-organisms swimming around in a drop of water. Over the next 150 years, microscopes improved, and it was suspected that cells were present in all living things. Robert Brown, 1827 Brown was the first to discover structures inside cells. He discovered and described the nucleus inside plant cells. By about 1840, the Cell Theory was becoming accepted by most biologists, because cells were observed in every organism studied. Louis Pasteurs discoveries showed that infectious diseases were caused by germs, which were microscopic, cellular organisms.

generally about up to 1,000,000 X 500 X. (500 times more Maximum powerful) about 2,000 X about 0.2 m about 0.0002 m (1,000 times better detail)

Resolution (ability to see fine details)

micrometres (m)

1 m = 0.000001(10-6)metre.

1 micrometre is 1/1000 of a millimetre

How Big Are Cells Anyway?


Typical Plant Cell 50-100 m Typical Animal Cell 5 - 20 m Bacterial Cells 1 - 5 m
SCALE: 100 m (0.1 mm)

Rudolf Virchow, 1859 and Walther Flemming, 1879 Between them, these two German scientists clarified the process of cell division, by which cells produce more cells. This established the principle that all cells come from pre-existing cells. In the 20th century, the electron microscope opened up our knowledge of the fine detail of cell structures and their functions. 3

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Cell Organelles Visible with a Light Microscope


You may have done practical work in class to use a light microscope to view cells in living things.

Generalized ANIMAL CELL


Small Vacuoles (if any at all)

NUCLEUS

Generalized PLANT CELL

CELL WALL (outside of membrane)

Large VACUOLE CYTOPLASM

There are probably no actual cells which looks just like these. Real shapes vary greatly.

CELL MEMBRANE

CHLOROPLASTS (green colour)

The Major Differences Between Plant & Animal Cells


Plant cells have a tough CELL WALL on the outside of their cell membrane. Many plant cells contain a large VACUOLE. Animal cells rarely have vacuoles, and if present they are small. Many plant cells contain CHLOROPLASTS. These are green in colour because they contain the pigment chlorophyll. Chloroplasts are the sites of PHOTOSYNTHESIS, where plants make food. Note: not all plant cells have chloroplasts... for example, cells in the underground roots cannot photosynthesise, so do not contain any chloroplasts.

What the Electron Microscope Reveals


The superior magnifying power and resolution of the electron microscope has given us a much more detailed knowledge of the cell and its organelles. The diagram below is a sketch of a plant cell similar to the one above, but with the added details that the electron microscope has revealed. The extra organelles shown are generally NOT visible with a light microscope.
Golgi apparatus Endoplasmic Reticulum A network of membrane structures connected to nucleus & extending throughout the cytoplasm The tiny Ribosomes are often attached to the E.R. Mitochondrion. Site of cellular respiration Lysosomes Preliminary Biology Topic 2 Patterns in Nature copyright 2005-2 2008 keep it simple science www.keepitsimplescience.com.au Cell Wall Cell Membrane Vacuole

Nucleus Extra detail revealed

Chloroplast internal structure Stacks of flat membranes (grana) contain the chlorophyll

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The Organelles... Structure & Function


The Nucleus
This is the control centre of the cell. Inside the nucleus are the chromosomes containing DNA, the genetic material. There is often a nucleolus present. This is the site for production of RNA, a messenger chemical which leaves the nucleus carrying instructions to other organelles. The nuclear membrane has holes or pores to allow RNA to exit. NUCLEUS
Nuclear membrane with pores, for RNA exit

Nucleolus RNA manufacture

Nuclear material chromatin. (Chromosomes unwound and spread out)

The Cell Membrane Mitochondria


(singular: mitochondrion)

This is where cellular respiration occurs


Glucose + Oxygen (sugar) Carbon + Water + ATP Dioxide

This is not only the boundary of the cell, but also controls what goes in or out of the cell. This is studied in more detail in the next section.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)


E.R. is a network of membranes which form channels and compartments throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. Its function can be compared to the internal walls of an office building which divide the building into rooms where different operations can be kept separate so that each does not interfere with others.

The ATP produced by respiration carries chemical energy all over the cell to power all the processes of life. The mitochondria are therefore, the power stations of the cell, converting the energy of food into the readily usable form of ATP.
MITOCHONDRION Outer membrane

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

Membranes

Inner membrane folded into cristae with respiration enzymes attached

Membranes enclose channels and rooms

RIBOSOMES attached to membranes

Inside a mitochondrion is a folded membrane with many projections (cristae). This structure provides a greater surface area, where the enzymes (control chemicals) for respiration are attached in correct sequence for the steps of the process.

The E.R. structure provides channels for chemicals and messengers to travel accurately to the correct locations, and for chemical production to occur in isolation from other operations.

This structure helps cells function


Often found attached to the E.R. are the tiny Ribosomes. These are the sites of production of proteins, the main structural and functional chemicals of living cells. RNA messengers from the nucleus attach to a ribosome to make the specific proteins that the cell needs. 5

This structure helps the organelle do its job more efficiently.


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Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts are found only in photosynthetic plant cells. The electron microscope has revealed that the chloroplast is not just a bag of chlorophyll, but has an organized internal structure which makes its functioning more efficient. CHLOROPLAST
Stroma zone Lysosomes form this way

The Golgi Apparatus is a semi-circular arrangement of membranes which are concerned with packaging chemicals into small membrane sacs (vesicles) for storage or secretion. Curved GOLGI BODY
membrane sacs

Vesicles pinch-o off for storage or secretion

Membrane stacks (grana) containing chlorophyll

Double membrane envelope

One type of vesicle produced by a Golgi Body is the Lysosome. These membrane sacs contain digestive enzymes which can destroy any foreign proteins which enter the cell. Lysosome enzymes also rapidly digest the contents of a cell which has died, so that your body can clean up the remains and replace the dead cell.

The grana are stacked membrane sacs containing chlorophyll, which absorbs the light energy for photosynthesis. This lightcapturing step is kept separate from the stroma zone, where the chemical reactions to make food are completed.

The Importance of Membranes


Except for the tiny ribosomes, all the cell organelles are built from, and surrounded by, membranes. The membranes provide: the infrastructure of the cell. channels for chemicals to move through. packaging for chemicals which need to be stored. points of attachment for chemicals (enzymes). control over what moves in or out of each organelle, and in or out of the entire cell. The membrane-bound organelles help the cells various functions to be carried out with greater efficiency. Having these membrane-based organelles is the defining characteristic of the Eucaryotic group of organisms, which includes all plants and animals. Bacterial cells do NOT have all the membrane-type organelles, and can only operate efficiently by being very small.
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Worksheet 1 Cell Theory & Cell Structure


Fill in the blank spaces and diagram labels. The Cell Theory states that (a)................................ are composed of cells, and that all cells are produced from (b)...................................................... Our knowledge of cells is due mainly to the technology of (c).............................................. The (d)....................................... of a microscope refers to its ability to distinguish fine details. The (e)................................. scope is far superior in both (d) and (f)................................... The man credited with being the first to see cells was (g)..................................................... Label the parts of this plant cell seen with a simple light microscope. (h)................................. (i).................................

List 5 additional organelles normally only visible with an electron microscope. (p)........................................ q)......................................... r).......................................... s).......................................... (t)......................................... Complete these lists to describe the functions of the organelles. Function Organelle Cell membrane (u) (v) Partitions cell into channels & compartments (w) Cellular respiration. Photosynthesis (z)

Golgi apparatus (x) (y) Cell wall

(m).........................

(j).................................

(k).................................

(l).................................
(inside (k)

Which TWO parts of this plant cell would definitely never be seen in an animal cell? (n)........................................ and (o)..................................

WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES Practice Questions for this section are included in Worksheet 3

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2. CHEMICALS MOVE IN & OUT THROUGH MEMBRANES

The Chemicals That Cells Are Made From

INORGANIC CHEMICALS
These include small simple molecules like water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as mineral ions such as calcium, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, etc. Although these are often considered of lesser importance, you should remember that all living things are 75%- 95% water.

ORGANIC CHEMICALS
Organic chemicals are based on the element carbon, which can form chains, rings and networks and so build the very complex molecules needed to make a living cell. Many are polymers made by joining together many smaller molecules. There are four main categories to know about...

are the fats and oils.

LIPIDS

CARBOHYDRATES
include the sugars and starch.

All cell membranes are built from lipid & protein. Lipids are used as a way to store excess energy food. Carbohydrates can be converted to fat for storage.

monosaccharides

(mono = one) are simple sugars such as glucose C6H12O6

disaccharides (di = two)


are sugars made from TWO monosaccharides joined together, such as table sugar (sucrose).

polysaccharides (poly = many) are huge molecules made from thousands of sugar molecules joined in chains or networks. Examples are: Starch... made by plants, to store excess sugar. Glycogen... made by animals, to store sugar. Cellulose... made by plants as a structural chemical. The CELL WALL of a plant cell is made from cellulose. Disaccharide
Monosaccharide sugar molecules sugar

PROTEINS
are the main structural chemicals of organelles, cells, bone, skin & hair. Life is built from protein. Proteins are polymers, made from amino acid molecules joined in chains.

Polysaccharide. Small part of a Starch molecule

Amino acid molecules

Part of a protein molecule... a chain of amino acids

Uses of Carbohydrates
Sugars are energy chemicals. Glucose is made by plants in photosynthesis, and is the fuel for cellular respiration to make ATP to power all cells. Starch & Glycogen are polymer molecules used to store sugars as a food reserve. Starch is the main nutrient chemical in the plant foods we eat. Cellulose & Lignin are polymers of sugar used by plants structurally. Cellulose makes the tough cell wall of all plant cells. Lignin is a strong material used to reinforce the walls of veins in plants. Preliminary Biology Topic 2 Patterns in Nature copyright 2005-2 2008 keep it simple science www.keepitsimplescience.com.au

NUCLEIC ACIDS

(DNA & RNA)

are the most complex of all. DNA is the genetic information of every cell. RNA is the messenger sent out from the nucleus to control all cell activities. DNA is a huge polymer of sugars, phosphate and bases coiled in a double helix shape. 8

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Identifying Chemicals in Tissues


You may have done laboratory work to learn some simple chemical tests which identify important substances. These tests all rely on a reagent which changes colour. To keep it simple (K.I.S.S.), learn these: Cell Chemical Glucose Test Colour in Reagent Pure water Benedicts solution Iodine solution Biuret pale blue Positive Result yellow or orange dark blue or black purple

The Structure of the Cell Membrane


The electron microscope and other modern analysis methods have revealed the structure of the membranes which surround a cell and form most of the cell organelles. The membrane is extremely thin; just two molecules thick. The basic chemical unit is a phospholipid molecule; a lipid (fat) with phosphate groups attached. Each molecule has two distinct ends; one which is attracted to water molecules (hydrophilic) and the other is repelled by water (hydrophobic). Hydro=water. philic=to like. phobic=hate / fear.

Starch

yellow brown blue

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE
Outside of cell

One phospholipid hydro-p philic -p phobic

Protein

You will have used one or more tests on living tissue and examined the cells with a microscope. For Example: if tissue scraped from a fresh potato is mounted on a slide with a simple contrast stain (like methylene blue) the cells look like this:
Inside of cell Double layer of phospholipid molecules

POTATO CELLS
Organelles faintly visible Cell walls

Two layers of phospholipids form each membrane. The molecules cling to each other, and line up with their hydrophilic ends outwards. The water-loving ends are attracted to the watery environment both inside and outside the cell. Their hydrophobic ends are repelled from the watery surroundings, and cling together inside the membrane itself. It is like a thin layer of oil floating on water. It is fluid and flexible, but clings together forming an unbroken skin on the surface. Other molecules are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer. They are mostly proteins, many with carbohydrates attached.
Membrane proteins

If a drop of iodine solution is added, the same cells change as shown: POTATO CELLS WITH IODINE
Organelles turn black This indicates the presence of starch inside the organelles (these are storage vacuoles)

Once you have an understanding of the main chemicals that cells are made from, you need to realize that all of these substances, or their raw materials or waste products, are constantly moving in or out of a living cell.

These other molecules have various functions: receptors for messenger chemicals. identification markers, so your body knows its own cells from any foreign invaders. to help chemicals get through the membrane. 9

TO DO THIS CHEMICALS MUST CROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE


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How Chemicals Pass Through Membranes


The cell membrane as the boundary of a cell is a bit like growing a plant hedge as the boundary of a field. It stops the cows and horses getting out, but a mouse, or a lizard, can easily crawl through it. Similarly, a membrane is semi-permeable; it prevents most (especially large) molecules getting through, but allows others to pass through easily. Small molecules like water (H2O), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) pass freely through the membrane like a lizard through a hedge. To understand how this happens, you must learn about the processes of DIFFUSION & OSMOSIS.

Diffusion
Diffusion occurs in every liquid or gas because the atoms and molecules are constantly moving. The particles jiggle about at random in what is called Brownian motion. (Named for its discoverer Robert Brown, the same man who discovered the cell nucleus.) Imagine a water solution containing a dissolved chemical, but it is NOT evenly distributed... it is more concentrated in one place than elsewhere. As the molecules jiggle about at random, they will automatically spread out to make the concentration even out. This process is called DIFFUSION.
High concentration To start with, the dissolved material is not evenly distributed.

In a living cell, there is often a concentration gradient from the outside to the inside of the cell. For example, because a cell keeps consuming oxygen for cellular respiration, the inside of the cell usually has a low concentration of O2 dissolved in the water of the cytoplasm. On the outside, there may be a lot of O2.
DIFFUSION of SMALL MOLECULES into a CELL If the molecules can cross the membrane, diffusion will cause them to move from higher to lower concentration. Higher concentration outside cell Lower concentration inside

Lower concentration Diffusion causes the dissolved solute to spread out uniformly.

Equal concentration throughout

DIFFUSION DRIVES MOLECULES THROUGH THE MEMBRANES along the concentration gradient.

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Osmosis
Osmosis is a special case of diffusion, which occurs when the concentration gradient involves dissolved molecules or ions which CANNOT get through the membrane. For example, consider a cell which is The opposite situation can also happen. surrounded by a solution containing a lot A cells cytoplasm contains many of dissolved sugar. The sugar cannot dissolved chemicals. If the outside diffuse through the membrane to equalize environment around the cell is more the concentrations. In such a situation, watery (less concentrated in dissolved water (which can go through the substances) then osmosis will cause membrane) will diffuse toward the high water to diffuse inwards. H2O Dissolved chemicals sugar concentration, as if attempting to H2O cannot diffuse out... equalize by diluting the sugar. OSMOSIS
High concentration of sugar outside cell Water diffuses OUT of cell

H2O H2O

H2O Sugar cannot get in through the membrane ...so water diffuses into the cell. H2O

In this case, the cell will lose water and might shrink and shrivel up. This can be a problem for animals living in salt water.

This is how plants absorb water into their roots, even when the soil seems almost dry.

This can cause cells to pump up with water and helps maintain their shape. It can also cause problems for organisms living in fresh water environments.

Comparison of Diffusion and Osmosis


Diffusion is the movement of dissolved chemicals from an area of higher concentration toward a lower concentration area. The movement follows the concentration gradient of the molecules in question. Osmosis is a special case of diffusion. It is the diffusion of WATER through a semi-permeable membrane, against the concentration gradient of solutes. It occurs when the solutes cannot penetrate the membrane, but the water can. Other Ways Substances Get Through Membranes
Diffusion and Osmosis are vitally important for many chemicals (especially water) to get in and out of cells. Diffusion and osmosis happen automatically and without the cell having to use any energy. We say these are passive transport processes. What about all the other important chemicals which cannot get through the membrane? Many proteins, carbohydrates and other molecules regularly move into or out of cells. How do they get in or out?
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Cells have other ways to deliberately move substances across the membrane apart from diffusion and osmosis. One such process involves the membrane proteins carrying things. These other ways to transport materials across membranes require the cell to use energy (ATP from cellular respiration) to move substances. We say these are active transport processes. You do not need to know the details at this stage. 11

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The Importance of the Surface Area to Volume Ratio


Why are cells so small? The answer requires a mathematical study... Consider this series of cubes of increasing size:
3 unit sides 4 unit sides

1 unit sides

2 unit sides

Surface Area: Six squares, each 1x1 SA = 6x1x1 = 6 sq.units Volume = lxbxh = 1x1x1 = 1 cu.unit Ratio of SA to Volume SA/V = 6 / 1

Surface Area: Six squares, each 2x2 SA = 6x2x2 = 24 sq.units Volume = lxbxh = 2x2x2 = 8 cu.unit Ratio of SA to Volume SA/V = 24 / 8

Surface Area: Six squares, each 3x3 SA = 6x3x3 = 54 sq.units Volume = lxbxh = 3x3x3 = 27 cu.unit Ratio of SA to Volume SA/V = 54 / 27

Surface Area: Six squares, each 4x4 SA = 6x4x4 = 96 sq.units Volume = lxbxh = 4x4x4 = 64 cu.unit Ratio of SA to Volume SA/V = 96 / 64

SA = 6 vol

SA = 3 vol

SA = 2 vol

SA = 1.5 vol

Notice that as the cubes get larger: Surface Area increases, and... Volume increases, but... SA / Vol Ratio DECREASES, because the volume grows faster than the surface area. This pattern is the same for any shape... as any shaped object gets bigger, the ratio between its Surface Area and its Volume gets smaller. Whats this got to do with cells? The amount of food, oxygen or other substances a cell needs depends on its volume... the bigger the cell, the more it needs according to its volume.

But, all cells have to get whatever they need in through their cell membrane, and the size of the membrane is all about surface area. As any cell gets bigger, it becomes more and more difficult for it to get enough food, water and oxygen because its SA/Vol. ratio keeps shrinking. Getting rid of waste products also becomes more difficult. Large cells are impossible... all singlecelled organisms are microscopic, and all larger organisms are multi-cellular. The only way to be big is to have lots of small cells. Cells must feed their Volume, through their Surface Area

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Worksheet 2

Chemicals & The Cell Membrane

Fill in the blank spaces.


Simple, small molecules and ions (e.g. water, nitrate) are known as (a)........................ compounds, as opposed to organic compounds which are based on the element (b)................, and include: (c)............................... which are polymers of amino acids Lipids, which are found structurally in the cell (d)...................................... and are also used as (e)................................ .......................................... (f)......................................... which include the sugars & starches. One of this group, glucose, has chemical formula (g).............................. and is the food made during the process of (h)................................... It is also the fuel for (i)..................................... (organelle) to make ATP. Nucleic acids, of which (j).................... is the best known. If Benedicts solution turns from blue to yellow, this proves that (k)....................................... is present. Protein can be identified by (l).................................... reagent, and if starch is present iodine solution will turn from (m) .................... to (n)....................... The cell membrane is made from a double layer of (o)...................................... molecules, with various proteins embedded. The membrane is said to be semi(p)........................................ Diffusion is a process where molecules move from a place of (q)............................ concentration, towards a (r)...................... concentration. Osmosis is the diffusion of (s).......................... molecules only, against the solute concentration (t)........................., when the solute is unable to get through a membrane. Diffusion & Osmosis are both examples of (u)................................. transport, because the cell does not need to use (v).............................. to make things move. As any shape gets larger, its (w)......................................... ratio gets smaller. This is why all cells are small. A large cell needs chemicals in proportion to its x).............................................. However, it must get substances in through its y)............................................, the size of which is measured by its z)............................ ..................................... The only way for living things to be large, is to have aa).................................... cells, NOT by having ab)............................ cells.
WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

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Worksheet 3 Practice Questions (Sections 1 & 2)


Multiple Choice
1. The man credited with the discovery of the cell nucleus was: A.Robert Hooke. B. Anton van Leeuwenhoek. C. Robert Brown. D. Louise Pasteur. 2. The organelle least likely to be seen with a light microscope is: A. Mitochondrion. B. Vacuole. C. Nucleus. D. Chloroplast. 3. The cell structure never found in an animal cell is: A. cell membrane. B. cell wall. C. endoplasmic reticulum. D. golgi body. 4. The function of the ribosomes can be described as: A. storage of genetic information. B production of ATP. C. packaging of substances for secretion. D. manufacture of proteins. 5. Starch, glycogen and cellulose are all: A. proteins, composed of amino acids. B. nucleic acids, related to DNA & RNA. C. sugars, of the carbohydrate group. D. polymers of glucose. 6. The diagram shows a cell surrounded by a solution which has a high concentration of large molecules. You might expect: A. solute molecules to diffuse into the cell. B. water to diffuse into the cell. C. water to diffuse out of the cell. D. solute molecules to diffuse out of the cell. 7. A brick was smashed into smaller pieces with a hammer. It would be true to say that all the brick pieces, when compared to the original brick, have: A. larger total volume. B. larger SA/Vol ratio. C. smaller total surface area. D. smaller SA/Vol ratio.
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8. A food substance, which may be a mixture of various organic chemicals, was tested with the following results: Iodine solution gave a yellow, brown colour. Biuret reagent gave a purple colour. Benedicts reagent resulted in a pale blue colour. From these results you would conclude that the food contains: A. protein, but no starch or sugar. B. starch, but no protein or sugar. C. sugar and protein, but no starch. D. sugar and starch, but no protein.

Longer Response Questions


Mark values given are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. 9. (3 marks) Compare the light microscope to the electron microscope in terms of how each forms an image, the magnification, and the resolution of each.

10. (2 marks) Using either the nucleus or mitochondrion as your example, discuss the way that the structure of the organelle relates to its function.

11. (4 marks) Using examples, discuss the difference between the organic & inorganic chemicals found in living cells.

12 (2 marks) The cell membrane is described as being semipermeable. Explain what this means.

13. (4 marks) Compare the processes of diffusion and osmosis, identifying what substances are involved and the direction of movement (compared to any concentration gradient)

14. (4 marks) Explain why all living cells have to be very small in size.

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3. NUTRITION IN PLANTS & ANIMALS


Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
An autotroph is an organism that makes its own food. All plants are autotrophic, making their own food by photosynthesis. Any organism that cannot make its own food must be a heterotroph. All animals are heterotrophic, and so are the fungi and most bacteria. A heterotrophic animal eats plants or other animals which have eaten plants, and so on according to the food chain involved.

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration


You will have noticed that these two vital processes, when written as summary equations, are exact opposites.
Light energy

Photosynthesis in Plants
All plants make their own food from the simple, low-energy raw materials water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) using the energy of sunlight, to make the high-energy sugar glucose (C6H12O6), with oxygen gas (O2) as a by-product.
green pigment in chloroplasts of plant cells

CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER

CHLOROPLAST - site of photosynthesis

GLUCOSE + OXYGEN

ligh te ner gy

ATP

MITOCHONDRIA - site of cellular respiration

WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE

chlorophyll

GLUCOSE + OXYGEN

from soil

from air

highenergy sugar (food)

to air

What is really happening is ENERGY FLOW through the food chains of an ecosystem. Photosynthesis captures the energy of light and stores it in a high energy food compound like glucose. Cellular respiration releases that stored energy in the form of ATP which can power all cellular and life activities... growing, moving, keeping warm etc. As you learned in Topic 1, in all ecosystems there is a constant input and flow of energy via the food chains, while the chemicals such as H2O, O2, and CO2 simply get re-cycled over and over.

6H2O

6CO2

C6H12O6

6O2

This brief summary equation is very deceptive. Photosynthesis actually occurs as a complex series of chemical steps inside the chloroplast. There are 2 main stages, which take place in different parts of the chloroplast, as summarized below. PHOTOSYNTHESIS in the CHLOROPLAST
ligh t

The Most Important Process on Earth


Photosynthesis makes all the food on Earth, for all the food chains. It also makes all the oxygen in the atmosphere for us animals to breathe. For these two reasons, photosynthesis has to be the most important biological process on the planet.

Phase 1 In the grana, chlorophyll absorbs light energy and uses it to split water into hydrogen and oxygen

Phase 2 In the stroma, a cycle of reactions builds glucose from CO2 and the hydrogen from water

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What Happens to Glucose in a Plant?


If photosynthesis only makes glucose, where do all the other biological chemicals in a plant come from? Glucose is a monosaccharide sugar, a member of the carbohydrate group. It is easy for a plant to convert glucose into other types of carbohydrate.
GLUCOSE molecules
joined in pairs Other sugars, such as sucrose

Glucose can also be converted chemically into lipids... fats and oils, since they contain exactly the same chemical elements (carbon, hydrogen & oxygen only - CHO). GLUCOSE LIPIDS (oils)

Making proteins and nucleic acids is more difficult, since these contain additional chemical elements, especially nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. This is where the minerals such as nitrate, phosphate and sulfate come in. Soil minerals are often called plant nutrients, and a gardener may say he/she is feeding the plants when applying fertilizer, but these minerals are NOT food. They are the essential ingredients needed so plants can make proteins and DNA etc, from the real food... glucose.

In fact, plants convert glucose to STARCH so rapidly that the chloroplasts in a plant leaf become packed with starch grains when it is photosynthesising. THIS IS THE BASIS OF EXPERIMENTS YOU MAY HAVE DONE

Lig ht

Experimental Set-u up

After several days, the leaf is decolourized (so the test can be seen more easily) and then tested with IODINE solution. Why Iodine? It detects STARCH, not glucose. As explained above, the glucose produced by photosynthesis is immediately converted to starch. The iodine test is used because it is the test for starch.
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s 00 n) 10 tio in risa ed e in m jo oly (p

CELLULOSE for building new cell walls

STARCH for storage of food

nitrate, sulfate etc

Soil minerals

Amino acids

PROTEIN

GLUCOSE

chemical conversion

Polymerisation

Experiments with Photosynthesis


The classic experiment you have probably done, is to partly cover a leaf with light-proof aluminium foil, and then expose it to light for several days. The aim is to prove that light is necessary for photosynthesis.
No light, no starch

Alu min ium foil

Result
Iodine test shows lots of starch here

Sure enough, you probably found that any part of the leaf exposed to light turned black when soaked in iodine, while parts under the foil did not go black. This proves that any part of a leaf allowed to photosynthesise will build up a store of starch from the glucose it makes. The first product of photosynthesis is glucose, but it is rapidly converted to other things. 16

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Structure & Function... How Plants Get Water & Carbon Dioxide
In order to photosynthesise, plants must collect water and carbon dioxide. In a land plant, water is collected by the roots from the soil, and carbon dioxide is collected from the air into the leaves. Both roots and leaves require special structures to gather these vital chemicals. Plants Absorb Water through special outgrowths on the roots called root hairs. Each root hair is part of one, very elongated cell. Root hairs help absorption of water by greatly increasing the surface area of the root in contact with the soil.
MICROSCOPIC VIEW NEAR A ROOT TIP LONGITUDINAL TRANSVERSE SECTION SECTION
XYLEM TUBES

The actual absorption of water is achieved by osmosis. The cell cytoplasm has a higher solute concentration than the water solution in the soil, so water diffuses into the cell through the cell membrane of the root hair cells. Once absorbed into the root hair cells, water diffuses from cell to cell towards the central xylem tubes which carry the water (and dissolved minerals) upwards to the leaves. This upward flow is achieved by the plant constantly allowing water vapour to evaporate from each leaf (Transpiration). This creates a suction at the top of the xylem tube, rather like drinking through a straw. Alongside the xylem tubes are the phloem tubes which carry food from the leaves to any part of the plant which cannot photosynthesize... especially down to the roots. Together the xylem and phloem tubes form the veins in a plant. They not only carry substances around the plant, but are important as reinforcement and support structures.

Phloem tubes

Outgrowths from epidermis cells

ROOT HAIRS

Epidermis layer

The Importance of Surface Area


It is generally true of many processes such as absorption and chemical reactions, that the greater the surface area, the faster the rate of the process. You may have done a simple experiment similar to this:Same quantity of solid calcium carbonate on each spoon Lumps Powder Both lumps and powder react with acid in exactly the same way, but you would observe that the powder reacts faster. Same quantity of same strength acid

The more finely divided a solid is, the greater its surface area, so the powder has more surface area than the lumps. This experiment demonstrates the principle that things happen faster when more surface area is available for reaction or absorption.

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The Structure of the Leaf


A plant leaf is a factory for photosynthesis. A typical leaf is built so that every part of its design is suited to the achievement of that one objective... making food. It is a classic case of Structure matches Function.
A leaf is generally broad, flat and thin. This gives it maximum surface area for absorbing light and carbon dioxide from the air. A leaf is thin enough that light penetrates to reach each layer of cells within, for maximum photosynthesis. The cuticle is a layer of clear, waxy material. It allows light through, but is waterproof to prevent excessive water loss.

The veins contain xylem tubes for carrying water and minerals up from the roots, and phloem tubes for carrying manufactured food away. Being specially reinforced with tough lignin, the veins also support the flimsy leaf, and keep it in shape and positioned to catch maximum light.

The Palisade Layer of cells are tightly packed in an orderly row immediately under the top epidermis where there is maximum light. Each cell contains many chloroplasts. This is the engine room for photosynthesis.

MICROSCOPIC CROSS SECTION THROUGH A LEAF

The epidermis layer of cells is transparent like a window, to let light through to the cells underneath. Veins run throughout each leaf. The xylem tubes bring water and minerals from the roots and release them into the spongy layer. From there, some diffuses into the cells for photosynthesis, while the rest evaporates through the stomates. There are phloem tubes as well, which collect the food manufactured in the leaf cells and carry it away to feed other parts of the plant, such as roots, stem and flowers which might not be able to photosynthesise. Veins also act as reinforcing, helping to keep the flimsy leaf deployed to catch maximum light.

The Spongy Layer has very loosely packed cells, with lots of spaces around them. This allows gases (CO2 & O2) and water to easily move around by diffusion. The lower leaf surface has many openings, called stomates. These allow: water to evaporate from the leaf (Transpiration). This ensures that water and minerals continue to be sucked up from the roots. CO2 to diffuse into the leaf for photosynthesis. O2 to diffuse out of the leaf into the air. A magnified surface view of a stomate is shown.
magnified and rotated to surface view

Each stomate pore is an opening formed between two special guard cells. These cells can change shape to open the pore, or close it up to minimize water loss in dry conditions. The guard cells change shape by using osmosis to either pump-up full of water (pore open), or deflate and shrivel (pore closed).

Pore opening

SURFACE VIEW OF A STOMATE

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Nutrition in Animals
Animals are Heterotrophs. They must eat energy-rich food made by other organisms, either plants or other animals. The food an animal eats is composed largely of complex carbohydrates, proteins and fats which must be digested before being absorbed into the body and used by the cells. Digestion involves chemically breaking large molecules down into smaller units which can be carried around the body and transported across cell membranes.
Starch molecule
ENZYME

Sugar molecules

ENZYME

Protein molecule

Amino acid molecules

HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Chewing the food begins the digestion process. Chewing breaks food into smaller pieces with greater surface area, so digestive enzymes can attack it faster.

Salivary Glands. An enzyme in saliva begins digesting starch.

Oesophagus carries food to the stomach.

Liver receives and processes digested nutrients after they are absorbed into blood stream. Gall bladder adds bile to dissolve fats so enzymes can digest them. Small Intestine completes digestion with a cocktail of enzymes, then absorbs nutrients into the blood stream. Inside, it has many folds or villi which increase surface area for absorption.

Stomach churns food with acid. Enzymes digest proteins in food Pancreas adds a cocktail of enzymes to futher digest food Large Intestine absorbs water, vitamins & minerals into blood stream.

Caecum & Appendix have no special functions in humans


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Rectum stores undigested wastes (faeces) for later elimination.

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Different Animals Have Different Systems


The digestive systems of different animals are often quite similar, but certainly not identical. Once again, the principle of structure matches function can be noticed.

Digestion in Herbivores
Plant-eaters face a problem... a lot of plant material has a low nutrient value and contains a lot of fibrous matter which is difficult to digest. The fibre is mostly the plant cell walls, made of cellulose... a polymer of glucose, but animals lack the necessary digestive enzymes to break the cellulose down. Herbivores usually have: flat, grinding teeth to chew the food thoroughly to increase the surface area exposed to enzymes. relatively long intestines and caecum, for more surface area and longer time available for digestion. bacteria living in their gut which have enzymes to digest cellulose. This is an example of mutualism.
Huge Caecum

Digestion in Carnivores
Flesh eaters dont need such huge digestive systems. Their food is much more concentrated in its nutritional value, and relatively easy to digest. Carnivores usually have: sharp, tearing teeth to cut flesh into chunks for swallowing... chewing is not so important. relatively short intestines. a highly elastic stomach, which allows them to swallow a large meal. The stomach acid and enzymes are vital for digesting their high protein meat diet.

Tearing teeth Stomach more important

Shorter intestines

Grinding teeth

Stomach Long Small Intestine Long Large Intestine

Digestion in a Nectar Feeder


Some animals eat a diet that requires very little digestion at all. Many birds (eg honey-eaters, humming birds) and insects (eg butterflies) feed largely on the sugary nectar of flowers. Sugar does not require any digestion at all, so their digestive system can be very short and simple. A short-lived butterfly only needs nectar for the energy its sugar supplies, but a bird needs more nutrients. Most eat the plant pollen which is rich in protein and oil. Therefore, their short little digestive system does need to do some work, apart from simply absorbing sugar.
Nectar & Pollen feeding lorikeet

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Worksheet 4
Fill in the blanks.

Nutrition in Plants

Amino acids can then be joined together to form (p).................................. The structures mainly responsible for absorbing water into a plant are the (q)....................................... which are outgrowths of root cells and greatly increase the (r)........................................ of the roots. Water is absorbed by the process of (s)............................................ then transported up to the leaves through (t).................................. tubes. In a leaf, there are many examples of structure matching function, such as: The shape of the leaf gives maximum surface area for (u).................................... The (v)................................................ layer of cells, packed together & full of chloroplasts for maximum photosynthesis. The spongy layer of loosely packed cells to allow (w)........................................ The (x)..................................... which can open and close and allow water to evaporate (called (y)............................) and to let the gas (z).................................. in for photosynthesis. Digested nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream from the (f)........................., then carried in the blood to the (g)........................... for processing. Herbivorous animals usually have: (h)...................... teeth to chew thoroughly relatively (i)........... intestines and caecum mutualistic (j).................... living in their gut to help them digest (k)........................... which is a major part of their diet. Compared to them, carnivores usually have (l).......................... teeth and relatively (m)............................ intestines Nectar feeders, such as (n)....................... have digestive systems which are very (o).......................... and .........................
21

(a)....................................... (e.g. plants) are organisms that can make their own food, while (b)................................ (such as animals) cannot. The process of photosynthesis can be summarized as (c)................. + (d).................................... (e).................. + (f)..................... Photosynthesis occurs in the (g)................................ (organelle) in plant cells. The green pigment (h).................... absorbs (i)...................... energy for the process. This energy is stored as chemical energy in the (j)................................. molecules produced. Thousands of glucose molecules can be joined together by the process of (k)..................... to form (l).......................... (used for storage) or cellulose which is used to build (m)..................................... Glucose can also be chemically converted into (n).................................. To convert sugar to amino acids, the plant needs a supply of (o)...........................................

Worksheet 5 Nutrition in Animals


Fill in the blanks Animals have to digest the food they eat. This is carried out by digestive (a)............................ which, for example, break starch into (b)........................... and proteins into (c)........................................ There are 4 organs in the mammal digestive system that produce digestive enzymes. Name them all. (d)........................., ................................ ........................... and ............................... Digestion begins with chewing food which increases the (e)............................. of the food, so enzymes can attack it faster.
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Worksheet 6 Practice Questions (Section 3)


Multiple Choice
1. The chemical raw materials needed for photosynthesis are: A. glucose and oxygen. B. water and carbon dioxide. C. carbon dioxide and oxygen. D. water and glucose. 2. The chemical ATP is best described as: A. the carrier of genetic information. B. the product of cellular respiration. C. the absorber of light for photosynthesis. D. a waste product from the mitochondria. The following sketch shows a cross-section through a leaf. Use the diagram for Q. 3 & 4
P Q R T S

Longer Response Questions


Mark values given are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer in the spaces provided. 8. (2 marks) Differentiate between autotrophs & heterotrophs, including examples in your answer.

9. (5 marks) a) Summarize the process of photosynthesis by a word equation, including the energy source.

b) Give two reasons why photosynthesis can be considered the most important biological process on Earth.

3. A structural feature which helps the functioning of the leaf is that the cells at P: A. are transparent B. are loosely packed C. contain many chloroplasts D. open up to let gases in/out 4. The guard cells are labeled A. Q B. R C. S D. T 5. Soil minerals such as nitrates, phosphates and sulfates are essential to a plant for which purpose? A. To provide energy. B. To make starch from glucose. C. As raw materials for photosynthesis. D. To make proteins from glucose. 6. In a mammalian digestive system, the main chemical digestion in the stomach involves the breakdown of: A. starch. B. protein. C. lipids. D. sugars. 7. An animal with large, flat, grinding teeth and a very large caecum (a blind pocket of the intestine) probably eats mainly: A. nectar, pollen and flowers. B. the flesh of other animals. C. plant leaves and grass. D. fish & other seafood.
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10. ( 5 marks) In experiments on photosynthesis, the presence of starch in leaves is often taken as proof that photosynthesis has taken place. a) Explain why it is starch, not glucose, that the leaves are tested for.

b) Outline the method of testing for starch in a leaf, including any preliminary treatment(s).

11. (4 marks) Discuss the relationship between structure and function shown by the leaf cell layers known as the palisade layer & the spongy layer.

12. (3 marks) Briefly outline how the length and complexity of an animals digestive system is related to its diet. Refer to 3 different types of diets in your answer.

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4. GAS EXCHANGE & INTERNAL TRANSPORT


Organisms Need What Cells Need
Every living cell, plant or animal, has certain requirements:FOOD in WATER in OXYGEN in

Gas Exchange in Animals


There are many ways that animals carry out gas exchange. This section will compare four different systems... mammal, frog, fish and insect.

Lungs in a Mammal
Using the human as a typical example: Lungs are not hollow, but sponge-l like
WASTE PRODUCTS such as CO2 must be excreted

HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

A single-celled organism exchanges these chemicals with the environment directly through its cell membrane. However, in all multicellular organisms most of the cells are located deep within the body. There have to be body systems to: absorb nutrients, water and oxygen excrete wastes transport all these chemicals between the cells and the environment. In animals the body systems involved are: Digestive system absorbs nutrients and water. Respiratory system (e.g. lungs) exchanges gases, absorbing oxygen, and excreting carbon dioxide. Excretory system (kidneys) removes other wastes such as urea. Circulatory system (blood, heart, veins etc) transports all these things around the body. Plants also have systems for exchanging gases, and for transporting substances around their bodies.

Each bronchus sub-d divides into Bronchioles


Each bronchiole ends in a cluster of tiny air sacs... the Alveoli

Trachea (Windpipe) Bronchi (sing: bronchus) carry air to each lung

Each Alveolus has a wall just 1 cell thick, and the internal surface is kept moist
Blood flow AIR flows in and out

Blood capillary

Bronchiole

O2 CO2

Requirements for Gas Exchange


Plant or animal, large or small, all organisms need to exchange gases with their environment. Efficient gas exchange requires: a large surface area in contact with the environment. a moist gas exchange membrane because the gases must dissolve in water before passing through the membrane by diffusion. close contact with the blood supply (or other transport system) to carry gases between cells and the gas exchange organs.
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The lung is not just a hollow space like a balloon. If it was, the surface area for gas exchange would be about the size of this page. By dividing into millions of alveoli, the total surface area inside your lungs is about the same size as a tennis court! The inside surface is always moist, for gases to dissolve and diffuse, and each alveolus is in intimate contact with a blood capillary to transport the gases to and from the body cells.

The requirements for efficient gas exchange have been met.


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Gas Exchange in a Frog


Amphibians hatch from their egg as tadpoles which live in water and breathe with gills. Later they undergo metamorphosis and develop into the adult form which breathes with lungs. However, a frogs lungs are much simpler than a mammals, and dont have as many alveoli. Doesnt this mean less surface area and less efficiency? Yes, but a cold-blooded frog doesnt need to carry out cellular respiration just to make body heat the way mammals do. So the need for O2 intake is a lot less. Also, the frog doesnt just do gas exchange in its lungs...
FROG RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Simple Lung

Gas Exchange in a Fish


Land-dwelling, air-breathing animals always must have their gas exchange organs inside their bodies so the moist membranes wont dry out. In water this cant happen, so a fishs gills are exposed to the water environment, but shielded by a tough gill cover to protect the delicate breathing organs.
Gases are dissolved in the water Water in under gill cover

FISH BREATHE WITH GILLS


Water out

Gills

The gills are a series of feather-like plates around which the water flows. Each gill plate consists of thousands of tiny filaments each one a thin leafshaped structure packed with blood capillaries.
BLOOD FLOW IN CAPILLARIES

WATER FLOW

Mouth and throat cavity are moist & lined with blood vessels

Moist Skin also acts as a gas exchange surface

The frog makes up for its inefficient lungs by carrying out gas exchange through other body surfaces which are kept moist and are lined with blood vessels... its mouth and throat cavity and the skin all over its body.

Blood flow

WATER FLOWS ACROSS & BETWEEN FILAMENTS

GILL FILAMENTS

Gills have to be highly efficient, because remember from Topic 1, that the level of oxygen dissolved in aquatic environments is much lower than the concentration in air.

Gas Exchange in an Insect


Insects dont have lungs or gills. Along the sides of their bodies is a series of holes called spiracles. Each spiracle allows air to move into a network of tubes (trachea) which infiltrate their whole body.
Spiracles

This system is quite efficient in a small animal, but rapidly becomes inadequate as the animal grows larger, because the Surface Area to Volume Ratio gets smaller. Thats why theres no such thing as a really big bug! Hollywood fantasies cannot actually happen.
Study each system again... mammal, frog, insect, fish and note of how each system achieves the three essential features of any gas exchange system... LARGE SURFACE AREA MOIST MEMBRANE SURFACE for diffusion CLOSE CONTACT WITH BLOOD STREAM or body cells.

Trachea The trachea tubes are moist inside for gas exchange. Gases diffuse directly to the body cells, which are never far from a trachea tube. The network of tubes increases the surface area for gas exchange.

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Internal Transport in Animals


Once nutrients and gases have been absorbed into the body, they need to be transported to every body cell. In animals this is the job of the Circulatory System, consisting of the heart, blood vessels and the blood itself. Once again, different types of animals have all sorts of variations, but in this section only a broad comparison between two general types of system will be made.

Open Circulation Systems


Invertebrate animals (including insects, worms & snails) have much simpler circulatory systems in which the blood (or a fluid doing the same job) does not always stay inside a blood vessel.
OPEN CIRCULATION IN AN INSECT Schematic diagram Arteries Circulatory fluid flows out of blood vessels

Closed Circulation Systems


All vertebrate animals (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) have a blood system that is closed... the blood is always flowing inside a blood vessel, pumped around by the heart.
CLOSED CIRCULATION IN A MAMMAL Schematic Diagram Alveoli (air sacs) in lungs Artery Capillary network in Lungs Vein Heart pumps blood fluid

Blood fluid flows directly among body cells

CO2

O2

Veins Fluid slowly collects back into veins. Wastes (but not CO2) are taken away for excretion, and blood returns to the heart.

Arteries

Veins

HEART pumps blood

The open system is not very efficient, because the blood is not forced to keep flowing through blood vessels as in a closed system. However, in a small insect, with its separate gas exchange system which is not dependent on blood flow, this is obviously quite adequate... after all, insects are the most numerous animals on the planet!

Capillary network in body

Body cells receive O2 & nutrients, and get rid of CO2 & other wastes

This system is highly efficient because the blood can be kept flowing within the vessels, guaranteeing a steady flow of nutrients, gases and wastes between body cells and the outside environment. This efficiency allows vertebrates to grow very large and still function perfectly despite the poor SA/Vol ratio of a large body. Be aware that fish, amphibians and most reptiles do not have a system quite the same as a mammal, but in all cases the system is closed.
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Internal Transport in Plants


Plants have two separate systems for transporting substances inside their bodies...

Xylem

tubes carry water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves.
Hollow, dead cells, joined end-t to-e end forming a tube

Phloem
Plants have a separate set of tubes for transporting sugars and other food nutrients; the phloem tubes. While the xylem tubes are formed from dead cells, the phloem are living cells joined end-to-end. The ends of each cell are perforated (sieve plates) so each cell is open into the next so they form a continuous tube. The movement of food via the phloem is called Translocation. It is an active transport operation, meaning that the plant has to use energy to cause the material to flow.
PHLOEM CELL
sugars are actively transported in the cytoplasm of the cells

Cell walls re-i inforced with rings and spirals of lignin

alive and filled with cytoplasm. Movement of cytoplasm carries sugars through each cell

The upward movement of water in xylem tubes happens without any effort by the plant... it is passive transport. The evaporation of water from the leaves through the stomates, (Transpiration) causes a suction effect at the top of each xylem tube. This draws more water from the roots.

Sieve plate between cells

Rate of Transpiration
You may have done experiments on transpiration to measure it, and the factors which affect its rate. A common way to do this is with a potometer:POTOMETER METHOD FOR MEASURING TRANSPIRATION Fresh plant shoots
The flow of liquid is caused by differences in osmotic pressure has many mitochondria to provide ATP to the phloem cell

Companion cell

Ruler measures movement of air bubble in tube

A companion cell beside the phloem cell supplies ATP from cellular respiration to power the active transport in the phloem tube.
Rubber tube (filled with water) connects glass tube to live plant shoot

Glass tube filled with water. As Transpiration occurs from the leaves and sucks water up from below, an air bubble is sucked in at the end of the tube. A ruler gives a scale to measure rates of transpiration under different conditions.

While the xylem is a one-way flow system, the phloem system can carry food (especially sugars) in either direction. If a lot of photosynthesis is occurring, the phloem will carry sugar to storage sites in roots or stem. If photosynthesis is not possible for an extended time, then the phloem will carry sugars back from the storage sites to feed the leaf cells, or supply a growing flower or fruit.

Typically it is found that the rate of transpiration is increased by higher temperatures, air flow (wind), low humidity and increased light. (The effect of light is because when lit, most plants open their stomates to get CO2 in for photosynthesis. The open stomates then allow more transpiration.)
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Gas Exchange in Plants


The structure and functioning of the leaf stomates was covered earlier. What about other parts of a plant?

The Use of Radio-isotopes to Study Transport Systems


The atoms of each chemical element are not all exactly the same. They have the same number of protons & electrons (thats what makes them that element), but the number of neutrons in the atom may vary. Such atoms of the same element, but with a different number of neutrons, are called isotopes. Some isotopes are radioactive and give off nuclear radiations... hence radio-isotopes. The radiation they give off can be detected by photographic paper or special instruments such as the Geiger counter. If a radio-isotope is introduced into a plant or animal, its transport through the body can be followed by monitoring the radiation the isotope emits. This tracer technique is one of the more important methods used to study the movement of substances in living things. This is how a lot of our knowledge of transport systems has been discovered.

Lenticels
are simple structures on the stems and trucks of plants which allow gas exchange to the cells by simple diffusion from the air.
Tightly packed stem cells Surface cells

Lenticel opening

Loosely packed cells allow gases to diffuse in and out

Root Hairs were covered earlier in connection


with water absorption. Because they increase the surface area of the roots, root hairs are important for gas exchange as well as water absorption. Oxygen in soil spaces, or dissolved in soil water simply diffuses into the root hair cells, and spreads to other root cells by further diffusion.

For example: If a leaf is exposed to CO2 containing carbon-14 (a radio-active isotope of carbon):
Radioactive CO2 absorbed by leaf Soon, radiation is detected in starch grains in leaf cells.

Next, radiation is found in sugars in phloem tubes Later, its here

From studies like this we learn the details of the chemistry and transport systems inside living things

Later still, the radiation is detected in starch stored here

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Worksheet 7

Gas Exchange & Transport in Animals


Insects have a series of holes called (k).................................. along their body which lead into a network of tubes called (l)................................ This works OK for small insects, but means no insect can ever be really large because its (m)........................................... ratio would be too small for sufficient gas exchange. In a fishs (n)........... there are thousands of leaf-shaped (o)..................... around which water flows. In each filament are blood capillaries in which blood always flows (p)............................ to the water flow. This (q)...................................... current flow is much more efficient. In a (r).................................... circulatory system the blood is always inside blood vessels, and kept circulating by the pumping of the (s)...................................... (t)......................................... animals have open circulatory systems in which the blood leaves the blood vessels and flows directly in contact with the body cells.

Fill in the blank spaces & diagram labels. The 3 requirements for an efficient Gas Exchange system are: large (a)................................................... gas exchange membrane which is kept (b).............................. close contact with (c)....................... ...... In any gas exchange system, the gases move across the membrane by the process of (d)...........................................
(e)............................. (g)..................................... .. (h)........................ (microscopic air sacs) (f) ............................

Compared to a mammals lung, the lung of a frog is (i)......................... Frogs exchange gases through their (j)......................... and ............................... as well as lungs.

Worksheet 8
Fill in the blanks

Gas Exchange & Transport in Plants

Gases exchange in a plant occurs through the (a).................................... of the leaves, and via the (b).............................. of stems, and the (c)............................. in the roots. Xylem tubes carry (d)................................ and ........................ from (e)....................... to (f).............................. The evaporation of water from the leaves is called (g)....................................
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It is increased by factors such as (h)........................... and (i)........................ Food nutrients are carried by the (j)......................................... tubes. This transport is called (k)................................ and is considered active transport because (l)................................................. .............................. In contrast, xylem transport is (m)..................................................
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Worksheet 9 Practice Questions (Section 4)


Multiple Choice
1. Which of the following is NOT an essential feature of a gas exchange system? A. Close contact with the blood supply. B. Large surface area. C. Strong protective shielding. D. Moist membrane. 2. An animals respiratory system consists of a series of holes along the body which allow air to circulate into a network of tiny tubes throughout the tissues. This animal is probably a/an: A. insect. B. frog. C. fish. D. reptile. 3. A plant would probably show the lowest rate of transpiration under conditions of: A. hot & windy. B. bright light & low humidity. C. hot & bright light. D. high humidity & cool. 4. Which of the following correctly gives a structural feature and a functional feature of xylem tubes? A. living cells which transport water B. reinforced with lignin, carry out passive transport C. dead, hollow cells, carrying food nutrients D. cells filled with cytoplasm, carrying out active transport 6.(3 marks) Explain the roles of the respiratory, excretory and circulatory systems of a mammal, and any connection between them.

7. (4 marks) One of the main features of any respiratory system is a large surface area for gas exchange. Outline how a large surface is achieved in a a) mammal

b) frog

c) fish

d) insect

8. (4 marks) Using simple schematic diagrams, contrast the circulatory systems of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Answer on reverse. 9. (4 marks) a) Identify THREE structures in a plant which are involved in gas exchange.

Longer Response Questions


Mark values given are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer in the spaces provided. 5. (6 marks) Contrast the processes of Transpiration and Translocation in a plant, including a) the substances transported

b) Choose ONE of the structures listed in part (a) and describe one feature of it which aids gas exchange in the plant.

b) the plant tissues involved

10. (4 marks) Outline the way in which technology, such as radio-isotope tracing is used to study the path of elements through a living plant or animal.

c) the basic mechanism of transport involved.

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5. CELL DIVISION FOR GROWTH & REPAIR


The Need For Cell Division
Single-celled organisms reproduce by simply dividing in two. In a multicellular plant or animal cell division is vital for growth. Remember that individual cells cannot grow large because as they do, their SA/Vol ratio gets smaller, and they cannot get materials in and out through their cell membrane fast enough to survive. So, the only way to grow larger is to produce many small cells. Cell division is also used to replace damaged or worn out cells in the body. For example, your body is constantly producing new blood cells to replace those that wear out.

Mitosis Through the Microscope


You may have done a laboratory practical in which you used a microscope to examine a prepared slide of cells undergoing cell division. Commonly the root tip of a plant seedling is viewed. This sketch shows roughly what the cells may look like...
Most cells look like this one. No chromosomes visible, but DNA is being copied ready for mitosis to start. Chromosomes just becoming visible. Mitosis is under way.

The Process of Cell Division


Cell division occurs as a sequence of steps or phases as summarized by this schematic diagram. Steps
THIS IS MITOSIS... THE DIVISION OF THE CELL NUCLEUS Original parent cell makes a copy of its genetic information

Chromosomes have lined up in the middle of the cell. Chromosomes being pulled apart into 2 identical groups.

...more information
Genetic information is stored in the cell nucleus, as DNA. The DNA is contained like in thread-l chromosomes which are not normally visible.

These have just finished Cytokinesis.

These have just finished dividing the nucleus.

The chromosomes condense together and become visible. They line up in the middle of the cell, then separate into 2 identical groups

The nuclear membrane dissolves so chromosomes can move right across the cell. They are moved by threads called the spindle which act like fishing lines, reeling them to opposite sides of the cell

Chromosomes become visible after copying. Chromosomes lined up in middle of cell.

Once separated, each set of chromosomes forms a new nucleus

Finally, the cell membrane grows to divide the cell in 2 parts, with a share of cytoplasm and organelles in each

Chromosomes being pulled apart.

This final division is called CYTOKINESIS

These 3 lower diagrams show how mitosis is often drawn in textbooks, in a stylized way. If you need to sketch them, do it like this for greater clarity

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The Results of Cell Division


One parent cell divides to form 2 daughter cells. Each daughter cell is genetically identical to the other, and to the parent cell. This is because the original DNA was first duplicated (replicated) then divided into twoduplicate sets by mitosis. The daughter cells are not necessarily identical in size, but each gets a share of cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes and all other organelles. Each daughter cell can then make more organelles, and grow in size, until it is full size. Each may then undergo cell division again. This endless repetition of cell growth and cell division is called the cell cycle. You began as a single cell. It divided by mitosis, then divided again and again, until today you are a complex organism of about 300 billion cells. Each of your cells is genetically identical to every other, and to that original cell you came from. Even when you have finished growing, mitosis will continue in many parts of your body: skin, to replace the layers that constantly flake off. hair and finger-nails, which grow all your life. bone marrow, where blood cells are constantly being produced to replace those that wear out. anywhere else where injury or cell death requires replacement.

Mitosis in Other Organisms


A human baby is more or less the same shape as an adult, and simply grows bigger, proportionally all over, to become an adult. In other organisms though, cell division occurs only in certain parts of the body, and growth is not proportional.

Plants
grow only at certain places meristems. These are located: known as

at the root tip. at the buds where shoots & flowers grow. in the cambium layer, between xylem & phloem. (cambium growth is how the stem/trunk gets larger)

Insects
grow differently in two distinct stages. Most insects hatch from their egg as a larva... a caterpillar, grub or maggot. The larva does not undergo cell division at all, but grows rapidly by increasing the size of each cell. (within the limits imposed by the SA/Vol ratio, of course) Next, the insect larva undergoes metamorphosis and totally changes its body plan. This is achieved by special disks of cells which begin mitosis in particular directions, each forming a different body part such as a wing, leg or vein. These disks correspond to the meristems of a plant, as special sites of mitosis.

A Final Note...
The main store of genetic material is the DNA in the nucleus, but thats not the only place in a cell where DNA is found. DNA is also located in the mitochondria, and in chloroplasts in plant cells. These organelles are able to reproduce themselves (at least in part) in mini-versions of cell division.

Nuclear DNA

Mitochondrial DNA

Chloroplast DNA

This occurrence of DNA in these two important organelles (both concerned with food & energy, and its flow in ecosystems) will be dealt with in a later topic. The evidence points to a very interesting evolutionary origin for these organelles...

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Worksheet 10
Fill in the blank spaces In a multicellular organism, cell division is necessary for (a).................................. and to replace damaged or worn out cells. Mitosis refers to the division of the (b)............................., while the division of cytoplasm into 2 cells is called (c)............................................................ Before mitosis becomes visible in a cell the genetic information (d).............................. ........... The genetic information is contained in the chemical (e).................... which is built into thread-like structures called (f)............................. The visible sequence of mitosis is: chromosomes thicken, become visible, and the nuclear membrane (g).................... chromosomes (h).................................... in the middle of the cell chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell, pulled by the threads of the (i)............................................

Cell Division
Each group of chromosomes forms a new (j)........................................................ then cytokinesis divides the cell itself. The results of cell division include that the daughter cells are genetically (k)......................................, and identical to the (l).......................... cell. Apart from the nucleus, 2 other organelles contain DNA. These are the (m).......................... and ..................................... Sites of mitosis in a plant are called (n)................... located at (o)........................, and (p)................................ as well as the cambium layer in the stem. Most insects hatch from their egg as a q)................. which grows by cell r)......................, without cell s).............................. Later, they undergo t)......................................... in which their body tissues totally u).......................................... and are re-built to form the totally different adult. During this process, cell division occurs only in special v)......................................... of cells.

Worksheet 11
Multiple Choice

Practice Questions (Section 5)


Longer Response Questions
Mark values given are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer in the spaces provided. 2. (6 marks) Describe the sequence of steps that occur in the processes of mitosis & cytokinesis.

1. The sketch shows some plant cells which are undergoing cell division. The correct sequence of cell division is shown by the cells A. SPQTR B. RSPTQ P C. RQPTS D. PQTSR
Q

R S

3. (4 marks) a) Identify the parts of a plant where cell division occurs.

b) Contrast the general pattern of growth of a plant with that of a vertebrate animal such as a mammal.

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts. Practise on this blank version.

PATTERNS in NATURE

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Answer Section
Worksheet 1 Cell Structure
a) all living things.... b) ...pre-existing cells c) microscopes d) resolution e) electron f) magnification g) Robert Hooke h) cytoplasm i) nucleus j) chloroplast k) cell wall l) cell membrane m) vacuole n) cell wall & (o) chloroplast (p)-(t) (any order) golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes (u) controls substances going in/out of cell v) Endoplasmic reticulum w) packaging substances for storage or secretion x) mitochondria y) chloroplast z) strength/ rigidity/ protection on outside of plant cell

11. Organic chemicals are mainly complex molecules, often polymers, based on the element carbon. e.g. carbohydrates, proteins, lipids & nucleic acids. Inorganic chemicals in living cells are small, simple molecules or mineral ions e.g. water, oxygen, nitrate & chloride ions. 12. Semi-permeable means that some chemicals can diffuse through it easily, while others cannot get through . 13. Diffusion is the movement of any solute, solvent or gas along the concentration gradient. Osmosis is the diffusion of WATER, against the concentration gradient, through a semipermeable membrane. 14. As any object gets larger, its SA/Vol ratio gets smaller. A cell needs nutrients, oxygen, etc in proportion to its volume, but must get these substances in through its cell membrane, the size of which is its surface area. Therefore, a large cell (with a smaller SA/Vol ratio) would not be able to take in necessary substances fast enough to survive.

Worksheet 2

Chem & Membrane

a) inorganic b) carbon c) proteins d) membrane e) energy storage compoundsf) carbohydrates g) C6H12O6 h) photosynthesis i) cellular respiration j) DNA k) sugar (glucose) l) Biuret reagent m)yellow/brown n) black/dark blue o) phospholipid p) permeable q) high(er) r) lower s) water t) gradient u) passive v) energy or ATP w) Surface area / Volume x) volume y) cell membrane z) surface area aa) many ab) large

Worksheet 4

Plant Nutrition

Worksheet 3
1. C 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. D 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. The light scope forms images by focusing light beams with glass lenses. Electron scopes focus beams of electrons using magnetic fields. Light scopes achieve magnifications around 500X and resolution of about 0.2 um. Electron scopes are 500-1,000 times better in each department. 10. Nucleus- membrane has pores to allow RNA messengers to go out into the cell. OR Mitochondrion- inner membrane is highly folded for more surface area. The enzymes of cellular respiration are arranged on these membranes for greater efficiency.

a) Autotrophs b) heterotrophs c) carbon dioxide d) water e) glucose f) oxygen g) chloroplasts h) chlorophyll i) light j) glucose k) polymerization l) starch m) cell walls n) lipids o) minerals (inorganic ions) p) proteins q) root hairs r) surface area s) osmosis t) xylem u) light absorption v) palisade w) circulation of water & gases throughout the leaf x) stomates y) transpiration z) carbon dioxide

Worksheet 5

Animal Nutrition

a) enzymes b) sugars c) amino acids d) salivary glands, stomach, pancreas & small intestine e) surface area f) small intestine g) liver h) large & flat i) long j) bacteria k) cellulose l) sharp, tearing m) short n) hummingbirds o) short & simple

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Worksheet 6
1. B 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. D 6. B 7. C 8.Autotrophs are organisms that can make their own food. example: Plants Heterotrophs have to eat food made by other organisms. example: animals. 9. light energy a) Carbon dioxide + water

Worksheet 7
a) surface area c) blood supply e) trachea g) bronchioles i) simple/ less S.A. k) spiracles m) SA/Vol o) filaments q) counters) heart

Animals
b) moist d) diffusion f) bronchi h) alveoli j) skin & mouth/throat cavity l) trachea n) gills p) in opposite direction r) closed t) invertebrate

Glucose+ Oxygen

b) 1. It makes all the food, and is the basis of all the food chains 2. It makes all the oxygen in the atmosphere. 10. a) Although glucose is the immediate product of photosynthesis, it is rapidly polymerised to form starch. Therefore, starch is found in large quantities in a photosynthesising leaf, but very little glucose could be detected. b) First the leaf is boiled, then washed in hot alcohol to decolourise it, so colour tests can be seen. Then it can be soaked in iodine solution to test for starch. A black colour indicates the presence of starch. 11. Palisade layer: composed of cells neatly and tightly packed together under the upper epidermis where there is maximum light. Each cell is packed with chloroplasts. These features all help the palisade layer carry out maximum photosynthesis. Spongy layer: composed of cells that are very loosely packed. This allows spaces for water & gases to more easily diffuse to/from stomates & veins and so helps supply photosynthesising cells. 12. Grazing herbivores need very long intestines & large caecum, so food has more time in the gut while mutualistic bacteria digest the cellulose. Meat-eating carnivores do not need such long intestines because meat is easier to digest and more nutritious. They have shorter intestines but a stomach that can take in a large meal, less often, and digest the high protein meat. Nectar feeders (e.g. honey-eater birds) eat a diet high in sugar which needs no digesting at all. They have very simple, short systems since they only need to absorb the sugar into their bloodstream.

Worksheet 8

Plants

a) stomates b) lenticels c) root hairs d) water & minerals e) roots f) leaves g) transpiration h)& i) temperature/wind/humidity/light j) phloem k)translocation l) the plant must expend energy m) passive

Worksheet 9
1. C 2. A 3. D 4. B 5. a) b) c) Transpiration water xylem passive Translocation food nutrients (sugar) phloem active

6. Respiratory system: carries out gas exchange. Excretory system: removal of wastes. Circulatory system: transports substances around the body, including gases and wastes... therefore connects with respiratory and excretory systems. 7. a) Mammals lungs have millions of tiny air sacs (alveoli). b) Frog has very simple lungs, but increases respiratory surface by using skin, mouth and throat membranes for gas exchange as well. c) Fishs gills are made up of thousands of leafshaped filaments. Each is flat & thin, giving large contact area with water flowing past. d) Insects have microscopic, branched air tubes (trachea) that penetrate throughout their body. This gives a large area of contact with air for gas exchange. 8. The main thing is to show that vertebrates have a closed system (blood is always inside a blood vessel) while many invertebrates have open systems, where the blood leaves blood vessels and bathes the cells at some part of the circulation.

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Worksheet 9 (cont)
9. a) stomates, lenticels & root hairs b) Root hairs: these microscopic outgrowths from root cells increase the surface area available. This helps gas exchange (as well as water absorption). 10. Chemicals containing radio-active tracers are introduced into living things, and any movement is tracked by detecting the radiation produced by the radio-isotope. For example, CO2 gas, containing radio-active carbon-14, is absorbed by a plant leaf, converted to sugar and transported to storage in the roots. This movement can be studied and tracked by the radiations from the carbon-14.

Worksheet 11
1. C 2. Genetic information (DNA) is replicated. Chromosomes become visible in the nucleus. Nuclear membrane dissolves. Chromosomes line up in centre of cell. Spindle forms. Chromosomes pulled apart into 2 identical groups. Each group forms a new, identical nucleus. Cytokinesis now divides the cytoplasm & organelles into 2 separate cells. 3. a) Meristems located at root tips, buds and cambium. b) Plants grow only at the meristems, and usually grow dis-proportionally in different parts of their body. This means they may drastically change their shape & proportions as they grow. In contrast, mammals grow fairly evenly in every body part and stay more or less in proportion all their life.

Worksheet 10

Cell Division

a) growth b) nucleus c) cytokinesis d) is copied/duplicated/replicated e) DNA f) chromosomes g) dissolves h) line up i) spindle j) nucleus k) identical l) parent m) mitochondria & chloroplast n) meristems o) root tips p) shoot tips (buds) q) larva r) enlargement s) division t) metamorphosis u) break down / change v) disks

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